Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 16

Search results for: Wajeeha A. Qazi

16 Quantification of Methane Emissions from Solid Waste in Oman Using IPCC Default Methodology

Authors: Wajeeha A. Qazi, Mohammed-Hasham Azam, Umais A. Mehmood, Ghithaa A. Al-Mufragi, Noor-Alhuda Alrawahi, Mohammed F. M. Abushammala

Abstract:

Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) disposed in landfill sites decompose under anaerobic conditions and produce gases which mainly contain carbon dioxide (CO₂) and methane (CH₄). Methane has the potential of causing global warming 25 times more than CO₂, and can potentially affect human life and environment. Thus, this research aims to determine MSW generation and the annual CH₄ emissions from the generated waste in Oman over the years 1971-2030. The estimation of total waste generation was performed using existing models, while the CH₄ emissions estimation was performed using the intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC) default method. It is found that total MSW generation in Oman might be reached 3,089 Gg in the year 2030, which approximately produced 85 Gg of CH₄ emissions in the year 2030.

Keywords: methane, emissions, landfills, solid waste

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15 Transverse Testicular Ectopia: A Case Report with Review of Literature

Authors: Rida Ahmad, Areej S. Habib, Sohail A. Dogar, Saqib H. Qazi

Abstract:

Transverse testicular ectopia is a rare congenital disorder involving mal descent and mal-positioning of the testes, reported in the medical literature about 300 times. Many theories attempt to explain the failure of the testes to migrate to their correct location. While the age at presentation can vary; most cases present in early adolescents or late adulthood. It is often an incidental discovery made during an operative intervention, most commonly during hernia exploration. It can be isolated or present with a plethora of anomalies. We present the case of a 2-year-old male with transverse testicular ectopia who presented with vague abdominal pain. He was managed successfully with the Modified Ombredanne procedure and good outcome 6 months after the procedure.

Keywords: cryptorchidism, persistent Mullerian duct syndrome, transverse testicular ectopia, testicular mal-descent

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14 Screening of Nickel-Tolerant Genotype of Mung Bean (Vigna radiata) Based on Photosynthesis and Antioxidant System

Authors: Mohammad Yusuf, Qazi Fariduddin

Abstract:

The main aim of this study was to explore the different cultivars of Vigna radiata on basis of photosynthesis, antioxidants and proline to assess Ni-sensitive and Ni-tolerant cultivar. Seeds of five different cultivars were sown in soil amended with different levels of Ni (0, 50, 100, or 150 mg kg 1). At 30 d stage, plants were harvested to assess the various parameters. The Ni treatment diminished growth, leaf water potential, chlorophyll content and net photosynthesis along with nitrate reductase and carbonic anhydrase activities in the concentration dependent manner whereas, it enhanced proline content and various antioxidant enzymes. The varieties T-44 found least affected, whereas PDM-139 experienced maximum damage at 150 mg kg-1 of Ni. Moreover, T-44 possessed maximum activity of antioxidant enzymes and proline content at all the levels of metal whereas PDM-139 possessed minimum values. Therefore, T-44 and PDM-139 were established as the most resistant and sensitive varieties, respectively.

Keywords: Vigna radiata, antioxidants, nickel, photosynthesis, proline

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13 Cascade Screening for Beta-Thalassemia in Pakistan: Relatives’ Experiences of a Decision Support Intervention in Routine Practice

Authors: Shenaz Ahmed, Hussain Jafri, Muhammed Faran, Wajeeha Naseer Ahmed, Yasmin Rashid, Yasmin Ehsan, Shabnam Bashir, Mushtaq Ahmed

Abstract:

Low uptake of cascade screening for βeta-Thalassaemia Major (β-TM) in the ‘Punjab Thalassaemia Prevention Project’ (PTPP) in Pakistan led to the development of a ‘decision support intervention for relatives’ (DeSIRe). This paper presents the experiences of relatives of children with β-TM of the DeSIRe following its use by PTPP field officers in routine clinical practice. Fifty-four semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted (April to June 2021) with relatives in seven cities in the Punjab province (Lahore, Sheikhupura, Nankana Sahab, Kasur, Gujranwala, Multan, and Faisalabad). Thematic analysis shows that participants were satisfied with the content of the DeSIRe and its delivery by the field officers in a family meeting. They understood the main purpose of the DeSIRe was to improve their knowledge of β-TM and its inheritance, to enable them to make decisions about thalassemia carrier testing, particularly before marriage. While participants raised concerns about the stigma of testing positive, they believed the DeSIRe was an appropriate intervention, which supported relatives to make informed decisions. Our findings show the DeSIRe is appropriate for use by healthcare professionals in routine practice in a low-middle income country and has the potential to facilitate shared decision-making about cascade screening for thalassemia. Further research is needed to prove the efficacy of the DeSIRe.

Keywords: thalassemia, Pakistan, cascade screening, decision support

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12 Evaluation of Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Potential of Rutin in Cheddar Cheese

Authors: Haroon Jamshaid Qazi, Namrah Wahid, Sanaullah Iqbal, Raheel Suleman

Abstract:

The aim of the current study was to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of Rutin in cheddar cheese. The study was conducted by adding the Rutin in the cheddar cheese in different concentrations according to experimental design, i.e., T1 (20 ppm Rutin), T2 (40 ppm Rutin), T3 (60 ppm Rutin), T4 (80 ppm Rutin). BHT was taken as a positive control at a concentration of 200 ppm, and negative control had neither Rutin nor BHT. The ripening time for cheeses was 90 days at a temperature of 8°C. The results of the various antioxidants assays (Total phenolic contents (TPC) and Antioxidant activity (AA), with storage stability tests (Anisidine value (AV) and Thiobarbituric acid value (TBARS)) performed during different storage intervals 0, 30, 60 and 90 days exhibited that AA in linoleic acid and TPC were significantly (p < 0.05) increased by the addition of rutin to cheese at all concentrations. Moreover, significant reduction in the TBARS values was also observed during the storage period. Rutin also showed a good potential to inhibit the microbial proliferation in the treated samples of cheese. There was a significant decreasing trend seen in total plate count and yeasts and molds count. The sensorial attributes i.e., color, flavor, odor and overall acceptability were increased after adding Rutin to cheddar cheese.

Keywords: cheddar cheese, Rutin, antioxidant, antimicrobial

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11 Impact of Leadership Styles on Work Motivation and Organizational Commitment among Faculty Members of Public Sector Universities in Punjab

Authors: Wajeeha Shahid

Abstract:

The study was designed to assess the impact of transformational and transactional leadership styles on work motivation and organizational commitment among faculty members of universities of Punjab. 713 faculty members were selected as sample through convenient random sampling technique. Three self-constructed questionnaires namely Leadership Styles Questionnaire (LSQ), Work Motivation Questionnaire (WMQ) and Organizational Commitment Questionnaire (OCMQ) were used as research instruments. Major objectives of the study included assessing the effect and impact of transformational and transactional leadership styles on work motivation and organizational commitment. Theoretical frame work of the study included Idealized Influence, Inspirational Motivation, Intellectual Stimulation, Individualized Consideration, Contingent Rewards and Management by Exception as independent variables and Extrinsic motivation, Intrinsic motivation, Affective commitment, Continuance commitment and Normative commitment as dependent variables. SPSS Version 21 was used to analyze and tabulate data. Cronbach's Alpha reliability, Pearson Correlation and Multiple regression analysis were applied as statistical treatments for the analysis. Results revealed that Idealized Influence correlated significantly with intrinsic motivation and Affective commitment whereas Contingent rewards had a strong positive correlation with extrinsic motivation and affective commitment. Multiple regression models revealed a variance of 85% for transformational leadership style over work motivation and organizational commitment. Whereas transactional style as a predictor manifested a variance of 79% for work motivation and 76% for organizational commitment. It was suggested that changing organizational cultures are demanding more from their leadership. All organizations need to consider transformational leadership style as an important part of their equipment in leveraging both soft and hard organizational targets.

Keywords: leadership styles, work motivation, organizational commitment, faculty member

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10 A Brain Controlled Robotic Gait Trainer for Neurorehabilitation

Authors: Qazi Umer Jamil, Abubakr Siddique, Mubeen Ur Rehman, Nida Aziz, Mohsin I. Tiwana

Abstract:

This paper discusses a brain controlled robotic gait trainer for neurorehabilitation of Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) patients. Patients suffering from Spinal Cord Injuries (SCI) become unable to execute motion control of their lower proximities due to degeneration of spinal cord neurons. The presented approach can help SCI patients in neuro-rehabilitation training by directly translating patient motor imagery into walkers motion commands and thus bypassing spinal cord neurons completely. A non-invasive EEG based brain-computer interface is used for capturing patient neural activity. For signal processing and classification, an open source software (OpenVibe) is used. Classifiers categorize the patient motor imagery (MI) into a specific set of commands that are further translated into walker motion commands. The robotic walker also employs fall detection for ensuring safety of patient during gait training and can act as a support for SCI patients. The gait trainer is tested with subjects, and satisfactory results were achieved.

Keywords: brain computer interface (BCI), gait trainer, spinal cord injury (SCI), neurorehabilitation

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9 Role of Social Capital on Consumer Attitudes, Peer Influence and Behavioral Intentions: A Social Media Perspective

Authors: Qazi Mohammed Ahmed, Osman Sadiq Paracha, Iftikhar Hussain

Abstract:

The study aims to explore the unaddressed relationship between social capital and consumers’ underlying behavioral intentions. The study postulates that this association is mediated by the role of attitudes and peer influence. The research attains evidence from a usable sample of 673 responses. The majority consists of the young and energetic social media users of Pakistan that utilize virtual communities as a way of life. A variance based structural equation modeling has been applied through SmartPLS 3. The results reveal that social capital exerts a statistically supportive association with both attitudes and peer influence. Contrastingly, this predictor variable shows an insignificant linkage with behavioral intentions but this relationship is fully mediated by consumer attitudes and peer influence. The paper enhances marketing literature with respect to an unexplored society of Pakistan. It also provides a lens for the contemporary advertisers, in terms of supporting their social media campaigns with affiliative and cohesive elements. The study also identifies a series of predictor variables that could further be tested with attitudes, subjective norms and behavioral responses.

Keywords: social capital, consumer attitudes, peer influence, behavioral intentions

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8 Screening of Risk Phenotypes among Metabolic Syndrome Subjects in Adult Pakistani Population

Authors: Muhammad Fiaz, Muhammad Saqlain, Abid Mahmood, S. M. Saqlan Naqvi, Rizwan Aziz Qazi, Ghazala Kaukab Raja

Abstract:

Background: Metabolic Syndrome is a clustering of multiple risk factors including central obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia. These risk phenotypes of metabolic syndrome (MetS) prevalent world-wide, Therefore we aimed to identify the frequency of risk phenotypes among metabolic syndrome subjects in local adult Pakistani population. Methods: Screening of subjects visiting out-patient department of medicine, Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Medical University, Islamabad was performed to assess the occurrence of risk phenotypes among MetS subjects in Pakistani population. The Metabolic Syndrome was defined based on International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. Anthropometric and biochemical assay results were recorded. Data was analyzed using SPSS software (16.0). Results: Our results showed that dyslipidemia (31.50%) and hyperglycemia (30.50%) was most population specific risk phenotypes of MetS. The results showed the order of association of metabolic risk phenotypes to MetS as follows hyperglycemia>dyslipidemia>obesity >hypertension. Conclusion: The hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia were found be the major risk phenotypes among the MetS subjects and have greater chances of deceloping MetS among Pakistani Population.

Keywords: dyslipidemia, hypertention, metabolic syndrome, obesity

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7 Modeling of a UAV Longitudinal Dynamics through System Identification Technique

Authors: Asadullah I. Qazi, Mansoor Ahsan, Zahir Ashraf, Uzair Ahmad

Abstract:

System identification of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), to acquire its mathematical model, is a significant step in the process of aircraft flight automation. The need for reliable mathematical model is an established requirement for autopilot design, flight simulator development, aircraft performance appraisal, analysis of aircraft modifications, preflight testing of prototype aircraft and investigation of fatigue life and stress distribution etc.  This research is aimed at system identification of a fixed wing UAV by means of specifically designed flight experiment. The purposely designed flight maneuvers were performed on the UAV and aircraft states were recorded during these flights. Acquired data were preprocessed for noise filtering and bias removal followed by parameter estimation of longitudinal dynamics transfer functions using MATLAB system identification toolbox. Black box identification based transfer function models, in response to elevator and throttle inputs, were estimated using least square error   technique. The identification results show a high confidence level and goodness of fit between the estimated model and actual aircraft response.

Keywords: fixed wing UAV, system identification, black box modeling, longitudinal dynamics, least square error

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6 Introducing α-Oxoester (COBz) as a Protecting Group for Carbohydrates

Authors: Atul Kumar, Veeranjaneyulu Gannedi, Qazi Naveed Ahmed

Abstract:

Oligosaccharides, which are essential to all cellular organisms, play vital roles in cell recognition, signaling, and are involved in a broad range of biological processes. The chemical synthesis of carbohydrates represents a powerful tool to provide homogeneous glycans. In carbohydrate synthesis, the major concern is the orthogonal protection of hydroxyl groups that can be unmasked independently. Classical protecting groups include benzyl ethers (Bn), which are normally cleaved through hydrogenolysis or by means of metal reduction, and acetate (Ac), benzoate (Bz) or pivaloate esters, which are removed using base promoted hydrolysis. In present work a series of α-Oxoester (COBz) protected saccharides, with divergent base sensitivity profiles against benzoyl (Bz) and acetyl (Ac), were designed and KHSO₅/CH₃COCl in methanol was identified as an easy, mild, selective and efficient deprotecting reagent for their removal in the perspective of carbohydrate synthesis. Timely monitoring of later reagent was advantageous in establishing both sequential as well as simultaneous deprotecting of COBz, Bz, and Ac. The salient feature of our work is its ease to generate different acceptors using designed monosaccharides. In summary, we demonstrated α-Oxoester (COBz) as a new protecting group for carbohydrates and the application of this group for the synthesis of Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor are in progress.

Keywords: α-Oxoester, oligosaccharides, new protecting group, acceptor synthesis, glycosylation

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5 Reconciling Religion and Feminism: A Case Study of Muslim Women's Rights Activism in India

Authors: Qazi Sarah Rasheed

Abstract:

Feminism and religion have been regarded as opposing binaries. The reason being that religion is regarded as a tool to legitimize the patriarchal control over women, and therefore, it stands in contrast with the basic feminist principle of gender equity. Hence, the issue of incompatibility between religion and gender parity is often discussed by the feminist as well as secular/liberal discourses, but the feminist discourse has suffered a serious backlash in the recent times for it alienates those women who want to liberate but not at the expense of their religious identity. Though in the Western feminist thought, religion is regarded as a tool of patriarchy that promotes women’s suppression, but for many women, religion can be a source of liberation that advances their rights. The feminists in general, fail to realize that religion, as a social phenomenon may not necessarily promote a series of dogmatic doctrines which are inevitably retrogressive or instinctively status-quoist especially when it comes to the social reforms affecting gender orders. The traditional institution of religion could be instrumental to provide what the women in contemporary situation demand. This paper highlights how the Muslim women in India negotiate and mediate this opposition in an Islamic context. To advance the socio-legal recognition of women’s rights, they question the male privilege and patriarchy in a meaningful way without challenging their Islamic doctrines and try to build a feminist consciousness from within religion.

Keywords: feminism, Islam, Muslim women's rights, religious identity

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4 Association between Dental Caries and Asthma among 12-15 Years Old School Children Studying in Karachi, Pakistan: A Cross Sectional Study

Authors: Wajeeha Zahid, Shafquat Rozi, Farhan Raza, Masood Kadir

Abstract:

Background: Dental caries affects the overall health and well-being of children. Findings from various international studies regarding the association of dental caries with asthma are inconsistent. With the increasing burden of caries and childhood asthma, it becomes imperative for an underdeveloped country like Pakistan where resources are limited to identify whether there is a relationship between the two. This study aims to identify an association between dental caries and asthma. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 544 children aged 12-15 years recruited from five private schools in Karachi. Information on asthma was collected through the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire. The questionnaire addressed questions regarding child’s demographics, physician diagnoses of asthma, type of medication administered, family history of asthma and allergies, dietary habits and oral hygiene behavior. Dental caries was assessed using DMFT Index (Decayed, Missing, Filled teeth) index The data was analyzed using Cox proportional Hazard algorithm and crude and adjusted prevalence ratios with 95% CI were reported. Results: This study comprises of 306 (56.3%) boys and 238 (43.8%) girls. The mean age of children was 13.2 ± (0.05) years. The total number of children with carious teeth (DMFT > 0) were 166/544 (30.5%), and the decayed component contributed largely (22.8%) to the DMFT score. The prevalence of physician’s diagnosed asthma was 13%. This study identified almost 7% asthmatic children using the internationally validated International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) tool and 8 children with childhood asthma were identified by parent interviews. Overall prevalence of asthma was 109/544 (20%). The prevalence of caries in asthmatic children was 28.4% as compared to 31% among non-asthmatic children. The adjusted prevalence ratio of dental caries in asthmatic children was 0.8 (95% CI 0.59-1.29). After adjusting for carious food intake, age, oral hygiene index and dentist visit, the association between asthma and dental caries turned out to be non-significant. Conclusion: There was no association between asthma and dental caries among children who participated in this study.

Keywords: asthma, caries, children, school-based

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3 Expression of Gro-El under Phloem-Specific Promoter Protects Transgenic Plants against Diverse Begomovirus-Beta Satellite Complex

Authors: Muhammad Yousaf Ali, Shahid Mansoor, Javeria Qazi, Imran Amin, Musarrat Shaheen

Abstract:

Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) is the major threat to the cotton crop and is transmitted by whitefly (Bemisia tabaci). Since multiple begomoviruses and associated satellites are involved in CLCuD, approaches based on the concept of broad-spectrum resistance are essential for effective disease control. Gro-El and G5 are two proteins from whitefly endosymbiont and M13 bacteriophage origin, respectively. Gro-El encapsulates the virus particle when it enters the whitefly and protects the virus from the immune system of the whitefly as well as prevents viral expression in it. This characteristic of Gro-El can be exploited to get resistance against viruses if expressed in plants. G5 is a single-stranded DNA binding protein, expression of which in transgenic plants will stop viral expression on its binding with ssDNA. The use of tissue-specific promoters is more efficient than constitutive promoters. Transgenics of Nicotiana benthamiana for Gro-El under constitutive promoter and Gro-El under phloem specific promoter were made. In comparison to non-transgenic plants, transgenic plants with Gro-El under NSP promoter showed promising results when challenged against cotton leaf curl Multan virus (CLCuMuV) along with cotton leaf curl Multan beta satellite (CLCuMB), cotton leaf curl Khokhran virus (CLCuKoV) along with cotton leaf curl Multan beta satellite (CLCuMB) and Pedilenthus leaf curl virus (PedLCV) along with Tobacco leaf curl beta satellite (TbLCB).

Keywords: cotton leaf curl disease, whitefly, endosymbionts, transgenic, resistance

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2 Structural and Functional Comparison of Untagged and Tagged EmrE Protein

Authors: S. Junaid S. Qazi, Denice C. Bay, Raymond Chew, Raymond J. Turner

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EmrE, a member of the small multidrug resistance protein family in bacteria is considered to be the archetypical member of its family. It confers host resistance to a wide variety of quaternary cation compounds (QCCs) driven by proton motive force. Generally, purification yield is a challenge in all membrane proteins because of the difficulties in their expression, isolation and solubilization. EmrE is extremely hydrophobic which make the purification yield challenging. We have purified EmrE protein using two different approaches: organic solvent membrane extraction and hexahistidine (his6) tagged Ni-affinity chromatographic methods. We have characterized changes present between ligand affinity of untagged and his6-tagged EmrE proteins in similar membrane mimetic environments using biophysical experimental techniques. Purified proteins were solubilized in a buffer containing n-dodecyl-β-D-maltopyranoside (DDM) and the conformations in the proteins were explored in the presence of four QCCs, methyl viologen (MV), ethidium bromide (EB), cetylpyridinium chloride (CTP) and tetraphenyl phosphonium (TPP). SDS-Tricine PAGE and dynamic light scattering (DLS) analysis revealed that the addition of QCCs did not induce higher multimeric forms of either proteins at all QCC:EmrE molar ratios examined under the solubilization conditions applied. QCC binding curves obtained from the Trp fluorescence quenching spectra, gave the values of dissociation constant (Kd) and maximum specific one-site binding (Bmax). Lower Bmax values to QCCs for his6-tagged EmrE shows that the binding sites remained unoccupied. This lower saturation suggests that the his6-tagged versions provide a conformation that prevents saturated binding. Our data demonstrate that tagging an integral membrane protein can significantly influence the protein.

Keywords: small multidrug resistance (SMR) protein, EmrE, integral membrane protein folding, quaternary ammonium compounds (QAC), quaternary cation compounds (QCC), nickel affinity chromatography, hexahistidine (His6) tag

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1 Application of 2D Electrical Resistivity Tomographic Imaging Technique to Study Climate Induced Landslide and Slope Stability through the Analysis of Factor of Safety: A Case Study in Ooty Area, Tamil Nadu, India

Authors: S. Maniruzzaman, N. Ramanujam, Qazi Akhter Rasool, Swapan Kumar Biswas, P. Prasad, Chandrakanta Ojha

Abstract:

Landslide is one of the major natural disasters in South Asian countries. Applying 2D Electrical Resistivity Tomographic Imaging estimation of geometry, thickness, and depth of failure zone of the landslide can be made. Landslide is a pertinent problem in Nilgris plateau next to Himalaya. Nilgris range consists of hard Archean metamorphic rocks. Intense weathering prevailed during the Pre-Cambrian time had deformed the rocks up to 45m depth. The landslides are dominant in the southern and eastern part of plateau of is comparatively smaller than the northern drainage basins, as it has low density of drainage; coarse texture permitted the more of infiltration of rainwater, whereas in the northern part of the plateau entombed with high density of drainage pattern and fine texture with less infiltration than run off, and low to the susceptible to landslide. To get comprehensive information about the landslide zone 2D Electrical Resistivity Tomographic imaging study with CRM 500 Resistivity meter are used in Coonoor– Mettupalyam sector of Nilgiris plateau. To calculate Factor of Safety the infinite slope model of Brunsden and Prior is used. Factor of Safety can be expressed (FS) as the ratio of resisting forces to disturbing forces. If FS < 1 disturbing forces are larger than resisting forces and failure may occur. The geotechnical parameters of soil samples are calculated on the basis upon the apparent resistivity values for litho units of measured from 2D ERT image of the landslide zone. Relationship between friction angles for various soil properties is established by simple regression analysis from apparent resistivity data. Increase of water content in slide zone reduces the effectiveness of the shearing resistance and increase the sliding movement. Time-lapse resistivity changes to slope failure is determined through geophysical Factor of Safety which depends on resistivity and site topography. This ERT technique infers soil property at variable depths in wider areas. This approach to retrieve the soil property and overcomes the limit of the point of information provided by rain gauges and porous probes. Monitoring of slope stability without altering soil structure through the ERT technique is non-invasive with low cost. In landslide prone area an automated Electrical Resistivity Tomographic Imaging system should be installed permanently with electrode networks to monitor the hydraulic precursors to monitor landslide movement.

Keywords: 2D ERT, landslide, safety factor, slope stability

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