Search results for: filter
756 Gaussian Particle Flow Bernoulli Filter for Single Target Tracking
Authors: Hyeongbok Kim, Lingling Zhao, Xiaohong Su, Junjie Wang
Abstract:The Bernoulli filter is a precise Bayesian filter for single target tracking based on the random finite set theory. The standard Bernoulli filter often underestimates the number of targets. This study proposes a Gaussian particle flow (GPF) Bernoulli filter employing particle flow to migrate particles from prior to posterior positions to improve the performance of the standard Bernoulli filter. By employing the particle flow filter, the computational speed of the Bernoulli filters is significantly improved. In addition, the GPF Bernoulli filter provides a more accurate estimation compared with that of the standard Bernoulli filter. Simulation results confirm the improved tracking performance and computational speed in two- and three-dimensional scenarios compared with other algorithms.
Keywords: Bernoulli filter, particle filter, particle flow filter, random finite sets, target trackingProcedia PDF Downloads 13
755 Kalman Filter Gain Elimination in Linear Estimation
Authors: Nicholas D. Assimakis
Abstract:In linear estimation, the traditional Kalman filter uses the Kalman filter gain in order to produce estimation and prediction of the n-dimensional state vector using the m-dimensional measurement vector. The computation of the Kalman filter gain requires the inversion of an m x m matrix in every iteration. In this paper, a variation of the Kalman filter eliminating the Kalman filter gain is proposed. In the time varying case, the elimination of the Kalman filter gain requires the inversion of an n x n matrix and the inversion of an m x m matrix in every iteration. In the time invariant case, the elimination of the Kalman filter gain requires the inversion of an n x n matrix in every iteration. The proposed Kalman filter gain elimination algorithm may be faster than the conventional Kalman filter, depending on the model dimensions.
Keywords: discrete time, estimation, Kalman filter, Kalman filter gainProcedia PDF Downloads 91
754 Operation Parameters of Vacuum Cleaned Filters
Authors: Wilhelm Hoeflinger, Thomas Laminger, Johannes Wolfslehner
Abstract:For vacuum cleaned dust filters, used e. g. in textile industry, there exist no calculation methods to determine design parameters (e. g. traverse speed of the nozzle, filter area...). In this work a method to calculate the optimum traverse speed of the nozzle of an industrial-size flat dust filter at a given mean pressure drop and filter face velocity was elaborated. Well-known equations for the design of a cleanable multi-chamber bag-house-filter were modified in order to take into account a continuously regeneration of a dust filter by a nozzle. Thereby, the specific filter medium resistance and the specific cake resistance values are needed which can be derived from filter tests under constant operation conditions. A lab-scale filter test rig was used to derive the specific filter media resistance value and the specific cake resistance value for vacuum cleaned filter operation. Three different filter media were tested and the determined parameters were compared to each other.
Keywords: design of dust filter, dust removing, filter regeneration, operation parametersProcedia PDF Downloads 313
753 Compact Microstrip Ultra-Wideband Bandstop Filter With Quasi-Elliptic Function Response
Authors: Hussein Shaman, Faris Almansour
Abstract:This paper proposes a modified optimum bandstop filter with ultra-wideband stopband. The filter consists of three shunt open-circuited stubs and two non-redundant unit elements. The proposed bandstop filter is designed with unequal electrical lengths of the open-circuited stubs at the mid-stopband. Therefore, the filter can exhibit a quasi-elliptic function response that improves the selectivity and enhances the rejection bandwidth. The filter is designed to exhibit a fractional bandwidth of about 114% at a mid-stopband frequency of 3.0 GHz. The filter is successfully realized in theory, simulated, fabricated and measured. An excellent agreement is obtained between calculated, simulated and measured. The fabricated filter has a compact size with a low insertion loss in the passbands, high selectivity and good attenuation level inside the desired stopband
Keywords: microstrip filter, bandstop filter, UWB filter, transmission line filterProcedia PDF Downloads 37
752 A Finite Memory Residual Generation Filter for Fault Detection
Authors: Pyung Soo Kim, Eung Hyuk Lee, Mun Suck Jang
Abstract:In the current paper, a residual generation filter with finite memory structure is proposed for fault detection. The proposed finite memory residual generation filter provides the residual by real-time filtering of fault vector using only the most recent finite observations and inputs on the window. It is shown that the residual given by the proposed residual generation filter provides the exact fault for noise-free systems. Finally, to illustrate the capability of the proposed residual generation filter, numerical examples are performed for the discretized DC motor system having the multiple sensor faults.
Keywords: residual generation filter, finite memory structure, kalman filter, fast detectionProcedia PDF Downloads 488
751 Study on Filter for Semiconductor of Minimizing Damage by X-Ray Laminography
Authors: Chan Jong Park, Hye Min Park, Jeong Ho Kim, Ki Hyun Park, Koan Sik Joo
Abstract:This research used the MCNPX simulation program to evaluate the utility of a filter that was developed to minimize the damage to a semiconductor device during defect testing with X-ray. The X-ray generator was designed using the MCNPX code, and the X-ray absorption spectrum of the semiconductor device was obtained based on the designed X-ray generator code. To evaluate the utility of the filter, the X-ray absorption rates of the semiconductor device were calculated and compared for Ag, Rh, Mo and V filters with thicknesses of 25μm, 50μm, and 75μm. The results showed that the X-ray absorption rate varied with the type and thickness of the filter, ranging from 8.74% to 49.28%. The Rh filter showed the highest X-ray absorption rates of 29.8%, 15.18% and 8.74% for the above-mentioned filter thicknesses. As shown above, the characteristics of the X-ray absorption with respect to the type and thickness of the filter were identified using MCNPX simulation. With these results, both time and expense could be saved in the production of the desired filter. In the future, this filter will be produced, and its performance will be evaluated.
Keywords: X-ray, MCNPX, filter, semiconductor, damageProcedia PDF Downloads 358
750 A Packet Loss Probability Estimation Filter Using Most Recent Finite Traffic Measurements
Authors: Pyung Soo Kim, Eung Hyuk Lee, Mun Suck Jang
Abstract:A packet loss probability (PLP) estimation filter with finite memory structure is proposed to estimate the packet rate mean and variance of the input traffic process in real-time while removing undesired system and measurement noises. The proposed PLP estimation filter is developed under a weighted least square criterion using only the finite traffic measurements on the most recent window. The proposed PLP estimation filter is shown to have several inherent properties such as unbiasedness, deadbeat, robustness. A guideline for choosing appropriate window length is described since it can affect significantly the estimation performance. Using computer simulations, the proposed PLP estimation filter is shown to be superior to the Kalman filter for the temporarily uncertain system. One possible explanation for this is that the proposed PLP estimation filter can have greater convergence time of a filtered estimate as the window length M decreases.
Keywords: packet loss probability estimation, finite memory filter, infinite memory filter, Kalman filterProcedia PDF Downloads 488
749 The Effect of Compensating Filter on Image Quality in Lateral Projection of Thoracolumbar Radiography
Authors: Noor Arda Adrina Daud, Mohd Hanafi Ali
Abstract:The compensating filter is placed between the patient and X-ray tube to compensate various density and thickness of human body. The main purpose of this project is to study the effect of compensating filter on image quality in lateral projection of thoracolumbar radiography. The study was performed by an X-ray unit where different thicknesses of aluminum were used as compensating filter. Specifically the relationship between thickness of aluminum, density and noise were evaluated. Results show different thickness of aluminum compensating filter improved the image quality of lateral projection thoracolumbar radiography. The compensating filter of 8.2 mm was considered as the optimal filter to compensate the thoracolumbar junction (T12-L1), 1 mm to compensate lumbar region and 5.9 mm to compensate thorax region. The aluminum wedge compensating filter was designed resulting in an acceptable image quality.
Keywords: compensating filter, aluminum, image quality, lateral, thoracolumbarProcedia PDF Downloads 449
748 Thermal Properties of Chitosan-Filled Empty Fruit Bunches Filter Media
Authors: Aziatul Niza Sadikin, Norasikin Othman, Mohd Ghazali Mohd Nawawi, Umi Aisah Asli, Roshafima Rasit Ali, Rafiziana Md Kasmani
Abstract:Non-woven fibrous filter media from empty fruit bunches were fabricated by using chitosan as a binder. Chitosan powder was dissolved in a 1 wt% aqueous acetic acid and 1 wt% to 4 wt% of chitosan solutions was prepared. Chitosan-filled empty fruit bunches filter media have been prepared via wet-layup method. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was performed to study various thermal properties of the fibrous filter media. It was found that the fibrous filter media have undergone several decomposition stages over a range of temperatures as revealed by TGA thermo-grams, where the temperature for 10% weight loss for chitosan-filled EFB filter media and binder-less filter media was at 150oC and 300oC, Respectively.
Keywords: empty fruit bunches, chitosan, filter media, thermal propertyProcedia PDF Downloads 370
747 Frequency Transformation with Pascal Matrix Equations
Authors: Phuoc Si Nguyen
Abstract:Frequency transformation with Pascal matrix equations is a method for transforming an electronic filter (analogue or digital) into another filter. The technique is based on frequency transformation in the s-domain, bilinear z-transform with pre-warping frequency, inverse bilinear transformation and a very useful application of the Pascal’s triangle that simplifies computing and enables calculation by hand when transforming from one filter to another. This paper will introduce two methods to transform a filter into a digital filter: frequency transformation from the s-domain into the z-domain; and frequency transformation in the z-domain. Further, two Pascal matrix equations are derived: an analogue to digital filter Pascal matrix equation and a digital to digital filter Pascal matrix equation. These are used to design a desired digital filter from a given filter.
Keywords: frequency transformation, bilinear z-transformation, pre-warping frequency, digital filters, analog filters, pascal’s triangleProcedia PDF Downloads 475
746 Design of Wide-Range Variable Fractional-Delay FIR Digital Filters
Authors: Jong-Jy Shyu, Soo-Chang Pei, Yun-Da Huang
Abstract:In this paper, design of wide-range variable fractional-delay (WR-VFD) finite impulse response (FIR) digital filters is proposed. With respect to the conventional VFD filter which is designed such that its delay is adjustable within one unit, the proposed VFD FIR filter is designed such that its delay can be tunable within a wider range. By the traces of coefficients of the fractional-delay FIR filter, it is found that the conventional method of polynomial substitution for filter coefficients no longer satisfies the design demand, and the circuits perform the sinc function (sinc converter) are added to overcome this problem. In this paper, least-squares method is adopted to design WR-VFD FIR filter. Throughout this paper, several examples will be proposed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the presented methods.
Keywords: digital filter, FIR filter, variable fractional-delay (VFD) filter, least-squares approximationProcedia PDF Downloads 410
745 Design of Decimation Filter Using Cascade Structure for Sigma Delta ADC
Authors: Misbahuddin Mahammad, P. Chandra Sekhar, Metuku Shyamsunder
Abstract:The oversampled output of a sigma-delta modulator is decimated to Nyquist sampling rate by decimation filters. The decimation filters work twofold; they decimate the sampling rate by a factor of OSR (oversampling rate) and they remove the out band quantization noise resulting in an increase in resolution. The speed, area and power consumption of oversampled converter are governed largely by decimation filters in sigma-delta A/D converters. The scope of the work is to design a decimation filter for sigma-delta ADC and simulation using MATLAB. The decimation filter structure is based on cascaded-integrated comb (CIC) filter. A second decimation filter is using CIC for large rate change and cascaded FIR filters, for small rate changes, to improve the frequency response. The proposed structure is even more hardware efficient.
Keywords: sigma delta modulator, CIC filter, decimation filter, compensation filter, noise shapingProcedia PDF Downloads 386
744 Binarized-Weight Bilateral Filter for Low Computational Cost Image Smoothing
Authors: Yu Zhang, Kohei Inoue, Kiichi Urahama
Abstract:We propose a simplified bilateral filter with binarized coefficients for accelerating it. Its computational cost is further decreased by sampling pixels. This computationally low cost filter is useful for smoothing or denoising images by using mobile devices with limited computational power.
Keywords: bilateral filter, binarized-weight bilateral filter, image smoothing, image denoising, pixel samplingProcedia PDF Downloads 397
743 Effect of Filter Paper Technique in Measuring Hydraulic Capacity of Unsaturated Expansive Soil
Authors: Kenechi Kurtis Onochie
Abstract:This paper shows the use of filter paper technique in the measurement of matric suction of unsaturated expansive soil around the Haspolat region of Lefkosa, North Cyprus in other to establish the soil water characteristics curve (SWCC) or soil water retention curve (SWRC). The dry filter paper approach which is standardized by ASTM, 2003, D 5298-03 in which the filter paper is initially dry was adopted. The whatman No. 42 filter paper was used in the matric suction measurement. The maximum dry density of the soil was obtained as 2.66kg/cm³ and the optimum moisture content as 21%. The soil was discovered to have high air entry value of 1847.46KPa indicating finer particles and 25% hydraulic capacity using filter paper technique. The filter paper technique proved to be very useful for measuring the hydraulic capacity of unsaturated expansive soil.
Keywords: SWCC, matric suction, filter paper, expansive soilProcedia PDF Downloads 87
742 Additive White Gaussian Noise Filtering from ECG by Wiener Filter and Median Filter: A Comparative Study
Authors: Hossein Javidnia, Salehe Taheri
Abstract:The Electrocardiogram (ECG) is the recording of the heart’s electrical potential versus time. ECG signals are often contaminated with noise such as baseline wander and muscle noise. As these signals have been widely used in clinical studies to detect heart diseases, it is essential to filter these noises. In this paper we compare performance of Wiener Filtering and Median Filtering methods to filter Additive White Gaussian (AWG) noise with the determined signal to noise ratio (SNR) ranging from 3 to 5 dB applied to long-term ECG recordings samples. Root mean square error (RMSE) and coefficient of determination (R2) between the filtered ECG and original ECG was used as the filter performance indicator. Experimental results show that Wiener filter has better noise filtering performance than Median filter.
Keywords: ECG noise filtering, Wiener filtering, median filtering, Gaussian noise, filtering performanceProcedia PDF Downloads 446
741 FPGA Based IIR Filter Design Using MAC Algorithm
Authors: Rajesh Mehra, Bharti Thakur
Abstract:In this paper, an IIR filter has been designed and simulated on an FPGA. The implementation is based on MAC algorithm which uses multiply-and-accumulate operations IIR filter design implementation. Parallel Pipelined structure is used to implement the proposed IIR Filter taking optimal advantage of the look up table of the FPGA device. The designed filter has been synthesized on DSP slice based FPGA to perform multiplier function of MAC unit. The DSP slices are useful to enhance the speed performance. The developed IIR filter is designed and simulated with Matlab and synthesized with Xilinx Synthesis Tool (XST), and implemented on Virtex 5 and Spartan 3 ADSP FPGA devices. The IIR filter implemented on Virtex 5 FPGA can operate at an estimated frequency of 81.5 MHz as compared to 40.5 MHz in case of Spartan 3 ADSP FPGA. The Virtex 5 based implementation also consumes less slices and slice flip flops of target FPGA in comparison to Spartan 3 ADSP based implementation to provide cost effective solution for signal processing applications.
Keywords: Butterworth filter, DSP, IIR, MAC, FPGAProcedia PDF Downloads 303
740 Linear MIMO Model Identification Using an Extended Kalman Filter
Authors: Matthew C. Best
Abstract:Linear Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO) dynamic models can be identified, with no a priori knowledge of model structure or order, using a new Generalised Identifying Filter (GIF). Based on an Extended Kalman Filter, the new filter identifies the model iteratively, in a continuous modal canonical form, using only input and output time histories. The filter’s self-propagating state error covariance matrix allows easy determination of convergence and conditioning, and by progressively increasing model order, the best fitting reduced-order model can be identified. The method is shown to be resistant to noise and can easily be extended to identification of smoothly nonlinear systems.
Keywords: system identification, Kalman filter, linear model, MIMO, model order reductionProcedia PDF Downloads 482
739 Bird-Adapted Filter for Avian Species and Individual Identification Systems Improvement
Authors: Ladislav Ptacek, Jan Vanek, Jan Eisner, Alexandra Pruchova, Pavel Linhart, Ludek Muller, Dana Jirotkova
Abstract:One of the essential steps of avian song processing is signal filtering. Currently, the standard methods of filtering are the Mel Bank Filter or linear filter distribution. In this article, a new type of bank filter called the Bird-Adapted Filter is introduced; whereby the signal filtering is modifiable, based upon a new mathematical description of audiograms for particular bird species or order, which was named the Avian Audiogram Unified Equation. According to the method, filters may be deliberately distributed by frequency. The filters are more concentrated in bands of higher sensitivity where there is expected to be more information transmitted and vice versa. Further, it is demonstrated a comparison of various filters for automatic individual recognition of chiffchaff (Phylloscopus collybita). The average Equal Error Rate (EER) value for Linear bank filter was 16.23%, for Mel Bank Filter 18.71%, the Bird-Adapted Filter gave 14.29%, and Bird-Adapted Filter with 1/3 modification was 12.95%. This approach would be useful for practical use in automatic systems for avian species and individual identification. Since the Bird-Adapted Filter filtration is based on the measured audiograms of particular species or orders, selecting the distribution according to the avian vocalization provides the most precise filter distribution to date.
Keywords: avian audiogram, bird individual identification, bird song processing, bird species recognition, filter bankProcedia PDF Downloads 307
738 Fast Accurate Detection of Frequency Jumps Using Kalman Filter with Non Linear Improvements
Authors: Mahmoud E. Mohamed, Ahmed F. Shalash, Hanan A. Kamal
Abstract:In communication systems, frequency jump is a serious problem caused by the oscillators used. Kalman filters are used to detect that jump, Despite the tradeoff between the noise level and the speed of the detection. In this paper, An improvement is introduced in the Kalman filter, Through a nonlinear change in the bandwidth of the filter. Simulation results show a considerable improvement in the filter speed with a very low noise level. Additionally, The effect on the response to false alarms is also presented and false alarm rate show improvement.
Keywords: Kalman filter, innovation, false detection, improvementProcedia PDF Downloads 514
737 Design of Compact UWB Multilayered Microstrip Filter with Wide Stopband
Authors: N. Azadi-Tinat, H. Oraizi
Abstract:Design of compact UWB multilayered microstrip filter with E-shape resonator is presented, which provides wide stopband up to 20 GHz and arbitrary impedance matching. The design procedure is developed based on the method of least squares and theory of N-coupled transmission lines. The dimensions of designed filter are about 11 mm × 11 mm and the three E-shape resonators are placed among four dielectric layers. The average insertion loss in the passband is less than 1 dB and in the stopband is about 30 dB up to 20 GHz. Its group delay in the UWB region is about 0.5 ns. The performance of the optimized filter design perfectly agrees with the microwave simulation softwares.
Keywords: method of least square, multilayer microstrip filter, n-coupled transmission lines, ultra-widebandProcedia PDF Downloads 277
736 Cold Flow Investigation of Silicon Carbide Cylindrical Filter Element
Authors: Mohammad Alhajeri
Abstract:This paper reports a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) investigation of cylindrical filter. Silicon carbide cylindrical filter elements have proven to be an effective mean of removing particulates to levels exceeding the new source performance standard. The CFD code is used here to understand the deposition process and the factors that affect the particles distribution over the filter element surface. Different approach cross flow velocity to filter face velocity ratios and different face velocities (ranging from 2 to 5 cm/s) are used in this study. Particles in the diameter range 1 to 100 microns are tracked through the domain. The radius of convergence (or the critical trajectory) is compared and plotted as a function of many parameters.
Keywords: filtration, CFD, CCF, hot gas filtrationProcedia PDF Downloads 401
735 An Efficient FPGA Realization of Fir Filter Using Distributed Arithmetic
Authors: M. Iruleswari, A. Jeyapaul Murugan
Abstract:Most fundamental part used in many Digital Signal Processing (DSP) application is a Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filter because of its linear phase, stability and regular structure. Designing a high-speed and hardware efficient FIR filter is a very challenging task as the complexity increases with the filter order. In most applications the higher order filters are required but the memory usage of the filter increases exponentially with the order of the filter. Using multipliers occupy a large chip area and need high computation time. Multiplier-less memory-based techniques have gained popularity over past two decades due to their high throughput processing capability and reduced dynamic power consumption. This paper describes the design and implementation of highly efficient Look-Up Table (LUT) based circuit for the implementation of FIR filter using Distributed arithmetic algorithm. It is a multiplier less FIR filter. The LUT can be subdivided into a number of LUT to reduce the memory usage of the LUT for higher order filter. Analysis on the performance of various filter orders with different address length is done using Xilinx 14.5 synthesis tool. The proposed design provides less latency, less memory usage and high throughput.
Keywords: finite impulse response, distributed arithmetic, field programmable gate array, look-up tableProcedia PDF Downloads 361
734 Fractional Order Sallen-Key Filters
Authors: Ahmed Soltan, Ahmed G. Radwan, Ahmed M. Soliman
Abstract:This work aims to generalize the integer order Sallen-Key filters into the fractional-order domain. The analysis in the case of two different fractional-order elements introduced where the general transfer function becomes four terms which are unusual in the conventional case. In addition, the effect of the transfer function parameters on the filter poles and hence the stability is introduced and closed forms for the filter critical frequencies are driven. Finally, different examples of the fractional order Sallen-Key filter design are presented with circuit simulations using ADS where a great matching between the numerical and simulation results is obtained.
Keywords: Sallen-Key, fractance, stability, low-pass filter, analog filterProcedia PDF Downloads 477
733 Reconfigurable Efficient IIR Filter Design Using MAC Algorithm
Authors: Rajesh Mehra
Abstract:In this paper an IIR filter has been designed and simulated on an FPGA. The implementation is based on MAC algorithm which uses multiply-and-accumulate operations IIR filter design implementation. Parallel Pipelined structure is used to implement the proposed IIR Filter taking optimal advantage of the look up table of the FPGA device. The designed filter has been synthesized on DSP slice based FPGA to perform multiplier function of MAC unit. The DSP slices are useful to enhance the speed performance. The developed IIR filter is designed and simulated with MATLAB and synthesized with Xilinx Synthesis Tool (XST), and implemented on Virtex 5 and Spartan 3 ADSP FPGA devices. The IIR filter implemented on Virtex 5 FPGA can operate at an estimated frequency of 81.5 MHz as compared to 40.5 MHz in case of Spartan 3 ADSP FPGA. The Virtex 5 based implementation also consumes less slices and slice flip flops of target FPGA in comparison to Spartan 3 ADSP based implementation to provide cost effective solution for signal processing applications.
Keywords: butterworth, DSP, IIR, MAC, FPGAProcedia PDF Downloads 287
732 Computational Investigation of Gas-Solid Flow in High Pressure High Temperature Filter
Authors: M. H. Alhajeri, Hamad M. Alhajeri, A. H. Alenezi
Abstract:This paper reports a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) investigation for a high-temperature high-pressure filtration (ceramic candle filter). However, parallel flow to the filter is considered in this study. Different face (filtration) velocities are examined using the CFD code, FLUENT. Different sizes of particles are tracked through the domain to find the height at which the particles will impinge on the filter surface. Furthermore, particle distribution around the filter (or filter cake) is studied to design efficient cleaning mechanisms. Gravity effect to the particles with various inlet velocities and pressure drop are both considered. In the CFD study, it is found that the gravity influence should not be ignored if the particle sizes exceed 1 micron.
Keywords: fluid flow, CFD, filtration, HTHPProcedia PDF Downloads 70
731 Two-Dimensional Symmetric Half-Plane Recursive Doubly Complementary Digital Lattice Filters
Authors: Ju-Hong Lee, Chong-Jia Ciou, Yuan-Hau Yang
Abstract:This paper deals with the problem of two-dimensional (2-D) recursive doubly complementary (DC) digital filter design. We present a structure of 2-D recursive DC filters by using 2-D symmetric half-plane (SHP) recursive digital all-pass lattice filters (DALFs). The novelty of using 2-D SHP recursive DALFs to construct a 2-D recursive DC digital lattice filter is that the resulting 2-D SHP recursive DC digital lattice filter provides better performance than the existing 2-D SHP recursive DC digital filter. Moreover, the proposed structure possesses a favorable 2-D DC half-band (DC-HB) property that allows about half of the 2-D SHP recursive DALF’s coefficients to be zero. This leads to considerable savings in computational burden for implementation. To ensure the stability of a designed 2-D SHP recursive DC digital lattice filter, some necessary constraints on the phase of the 2-D SHP recursive DALF during the design process are presented. Design of a 2-D diamond-shape decimation/interpolation filter is presented for illustration and comparison.
Keywords: all-pass digital filter, doubly complementary, lattice structure, symmetric half-plane digital filter, sampling rate conversionProcedia PDF Downloads 360
730 Filter for the Measurement of Supraharmonics in Distribution Networks
Authors: Sivaraman Karthikeyan
Abstract:Due to rapidly developing power electronics devices and technologies such as power line communication or self-commutating converters, voltage and current distortion, as well as interferences, have increased in the frequency range of 2 kHz to 150 kHz; there is an urgent need for regulation of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) standards in this frequency range. Measuring or testing compliance with emission and immunity limitations necessitates the use of precise, repeatable measuring methods. Appropriate filters to minimize the fundamental component and its harmonics below 2 kHz in the measuring signal would improve the measurement accuracy in this frequency range leading to better analysis. This paper discusses filter suggestions in the current measurement standard and proposes an infinite impulse response (IIR) filter design that is optimized for a low number of poles, strong fundamental damping, and high accuracy above 2 kHz. The new filter’s transfer function is delivered as a result. An analog implementation is derived from the overall design.
Keywords: supraharmonics, 2 kHz, 150 kHz, filter, analog filterProcedia PDF Downloads 34
729 Microstrip Bandpass Filter with Wide Stopband and High Out-of-Band Rejection Based on Inter-Digital Capacitor
Authors: Mohamad Farhat, Bal Virdee
Abstract:This paper present a compact Microstrip Bandpass filter exhibiting a very wide stop band and high selectivity. The filter comprises of asymmetric resonator structures, which are interconnected by an inter-digital capacitor to enable the realization of a wide bandwidth with high rejection level. High selectivity is obtained by optimizing the parameters of the interdigital capacitor. The filter has high out-of-band rejection (> 30 dB), less than 0.6 dB of insertion-loss, up to 5.5 GHz spurii free, and about 18 dB of return-loss. Full-wave electromagnetic simulator ADSTM (Mom) is used to analyze and optimize the prototype bandpass filter. The proposed technique was verified practically to validate the design methodology. The experimental results of the prototype circuit are presented and a good agreement was obtained comparing with the simulation results. The dimensions of the proposed filter are 32 x 24 mm2.The filter’s characteristics and compact size make it suitable for wireless communication systems.
Keywords: asymmetric resonator, bandpass filter, microstrip, spurious suppression, ultra-wide stop bandProcedia PDF Downloads 117
728 Transforming Butterworth Low Pass Filter into Microstrip Line Form at LC-Band Applications
Authors: Liew Hui Fang, Syed Idris Syed Hassan, Mohd Fareq Abd. Malek, Yufridin Wahab, Norshafinash Saudin
Abstract:The paper implementation new approach method applied into transforming lumped element circuit into microstrip line form for Butterworth low pass filter which is operating at LC band. The filter’s lumped element circuits and microstrip line form were first designed and simulated using Advanced Design Software (ADS) to obtain the best filter characteristic based on S-parameter and implemented on FR4 substrate for order N=3,4,5,6,7,8 and 9. The importance of a new approach of transforming method as a correction factor has been considered into designed microstrip line. From ADS simulation results proved that the response of microstrip line circuit of Butterworth low pass filter with fringing correction factor has an excellent agreement with its lumped circuit. This shows that the new approach of transforming lumped element circuit into microstrip line is able to solve the conventional design of complexity size of circuit of Butterworth low pass filter (LPF) into microstrip line.
Keywords: Butterworth low pass filter, number of order, microstrip line, microwave filter, maximally flatProcedia PDF Downloads 250
727 A Filtering Algorithm for a Nonlinear State-Space Model
Authors: Abdullah Eqal Al Mazrooei
Abstract:Kalman filter is a famous algorithm that utilizes to estimate the state in the linear systems. It has numerous applications in technology and science. Since of the most of applications in real life can be described by nonlinear systems. So, Kalman filter does not work with the nonlinear systems because it is suitable to linear systems only. In this work, a nonlinear filtering algorithm is presented which is suitable to use with the special kinds of nonlinear systems. This filter generalizes the Kalman filter. This means that this filter also can be used for the linear systems. Our algorithm depends on a special linearization of the second degree. We introduced the nonlinear algorithm with a bilinear state-space model. A simulation example is presented to illustrate the efficiency of the algorithm.
Keywords: Kalman filter, filtering algorithm, nonlinear systems, state-space modelProcedia PDF Downloads 303