Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1653

Search results for: Breast Dose

1653 Comparison of Breast Surface Doses for Full-Field Digital Mammography and Digital Breast Tomosynthesis Using Breast Phantoms

Authors: Chia-Hui Chen, Chien-Kuo Wang

Abstract:

Background: Full field digital mammography (FFDM) is widely used in diagnosis of breast cancer. Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) has recently been introduced into the clinic and is being used for screening for breast cancer in the general population. Hence, the radiation dose delivered to the patients involved in an imaging protocol is of utmost concern. Aim: To compare the surface radiation dose (ESD) of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) and full-field digital mammography (FFDM) by using breast phantoms. Method: We analyzed the average entrance surface dose (ESD) of FFDM and DBT by using breast phantoms. Optically Stimulated luminescent Dosimeters (OSLD) were placed in a tissue-equivalent Breast phantom at difference sites of interest. Absorbed dose measurements were obtained after digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) and full-field digital mammography (FFDM) exposures. Results: An automatic exposure control (AEC) is proposed for surface dose measurement during DBT and FFDM. The mean ESD values for DBT and FFDM were 6.37 mGy and 3.51mGy, respectively. Using of OSLD measured for surface dose during DBT and FFDM. There were 19.87 mGy and 11.36 mGy, respectively. The surface exposure dose of DBT could possibly be increased by two times with FFDM. Conclusion: The radiation dose from DBT was higher than that of FFDM and the difference in dose between AEC and OSLD measurements at phantom surface.

Keywords: full-field digital mammography, digital breast tomosynthesis, optically stimulated luminescent dosimeters, surface dose

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1652 The Analysis of Personalized Low-Dose Computed Tomography Protocol Based on Cumulative Effective Radiation Dose and Cumulative Organ Dose for Patients with Breast Cancer with Regular Chest Computed Tomography Follow up

Authors: Okhee Woo

Abstract:

Purpose: The aim of this study is to evaluate 2-year cumulative effective radiation dose and cumulative organ dose on regular follow-up computed tomography (CT) scans in patients with breast cancer and to establish personalized low-dose CT protocol. Methods and Materials: A retrospective study was performed on the patients with breast cancer who were diagnosed and managed consistently on the basis of routine breast cancer follow-up protocol between 2012-01 and 2016-06. Based on ICRP (International Commission on Radiological Protection) 103, the cumulative effective radiation doses of each patient for 2-year follow-up were analyzed using the commercial radiation management software (Radimetrics, Bayer healthcare). The personalized effective doses on each organ were analyzed in detail by the software-providing Monte Carlo simulation. Results: A total of 3822 CT scans on 490 patients was evaluated (age: 52.32±10.69). The mean scan number for each patient was 7.8±4.54. Each patient was exposed 95.54±63.24 mSv of radiation for 2 years. The cumulative CT radiation dose was significantly higher in patients with lymph node metastasis (p = 0.00). The HER-2 positive patients were more exposed to radiation compared to estrogen or progesterone receptor positive patient (p = 0.00). There was no difference in the cumulative effective radiation dose with different age groups. Conclusion: To acknowledge how much radiation exposed to a patient is a starting point of management of radiation exposure for patients with long-term CT follow-up. The precise and personalized protocol, as well as iterative reconstruction, may reduce hazard from unnecessary radiation exposure.

Keywords: computed tomography, breast cancer, effective radiation dose, cumulative organ dose

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1651 Absorbed Dose Estimation of 177Lu-DOTATOC in Adenocarcinoma Breast Cancer Bearing Mice

Authors: S. Zolghadri, M. Mousavi-Daramoroudi, H. Yousefnia, F. Abbasi-Davani

Abstract:

In this study, the absorbed dose of human organs after injection of 177Lu-DOTATOC was studied based on the biodistribution of the complex in adenocarcinoma breast cancer bearing mice. For this purpose, the biodistribution of the radiolabelled complex was studied and compartmental modeling was applied to calculate the absorbed dose with high precision. As expected, 177Lu-DOTATOC illustrated a notable specific uptake in tumor and pancreas, organs with high level of somatostatin receptor on their surface and the effectiveness of the radio-conjugate for targeting of the breast adenocarcinoma tumors was indicated. The elicited results of modeling were the exponential equations, and those are utilized for obtaining the cumulated activity data by taking their integral. The results also exemplified that non-target absorbed-doses such as the liver, spleen and pancreas were approximately 0.008, 0.004, and 0.039, respectively. While these values were so much lower than target (tumor) absorbed-dose, it seems due to this low toxicity, this complex is a good agent for therapy.

Keywords: ¹⁷⁷Lu, breast cancer, compartmental modeling, dosimetry

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1650 Optimizing Exposure Parameters in Digital Mammography: A Study in Morocco

Authors: Talbi Mohammed, Oustous Aziz, Ben Messaoud Mounir, Sebihi Rajaa, Khalis Mohammed

Abstract:

Background: Breast cancer is the leading cause of death for women around the world. Screening mammography is the reference examination, due to its sensitivity for detecting small lesions and micro-calcifications. Therefore, it is essential to ensure quality mammographic examinations with the most optimal dose. These conditions depend on the choice of exposure parameters. Clinically, practices must be evaluated in order to determine the most appropriate exposure parameters. Material and Methods: We performed our measurements on a mobile mammography unit (PLANMED Sofie-classic.) in Morocco. A solid dosimeter (AGMS Radcal) and a MTM 100 phantom allow to quantify the delivered dose and the image quality. For image quality assessment, scores are defined by the rate of visible inserts (MTM 100 phantom), obtained and compared for each acquisition. Results: The results show that the parameters of the mammography unit on which we have made our measurements can be improved in order to offer a better compromise between image quality and breast dose. The last one can be reduced up from 13.27% to 22.16%, while preserving comparable image quality.

Keywords: Mammography, Breast Dose, Image Quality, Phantom

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1649 Comparison of Radiation Dosage and Image Quality: Digital Breast Tomosynthesis vs. Full-Field Digital Mammography

Authors: Okhee Woo

Abstract:

Purpose: With increasing concern of individual radiation exposure doses, studies analyzing radiation dosage in breast imaging modalities are required. Aim of this study is to compare radiation dosage and image quality between digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) and full-field digital mammography (FFDM). Methods and Materials: 303 patients (mean age 52.1 years) who studied DBT and FFDM were retrospectively reviewed. Radiation dosage data were obtained by radiation dosage scoring and monitoring program: Radimetrics (Bayer HealthCare, Whippany, NJ). Entrance dose and mean glandular doses in each breast were obtained in both imaging modalities. To compare the image quality of DBT with two-dimensional synthesized mammogram (2DSM) and FFDM, 5-point scoring of lesion clarity was assessed and the better modality between the two was selected. Interobserver performance was compared with kappa values and diagnostic accuracy was compared using McNemar test. The parameters of radiation dosages (entrance dose, mean glandular dose) and image quality were compared between two modalities by using paired t-test and Wilcoxon rank sum test. Results: For entrance dose and mean glandular doses for each breasts, DBT had lower values compared with FFDM (p-value < 0.0001). Diagnostic accuracy did not have statistical difference, but lesion clarity score was higher in DBT with 2DSM and DBT was chosen as a better modality compared with FFDM. Conclusion: DBT showed lower radiation entrance dose and also lower mean glandular doses to both breasts compared with FFDM. Also, DBT with 2DSM had better image quality than FFDM with similar diagnostic accuracy, suggesting that DBT may have a potential to be performed as an alternative to FFDM.

Keywords: radiation dose, DBT, digital mammography, image quality

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1648 Estimation of Normalized Glandular Doses Using a Three-Layer Mammographic Phantom

Authors: Kuan-Jen Lai, Fang-Yi Lin, Shang-Rong Huang, Yun-Zheng Zeng, Po-Chieh Hsu, Jay Wu

Abstract:

The normalized glandular dose (DgN) estimates the energy deposition of mammography in clinical practice. The Monte Carlo simulations frequently use uniformly mixed phantom for calculating the conversion factor. However, breast tissues are not uniformly distributed, leading to errors of conversion factor estimation. This study constructed a three-layer phantom to estimated more accurate of normalized glandular dose. In this study, MCNP code (Monte Carlo N-Particles code) was used to create the geometric structure. We simulated three types of target/filter combinations (Mo/Mo, Mo/Rh, Rh/Rh), six voltages (25 ~ 35 kVp), six HVL parameters and nine breast phantom thicknesses (2 ~ 10 cm) for the three-layer mammographic phantom. The conversion factor for 25%, 50% and 75% glandularity was calculated. The error of conversion factors compared with the results of the American College of Radiology (ACR) was within 6%. For Rh/Rh, the difference was within 9%. The difference between the 50% average glandularity and the uniform phantom was 7.1% ~ -6.7% for the Mo/Mo combination, voltage of 27 kVp, half value layer of 0.34 mmAl, and breast thickness of 4 cm. According to the simulation results, the regression analysis found that the three-layer mammographic phantom at 0% ~ 100% glandularity can be used to accurately calculate the conversion factors. The difference in glandular tissue distribution leads to errors of conversion factor calculation. The three-layer mammographic phantom can provide accurate estimates of glandular dose in clinical practice.

Keywords: Monte Carlo simulation, mammography, normalized glandular dose, glandularity

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1647 Synergistic Effect of Doxorubicin-Loaded Silver Nanoparticles – Polymeric Conjugates on Breast Cancer Cells

Authors: Nancy M. El-Baz, Laila Ziko, Rania Siam, Wael Mamdouh

Abstract:

Cancer is one of the most devastating diseases, and has over than 10 million new cases annually worldwide. Despite the effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents, their systemic toxicity and non-selective anticancer actions represent the main obstacles facing cancer curability. Due to the effective enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect of nanomaterials, nanoparticles (NPs) have been used as drug nanocarriers providing targeted cancer drug delivery systems. In addition, several inorganic nanoparticles such as silver (AgNPs) nanoparticles demonstrated a potent anticancer activity against different cancers. The present study aimed at formulating core-shell inorganic NPs-based combinatorial therapy based on combining the anticancer activity of AgNPs along with doxorubicin (DOX) and evaluating their cytotoxicity on MCF-7 breast cancer cells. These inorganic NPs-based combinatorial therapies were designed to (i) Target and kill cancer cells with high selectivity, (ii) Have an improved efficacy/toxicity balance, and (iii) Have an enhanced therapeutic index when compared to the original non-modified DOX with much lower dosage The in-vitro cytotoxicity studies demonstrated that the NPs-based combinatorial therapy achieved the same efficacy of non-modified DOX on breast cancer cell line, but with 96% reduced dose. Such reduction in DOX dose revealed that the combination between DOX and NPs possess a synergic anticancer activity against breast cancer. We believe that this is the first report on a synergic anticancer effect at very low dose of DOX against MCF-7 cells. Future studies on NPs-based combinatorial therapy may aid in formulating novel and significantly more effective cancer therapeutics.

Keywords: nanoparticles-based combinatorial therapy, silver nanoparticles, doxorubicin, breast cancer

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1646 Comparison of Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy Virtual Treatment Plans Obtained With Different Collimators in the Cyberknife System in Partial Breast Irradiation: A Retrospective Study

Authors: Öznur Saribaş, Si̇bel Kahraman Çeti̇ntaş

Abstract:

It is aimed to compare target volume and critical organ doses by using CyberKnife (CK) in accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) in patients with early stage breast cancer. Three different virtual plans were made for Iris, fixed and multi-leaf collimator (MLC) for 5 patients who received radiotherapy in the CyberKnife system. CyberKnife virtual plans were created, with 6 Gy per day totaling 30 Gy. Dosimetric parameters for the three collimators were analyzed according to the restrictions in the NSABP-39/RTOG 0413 protocol. The plans ensured critical organs were protected and GTV received 95 % of the prescribed dose. The prescribed dose was defined by the isodose curve of a minimum of 80. Homogeneity index (HI), conformity index (CI), treatment time (min), monitor unit (MU) and doses taken by critical organs were compared. As a result of the comparison of the plans, a significant difference was found for the duration of treatment, MU. However, no significant difference was found for HI, CI. V30 and V15 values of the ipsi-lateral breast were found in the lowest MLC. There was no significant difference between Dmax values for lung and heart. However, the mean MU and duration of treatment were found in the lowest MLC. As a result, the target volume received the desired dose in each collimator. The contralateral breast and contralateral lung doses were the lowest in the Iris. Fixed collimator was found to be more suitable for cardiac doses. But these values did not make a significant difference. The use of fixed collimators may cause difficulties in clinical applications due to the long treatment time. The choice of collimator in breast SBRT applications with CyberKnife may vary depending on tumor size, proximity to critical organs and tumor localization.

Keywords: APBI, CyberKnife, early stage breast cancer, radiotherapy.

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1645 Tumour Radionuclides Therapy: in vitro and in vivo Dose Distribution Study

Authors: Rekaya A. Shabbir, Marco Mingarelli, Glenn Flux, Ananya Choudhury, Tim A. D. Smith

Abstract:

Introduction: Heterogeneity of dose distributions across a tumour is problematic for targeted radiotherapy. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) enhance dose-distributions of targeted radionuclides. The aim of this study is to demonstrate if tumour dose-distribution of targeted AuNPs radiolabelled with either of two radioisotopes (¹⁷⁷Lu and ⁹⁰Y) in breast cancer cells produced homogeneous dose distributions. Moreover, in vitro and in vivo studies were conducted to study the importance of receptor level on cytotoxicity of EGFR-targeted AuNPs in breast and colorectal cancer cells. Methods: AuNPs were functionalised with DOTA and OPPS-PEG-SVA to optimise labelling with radionuclide tracers and targeting with Erbitux. Radionuclides were chelated with DOTA, and the uptake of the radiolabelled AuNPs and targeted activity in vitro in both cell lines measured using liquid scintillation counting. Cells with medium (HCT8) and high (MDA-MB-468) EGFR expression were incubated with targeted ¹⁷⁷Lu-AuNPs for 4h, then washed and allowed to form colonies. Nude mice bearing tumours were used to study the biodistribution by injecting ¹⁷⁷Lu-AuNPs or ⁹⁰Y-AuNPs via the tail vein. Heterogeneity of dose-distribution in tumours was determined using autoradiography. Results: Colony formation (% control) was 81 ± 4.7% (HCT8) and 32 ± 9% (MDA-MB-468). High uptake was observed in the liver and spleen, indicating hepatobiliary excretion. Imaging showed heterogeneity in dose-distributions for both radionuclides across the tumours. Conclusion: The cytotoxic effect of EGFR-targeted AuNPs is greater in cells with higher EGFR expression. Dose-distributions for individual radiolabelled nanoparticles were heterogeneous across tumours. Further strategies are required to improve the uniformity of dose distribution prior to clinical trials.

Keywords: cancer cells, dose distributions, radionuclide therapy, targeted gold nanoparticles

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1644 Dosimetric Comparison of Conventional Plans versus Three Dimensional Conformal Simultaneously Integrated Boost Plans

Authors: Shoukat Ali, Amjad Hussain, Latif-ur-Rehman, Sehrish Inam

Abstract:

Radiotherapy plays an important role in the management of cancer patients. Approximately 50% of the cancer patients receive radiotherapy at one point or another during the course of treatment. The entire radiotherapy treatment of curative intent is divided into different phases, depending on the histology of the tumor. The established protocols are useful in deciding the total dose, fraction size, and numbers of phases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the dosimetric differences between the conventional treatment protocols and the three-dimensional conformal simultaneously integrated boost (SIB) plans for three different tumors sites (i.e. bladder, breast, and brain). A total of 30 patients with brain, breast and bladder cancers were selected in this retrospective study. All the patients were CT simulated initially. The primary physician contoured PTV1 and PTV2 in the axial slices. The conventional doses prescribed for brain and breast is 60Gy/30 fractions, and 64.8Gy/36 fractions for bladder treatment. For the SIB plans biological effective doses (BED) were calculated for 25 fractions. The two conventional (Phase I and Phase II) and a single SIB plan for each patient were generated on Eclipse™ treatment planning system. Treatment plans were compared and analyzed for coverage index, conformity index, homogeneity index, dose gradient and organs at risk doses.In both plans 95% of PTV volume received a minimum of 95% of the prescribe dose. Dose deviation in the optic chiasm was found to be less than 0.5%. There is no significant difference in lung V20 and heart V30 in the breast plans. In the rectum plans V75%, V50% and V25% were found to be less than 1.2% different. Deviation in the tumor coverage, conformity and homogeneity indices were found to be less than 1%. SIB plans with three dimensional conformal radiotherapy technique reduce the overall treatment time without compromising the target coverage and without increasing dose to the organs at risk. The higher dose per fraction may increase the late effects to some extent. Further studies are required to evaluate the late effects with the intention of standardizing the SIB technique for practical implementation.

Keywords: coverage index, conformity index, dose gradient, homogeneity index, simultaneously integrated boost

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1643 Cardiac Pacemaker in a Patient Undergoing Breast Radiotherapy-Multidisciplinary Approach

Authors: B. Petrović, M. Petrović, L. Rutonjski, I. Djan, V. Ivanović

Abstract:

Objective: Cardiac pacemakers are very sensitive to radiotherapy treatment from two sources: electromagnetic influence from the medical linear accelerator producing ionizing radiation- influencing electronics within the pacemaker, and the absorption of dose to the device. On the other hand, patients with cardiac pacemakers at the place of a tumor are rather rare, and single clinic hardly has experience with the management of such patients. The widely accepted international guidelines for management of radiation oncology patients recommend that these patients should be closely monitored and examined before, during and after radiotherapy treatment by cardiologist, and their device and condition followed up. The number of patients having both cancer and pacemaker, is growing every year, as both cancer incidence, as well as cardiac diseases incidence, are inevitably growing figures. Materials and methods: Female patient, age 69, was diagnozed with valvular cardiomyopathy and got implanted a pacemaker in 2005 and prosthetic mitral valve in 1993 (cancer was diagnosed in 2012). She was stable cardiologically and came to radiation therapy department with the diagnosis of right breast cancer, with the tumor in upper lateral quadrant of the right breast. Since she had all lymph nodes positive (28 in total), she had to have irradiated the supraclavicular region, as well as the breast with the tumor bed. She previously received chemotherapy, approved by the cardiologist. The patient was estimated to be with the high risk as device was within the field of irradiation, and the patient had high dependence on her pacemaker. The radiation therapy plan was conducted as 3D conformal therapy. The delineated target was breast with supraclavicular region, where the pacemaker was actually placed, with the addition of a pacemaker as organ at risk, to estimate the dose to the device and its components as recommended, and the breast. The targets received both 50 Gy in 25 fractions (where 20% of a pacemaker received 50 Gy, and 60% of a device received 40 Gy). The electrode to the heart received between 1 Gy and 50 Gy. Verification of dose planned and delivered was performed. Results: Evaluation of the patient status according to the guidelines and especially evaluation of all associated risks to the patient during treatment was done. Patient was irradiated by prescribed dose and followed up for the whole year, with no symptoms of failure of the pacemaker device during, or after treatment in follow up period. The functionality of a device was estimated to be unchanged, according to the parameters (electrode impedance and battery energy). Conclusion: Patient was closely monitored according to published guidelines during irradiation and afterwards. Pacemaker irradiated with the full dose did not show any signs of failure despite recommendations data, but in correlation with other published data.

Keywords: cardiac pacemaker, breast cancer, radiotherapy treatment planning, complications of treatment

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1642 A Ferutinin Analogue with Enhanced Potency and Selectivity against Estrogen Receptor Positive Breast Cancer Cells in vitro

Authors: Remi Safi, Aline Hamade, Najat Bteich, Jamal El Saghir, Mona Diab Assaf, Marwan El-Sabban, Fadia Najjar

Abstract:

Estrogen is considered a risk factor for breast cancer since it promotes breast-cell proliferation. The jaesckeanadiol-3-p-hydroxyphenylpropanoate, a hemi-synthetic analogue of the natural phytoestrogen ferutinin (jaesckeanadiol-p-hydroxybenzoate), is designed to be devoid of estrogenic activity. This analogue induces a cytotoxic effect 30 times higher than that of ferutinin towards MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. We compared these two compounds with respect to their effect on proliferation, cell cycle distribution and cancer stem-like cells in the MCF-7 cell line. Treatment with ferutinin (30 μM) and its analogue (1 μM) produced a significant accumulation of cells at the pre G0/G1 cell cycle phase and triggered apoptosis. Importantly, this compound retains its anti-proliferative activity against breast cancer stem/progenitor cells that are naturally insensitive to ferutinin at the same dose. These results position ferutinin analogue as an effective compound inhibiting the proliferation of estrogen-dependent breast cancer cells and consistently targeting their stem-like cells.

Keywords: ferutinin, hemi-synthetic analogue, breast cancer, estrogen, stem/progenitor cells

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1641 Comparison of an Anthropomorphic PRESAGE® Dosimeter and Radiochromic Film with a Commercial Radiation Treatment Planning System for Breast IMRT: A Feasibility Study

Authors: Khalid Iqbal

Abstract:

This work presents a comparison of an anthropomorphic PRESAGE® dosimeter and radiochromic film measurements with a commercial treatment planning system to determine the feasibility of PRESAGE® for 3D dosimetry in breast IMRT. An anthropomorphic PRESAGE® phantom was created in the shape of a breast phantom. A five-field IMRT plan was generated with a commercially available treatment planning system and delivered to the PRESAGE® phantom. The anthropomorphic PRESAGE® was scanned with the Duke midsized optical CT scanner (DMOS-RPC) and the OD distribution was converted to dose. Comparisons were performed between the dose distribution calculated with the Pinnacle3 treatment planning system, PRESAGE®, and EBT2 film measurements. DVHs, gamma maps, and line profiles were used to evaluate the agreement. Gamma map comparisons showed that Pinnacle3 agreed with PRESAGE® as greater than 95% of comparison points for the PTV passed a ± 3%/± 3 mm criterion when the outer 8 mm of phantom data were discluded. Edge artifacts were observed in the optical CT reconstruction, from the surface to approximately 8 mm depth. These artifacts resulted in dose differences between Pinnacle3 and PRESAGE® of up to 5% between the surface and a depth of 8 mm and decreased with increasing depth in the phantom. Line profile comparisons between all three independent measurements yielded a maximum difference of 2% within the central 80% of the field width. For the breast IMRT plan studied, the Pinnacle3 calculations agreed with PRESAGE® measurements to within the ±3%/± 3 mm gamma criterion. This work demonstrates the feasibility of the PRESAGE® to be fashioned into anthropomorphic shape, and establishes the accuracy of Pinnacle3 for breast IMRT. Furthermore, these data have established the groundwork for future investigations into 3D dosimetry with more complex anthropomorphic phantoms.

Keywords: 3D dosimetry, PRESAGE®, IMRT, QA, EBT2 GAFCHROMIC film

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1640 Overview and Pathophysiology of Radiation-Induced Breast Changes as a Consequence of Radiotherapy Toxicity

Authors: Monika Rezacova

Abstract:

Radiation-induced breast changes are a consequence of radiotherapy toxicity over the breast tissues either related to targeted breast cancer treatment or other thoracic malignancies (eg. lung cancer). This study has created an overview of different changes and their pathophysiology. The main conditions included were skin thickening, interstitial oedema, fat necrosis, dystrophic calcifications, skin retractions, glandular atrophy, breast fibrosis and radiation induced breast cancer. This study has performed focused literature search through multiple databases including pubmed, medline and embase. The study has reviewed English as well as non English publications. As a result of the literature the study provides comprehensive overview of radiation-induced breast changes and their pathophysiology with small focus on new development and prevention.

Keywords: radiotherapy toxicity, breast tissue changes, breast cancer treatment, radiation-induced breast changes

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1639 Assessment of the Radiation Absorbed Dose Produced by Lu-177, Ra-223, AC-225 for Metastatic Prostate Cancer in a Bone Model

Authors: Maryam Tajadod

Abstract:

The treatment of cancer is one of the main challenges of nuclear medicine; while cancer begins in an organ, such as the breast or prostate, it spreads to the bone, resulting in metastatic bone. In the treatment of cancer with radiotherapy, the determination of the involved tissues’ dose is one of the important steps in the treatment protocol. Comparing absorbed doses for Lu-177 and Ra-223 and Ac-225 in the bone marrow and soft tissue of bone phantom with evaluating energetic emitted particles of these radionuclides is the important aim of this research. By the use of MCNPX computer code, a model for bone phantom was designed and the values of absorbed dose for Ra-223 and Ac-225, which are Alpha emitters & Lu-177, which is a beta emitter, were calculated. As a result of research, in comparing gamma radiation for three radionuclides, Lu-177 released the highest dose in the bone marrow and Ra-223 achieved the lowest level. On the other hand, the result showed that although the figures of absorbed dose for Ra and Ac in the bone marrow are near to each other, Ra spread more energy in cortical bone. Moreover, The alpha component of the Ra-223 and Ac-225 have very little effect on bone marrow and soft tissue than a beta component of the lu-177 and it leaves the highest absorbed dose in the bone where the source is located.

Keywords: bone metastases, lutetium-177, radium-223, actinium-225, absorbed dose

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1638 Current Status of Ir-192 Brachytherapy in Bangladesh

Authors: M. Safiqul Islam, Md Arafat Hossain Sarkar

Abstract:

Brachytherapy is one of the most important cancer treatment management systems in radiotherapy department. Brachytherapy treatment is moved into High Dose Rate (HDR) after loader from Low Dose Rate (LDR) after loader due to radiation protection advantage. HDR Brachytherapy is a highly multipurpose system for enhancing cure and achieving palliation in many common cancers disease of developing countries. High-dose rate (HDR) Brachytherapy is a type of internal radiation therapy that delivers radiation from implants placed close to or inside, the tumor(s) in the body. This procedure is very effective at providing localized radiation to the tumor site while minimizing the patient’s whole body dose. Brachytherapy has proven to be a highly successful treatment for cancers of the prostate, cervix, endometrium, breast, skin, bronchus, esophagus, and head and neck, as well as soft tissue sarcomas and several other types of cancer. For the time being in our country we have 10 new HDR Remote after loading Brachytherapy. Right now 4 HDR Brachytherapy is already installed and running for patient’s treatment out of 10 HDR Brachytherapy. Ir-192 source is more comfortable than Co-60. In that case people or expert personnel prefer Ir-192 source for different kind of cancer patients. Ir-192 are economically, more flexible and familiar in our country.

Keywords: Ir-192, brachytherapy, cancer treatment, prostate, cervix, endometrium, breast, skin, bronchus, esophagus, soft tissue sarcomas

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1637 The Breast Surgery Movement: A 50 Year Development of the Surgical Specialty

Authors: Lauren Zammerilla Westcott, Ronald C. Jones, James W. Fleshman

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The surgical treatment of breast cancer has rapidly evolved over the past 50 years, progressing from Halsted’s radical mastectomy to a public campaign of surgical options, aesthetic reconstruction, and patient empowerment. This article examines the happenings that led to the transition of breast surgery as a subset of general surgery to its own specialized field. Sparked by the research of Dr. Bernard Fisher and the first National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project trial in 1971, the field of breast surgery underwent significant growth over the next several decades, enabling general surgeons to limit their practices to the breast. High surgical volumes eventually led to the development of the first formal breast surgical oncology fellowship in a large community-based hospital at Baylor University Medical Center in 1982. The establishment of the American Society of Breast Surgeons, as well several landmark clinical trials and public campaign efforts, further contributed to the advancement of breast surgery, making it the specialized field of the current era.

Keywords: breast cancer, breast fellowship, breast surgery, surgical history

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1636 Operative Tips of Strattice Based Breast Reconstruction

Authors: Cho Ee Ng, Hazem Khout, Tarannum Fasih

Abstract:

Acellular dermal matrices are increasingly used to reinforce the lower pole of the breast during implant breast reconstruction. There is no standard technique described in literature for the use of this product. In this article, we share our operative method of fixation.

Keywords: strattice, acellular dermal matric, breast reconstruction, implant

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1635 The Use of the Matlab Software as the Best Way to Recognize Penumbra Region in Radiotherapy

Authors: Alireza Shayegan, Morteza Amirabadi

Abstract:

The y tool was developed to quantitatively compare dose distributions, either measured or calculated. Before computing ɣ, the dose and distance scales of the two distributions, referred to as evaluated and reference, are re-normalized by dose and distance criteria, respectively. The re-normalization allows the dose distribution comparison to be conducted simultaneously along dose and distance axes. Several two-dimensional images were acquired using a Scanning Liquid Ionization Chamber EPID and Extended Dose Range (EDR2) films for regular and irregular radiation fields. The raw images were then converted into two-dimensional dose maps. Transitional and rotational manipulations were performed for images using Matlab software. As evaluated dose distribution maps, they were then compared with the corresponding original dose maps as the reference dose maps.

Keywords: energetic electron, gamma function, penumbra, Matlab software

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1634 Compare Anxiety, Stress, Depression, andAttitude towards Death among Breast CancerPatient Undergoing Mastectomy and Breast-Conserving

Authors: Mitra JahangirRad, Sheida Sodagar, Maryam Bahrami Hidaji

Abstract:

This study was conducted with the aim of comparing anxiety, stress, depression and attitude towards death among patients with breast cancer who have undergone mastectomy or breast-conserving surgery. The study method is causal-comparative. Statistical population was all patients with breast cancer referring to Medical Center of Panjom Azar Hospital in Gorgan or oncologists' offices in this city within eight months. They were selected using purposive sampling. Sample size of this study was 45 patients with breast cancer undergoing mastectomy and 70 patients under breast-conserving surgery. Measurement tools in this study were depression, anxiety, and stress scale (Dass-21) as well as Death Attitude Profile-Revised (DAPR). Results of this study in hypotheses investigation showed that anxiety, stress and depression among patients with breast cancer, undergoing mastectomy or breast-conserving surgery is significantly different. However, their attitudes towards death do not differ. From these findings, it can be concluded that although most patients with breast cancer encounter many psychological problems, patients undergoing mastectomy experience more anxiety, stress and depression relative to patients with breast-conserving surgery and it seems that they need more supportive therapy.

Keywords: anxiety, breast cancer, depression, death, mastectomy

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1633 Mobile Health Approaches in the Management of Breast Cancer: A Qualitative Content Analysis

Authors: Hyekyung Woo, Gwihyun Kim

Abstract:

mHealth, which encompasses mobile health technologies and interventions, is rapidly evolving in various medical specialties, and its impact is evident in oncology. This review describes current trends in research addressing the integration of mHealth into the management of breast cancer by examining evaluations of mHealth and its contributions across the cancer care continuum. Mobile technologies are perceived as effective in prevention and as feasible for managing breast cancer, but the diagnostic accuracy of these tools remains in doubt. Not all phases of breast cancer treatment involve mHealth, and not all have been addressed by research. These drawbacks in the application of mHealth to breast cancer management call for intensified research to strengthen its role in breast cancer care.

Keywords: mobile application, breast cancer, content analysis, mHealth

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1632 Intelligent Prediction of Breast Cancer Severity

Authors: Wahab Ali, Oyebade K. Oyedotun, Adnan Khashman

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Breast cancer remains a threat to the woman’s world in view of survival rates, it early diagnosis and mortality statistics. So far, research has shown that many survivors of breast cancer cases are in the ones with early diagnosis. Breast cancer is usually categorized into stages which indicates its severity and corresponding survival rates for patients. Investigations show that the farther into the stages before diagnosis the lesser the chance of survival; hence the early diagnosis of breast cancer becomes imperative, and consequently the application of novel technologies to achieving this. Over the year, mammograms have used in the diagnosis of breast cancer, but the inconclusive deductions made from such scans lead to either false negative cases where cancer patients may be left untreated or false positive where unnecessary biopsies are carried out. This paper presents the application of artificial neural networks in the prediction of severity of breast tumour (whether benign or malignant) using mammography reports and other factors that are related to breast cancer.

Keywords: breast cancer, intelligent classification, neural networks, mammography

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1631 Standard Protocol Selection for Acquisition of Breast Thermogram in Perspective of Early Breast Cancer Detection

Authors: Mrinal Kanti Bhowmik, Usha Rani Gogoi Jr., Anjan Kumar Ghosh, Debotosh Bhattacharjee

Abstract:

In the last few decades, breast thermography has achieved an average sensitivity and specificity of 90% for breast tumor detection. Breast thermography is a non-invasive, cost-effective, painless and radiation-free breast imaging modality which makes a significant contribution to the evaluation and diagnosis of patients, suspected of having breast cancer. An abnormal breast thermogram may indicate significant biological risk for the existence or the development of breast tumors. Breast thermography can detect a breast tumor, when the tumor is in its early stage or when the tumor is in a dense breast. The infrared breast thermography is very sensitive to environmental changes for which acquisition of breast thermography should be performed under strictly controlled conditions by undergoing some standard protocols. Several factors like air, temperature, humidity, etc. are there to be considered for characterizing thermal images as an imperative tool for detecting breast cancer. A detailed study of various breast thermogram acquisition protocols adopted by different researchers in their research work is provided here in this paper. After going through a rigorous study of different breast thermogram acquisition protocols, a new standard breast thermography acquisition setup is proposed here in this paper for proper and accurate capturing of the breast thermograms. The proposed breast thermogram acquisition setup is being built in the Radiology Department, Agartala Government Medical College (AGMC), Govt. of Tripura, Tripura, India. The breast thermograms are captured using FLIR T650sc thermal camera with the thermal sensitivity of 20 mK at 30 degree C. The paper is an attempt to highlight the importance of different critical parameters of breast thermography like different thermography views, patient preparation protocols, acquisition room requirements, acquisition system requirements, etc. This paper makes an important contribution by providing a detailed survey and a new efficient approach on breast thermogram capturing.

Keywords: acquisition protocol, breast cancer, breast thermography, infrared thermography

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1630 Lived Experience of Breast Cancer for Arab Muslim Women

Authors: Nesreen M. Alqaissi

Abstract:

Little is known about the lived experiences of breast cancer among Arab Muslim women. The researcher used a qualitative interpretive phenomenological research design to explore the lived experiences of breast cancer as described by Jordanian Muslim women. A purposive sample of 20 women with breast cancer was recruited. Data were collected utilizing individual semi-structured interviews, and analyzed using Heideggerian Hermeneutical methodology. Results: Five related themes and one constitutive pattern: (a) breast cancer means death; (b) matriarchal family members as important source of support; (c) spirituality as a way to live and survive breast cancer; (d) concealing cancer experiences to protect self and families; (e) physicians as protectors and treatment decision makers; (f) the constitutive pattern: culture influencing Jordanian women experiences with breast cancer. In conclusion, researchers and healthcare providers should consider the influence of culture, spirituality, and families, when caring for women with breast cancer from Jordan.

Keywords: breast cancer, Arab Muslim, Jordan, lived experiences, spirituality, culture

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1629 Detection of Lymphedema after Breast Cancer in Yucatecan Women

Authors: Olais A. Ingrid, Peraza G. Leydi, Estrella C. Damaris

Abstract:

Breast cancer is the most common among women worldwide; the different treatments can bring sequels that directly affect the quality of life, such as lymphedema. The objective was to determine if there is presence of lymphedema secondary to breast cancer in Yucatecan women. It was an observational, analytical, cross-sectional study, 92 women were included who met the following criteria: women with surgical treatment for unilateral: breast cancer, aged between 25 and 65 years old, minimum 6 weeks after unilateral breast surgery and have completed any type of chemotherapy or adjuvant radiotherapy treatment for breast cancer. The evaluation was through indirect measurement volume by circometry to determine the presence of lymphedema. 23% of women had lymphedema grade I. It related to the presence of some of the symptoms like stiffness, swelling, decreased range of motion and feeling of heaviness in the arm of the operated side of the breast. It is important to determine the presence of lymphedema to perform physical therapy treatment.

Keywords: breast cancer, lymphedema, physical therapy, Yucatan

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1628 Molecular Study of P53- and Rb-Tumor Suppressor Genes in Human Papilloma Virus-Infected Breast Cancers

Authors: Shakir H. Mohammed Al-Alwany, Saad Hasan M. Ali, Ibrahim Mohammed S. Shnawa

Abstract:

The study was aimed to define the percentage of detection of high-oncogenic risk types of HPV and their genotyping in archival tissue specimens that ranged from apparently healthy tissue to invasive breast cancer by using one of the recent versions of In Situ Hybridization(ISH) 0.2. To find out rational significance of such genotypes as well as over expressed products of mutants P53 and RB genes on the severity of underlying breast cancers. The DNA of HPV was detected in 46.5 % of tissues from breast cancers while HPV DNA in the tissues from benign breast tumours was detected in 12.5%. No HPV positive–ISH reaction was detected in healthy breast tissues of the control group. HPV DNA of genotypes (16, 18, 31 and 33) was detected in malignant group in frequency of 25.6%, 27.1%, 30.2% and 12.4%, respectively. Over expression of p53 was detected by IHC in 51.2% breast cancer cases and in 50% benign breast tumour group, while none of control group showed P53- over expression. Retinoblastoma protein was detected by IHC test in 49.7% of malignant breast tumours, 54.2% of benign breast tumours but no signal was reported in the tissues of control group. The significance prevalence of expression of mutated p53 & Rb genes as well as detection of high-oncogenic HPV genotypes in patients with breast cancer supports the hypothesis of an etiologic role for the virus in breast cancer development.

Keywords: human papilloma virus, P53, RB, breast cancer

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1627 Association of Overweight and Obesity with Breast Cancer

Authors: Amir Ghasemlouei, Alireza Khalaj

Abstract:

In women, cancer of the breast is one of the most common incident cancer and cause of death from cancer .we reviewed the prevalence of obesity and its association with breast cancer. In this study, a total of 25 articles regarding the subject matter of the article have been presented in which 640 patients were examined that 320 patients with breast cancer and 320 were controls. The distribution of breast cancer patients and controls with respect to their anthropometric indices in patients with higher weight, which was statistically significant (60.2 ± 10.2 kg) compared with control group (56.1 ± 11.3 kg). The body mass index of patients was (26.06+/-3.42) and significantly higher than the control group (24.1+/-1.7). Obesity leads to increased levels of adipose tissue in the body that can be stored toxins and carcinogens to produce a continuous supply. Due to the high level of fat and the role of estrogen in a woman is endogenous estrogen of the tumor and regulate the activities of growth steroids, obesity is a risk factor for breast cancer is confirmed. Our study and other studies show that obesity is a risk factor for breast cancer. And with a weight loss intervention for breast cancer can be prevented in the future.

Keywords: breast cancer, review study, obesity, overweight

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1626 Influence of Bra Band Tension and Underwire Angles on Breast Motion

Authors: Cheuk Wing Lee, Kit Lun Yick, Sun Pui Ng, Joanne Yip

Abstract:

Daily activities and exercise may result in large displacements of the breasts, which lead to breast pain and discomfort. Therefore, a proper bra design and fit can help to control excessive breast motion to prevent the over-stretching of the connective tissues. Nevertheless, bra fit problems, such as excessively high tension of the shoulder straps and a tight underband could have substantially negative effects on the wear comfort and health of the wearer. The purpose of this study is to, therefore, examine the effects of bra band tension on breast displacement. Usually, human wear trials are carried out, but there are inconsistencies during testing. Therefore, a soft manikin torso is used to examine breast displacement at walking speeds of 2.30 km/h and 4.08 km/h. The breast displacement itself is determined by using a VICON motion capture system. The 3D geometric changes of the underwire bra band tension and the corresponding control of breast movement are also analyzed by using a 3D handheld scanner along with Rapidform software. The results indicate that an appropriate bra band tension can help to reduce breast displacement and provide a comfortable angle for the underwire. The findings can be used by designers and bra engineers as a reference source to advance bra design and development.

Keywords: bra band, bra features, breast displacement, underwire angle

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1625 Cratoxy Formosum (Jack) Dyer Leaf Extract-Induced Human Breast and Liver Cancer Cells Death

Authors: Benjaporn Buranrat, Nootchanat Mairuae

Abstract:

Cratoxylum formosum (Jack) Dyer (CF) has been used for the traditional medicines in South East Asian and Thailand. Normally, northeast Thai vegetables have proven cytotoxic to many cancer cells. Therefore, the present study aims to explore the molecular mechanisms underlying CF-induced cancer cell death and apoptosis on breast and liver cancer cells. The cytotoxicity and antiproliferative effects of CF on the human breast MCF-7 and liver HepG2 cancer cell lines were evaluated using sulforhodamine B assay and colony formation assay. Cell migration assay was measured using wound healing assay. The apoptosis induction mechanisms were investigated through reactive oxygen species formation, caspase 3 activity, and JC-1 activity. Gene expression by real-time PCR and apoptosis related protein levels by Western blot analysis. CF induced MCF-7 and HepG2 cell death by time- and dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, CF had the greater cytotoxic potency on MCF-7 more than HepG2 cells with IC50 values of 85.70+4.52 μM and 219.03±9.96 μM respectively, at 24 h. Treatment with CF also caused a dose-dependent decrease in colony forming ability and cell migration, especially on MCF-7 cells. CF induced ROS formation, increased caspase 3 activities, and decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential, and causing apoptotic body production and DNA fragmentation. CF significantly decreased expression of the cell cycle regulatory protein RAC1 and downstream proteins, cdk6. Additionally, CF enhanced p21 and reduced cyclin D1 protein levels. CF leaf extract induced cell death, apoptosis, antimigration in both of MCF-7 and HepG2 cells. CF could be useful for developing to anticancer drug candidate for breast and liver cancer therapy.

Keywords: cratoxylum formosum (jack) dyer, breast cancer, liver cancer, cell death

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1624 Molecular Biological Evaluation of MAO-A Inhibitors Efficacy Against Breast Cancer

Authors: Sanaa Bardaweel

Abstract:

Breast cancer remains one of the most common causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Therefore, new therapeutic approaches are needed to improve its treatment. Previous research has shown that the mono amine oxidase-A (MAO-A) enzyme plays a role in the progression of cancers. The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by the MAO-A enzyme is the main cause of DNA damage and oxidative injury of cells and may be involved in tumor development and progression. Available MAO-A inhibitors are used as antidepressants. However, their role in breast cancer treatment has not been thoroughly investigated. This study provided solid evidence supporting the anti-tumorigenic effect of MAO-A inhibitors in breast cancer cells. In addition, the reported anticancer activity may not be merely mediated through the MAO-A inhibition but also may have crosslinks with several signaling pathways in breast cancer.

Keywords: monoamine oxidase, breast cancer, inhibitors, apoptosis, metastasis

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