Search results for: technical efficiency
7272 Analysis of Technical Efficiency and Its Determinants among Cattle Fattening Enterprises in Kebbi State, Nigeria
Authors: Gona Ayuba, Isiaka Mohammed, Kotom Mohammed Baba, Mohammed Aabubakar Maikasuwa
Abstract:The study examined the technical efficiency and its determinants of cattle fattening enterprises in Kebbi state, Nigeria. Data were collected from a sample of 160 fatteners between June 2010 and June 2011 using the multistage random sampling technique. Translog stochastic frontier production function was employed for the analysis. Results of the analysis show that technical efficiency indices varied from 0.74 to 0.98%, with a mean of 0.90%, indicating that there was no wide gap between the efficiency of best technical efficient fatteners and that of the average fattener. The result also showed that fattening experience and herd size influenced the level of technical efficiency at 1% levels. It is recommended that credit agencies should ensure that credit made available to the fatteners is monitored to ensure appropriate utilization.
Keywords: technical efficiency, determinants, cattle, fattening enterprisesProcedia PDF Downloads 343
7271 Livestock Production in Vietnam: Technical Efficiency and Productivity Performance Based on Regional Differences
Authors: Diep Thanh Tung
Abstract:This study aims to measure technical efficiency and examine productivity performance of livestock production in regions of Vietnam based on a panel data of 2008–2012. After four years, although there are improvements in efficiency of some regions, low technical efficiency, poor performance of productivity and its compositions are dominant features in almost regions. Households which much depend on livestock income in agricultural income or agricultural income in total income are more vulnerable than the others in term of livestock production.
Keywords: data envelopment analysis, meta-frontier, Malmquist, technical efficiency, livestock productionProcedia PDF Downloads 603
7270 Assessing Efficiency Trends in the Indian Sugar Industry
Authors: S. P. Singh
Abstract:This paper measures technical and scale efficiencies of 40 Indian sugar companies for the period from 2004-05 to 2013-14. The efficiencies are estimated through input-oriented DEA models using one output variable—value of output (VOP) and five input variables—capital cost (CA), employee cost (EMP), raw material (RW), energy & fuel (E&F) and other manufacturing expenses (OME). The sugar companies are classified into integrated and non-integrated categories to know which one achieves higher level of efficiency. Sources of inefficiency in the industry are identified through decomposing the overall technical efficiency (TE) into pure technical efficiency (PTE) and scale efficiency (SE). The paper also estimates input-reduction targets for relatively inefficient companies and suggests measures to improve their efficiency level. The findings reveal that the TE does not evince any trend rather it shows fluctuations across years, largely due to erratic and cyclical pattern of sugar production. Further, technical inefficiency in the industry seems to be driven more by the managerial inefficiency than the scale inefficiency, which implies that TE can be improved through better conversion of inputs into output.
Keywords: DEA, slacks, sugar industry, technical efficiencyProcedia PDF Downloads 256
7269 Understanding the Impact of Climate Change on Farmer's Technical Efficiency in Mali
Authors: Christelle Tchoupé Makougoum
Abstract:In the context of agriculture, differences across localities in term of climate change can create systematic variation among farmers technical efficiency. Failure to account for climate variability could lead to wrong conclusions about farmers’ technical efficiency and also it could bias the ranking of farmers according to their managerial performance. The literature on agricultural productivity has given little attention to this issue whereas it is necessary for establishing to what extent climate affects farmers efficiency. This article contributes to the preview literature by two ways. First, it proposed a new econometric model that accounting for the climate change influences on technical efficiency in the specific area of agriculture. Second it estimates the inefficiency due to climate change and the real managerial performance of Malian farmers. Using the Mali’s data from agricultural census and CRU TS3 climatic database we implemented an adjusted stochastic frontier methodology to account for the impact of environmental factors. The results yield three main findings. First, instability in temperatures and rainfall decreases technical efficiency on average. Second, the climate change modifies the classification of the farmers according to their efficiency scores. Thirdly it is noted that, although climate changes are partly responsible for the deviation from the border, the capacity of farmers to combine inputs into the optimal proportion is more to undermine. The study concluded that improving farmer efficiency should include fostering their resilience to climate change.
Keywords: agriculture, climate change, stochastic production function, technical efficiencyProcedia PDF Downloads 436
7268 Heteroscedastic Parametric and Semiparametric Smooth Coefficient Stochastic Frontier Application to Technical Efficiency Measurement
Authors: Rebecca Owusu Coffie, Atakelty Hailu
Abstract:Variants of production frontier models have emerged, however, only a limited number of them are applied in empirical research. Hence the effects of these alternative frontier models are not well understood, particularly within sub-Saharan Africa. In this paper, we apply recent advances in the production frontier to examine levels of technical efficiency and efficiency drivers. Specifically, we compare the heteroscedastic parametric and the semiparametric stochastic smooth coefficient (SPSC) models. Using rice production data from Ghana, our empirical estimates reveal that alternative specification of efficiency estimators results in either downward or upward bias in the technical efficiency estimates. Methodologically, we find that the SPSC model is more suitable and generates high-efficiency estimates. Within the parametric framework, we find that parameterization of both the mean and variance of the pre-truncated function is the best model. For the drivers of technical efficiency, we observed that longer farm distances increase inefficiency through a reduction in labor productivity. High soil quality, however, increases productivity through increased land productivity.
Keywords: pre-truncated, rice production, smooth coefficient, technical efficiencyProcedia PDF Downloads 376
7267 Understanding the Impact of Climate-Induced Rural-Urban Migration on the Technical Efficiency of Maize Production in Malawi
Authors: Innocent Pangapanga-Phiri, Eric Dada Mungatana
Abstract:This study estimates the effect of climate-induced rural-urban migrants (RUM) on maize productivity. It uses panel data gathered by the National Statistics Office and the World Bank to understand the effect of RUM on the technical efficiency of maize production in rural Malawi. The study runs the two-stage Tobit regression to isolate the real effect of rural-urban migration on the technical efficiency of maize production. The results show that RUM significantly reduces the technical efficiency of maize production. However, the interaction of RUM and climate-smart agriculture has a positive and significant influence on the technical efficiency of maize production, suggesting the need for re-investing migrants’ remittances in agricultural activities.
Keywords: climate-smart agriculture, farm productivity, rural-urban migration, panel stochastic frontier models, two-stage Tobit regressionProcedia PDF Downloads 45
7266 Integrating Data Envelopment Analysis and Variance Inflation Factor to Measure the Efficiency of Decision Making Units
Authors: Mostafa Kazemi, Zahra N. Farkhani
Abstract:This paper proposes an integrated Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and Variance Inflation Factor (VIF) model for measuring the technical efficiency of decision making units. The model is validated using a set of 69% sales representatives’ dairy products. The analysis is done in two stages, in the first stage, VIF technique is used to distinguish independent effective factors of resellers, and in the second stage we used DEA for measuring efficiency for both constant and variable return to scales status. Further DEA is used to examine the utilization of environmental factors on efficiency. Results of this paper indicated an average managerial efficiency of 83% in the whole sales representatives’ dairy products. In addition, technical and scale efficiency were counted 96% and 80% respectively. 38% of sales representative have the technical efficiency of 100% and 72% of the sales representative in terms of managerial efficiency are quite efficient.High levels of relative efficiency indicate a good condition for sales representative efficiency.
Keywords: data envelopment analysis (DEA), relative efficiency, sales representatives’ dairy products, variance inflation factor (VIF)Procedia PDF Downloads 475
7265 Technical Efficiency in Organic and Conventional Wheat Farms: Evidence from a Primary Survey from Two Districts of Ganga River Basin, India
Authors: S. P. Singh, Priya, Komal Sajwan
Abstract:With the increasing spread of organic farming in India, costs, returns, efficiency, and social and environmental sustainability of organic vis-a-vis conventional farming systems have become topics of interest among agriculture scientists, economists, and policy analysts. A study on technical efficiency estimation under these farming systems, particularly in the Ganga River Basin, where the promotion of organic farming is incentivized, can help to understand whether the inputs are utilized to their maximum possible level and what measures can be taken to improve the efficiency. This paper, therefore, analyses the technical efficiency of wheat farms operating under organic and conventional farming systems. The study is based on a primary survey of 600 farms (300 organic ad 300 conventional) conducted in 2021 in two districts located in the Middle Ganga River Basin, India. Technical, managerial, and scale efficiencies of individual farms are estimated by applying the data envelopment analysis (DEA) methodology. The per hectare value of wheat production is taken as an output variable, and values of seeds, human labour, machine cost, plant nutrients, farm yard manure (FYM), plant protection, and irrigation charges are considered input variables for estimating the farm-level efficiencies. The post-DEA analysis is conducted using the Tobit regression model to know the efficiency determining factors. The results show that technical efficiency is significantly higher in conventional than organic farming systems due to a higher gap in scale efficiency than managerial efficiency. Further, 9.8% conventional and only 1.0% organic farms are found operating at the most productive scale size (MPSS), and 99% organic and 81% conventional farms at IRS. Organic farms perform well in managerial efficiency, but their technical efficiency is lower than conventional farms, mainly due to their relatively lower scale size. The paper suggests that technical efficiency in organic wheat can be increased by upscaling the farm size by incentivizing group/collective farming in clusters.
Keywords: organic, conventional, technical efficiency, determinants, DEA, Tobit regressionProcedia PDF Downloads 39
7264 Effect of Credit Use on Technical Efficiency of Cassava Farmers in Ondo State, Nigeria
Authors: Adewale Oladapo, Carolyn A. Afolami
Abstract:Agricultural production should be the major financial contributor to the Nigerian economy; however, the petroleum sector had taken the importance attached to this sector. The situation tends to be more worsening unless necessary attention is given to adequate credit supply among food crop farmers. This research analyses the effect of credit use on the technical efficiency of cassava farmers in Ondo State, Nigeria. Primary data were collected from two hundred randomly selected cassava farmers through a multistage sampling procedure in the study area. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and stochastic frontier analysis (SFA). Findings revealed that 95.0% of the farmers were male while 56.0% had no formal education and were married. The SFA showed that cassava farmer’s efficiency increased with farm size, herbicide and planting material at 5%,10% and 1% respectively but decreased with fertilizer application at 1% level while farmers’ age, education, household size, experience and access to credit increased technical inefficiency at 10%. The study concluded that cassava farmers are technically inefficient in the use of farm resources and recommended that adequate and workable agricultural policy measures that will ensure availability and efficient fertilizer distribution should be put in place to increase efficiency. Furthermore, the government should encourage youth participation in cassava production and ensure improvement in farmer’s access to credit to increase farmer’s technical efficiency.
Keywords: agriculture, access to credit, cassava farmers, technical efficiencyProcedia PDF Downloads 121
7263 Identification of Factors Affecting Technical Efficiency Sugar Cane Farming in East Java
Authors: Noor Rizkiyah, Djoko Koestiono, Budi Setiawan, Nuhfil Hanani
Abstract:This research aims to identify the factors that affect the production of sugar cane, the level of technical efficiency of farming sugar cane ratooning and factors that affect technical inefficiency. Research carried out in Malang of East Java with sampling in a non random sampling stratified proportioned and obtained 172 household sugar cane farmers who are classified based on the level of ratooning i.e. ratooning I 3-4 times ratoning, ratooning II 5-10 times ratoning as well as ratooning III > 10 times ratoning. The method used is the Stochastic Production Frontier approach MLE (maximum likelihood estimation). From the results obtained by analysis of the factors affecting the production of sugar cane farming land, namely ratooning fertilizer use ZA petroganic, use of fertilizer and seeds of embroidery and labor. While the average level of sugar cane farmers ratooning efficiency of 0.78 and categorized yet efficient technically. For the factors that influence the technical inefficiency i.e. age, number of dependents and the frequency of family ratooning. Though not yet technically efficient but sugar cane farmers cultivate cultivation remains ratooning. But if it is done repeatedly ratooning will result in a decrease in the production of sugar cane. Whereas the results of the analysis of farming level of feasibility or RC ratooning sugar cane ratio of 1.15 so worth trying to accomplish. Thus with increased technology and combining the use of inputs is an attempt to let the technical efficiency can be achieved so that the more worthy to be organised.
Keywords: technical efficiency, production, sugarcane, frontierProcedia PDF Downloads 106
7262 The Performance of Saudi Banking Industry 2000 -2011: Have the Banks Distinguished Themselves from One Another?
Authors: Bukhari M. S. Sillah, Imran Khokhar, Muhammad Nauman Khan
Abstract:This paper studies the technical efficiency of Saudi banking sector using stochastic frontier model. A sample of 12 banks over the period 2000-2011 is selected to investigate their technical efficiencies in mobilizing deposits, producing investment and generating income. The banks are categorized as Saudi-owned banks, Saudi-foreign-owned banks and Islamic banks. The findings show some consistent pattern of these bank types; and there exist significant disparities among the banks in term of technical efficiency. The Banque Saudi Fransi stands out as a benchmark bank for the industry, and it is a Saudi-foreign owned bank type. The Saudi owned bank types have shown fluctuating performance during the period; and the Islamic bank types are no significantly different from Saudi-owned bank types.
Keywords: technical efficiency, production frontier model, Islamic bankingProcedia PDF Downloads 417
7261 Technical Sustainable Management: An Instrument to Increase Energy Efficiency in Wastewater Treatment Plants, a Case Study in Jordan
Authors: Dirk Winkler, Leon Koevener, Lamees AlHayary
Abstract:This paper contributes to the improvement of the municipal wastewater systems in Jordan. An important goal is increased energy efficiency in wastewater treatment plants and therefore lower expenses due to reduced electricity consumption. The chosen way to achieve this goal is through the implementation of Technical Sustainable Management adapted to the Jordanian context. Three wastewater treatment plants in Jordan have been chosen as a case study for the investigation. These choices were supported by the fact that the three treatment plants are suitable for average performance and size. Beyond that, an energy assessment has been recently conducted in those facilities. The project succeeded in proving the following hypothesis: Energy efficiency in wastewater treatment plants can be improved by implementing principles of Technical Sustainable Management adapted to the Jordanian context. With this case study, a significant increase in energy efficiency can be achieved by optimization of operational performance, identifying and eliminating shortcomings and appropriate plant management. Implementing Technical Sustainable Management as a low-cost tool with a comparable little workload, provides several additional benefits supplementing increased energy efficiency, including compliance with all legal and technical requirements, process optimization, but also increased work safety and convenient working conditions. The research in the chosen field continues because there are indications for possible integration of the adapted tool into other regions and sectors. The concept of Technical Sustainable Management adapted to the Jordanian context could be extended to other wastewater treatment plants in all regions of Jordan but also into other sectors including water treatment, water distribution, wastewater network, desalination, or chemical industry.
Keywords: energy efficiency, quality management system, technical sustainable management, wastewater treatmentProcedia PDF Downloads 79
7260 Window Analysis and Malmquist Index for Assessing Efficiency and Productivity Growth in a Pharmaceutical Industry
Authors: Abbas Al-Refaie, Ruba Najdawi, Nour Bata, Mohammad D. AL-Tahat
Abstract:The pharmaceutical industry is an important component of health care systems throughout the world. Measurement of a production unit-performance is crucial in determining whether it has achieved its objectives or not. This paper applies data envelopment (DEA) window analysis to assess the efficiencies of two packaging lines; Allfill (new) and DP6, in the Penicillin plant in a Jordanian Medical Company in 2010. The CCR and BCC models are used to estimate the technical efficiency, pure technical efficiency, and scale efficiency. Further, the Malmquist productivity index is computed to measure then employed to assess productivity growth relative to a reference technology. Two primary issues are addressed in computation of Malmquist indices of productivity growth. The first issue is the measurement of productivity change over the period, while the second is to decompose changes in productivity into what are generally referred to as a ‘catching-up’ effect (efficiency change) and a ‘frontier shift’ effect (technological change). Results showed that DP6 line outperforms the Allfill in technical and pure technical efficiency. However, the Allfill line outperforms DP6 line in scale efficiency. The obtained efficiency values can guide production managers in taking effective decisions related to operation, management, and plant size. Moreover, both machines exhibit a clear fluctuations in technological change, which is the main reason for the positive total factor productivity change. That is, installing a new Allfill production line can be of great benefit to increasing productivity. In conclusions, the DEA window analysis combined with the Malmquist index are supportive measures in assessing efficiency and productivity in pharmaceutical industry.
Keywords: window analysis, malmquist index, efficiency, productivityProcedia PDF Downloads 550
7259 Technical Efficiency of Small-Scale Honey Producer in Ethiopia: A Stochastic Frontier Analysis
Authors: Kaleb Shiferaw, Berhanu Geberemedhin
Abstract:Ethiopian farmers have a long tradition of beekeeping and the country has huge potential for honey production. However traditional mode of production still dominates the sub sector which negatively affect the total production and productivity. A number of studies have been conducted to better understand the working honey production, however, none of them systematically investigate the extent of technical efficiency of the sub-sector. This paper uses Stochastic Frontier production model to quantifying the extent of technical efficiency and identify exogenous determinant of inefficiency. The result showed that consistent with other studies traditional practice dominate small scale honey production in Ethiopia. The finding also revealed that use of purchased inputs such as bee forage and other supplement is very limited among honey producers indicating that natural bee forage is the primary source of bee forage. The immediate consequence of all these is low production and productivity. The number of hives the household owns, whether the household used improved apiculture technologies, availability of natural forest which is the primary sources of nectar for bees and amount of land owned by the households were found to have a significant influence on the amount of honey produced by beekeeper. Our result further showed that the mean technical efficiency of honey producers is 0.79 implying that, on average honey producer produce 80 percent of the maximum output. The implication is that 20 percent of the potential output is lost due to technical inefficiency. Number of hives owned by a honey produces, distance to district town-a proxy to market access, household wealth, and whether the household head has a leadership role in the PA affect the technical efficiency of honey producers. The finding suggest that policies that aim to expand the use of improved hives is expected to increase the honey production at household level. The result also suggest that investment on rural infrastructure would be instrumental in improving technical efficiency of honey producer.
Keywords: small-scale honey producer, Ethiopia, technical efficiency in apiculture, stochastic frontier analysisProcedia PDF Downloads 161
7258 Summary of Technical Approaches to Improve Energy Efficiency in Electric Motor Drive Systems
Authors: Manuel Valencia Alejaandro Paz, Luz Nidia Quintero Jairo Palacios
Abstract:In present paper a set of technical approaches to improve the energy efficiency in processes controlled by electric motor drive systems EMDS are listed and analyzed. Energy saving becomes fundamental to improve the sustainability and competitiveness of organizations all around the world; increasing costs of electricity had impulse the use of different strategies to reduce the electric power condition. A summary of these techniques is presented and evaluated in the potential for energy saving policies.
Keywords: energy saving, EMDS, induction motor, energy efficiency, sustainabilityProcedia PDF Downloads 302
7257 Efficiency and Factors Affecting Inefficiency in the Previous Enclaves of Northern Region of Bangladesh: An Analysis of SFA and DEA Approach
Authors: Md. Mazharul Anwar, Md. Samim Hossain Molla, Md. Akkas Ali, Mian Sayeed Hassan
Abstract:After 68 years, the agreement between Bangladesh and India was ratified on 6 June 2015 and Bangladesh received 111 Indian enclaves. Millions of farm household lived in these previous enclaves, being detached from the mainland of the country, they were socially, economically and educationally deprived people in the world. This study was undertaken to compare of the Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) and the constant returns to scale (CRS) and variable returns to scale (VRS) output-oriented DEA models, based on a sample of 300 farms from the three largest enclaves of Bangladesh in 2017. However, the aim of the study was not only to compare estimates of technical efficiency obtained from the two approaches, but also to examine the determinants of inefficiency. The results from both the approaches indicated that there is a potential for increasing farm production through efficiency improvement and that farmers' age, educational level, new technology dissemination and training on crop production technology have a significant effect on efficiency. The detection and measurement of technical inefficiency and its determinants can be used as a basis of policy recommendations.
Keywords: DEA approach, previous enclaves, SFA approach, technical inefficiencyProcedia PDF Downloads 71
7256 Elementary Education Outcome Efficiency in Indian States
Authors: Jyotsna Rosario, K. R. Shanmugam
Abstract:Since elementary education is a merit good, considerable public resources are allocated to universalise it. However, elementary education outcomes vary across the Indian States. Evidences indicate that while some states are lagging in elementary education outcome primarily due to lack of resources and poor schooling infrastructure, others are lagging despite resource abundance and well-developed schooling infrastructure. Addressing the issue of efficiency, the study employs Stochastic Frontier Analysis for panel data of 27 Indian states from 2012-13 to 2017-18 to estimate the technical efficiency of State governments in generating enrolment. The mean efficiency of states was estimated to be 58%. Punjab, Meghalaya, and West Bengal were found to be the most efficient states. Whereas Jammu and Kashmir, Nagaland, Madhya Pradesh, and Odisha are one of the most inefficient states. This study emphasizes the efficient utilisation of public resources and helps in the identification of best practices.
Keywords: technical efficiency, public expenditure, elementary education outcome, stochastic frontier analysisProcedia PDF Downloads 116
7255 Technical Efficiency and Challenges of Smallholder Horticultural Farmers in Ghana: A Wake-Up Call for Policy Implementers
Authors: Freda E. Asem, R. D. Osei, D. B. Sarpong, J. K. Kuwornu
Abstract:While market access remains important, Ghana’s major handicap is her inability to sustain export growth on the open market. The causes of these could be attributed to inefficiency, lack of competitiveness and supply-side constraints. This study examined the challenges faced by smallholder horticultural farmers and how it relates to their technical efficiency. The study employed mixed methods to address the problem. Using the Millennium Development Account (MiDA) Farmer Based Organization survey data on farm households in 23 districts in Ghana, the study assessed the technical efficiency of smallholder horticultural farmers (taking into account production risks). Focus group discussions (FGDs) and in-depth interviews were also conducted on smallholder mango, pineapple, and chilli pepper farmers selected districts in Ghana. Results revealed the constraints faced by smallholder horticultural farmers to be marketing, training, funding, accessibility, and affordability of inputs, land, access to credit, and the disconnect between themselves and policy makers and implementers.
Keywords: productivity, gender, policy, efficiency, constraintsProcedia PDF Downloads 409
7254 Correlation between Fuel Consumption and Voyage Related Ship Operational Energy Efficiency Measures: An Analysis from Noon Data
Authors: E. Bal Beşikçi, O. Arslan
Abstract:Fuel saving has become one of the most important issue for shipping in terms of fuel economy and environmental impact. Lowering fuel consumption is possible for both new ships and existing ships through enhanced energy efficiency measures, technical and operational respectively. The limitations of applying technical measures due to the long payback duration raise the potential of operational changes for energy efficient ship operations. This study identifies operational energy efficiency measures related voyage performance management. We use ‘noon’ data to examine the correlation between fuel consumption and operational parameters- revolutions per minute (RPM), draft, trim, (beaufort number) BN and relative wind direction, which are used as measures of ship energy efficiency. The results of this study reveal that speed optimization is the most efficient method as fuel consumption depends heavily on RPM. In conclusion, this study will provide ship operators with the strategic approach for evaluating the priority of the operational energy efficiency measures against high fuel prices and carbon emissions.
Keywords: ship, voyage related operational energy Efficiency measures, fuel consumption, pearson's correlation coefﬁcientProcedia PDF Downloads 550
7253 The Integrated Strategy of Maintenance with a Scientific Analysis
Authors: Mahmoud Meckawey
Abstract:This research is dealing with one of the most important aspects of maintenance fields, that is Maintenance Strategy. It's the branch which concerns the concepts and the schematic thoughts in how to manage maintenance and how to deal with the defects in the engineering products (buildings, machines, etc.) in general. Through the papers we will act with the followings: i) The Engineering Product & the Technical Systems: When we act with the maintenance process, in a strategic view, we act with an (engineering product) which consists of multi integrated systems. In fact, there is no engineering product with only one system. We will discuss and explain this topic, through which we will derivate a developed definition for the maintenance process. ii) The factors or basis of the functionality efficiency: That is the main factors affect the functional efficiency of the systems and the engineering products, then by this way we can give a technical definition of defects and how they occur. iii) The legality of occurrence of defects (Legal defects and Illegal defects): with which we assume that all the factors of the functionality efficiency been applied, and then we will discuss the results. iv) The Guarantee, the Functional Span Age and the Technical surplus concepts: In the complementation with the above topic, and associated with the Reliability theorems, where we act with the Probability of Failure state, with which we almost interest with the design stages, that is to check and adapt the design of the elements. But in Maintainability we act in a different way as we act with the actual state of the systems. So, we act with the rest of the story that means we have to act with the complementary part of the probability of failure term which refers to the actual surplus of the functionality for the systems.
Keywords: engineering product and technical systems, functional span age, legal and illegal defects, technical and functional surplusProcedia PDF Downloads 414
7252 Proposals for the Thermal Regulation of Buildings in Algeria: A New Energy Label for Social Housing
Authors: Marco Morini, Nicolandrea Calabrese, Dario Chello
Abstract:Despite the international commitment of Algeria towards the development of energy efficiency and renewable energy in the country, the internal energy demand has been continuously growing during the last decade due to the substantial increase of population and of living conditions, which in turn has led to an unprecedented expansion of the residential building sector. The thermal building regulation is the technical document that establishes the calculation framework for the thermal performance of buildings in Algeria, setting up minimum obligatory targets for the thermal performance of new buildings. An update of this regulation is due in the coming years, and this paper discusses some proposals in this regard, with the aim to improve the energy efficiency of the building sector, particularly with regard to social housing. In particular, it proposes a methodology for drafting an energy performance label of new Algerian residential buildings, moving from the results of the thermal compliance verification and sizing of technical systems as defined in the RTB. Such an energy performance label – whose calculation method is briefly described in the paper – aims to raise citizens' awareness of the benefits of energy efficiency. It can represent the first step in a process of integrating technical installations into the calculation of the energy performance of buildings in Algeria.
Keywords: building, energy certification, energy efficiency, social housing, international cooperation, Mediterranean regionProcedia PDF Downloads 83
7251 Onmanee Prajuabjinda, Pakakrong Thondeeying, Jipisute Chunthorng-Orn, Bhanuz Dechayont, Arunporn Itharat
Authors: Ekrem Erdem, Can Tansel Tugcu
Abstract:Improved resource efficiency of production is a key requirement for sustainable growth, worldwide. In this regards, by considering the energy and tourism as the extra inputs to the classical Coub-Douglas production function, this study aims at investigating the efficiency changes in the North African countries. To this end, the study uses panel data for the period 1995-2010 and adopts the Malmquist index based on the data envelopment analysis. Results show that tourism increases technical and scale efficiencies, while it decreases technological and total factor productivity changes. On the other hand, when the production function is augmented by the energy input, technical efficiency change decreases, while the technological change, scale efficiency change and total factor productivity change increase. Thus, in order to satisfy the needs for sustainable growth, North African governments should take some measures for increasing the contribution that the tourism makes to economic growth and some others for efficient use of resources in the energy sector.
Keywords: data envelopment analysis, economic efficiency, North African countries, sustainable growthProcedia PDF Downloads 266
7250 Efficiency Measurement of Indian Sugar Manufacturing Firms - a DEA Approach
Authors: Amit Kumar Dwivedi, Priyanko Ghosh
Abstract:Data Envelopment analysis (DEA) has been used to calculate the technical and scale efficiency measures of the public and private sugar manufacturing firms of the Indian Sugar Industry (2006 to 2010). Within DEA framework, the input & Output oriented Variable Returns to Scale (VRS) & Constant Return to Scale (CRS) model is employed for the study of Decision making units (DMUs). A representative sample of 43 firms which account for major portion of the total market share is studied. The selection criterion for the inclusion of a firm in the analysis was the total sales of INR 5,000 million or more in the year 2010. After reviewing the literature it is found that no study has been conducted in the context of Indian sugar manufacturing firms in the Post-liberalization era which motivates us to initiate the study.
Keywords: technical efficiency, Indian sugar manufacturing units, DEA, input output orientedProcedia PDF Downloads 455
7249 Effect of Agricultural Extension Services on Technical Efficiency of Smallholder Cassava Farmers in Ghana: A Stochastic Meta-Frontier Analysis
Authors: Arnold Missiame
Abstract:In Ghana, rural dwellers who depend primarily on agriculture for their livelihood constitute about 60% of the country’s population. This shows the critical role and potentials of the agricultural sector in helping to achieve Ghana’s vision 2030. With the current threat of climate change and advancements in technology, agricultural extension is not just about technology transfer and improvements in productivity, but it is also about improving the managerial and technical skills of farmers. In Ghana, the government of Ghana as well as other players in the sector like; non-governmental organizations, NGOs, local and international funding agencies, for decades now, have made capacity-building-investments in smallholder farmers by way of extension services delivery. This study sought to compare the technical efficiency of farmers who have access to agricultural extension and farmers who do not in Ghana. The study employed the stochastic meta-frontier model to analyze household survey data comprising 300 smallholder cassava farmers from the Fanteakwa district of Ghana. The farmers were selected through a two-stage sampling technique where 5 communities were purposively selected in the first stage and then 60 smallholder cassava farmers were randomly selected from each of the 5 communities. Semi-structured questionnaires were used to collect data on farmers’ socioeconomic and farm-level characteristics. The results showed that farmers who have access to agricultural extensions services have higher technical efficiencies (TE) and produce much closer to their meta-production frontiers (higher technology gap ratios (TGR) than farmers who do not have access to such extension services. Furthermore, experience in cassava cultivation and formal education significantly improves the technical efficiencies of farmers. The study recommends that the mode and scope of agricultural extension service delivery in the country should be enhanced to ensure that smallholder farmers have easy access to extension agents.
Keywords: agricultural extension, Ghana, smallholder farmers, stochastic meta-frontier model, technical efficiencyProcedia PDF Downloads 50
7248 A Method of Effective Planning and Control of Industrial Facility Energy Consumption
Authors: Aleksandra Aleksandrovna Filimonova, Lev Sergeevich Kazarinov, Tatyana Aleksandrovna Barbasova
Abstract:A method of effective planning and control of industrial facility energy consumption is offered. The method allows to optimally arrange the management and full control of complex production facilities in accordance with the criteria of minimal technical and economic losses at the forecasting control. The method is based on the optimal construction of the power efficiency characteristics with the prescribed accuracy. The problem of optimal designing of the forecasting model is solved on the basis of three criteria: maximizing the weighted sum of the points of forecasting with the prescribed accuracy; the solving of the problem by the standard principles at the incomplete statistic data on the basis of minimization of the regularized function; minimizing the technical and economic losses due to the forecasting errors.
Keywords: energy consumption, energy efficiency, energy management system, forecasting model, power efficiency characteristicsProcedia PDF Downloads 322
7247 Technical and Economic Analysis Effects of Various Parameters on the Performance of Heat Recovery System on Gas Complex Turbo Generators
Authors: Hefzollah Mohammadian, Mohammad Bagher Heidari
Abstract:This paper deals with the technical and economic effects of various parameters on the performance of heat recovery system on gas complex turbo generator. Given the importance of this issue, that is the main goal of economic efficiency and reduces costs; this project has been implemented similar plans in which the target is the implementation of specific patterns. The project will also help us in the process of gas refineries and the actual efficiency of the process after adding a system to analyze the turbine and predict potential problems and fix them and take appropriate measures according to the results of simulation analysis and results of the process gain. The results of modeling and the effect of different parameters on this line, have been done using Thermo Flow.
Keywords: turbo compressor, turbo generator, heat recovery boiler, gas turbinesProcedia PDF Downloads 246
7246 Reuse Potential of Technical Building Systems in Building Relocations
Authors: Franziska Pichlmeier, Sara Lindner
Abstract:While the energy consumption for building operation in Germany is limited, there is currently no regulation for the embodied energy and the amount of primary raw material used in construction. However, the embodied energy and the amount of primary raw material of energy efficient buildings are increasing due to higher insulation standards and advanced technical building systems. However, the embodied energy of buildings and the use of recycled materials are rarely considered in the planning process. Even, if a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is conducted, in many cases only the heat generator is included with regard to the technical building system and the rest of it is neglected. In the research project ‘Rural Mining’ the relocation of two single-family homes and one two-family home in prefabricated timber construction was monitored. After ten to twenty years serving as exhibition houses, the three buildings were transferred to new sites. Besides the reuse potential of prefabricated wooden elements, the reuse potential of the technical building system was investigated. In this paper the focus lies on the technical building system. The type, the amount and the material of the technical building systems were recorded. The dismantling and the end of life of the technical building equipment were documented, just like the new construction. The paper will give an overview about the relocation process with a focus on technical building systems on the basis of three existing buildings. The single steps and the reuse rates for the examined buildings will be shown. The aims are to define strategies to increase the reuse potential of technical building systems and to draw conclusions for resource efficiency in future new buildings or renovations.
Keywords: circular economy, embodied energy, life cycle assessment, relocation, resource conservation, reuseProcedia PDF Downloads 27
7245 Technical Games Using ICT as a Preparation for Teaching about Technology in Pre-School Age
Authors: Pavlína Částková, Jiří Kropáč, Jan Kubrický
Abstract:The paper deals with the current issue of Information and Communication Technologies and their implementation into the educational activities of preschool children. The issue is addressed in the context of technical education and the specifics of its implementation in a kindergarten. One of the main topics of this paper is a technical game activity of a preschool child, and its possibilities, benefits and risks. The paper presents games/toys as one of the means of exploring and understanding technology as an essential part of human culture.
Keywords: ICT, technical education, pre-school age, technical gamesProcedia PDF Downloads 363
7244 Impacts of Financial Development and Operational Scale on Bank Efficiencies in Taiwan
Authors: Ying-Hsiu Chen, Pao-Peng Hsu
Abstract:This paper adopts a two-stage data envelopment analysis to explore the impacts of financial development and bank operational scale on bank efficiencies. The sample comprises of unbalanced panel data of 32 Taiwanese enlisted in domestic commercial banks over the period 1998 to 2013. Empirical results show that technical efficiency is positively related to financial development, whereas the effect of financial development on scale efficiency is insignificant. The effect of operational scale exerts a significantly positive effect on bank efficiencies, but the gain of efficiency is decreased gradually when operational scale increases. Furthermore, increase in capital adequacy ratio and market power of banks leads to a growth of bank efficiencies.
Keywords: financial development, operational scale, efficiency, DEAProcedia PDF Downloads 440
7243 Comprehensive Assessment of Energy Efficiency within the Production Process
Authors: S. Kreitlein, N. Eder, J. Franke
Abstract:The importance of energy efficiency within the production process increases steadily. Unfortunately, so far no tools for a comprehensive assessment of energy efficiency within the production process exist. Therefore the Institute for Factory Automation and Production Systems of the Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg has developed two methods with the goal of achieving transparency and a quantitative assessment of energy efficiency: EEV (Energy Efficiency Value) and EPE (Energetic Process Efficiency). This paper describes the basics and state of the art as well as the developed approaches.
Keywords: energy efficiency, energy efficiency value, energetic process efficiency, productionProcedia PDF Downloads 615