Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30

Search results for: hedging

30 Pragmatic Discoursal Study of Hedging Constructions in English Language

Authors: Mohammed Hussein Ahmed, Bahar Mohammed Kareem


This study is concerned with the pragmatic discoursal study of hedging constructions in English language. Hedging is a mitigated word used to lessen the impact of the utterance uttered by the speakers. Hedging could be either adverbs, adjectives, verbs and sometimes it may consist of clauses. It aims at finding out the extent to which speakers and participants of the discourse use hedging constructions during their conversations. The study also aims at finding out whether or not there are any significant differences in the types and functions of the frequency of hedging constructions employed by male and female. It is hypothesized that hedging constructions are frequent in English discourse more than any other languages due to its formality and that the frequency of the types and functions are influenced by the gender of the participants. To achieve the aims of the study, two types of procedures have been followed: theoretical and practical. The theoretical procedure consists of presenting a theoretical background of hedging topic which includes its definitions, etymology and theories. The practical procedure consists of selecting a sample of texts and analyzing them according to an adopted model. A number of conclusions will be drawn based on the findings of the study.

Keywords: hedging, pragmatics, politeness, theoretical

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29 The Use of Hedging Devices in Studens’ Oral Presentation

Authors: Siti Navila


Hedging as a kind of pragmatic competence is an essential part in achieving the goal in communication, especially in academic discourse where the process of sharing knowledge among academic community takes place. Academic discourse demands an appropriateness and modesty of an author or speaker in stating arguments, to name but few, by considering the politeness, being cautious and tentative, and differentiating personal opinions and facts in which these aspects can be achieved through hedging. This study was conducted to find the hedging devices used by students as well as to analyze how they use them in their oral presentation. Some oral presentations from English Department students of the State University of Jakarta on their Academic Presentation course final test were recorded and explored formally and functionally. It was found that the most frequent hedging devices used by students were shields from all hedging devices that students commonly used when they showed suggestion, stated claims, showed opinion to provide possible but still valid answer, and offered the appropriate solution. The researcher suggests that hedging can be familiarized in learning, since potential conflicts that is likely to occur while delivering ideas in academic contexts such as disagreement, criticism, and personal judgment can be reduced with the use of hedging. It will also benefit students in achieving the academic competence with an ability to demonstrate their ideas appropriately and more acceptable in academic discourse.

Keywords: academic discourse, hedging, hedging devices, lexical hedges, Meyer classification

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28 Optimal Hedging of a Portfolio of European Options in an Extended Binomial Model under Proportional Transaction Costs

Authors: Norm Josephy, Lucy Kimball, Victoria Steblovskaya


Hedging of a portfolio of European options under proportional transaction costs is considered. Our discrete time financial market model extends the binomial market model with transaction costs to the case where the underlying stock price ratios are distributed over a bounded interval rather than over a two-point set. An optimal hedging strategy is chosen from a set of admissible non-self-financing hedging strategies. Our approach to optimal hedging of a portfolio of options is based on theoretical foundation that includes determination of a no-arbitrage option price interval as well as on properties of the non-self-financing strategies and their residuals. A computational algorithm for optimizing an investor relevant criterion over the set of admissible non-self-financing hedging strategies is developed. Applicability of our approach is demonstrated using both simulated data and real market data.

Keywords: extended binomial model, non-self-financing hedging, optimization, proportional transaction costs

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27 Hedging and Corporate Governance: Lessons from the Financial Crisis

Authors: Rodrigo Zeidan


The paper identifies failures of decision making and corporate governance that allow non-financial companies around the world to develop hedging strategies that lead to hefty losses in the aftermath of the financial crisis. The sample is comprised of 346 companies from 10 international markets, of which 49 companies (and a subsample of 13 distressed companies) lose a combined US$18.9 billion. An event study shows that most companies that present losses in derivatives experience negative abnormal returns, including a number of companies in which the effect is persistent after a year. The results of a probit model indicate that the lack of a formal hedging policy, no monitoring to the CFOs, and considerations of hubris and remuneration contribute to the mismanagement of hedging policies.

Keywords: risk management, hedging, derivatives, monitoring, corporate governance structure, event study, hubris

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26 Exploring the Changing Foreign Policy of Singapore on China: New Ideas of Pragmatism and Hedging Strategy

Authors: Yibo Shao, Jiajie Liu


This article uncovers the practice of pragmatism of Singaporean foreign policy by analyzing its foreign diplomatic behavior. It also points out the Singapore’s hedging strategy on the relations between China and American and how to balance these two greater powers in Southeast Asian. This paper used qualitative approach by reviewing literature and policy documents intensively to find out the responses to our research questions.

Keywords: hedging, pragmatism, Sino-Singapore relations, South China Sea

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25 Hybrid Model for Measuring the Hedge Strategy in Exchange Risk in Information Technology Industry

Authors: Yi-Hsien Wang, Fu-Ju Yang, Hwa-Rong Shen, Rui-Lin Tseng


The business is notably related to the market risk according to the increase of liberalization of financial markets. Hence, the company usually utilized high financial leverage of derivatives to hedge the risk. When the company choose different hedging instruments to face a variety of exchange rate risk, we employ the Multinomial Logistic-AHP to analyze the impact of various derivatives. Hence, the research summarized the literature on relevant factors affecting managers selected exchange rate hedging instruments, using Multinomial Logistic Model and and further integrate AHP. Using Experts’ Questionnaires can test multi-level selection and hedging effect of different hedging instruments in order to calculate the hedging instruments and the multi-level factors of weights to understand the gap between the empirical results and practical operation. Finally, the Multinomial Logistic-AHP Model will sort the weights to analyze. The research findings can be a basis reference for investors in decision-making.

Keywords: exchange rate risk, derivatives, hedge, multinomial logistic-AHP

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24 Foreign Debt and Firm Performance: Evidence from French Non-Financial Firms

Authors: Salma Mefteh-Wali, Marie-Josephe Rigobert


We investigate the impact of foreign currency debt on firm performance for a sample of non-financial French firms studied over the period 2002 to 2012. As foreign currency debt is both a financing and hedging instrument against foreign exchange risk, we mobilize optimal hedging theory and capital structure theory. When we study the impact on firm value, our main results show that before and after the financial crisis of 2008, foreign debt had the same behavior as domestic debt. We find that during the crisis period, foreign debt positively affects firm value. Investors perceive foreign debt as a natural hedging instrument that is likely to reduce the costs of underinvestment, alleviate cash flow volatility, limit the costs of financial distress, and generate tax shield benefits. Also, our results show that foreign leverage negatively affects the firm performance proxied by ROA and ROE, during and after the financial crisis. However, this impact is positive in the pre-crisis period.

Keywords: foreign currency derivatives, foreign currency debt, foreign currency hedging, firm performance

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23 Waad Bil Mourabaha Pricing

Authors: Dchieche Amina, Aboulaich Rajae


In this work, we will modelize Waad Bil Mourabaha contract. This islamic contract provides the right to buy goods at a future date with a Mourabaha. Waad is a promise of sale or purchase of goods, declared in a unilateral way. In spite of the divergence between some schools of Islamic law about the Waad, this contract will allow us to study sophisticated and interesting contract: Waad Bil Mourabaha that can be used for hedging. In order to price Waad Bil Mourabaha contract, we will use an adapted Black and Scholes model using the Shariah compliant assumptions.

Keywords: Islamic finance, Black-Scholes model, call option, risks, hedging

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22 Determination Optimum Strike Price of FX Option Call Spread with USD/IDR Volatility and Garman–Kohlhagen Model Analysis

Authors: Bangkit Adhi Nugraha, Bambang Suripto


On September 2016 Bank Indonesia (BI) release regulation no.18/18/PBI/2016 that permit bank clients for using the FX option call spread USD/IDR. Basically, this product is a combination between clients buy FX call option (pay premium) and sell FX call option (receive premium) to protect against currency depreciation while also capping the potential upside with cheap premium cost. BI classifies this product as a structured product. The structured product is combination at least two financial instruments, either derivative or non-derivative instruments. The call spread is the first structured product against IDR permitted by BI since 2009 as response the demand increase from Indonesia firms on FX hedging through derivative for protecting market risk their foreign currency asset or liability. The composition of hedging products on Indonesian FX market increase from 35% on 2015 to 40% on 2016, the majority on swap product (FX forward, FX swap, cross currency swap). Swap is formulated by interest rate difference of the two currency pairs. The cost of swap product is 7% for USD/IDR with one year USD/IDR volatility 13%. That cost level makes swap products seem expensive for hedging buyers. Because call spread cost (around 1.5-3%) cheaper than swap, the most Indonesian firms are using NDF FX call spread USD/IDR on offshore with outstanding amount around 10 billion USD. The cheaper cost of call spread is the main advantage for hedging buyers. The problem arises because BI regulation requires the call spread buyer doing the dynamic hedging. That means, if call spread buyer choose strike price 1 and strike price 2 and volatility USD/IDR exchange rate surpass strike price 2, then the call spread buyer must buy another call spread with strike price 1’ (strike price 1’ = strike price 2) and strike price 2’ (strike price 2’ > strike price 1‘). It could make the premium cost of call spread doubled or even more and dismiss the purpose of hedging buyer to find the cheapest hedging cost. It is very crucial for the buyer to choose best optimum strike price before entering into the transaction. To help hedging buyer find the optimum strike price and avoid expensive multiple premium cost, we observe ten years 2005-2015 historical data of USD/IDR volatility to be compared with the price movement of the call spread USD/IDR using Garman–Kohlhagen Model (as a common formula on FX option pricing). We use statistical tools to analysis data correlation, understand nature of call spread price movement over ten years, and determine factors affecting price movement. We select some range of strike price and tenor and calculate the probability of dynamic hedging to occur and how much it’s cost. We found USD/IDR currency pairs is too uncertain and make dynamic hedging riskier and more expensive. We validated this result using one year data and shown small RMS. The study result could be used to understand nature of FX call spread and determine optimum strike price for hedging plan.

Keywords: FX call spread USD/IDR, USD/IDR volatility statistical analysis, Garman–Kohlhagen Model on FX Option USD/IDR, Bank Indonesia Regulation no.18/18/PBI/2016

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21 Grand Paris Residential Real Estate as an Effective Hedge against Inflation

Authors: Yasmine Essafi Zouari, Aya Nasreddine


Following a long inflationary period from the post-war era to the mid-1980s (+10.1% annually), France went through a moderate inflation period between 1986 and 2001 (+2.1% annually) and even lower inflation between 2002 and 2016 (+1.4% annually). In 2022, inflation in France increased rapidly and reached 4.5% over one year in March, according to INSEE estimates. Over a long period, even low inflation has an impact on portfolio value and households’ purchasing power. In such a context, inflation hedging should remain an important issue for investors. In particular, long-term investors, who are concerned with the protection of their wealth, seek to hold effective hedging assets. Considering a mixed-asset portfolio composed of housing assets (residential real estate in 150 Grand Paris communes) as well as financial assets, and using both correlation and regression analysis, results confirm the attribute of the direct housing investment as an inflation hedge especially particularly against its unexpected component. Further, cash and bonds were found to provide respectively a partial and an over hedge against unexpected inflation. Stocks act as a perverse hedge against unexpected inflation and provide no significant positive hedge against expected inflation.

Keywords: direct housing, inflation, hedging ability, optimal portfolio, Grand Paris metropolis

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20 Managing Sunflower Price Risk from a South African Oil Crushing Company’s Perspective

Authors: Daniel Mokatsanyane, Johnny Jansen Van Rensburg


The integral role oil-crushing companies play in sunflower oil production is often overlooked to offer high-quality oil to refineries and end consumers. Sunflower oil crushing companies in South Africa are exposed to price fluctuations resulting from the local and international markets. Hedging instruments enable these companies to hedge themselves against unexpected prices spikes and to ensure sustained profitability. A crushing company is a necessary middleman, and as such, these companies have exposure to the purchasing and selling sides of sunflower. Sunflower oil crushing companies purchase sunflower seeds from farmers or agricultural companies that provide storage facilities. The purchasing price is determined by the supply and demand of sunflower seed, both national and international. When the price of sunflower seeds in South Africa is high but still below import parity, then the crush margins realised by these companies are reduced or even negative at times. There are three main products made by sunflower oil crushing companies, oil, meal, and shells. Profits are realised from selling three products, namely, sunflower oil, meal and shells. However, when selling sunflower oil to refineries, sunflower oil crushing companies needs to hedge themselves against a reduction in vegetable oil prices. Hedging oil prices is often done via futures and is subject to specific volume commitments before a hedge position can be taken in. Furthermore, South African oil-crushing companies hedge sunflower oil with international, Over-the-counter contracts as South Africa is a price taker of sunflower oil and not a price maker. As such, South Africa provides a fraction of the world’s sunflower oil supply and, therefore, has minimal influence on price changes. The advantage of hedging using futures ensures that the sunflower crushing company will know the profits they will realise, but the downside is that they can no longer benefit from a price increase. Alternative hedging instruments like options might pose a solution to the opportunity cost does not go missing and that profit margins are locked in at the best possible prices for the oil crushing company. This paper aims to investigate the possibility of employing options alongside futures to simulate different scenarios to determine if options can bridge the opportunity cost gap.

Keywords: derivatives, hedging, price risk, sunflower, sunflower oil, South Africa

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19 Islamic Financial Engineering: An Overview

Authors: Mahfoud Djebbar


The past two decades or so have witnessed phenomenal growth of the Islamic financial services industry. The whole industry has been thriving at about 15 percent per annum. This development entails the Islamic financial engineering, IFE, to some kind of crossroads, lagging behind its conventional counterpart. Therefore, IFE, and particularly traded products development, and in order to achieve its goals, two approaches are available, i.e., replicating engineering and innovative engineering. We also try to emphasis the innovative strategy since it guards the Islamic identity of different financial products and processes, and thereby, improves the creativity in the Islamic financial industry. The attempt also centers on sukukization (Islamic securitization), innovation, liquidity management, and risk management and hedging in the Islamic financial system. Finally, the challenges facing IFE are also addressed.

Keywords: islamic financial engineering, hedging and risk management, innovation, securitization, money market instruments, islamic capital markets

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18 Volatility Spillover and Hedging Effectiveness between Gold and Stock Markets: Evidence for BRICS Countries

Authors: Walid Chkili


This paper investigates the dynamic relationship between gold and stock markets using data for BRICS counties. For this purpose, we estimate three multivariate GARCH models (namely CCC, DCC and BEKK) for weekly stock and gold data. Our main objective is to examine time variations in conditional correlations between the two assets and to check the effectiveness use of gold as a hedge for equity markets. Empirical results reveal that dynamic conditional correlations switch between positive and negative values over the period under study. This correlation is negative during the major financial crises suggesting that gold can act as a safe haven during the major stress period of stock markets. We also evaluate the implications for portfolio diversification and hedging effectiveness for the pair gold/stock. Our findings suggest that adding gold in the stock portfolio enhance its risk-adjusted return.

Keywords: gold, financial markets, hedge, multivariate GARCH

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17 Simulation of Colombian Exchange Rate to Cover the Exchange Risk Using Financial Options Like Hedge Strategy

Authors: Natalia M. Acevedo, Luis M. Jimenez, Erick Lambis


Imperfections in the capital market are used to argue the relevance of the corporate risk management function. With corporate hedge, the value of the company is increased by reducing the volatility of the expected cash flow and making it possible to face a lower bankruptcy costs and financial difficulties, without sacrificing tax advantages for debt financing. With the propose to avoid exchange rate troubles over cash flows of Colombian exporting firms, this dissertation uses financial options, over exchange rate between Peso and Dollar, for realizing a financial hedge. In this study, a strategy of hedge is designed for an exporting company in Colombia with the objective of preventing fluctuations because, if the exchange rate down, the number of Colombian pesos that obtains the company by exports, is less than agreed. The exchange rate of Colombia is measured by the TRM (Representative Market Rate), representing the number of Colombian pesos for an American dollar. First, the TMR is modelled through the Geometric Brownian Motion, with this, the project price is simulated using Montecarlo simulations and finding the mean of TRM for three, six and twelve months. For financial hedging, currency options were used. The 6-month projection was covered with financial options on European-type currency with a strike price of $ 2,780.47 for each month; this value corresponds to the last value of the historical TRM. In the compensation of the options in each month, the price paid for the premium, calculated with the Black-Scholes method for currency options, was considered. Finally, with the modeling of prices and the Monte Carlo simulation, the effect of the exchange hedging with options on the exporting company was determined, this by means of the unit price estimate to which the dollars in the scenario without coverage were changed and scenario with coverage. After using the scenarios: is determinate that the TRM will have a bull trend and the exporting firm will be affected positively because they will get more pesos for each dollar. The results show that the financial options manage to reduce the exchange risk. The expected value with coverage is approximate to the expected value without coverage, but the 5% percentile with coverage is greater than without coverage. The foregoing indicates that in the worst scenarios the exporting companies will obtain better prices for the sale of the currencies if they cover.

Keywords: currency hedging, futures, geometric Brownian motion, options

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16 Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security in Sub-Saharan Africa: What Effects and What Answers?

Authors: Abdoulahad Allamine


The objective of this study is to assess the impact of climate variability on agriculture and food security in 43 countries of sub-Saharan Africa. We use for this purpose the data from BADC bases, UNCTAD, and WDI FAOSTAT to estimate a VAR model on panel data. The sample is divided into three (03) agro-climatic zones, more explicitly the equatorial zone, the Sahel region and the semi-arid zone. This allows to highlight the differential impacts sustained by countries and appropriate responses to each group of countries. The results show that the sharp fluctuations in the volume of rainfall negatively affect agriculture and food security of countries in the equatorial zone, with heavy rainfall and high temperatures in the Sahel region. However, countries with low temperatures and low rainfall are the least affected. The hedging policies against the risks of climate variability must be more active in the first two groups of countries. On this basis and in general, we recommend integration of agricultural policies between countries is done to reduce the effects of climate variability on agriculture and food security. It would be logical to encourage regional and international closer collaboration on the development and dissemination of improved varieties, ecological intensification, and management of biotic and abiotic stresses facing these climate variability to sustainably increase food production. Small farmers also need training in agricultural risk hedging techniques related to climate variations; this requires an increase in state budgets allocated to agriculture.

Keywords: agro-climatic zones, climate variability, food security, Sub-Saharan Africa, VAR on panel data

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15 Method to Find a ε-Optimal Control of Stochastic Differential Equation Driven by a Brownian Motion

Authors: Francys Souza, Alberto Ohashi, Dorival Leao


We present a general solution for finding the ε-optimal controls for non-Markovian stochastic systems as stochastic differential equations driven by Brownian motion, which is a problem recognized as a difficult solution. The contribution appears in the development of mathematical tools to deal with modeling and control of non-Markovian systems, whose applicability in different areas is well known. The methodology used consists to discretize the problem through a random discretization. In this way, we transform an infinite dimensional problem in a finite dimensional, thereafter we use measurable selection arguments, to find a control on an explicit form for the discretized problem. Then, we prove the control found for the discretized problem is a ε-optimal control for the original problem. Our theory provides a concrete description of a rather general class, among the principals, we can highlight financial problems such as portfolio control, hedging, super-hedging, pairs-trading and others. Therefore, our main contribution is the development of a tool to explicitly the ε-optimal control for non-Markovian stochastic systems. The pathwise analysis was made through a random discretization jointly with measurable selection arguments, has provided us with a structure to transform an infinite dimensional problem into a finite dimensional. The theory is applied to stochastic control problems based on path-dependent stochastic differential equations, where both drift and diffusion components are controlled. We are able to explicitly show optimal control with our method.

Keywords: dynamic programming equation, optimal control, stochastic control, stochastic differential equation

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14 Modeling Salam Contract for Profit and Loss Sharing

Authors: Dchieche Amina, Aboulaich Rajae


Profit and loss sharing suggests an equitable sharing of risks and profits between the parts involved in a financial transaction. Salam is a contract in which advance payment is made for goods to be delivered at a future date. The purpose of this work is to price a new contract for profit and loss sharing based on Salam contract, using Khiyar Al Ghabn which is an agreement of choice in case of misrepresent facts.

Keywords: Islamic finance, shariah compliance, profi t and loss sharing, derivatives, risks, hedging, salam contract

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13 Modelling Volatility Spillovers and Cross Hedging among Major Agricultural Commodity Futures

Authors: Roengchai Tansuchat, Woraphon Yamaka, Paravee Maneejuk


From the past recent, the global financial crisis, economic instability, and large fluctuation in agricultural commodity price have led to increased concerns about the volatility transmission among them. The problem is further exacerbated by commodities volatility caused by other commodity price fluctuations, hence the decision on hedging strategy has become both costly and useless. Thus, this paper is conducted to analysis the volatility spillover effect among major agriculture including corn, soybeans, wheat and rice, to help the commodity suppliers hedge their portfolios, and manage the risk and co-volatility of them. We provide a switching regime approach to analyzing the issue of volatility spillovers in different economic conditions, namely upturn and downturn economic. In particular, we investigate relationships and volatility transmissions between these commodities in different economic conditions. We purposed a Copula-based multivariate Markov Switching GARCH model with two regimes that depend on an economic conditions and perform simulation study to check the accuracy of our proposed model. In this study, the correlation term in the cross-hedge ratio is obtained from six copula families – two elliptical copulas (Gaussian and Student-t) and four Archimedean copulas (Clayton, Gumbel, Frank, and Joe). We use one-step maximum likelihood estimation techniques to estimate our models and compare the performance of these copula using Akaike information criterion (AIC) and Bayesian information criteria (BIC). In the application study of agriculture commodities, the weekly data used are conducted from 4 January 2005 to 1 September 2016, covering 612 observations. The empirical results indicate that the volatility spillover effects among cereal futures are different, as response of different economic condition. In addition, the results of hedge effectiveness will also suggest the optimal cross hedge strategies in different economic condition especially upturn and downturn economic.

Keywords: agricultural commodity futures, cereal, cross-hedge, spillover effect, switching regime approach

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12 On the Influence of the Covid-19 Pandemic on Tunisian Stock Market: By Sector Analysis

Authors: Nadia Sghaier


In this paper, we examine the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on the performance of the Tunisian stock market and 12 sectors over a recent period from 23 March 2020 to 18 August 2021, including several waves and the introduction of vaccination. The empirical study is conducted using cointegration techniques which allows for long and short-run relationships. The obtained results indicate that both daily growth in confirmed cases and deaths have a negative and significant effect on the stock market returns. In particular, this effect differs across sectors. It seems more pronounced in financial, consumer goods and industrials sectors. These findings have important implications for investors to predict the behavior of the stock market or sectors returns and to implement hedging strategies during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Keywords: Tunisian stock market, sectors, COVID-19 pandemic, cointegration techniques

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11 Lie Symmetry Treatment for Pricing Options with Transactions Costs under the Fractional Black-Scholes Model

Authors: B. F. Nteumagne, E. Pindza, E. Mare


We apply Lie symmetries analysis to price and hedge options in the fractional Brownian framework. The reputation of Lie groups is well spread in the area of Mathematical sciences and lately, in Finance. In the presence of transactions costs and under fractional Brownian motions, analytical solutions become difficult to obtain. Lie symmetries analysis allows us to simplify the problem and obtain new analytical solution. In this paper, we investigate the use of symmetries to reduce the partial differential equation obtained and obtain the analytical solution. We then proposed a hedging procedure and calibration technique for these types of options, and test the model on real market data. We show the robustness of our methodology by its application to the pricing of digital options.

Keywords: fractional brownian model, symmetry, transaction cost, option pricing

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10 On the Impact of Oil Price Fluctuations on Stock Markets: A Multivariate Long-Memory GARCH Framework

Authors: Manel Youssef, Lotfi Belkacem


This paper employs multivariate long memory GARCH models to simultaneously estimate mean and conditional variance spillover effects between oil prices and different financial markets. Since different financial assets are traded based on these market sector returns, it’s important for financial market participants to understand the volatility transmission mechanism over time and across these series in order to make optimal portfolio allocation decisions. We examine weekly returns from January 1, 2003 to November 30, 2012 and find evidence of significant transmission of shocks and volatilities between oil prices and some of the examined financial markets. The findings support the idea of cross-market hedging and sharing of common information by investors.

Keywords: oil prices, stock indices returns, oil volatility, contagion, DCC-multivariate (FI) GARCH

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9 The Tracking and Hedging Performances of Gold ETF Relative to Some Other Instruments in the UK

Authors: Abimbola Adedeji, Ahmad Shauqi Zubir


This paper examines the profitability and risk between investing in gold exchange traded funds (ETFs) and gold mutual funds compares to gold prices. The main focus in determining whether there are similarities or differences between those financial products is the tracking error. The importance of understanding the similarities or differences between the gold ETFs, gold mutual funds and gold prices is derived from the fact that gold ETFs and gold mutual funds are used as substitutions for investors who are looking to profit from gold prices although they are short in capital. 10 hypotheses were tested. There are 3 types of tracking error used. Tracking error 1 and 3 gives results that differentiate between types of ETFs and mutual funds, hence yielding the answers in answering the hypotheses that were developed. However, tracking error 2 failed to give the answer that could shed light on the questions raised in this study. All of the results in tracking error 2 technique only telling us that the difference between the ups and downs of the financial instruments are similar, statistically to the physical gold prices movement.

Keywords: gold etf, gold mutual funds, tracking error

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8 A Simulation-Optimization Approach to Control Production, Subcontracting and Maintenance Decisions for a Deteriorating Production System

Authors: Héctor Rivera-Gómez, Eva Selene Hernández-Gress, Oscar Montaño-Arango, Jose Ramon Corona-Armenta


This research studies the joint production, maintenance and subcontracting control policy for an unreliable deteriorating manufacturing system. Production activities are controlled by a derivation of the Hedging Point Policy, and given that the system is subject to deterioration, it reduces progressively its capacity to satisfy product demand. Multiple deterioration effects are considered, reflected mainly in the quality of the parts produced and the reliability of the machine. Subcontracting is available as support to satisfy product demand; also overhaul maintenance can be conducted to reduce the effects of deterioration. The main objective of the research is to determine simultaneously the production, maintenance and subcontracting rate which minimize the total incurred cost. A stochastic dynamic programming model is developed and solved through a simulation-based approach composed of statistical analysis and optimization with the response surface methodology. The obtained results highlight the strong interactions between production, deterioration and quality which justify the development of an integrated model. A numerical example and a sensitivity analysis are presented to validate our results.

Keywords: subcontracting, optimal control, deterioration, simulation, production planning

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7 Expression of Stance in Lower- and Upper- Level Students’ Writing in Business Administration at English-Medium University in Burundi

Authors: Clement Ndoricimpa


The expression of stance is highly expected in writing at tertiary level. Through a selection of linguistic and rhetorical elements, writers express commitment, critical distance and build a critically discerning reader in texts. Despite many studies on patterns of stance in students’ academic writing, little may not be known about how English as a Foreign Language students learns to build a critically discerning reader in their texts. Therefore, this study examines patterns of stance in essays written by students majoring in business administration at English-medium University in Burundi as part of classroom assignments. It draws on systemic functional linguistics to analyze qualitatively and quantitatively the data. The quantitative analysis is used to identify the differences in frequency of stance patterns in the essays. The results show a significant difference in the use of boosters by lower- and upper-level students. Lower-level students’ writing contains more boosters and many idiosyncratic sentence structures than do upper-level students’ writing, and upper-level students’ essays contain more hedging and few grammatical mistakes than do lower-level students’ essays. No significant difference in the use of attitude markers and concessive and contrastive expressions. Students in lower- and upper-level do not use attitude markers and disclaimer markers appropriately and accurately. These findings suggest that students should be taught the use of stance patterns in academic writing.

Keywords: academic writing, metadiscourse, stance, student corpora

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6 Cryptocurrency as a Payment Method in the Tourism Industry: A Comparison of Volatility, Correlation and Portfolio Performance

Authors: Shu-Han Hsu, Jiho Yoon, Chwen Sheu


With the rapidly growing of blockchain technology and cryptocurrency, various industries which include tourism has added in cryptocurrency as the payment method of their transaction. More and more tourism companies accept payments in digital currency for flights, hotel reservations, transportation, and more. For travellers and tourists, using cryptocurrency as a payment method has become a way to circumvent costs and prevent risks. Understanding volatility dynamics and interdependencies between standard currency and cryptocurrency is important for appropriate financial risk management to assist policy-makers and investors in marking more informed decisions. The purpose of this paper has been to understand and explain the risk spillover effects between six major cryptocurrencies and the top ten most traded standard currencies. Using data for the daily closing price of cryptocurrencies and currency exchange rates from 7 August 2015 to 10 December 2019, with 1,133 observations. The diagonal BEKK model was used to analyze the co-volatility spillover effects between cryptocurrency returns and exchange rate returns, which are measures of how the shocks to returns in different assets affect each other’s subsequent volatility. The empirical results show there are co-volatility spillover effects between the cryptocurrency returns and GBP/USD, CNY/USD and MXN/USD exchange rate returns. Therefore, currencies (British Pound, Chinese Yuan and Mexican Peso) and cryptocurrencies (Bitcoin, Ethereum, Ripple, Tether, Litecoin and Stellar) are suitable for constructing a financial portfolio from an optimal risk management perspective and also for dynamic hedging purposes.

Keywords: blockchain, co-volatility effects, cryptocurrencies, diagonal BEKK model, exchange rates, risk spillovers

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5 Undersea Communications Infrastructure: Risks, Opportunities, and Geopolitical Considerations

Authors: Lori W. Gordon, Karen A. Jones


Today’s high-speed data connectivity depends on a vast global network of infrastructure across space, air, land, and sea, with undersea cable infrastructure (UCI) serving as the primary means for intercontinental and ‘long-haul’ communications. The UCI landscape is changing and includes an increasing variety of state actors, such as the growing economies of Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa. Non-state commercial actors, such as hyper-scale content providers including Google, Facebook, Microsoft, and Amazon, are also seeking to control their data and networks through significant investments in submarine cables. Active investments by both state and non-state actors will invariably influence the growth, geopolitics, and security of this sector. Beyond these hyper-scale content providers, there are new commercial satellite communication providers. These new players include traditional geosynchronous (GEO) satellites that offer broad coverage, high throughput GEO satellites offering high capacity with spot beam technology, low earth orbit (LEO) ‘mega constellations’ – global broadband services. And potential new entrants such as High Altitude Platforms (HAPS) offer low latency connectivity, LEO constellations offer high-speed optical mesh networks, i.e., ‘fiber in the sky.’ This paper focuses on understanding the role of submarine cables within the larger context of the global data commons, spanning space, terrestrial, air, and sea networks, including an analysis of national security policy and geopolitical implications. As network operators and commercial and government stakeholders plan for emerging technologies and architectures, hedging risks for future connectivity will ensure that our data backbone will be secure for years to come.

Keywords: communications, global, infrastructure, technology

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4 Islamic Financial Instrument, Standard Parallel Salam as an Alternative to Conventional Derivatives

Authors: Alireza Naserpoor


Derivatives are the most important innovation which has happened in the past decades. When it comes to financial markets, it has changed the whole way of operations of stock, commodities and currency market. Beside a lot of advantages, Conventional derivatives contracts have some disadvantages too. Some problems have been caused by derivatives contain raising Volatility, increasing Bankruptcies and causing financial crises. Standard Parallel Salam contract as an Islamic financial product meanwhile is a financing instrument can be used for risk management by investors. Standard Parallel Salam is a Shari’ah-Compliant contract. Furthermore, it is an alternative to conventional derivatives. Despite the fact that the unstructured types of that, has been used in several Islamic countries, This contract as a structured and standard financial instrument introduced in Iran Mercantile Exchange in 2014. In this paper after introducing parallel Salam, we intend to examine a collection of international experience and local measure regarding launching standard parallel Salam contract and proceed to describe standard scenarios for trading this instrument and practical experience in Iran Mercantile Exchange about this instrument. Afterwards, we make a comparison between SPS and Futures contracts as a conventional derivative. Standard parallel salam contract as an Islamic financial product, can be used for risk management by investors. SPS is a Shariah-Compliant contract. Furthermore it is an alternative to conventional derivatives. This contract as a structured and standard financial instrument introduced in Iran Mercantile Exchange in 2014. despite the fact that the unstructured types of that, has been used in several Islamic countries. In this article after introducing parallel salam, we intend to examine a collection of international experience and local measure regarding launching standard parallel salam contract and proceed to describe standard scenarios for trading this instrument containing two main approaches in SPS using, And practical experience in IME about this instrument Afterwards, a comparison between SPS and Futures contracts as a conventional derivatives.

Keywords: futures contracts, hedging, shari’ah compliant instruments, standard parallel salam

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3 Risk-Sharing Financing of Islamic Banks: Better Shielded against Interest Rate Risk

Authors: Mirzet SeHo, Alaa Alaabed, Mansur Masih


In theory, risk-sharing-based financing (RSF) is considered a corner stone of Islamic finance. It is argued to render Islamic banks more resilient to shocks. In practice, however, this feature of Islamic financial products is almost negligible. Instead, debt-based instruments, with conventional like features, have overwhelmed the nascent industry. In addition, the framework of present-day economic, regulatory and financial reality inevitably exposes Islamic banks in dual banking systems to problems of conventional banks. This includes, but is not limited to, interest rate risk. Empirical evidence has, thus far, confirmed such exposures, despite Islamic banks’ interest-free operations. This study applies system GMM in modeling the determinants of RSF, and finds that RSF is insensitive to changes in interest rates. Hence, our results provide support to the “stability” view of risk-sharing-based financing. This suggests RSF as the way forward for risk management at Islamic banks, in the absence of widely acceptable Shariah compliant hedging instruments. Further support to the stability view is given by evidence of counter-cyclicality. Unlike debt-based lending that inflates artificial asset bubbles through credit expansion during the upswing of business cycles, RSF is negatively related to GDP growth. Our results also imply a significantly strong relationship between risk-sharing deposits and RSF. However, the pass-through of these deposits to RSF is economically low. Only about 40% of risk-sharing deposits are channeled to risk-sharing financing. This raises questions on the validity of the industry’s claim that depositors accustomed to conventional banking shun away from risk sharing and signals potential for better balance sheet management at Islamic banks. Overall, our findings suggest that, on the one hand, Islamic banks can gain ‘independence’ from conventional banks and interest rates through risk-sharing products, the potential for which is enormous. On the other hand, RSF could enable policy makers to improve systemic stability and restrain excessive credit expansion through its countercyclical features.

Keywords: Islamic banks, risk-sharing, financing, interest rate, dynamic system GMM

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2 Corpus Stylistics and Multidimensional Analysis for English for Specific Purposes Teaching and Assessment

Authors: Svetlana Strinyuk, Viacheslav Lanin


Academic English has become lingua franca for international scientific community which stimulates universities to introduce English for Specific Purposes (EAP) courses into curriculum. Teaching L2 EAP students might be fulfilled with corpus technologies and digital stylistics. A special software developed to reach the manifold task of teaching, assessing and researching academic writing of L2 students on basis of digital stylistics and multidimensional analysis was created. A set of annotations (style markers) – grammar, lexical and syntactic features most significant of academic writing was built. Contrastive comparison of two corpora “model corpus”, subject domain limited papers published by competent writers in leading academic journals, and “students’ corpus”, subject domain limited papers written by last year students allows to receive data about the features of academic writing underused or overused by L2 EAP student. Both corpora are tagged with a special software created in GATE Developer. Style markers within the framework of research might be replaced depending on the relevance and validity of the result which is achieved from research corpora. Thus, selecting relevant (high frequency) style markers and excluding less relevant, i.e. less frequent annotations, high validity of the model is achieved. Software allows to compare the data received from processing model corpus to students’ corpus and get reports which can be used in teaching and assessment. The less deviation from the model corpus students demonstrates in their writing the higher is academic writing skill acquisition. The research showed that several style markers (hedging devices) were underused by L2 EAP students whereas lexical linking devices were used excessively. A special software implemented into teaching of EAP courses serves as a successful visual aid, makes assessment more valid; it is indicative of the degree of writing skill acquisition, and provides data for further research.

Keywords: corpus technologies in EAP teaching, multidimensional analysis, GATE Developer, corpus stylistics

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1 Refusal Speech Acts in French Learners of Mandarin Chinese

Authors: Jui-Hsueh Hu


This study investigated various models of refusal speech acts among three target groups: French learners of Mandarin Chinese (FM), Taiwanese native Mandarin speakers (TM), and native French speakers (NF). The refusal responses were analyzed in terms of their options, frequencies, and sequences and the contents of their semantic formulas. This study also examined differences in refusal strategies, as determined by social status and social distance, among the three groups. The difficulties of refusal speech acts encountered by FM were then generalized. The results indicated that Mandarin instructors of NF should focus on the different reasons for the pragmatic failure of French learners and should assist these learners in mastering refusal speech acts that rely on abundant cultural information. In this study, refusal policies were mainly classified according to the research of Beebe et al. (1990). Discourse completion questionnaires were collected from TM, FM, and NF, and their responses were compared to determine how refusal policies differed among the groups. This study not only emphasized the dissimilarities of refusal strategies between native Mandarin speakers and second-language Mandarin learners but also used NF as a control group. The results of this study demonstrated that regarding overall strategies, FM were biased toward NF in terms of strategy choice, order, and content, resulting in pragmatic transfer under the influence of social factors such as 'social status' and 'social distance,' strategy choices of FM were still closer to those of NF, and the phenomenon of pragmatic transfer of FM was revealed. Regarding the refusal difficulties among the three groups, the F-test in the analysis of variance revealed statistical significance was achieved for Role Playing Items 13 and 14 (P < 0.05). A difference was observed in the average number of refusal difficulties between the participants. However, after multiple comparisons, it was found that item 13 (unrecognized heterosexual junior colleague requesting contacts) was significantly more difficult for NF than for TM and FM; item 14 (contacts requested by an unrecognized classmate of the opposite sex) was significantly more difficult to refuse for NF than for TM. This study summarized the pragmatic language errors that most FM often perform, including the misuse or absence of modal words, hedging expressions, and empty words at the end of sentences, as the reasons for pragmatic failures. The common social pragmatic failures of FM include inaccurately applying the level of directness and formality.

Keywords: French Mandarin, interlanguage refusal, pragmatic transfer, speech acts

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