Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Search results for: Habshah Midi

4 On the Performance of Improvised Generalized M-Estimator in the Presence of High Leverage Collinearity Enhancing Observations

Authors: Habshah Midi, Mohammed A. Mohammed, Sohel Rana


Multicollinearity occurs when two or more independent variables in a multiple linear regression model are highly correlated. The ridge regression is the commonly used method to rectify this problem. However, the ridge regression cannot handle the problem of multicollinearity which is caused by high leverage collinearity enhancing observation (HLCEO). Since high leverage points (HLPs) are responsible for inducing multicollinearity, the effect of HLPs needs to be reduced by using Generalized M estimator. The existing GM6 estimator is based on the Minimum Volume Ellipsoid (MVE) which tends to swamp some low leverage points. Hence an improvised GM (MGM) estimator is presented to improve the precision of the GM6 estimator. Numerical example and simulation study are presented to show how HLPs can cause multicollinearity. The numerical results show that our MGM estimator is the most efficient method compared to some existing methods.

Keywords: identification, high leverage points, multicollinearity, GM-estimator, DRGP, DFFITS

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
3 Non-Contact Digital Music Instrument Using Light Sensing Technology

Authors: Aishwarya Ravichandra, Kirtana Kirtivasan, Adithi Mahesh, Ashwini S.Savanth


A Non-Contact Digital Music System has been conceptualized and implemented to create a new era of digital music. This system replaces the strings of a traditional stringed instrument with laser beams to avoid bruising of the user’s hand. The system consists of seven laser modules, detector modules and distance sensors that form the basic hardware blocks of this instrument. Arduino ATmega2560 microcontroller is used as the primary interface between the hardware and the software. MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) is used as the protocol to establish communication between the instrument and the virtual synthesizer software.

Keywords: Arduino, detector, laser, MIDI, note on, note off, pitch bend, Sharp IR distance sensor

Procedia PDF Downloads 325
2 FlameCens: Visualization of Expressive Deviations in Music Performance

Authors: Y. Trantafyllou, C. Alexandraki


Music interpretation accounts to the way musicians shape their performance by deliberately deviating from composers’ intentions, which are commonly communicated via some form of music transcription, such as a music score. For transcribed and non-improvised music, music expression is manifested by introducing subtle deviations in tempo, dynamics and articulation during the evolution of performance. This paper presents an application, named FlameCens, which, given two recordings of the same piece of music, presumably performed by different musicians, allow visualising deviations in tempo and dynamics during playback. The application may also compare a certain performance to the music score of that piece (i.e. MIDI file), which may be thought of as an expression-neutral representation of that piece, hence depicting the expressive queues employed by certain performers. FlameCens uses the Dynamic Time Warping algorithm to compare two audio sequences, based on CENS (Chroma Energy distribution Normalized Statistics) audio features. Expressive deviations are illustrated in a moving flame, which is generated by an animation of particles. The length of the flame is mapped to deviations in dynamics, while the slope of the flame is mapped to tempo deviations so that faster tempo changes the slope to the right and slower tempo changes the slope to the left. Constant slope signifies no tempo deviation. The detected deviations in tempo and dynamics can be additionally recorded in a text file, which allows for offline investigation. Moreover, in the case of monophonic music, the color of particles is used to convey the pitch of the notes during performance. FlameCens has been implemented in Python and it is openly available via GitHub. The application has been experimentally validated for different music genres including classical, contemporary, jazz and popular music. These experiments revealed that FlameCens can be a valuable tool for music specialists (i.e. musicians or musicologists) to investigate the expressive performance strategies employed by different musicians, as well as for music audience to enhance their listening experience.

Keywords: audio synchronization, computational music analysis, expressive music performance, information visualization

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
1 Analysis of NMDA Receptor 2B Subunit Gene (GRIN2B) mRNA Expression in the Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Alzheimer's Disease Patients

Authors: Ali̇ Bayram, Semih Dalkilic, Remzi Yigiter


N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor is a subtype of glutamate receptor and plays a pivotal role in learning, memory, neuronal plasticity, neurotoxicity and synaptic mechanisms. Animal experiments were suggested that glutamate-induced excitotoxic injuriy and NMDA receptor blockage lead to amnesia and other neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Huntington’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Aim of this study is to investigate association between NMDA receptor coding gene GRIN2B expression level and Alzheimer disease. The study was approved by the local ethics committees, and it was conducted according to the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki and guidelines for the Good Clinical Practice. Peripheral blood was collected 50 patients who diagnosed AD and 49 healthy control individuals. Total RNA was isolated with RNeasy midi kit (Qiagen) according to manufacturer’s instructions. After checked RNA quality and quantity with spectrophotometer, GRIN2B expression levels were detected by quantitative real time PCR (QRT-PCR). Statistical analyses were performed, variance between two groups were compared with Mann Whitney U test in GraphpadInstat algorithm with 95 % confidence interval and p < 0.05. After statistical analyses, we have determined that GRIN2B expression levels were down regulated in AD patients group with respect to control group. But expression level of this gene in each group was showed high variability. İn this study, we have determined that NMDA receptor coding gene GRIN2B expression level was down regulated in AD patients when compared with healthy control individuals. According to our results, we have speculated that GRIN2B expression level was associated with AD. But it is necessary to validate these results with bigger sample size.

Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease, N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor, NR2B, GRIN2B, mRNA expression, RT-PCR

Procedia PDF Downloads 297