Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 229

Search results for: Nadia el Atlas

229 Determination of Skeletal Age in Nigerian Children: Applicability of the Greulich and Pyle Atlas

Authors: Udoaka A. I., Didia B. C.

Abstract:

Background: The maturation of a child’s bones as it grows to adulthood can be viewed radiologically. The skeletal age (bone age) is the average age at which a particular stage of bone maturation is achieved. The Greulich and Pyle standard is the commonest method used to assess the skeletal age using the hand and wrist radiograph throughout the world. This atlas was compiled solely from Caucasian children and made use of the orderly sequence of carpal ossification to determine the skeletal age. Several authors have faulted this atlas for not being suitable for other races. Aim: The aim of this study is to determine if the Greulich and Pyle Atlas is applicable to Nigerian children when compared to their chronological ages. Methods: The total number of 78 normal radiographs of the hand and wrist of Nigerian children obtained from several hospitals were used for this study . These radiographs were compared with the atlas and their skeletal ages noted form the atlas. The child’s chronological age in each case was also recorded. Results: The result shows a mean increase of two months in the skeletal ages of the Nigerian children compared to the atlas. This difference, however, was not significant. The skeletal age (in months) was greater in 77% of the children than the expected age in the atlas. Conclusion: The mean skeletal age of Nigerian children, though more than the standard in the atlas, is not statistically significant; as a result the study finds the radiographic atlas of Greulich and Pyle atlas applicable to Nigerian children.

Keywords: Greulich and Pyle Atlas, radiograph, skeletal age

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228 Multi-Atlas Segmentation Based on Dynamic Energy Model: Application to Brain MR Images

Authors: Jie Huo, Jonathan Wu

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Segmentation of anatomical structures in medical images is essential for scientific inquiry into the complex relationships between biological structure and clinical diagnosis, treatment and assessment. As a method of incorporating the prior knowledge and the anatomical structure similarity between a target image and atlases, multi-atlas segmentation has been successfully applied in segmenting a variety of medical images, including the brain, cardiac, and abdominal images. The basic idea of multi-atlas segmentation is to transfer the labels in atlases to the coordinate of the target image by matching the target patch to the atlas patch in the neighborhood. However, this technique is limited by the pairwise registration between target image and atlases. In this paper, a novel multi-atlas segmentation approach is proposed by introducing a dynamic energy model. First, the target is mapped to each atlas image by minimizing the dynamic energy function, then the segmentation of target image is generated by weighted fusion based on the energy. The method is tested on MICCAI 2012 Multi-Atlas Labeling Challenge dataset which includes 20 target images and 15 atlases images. The paper also analyzes the influence of different parameters of the dynamic energy model on the segmentation accuracy and measures the dice coefficient by using different feature terms with the energy model. The highest mean dice coefficient obtained with the proposed method is 0.861, which is competitive compared with the recently published method.

Keywords: brain MRI segmentation, dynamic energy model, multi-atlas segmentation, energy minimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
227 Ponticuli of Atlas Vertebra: A Study in South Coastal Region of Andhra Pradesh

Authors: Hema Lattupalli

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Introduction: A bony bridge extends from the lateral mass of the atlas to postero medial margin of vertebral artery groove, termed as a posterior bridge of atlas or posterior ponticulus. The foramen formed by the bridge is called as arcuate foramen or retroarticulare superior. Another bony bridge sometimes extends laterally from lateral mass to posterior root of transverse foramen forming and additional groove for vertebral artery, above and behind foramen transversarium called Lateral bridge or ponticulus lateralis. When both posterior and lateral are present together it is called as Posterolateral ponticuli. Aim and Objectives: The aim of the present study is to detect the presence of such Bridge or Ponticuli called as Lateral, Posterior and Posterolateral reported by earlier investigators in atlas vertebrae. Material and Methods: The study was done on 100 Atlas vertebrae from the Department of Anatomy Narayana Medical College Nellore, and also from SVIMS Tirupati was collected over a period of 2 years. The parameters that were studied include the presence of ponticuli, complete and incomplete and right and left side ponticuli. They were observed for all these parameters and the results were documented and photographed. Results: Ponticuli were observed in 25 (25%) of atlas vertebrae. Posterior ponticuli were found in 16 (16%), Lateral in 01 (01%) and Posterolateral in 08(08%) of the atlas vertebrae. Complete ponticuli were present in 09 (09%) and incomplete ponticuli in 16 (16%) of the atlas vertebrae. Bilateral ponticuli were seen in 10 (10%) and unilateral ponticuli were seen in 15 (15%) of the atlas vertebrae. Right side ponticuli were seen in 04 (04%) and Left side ponticuli in 05 (05%) of the atlas vertebrae respectively. Interpretation and Conclusion: In the present study posterior complete ponticuli were said to be more than the lateral complete ponticuli. The presence of Bilateral Incomplete Posterior ponticuli is higher and also Atlantic ponticuli. The present study is to say that knowledge of normal anatomy and variations in the atlas vertebra is very much essential to the neurosurgeons giving a message that utmost care is needed to perform surgeries related to craniovertebral regions. This is additional information to the Anatomists, Neurosurgeons and Radiologist. This adds an extra page to the literature.

Keywords: atlas vertebra, ponticuli, posterior arch, arcuate foramen

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
226 Demographic Characteristics of the Atlas Barbary Sheep in Amassine Nature Reserve, Atlas Range, Morocco: Implications For Conservation and Management

Authors: Hakim Bachiri, Mohammed Znari, Moulay Abdeljalil Ait Baamranne

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Population characteristics of Atlas Barbary sheep (Ammotragus lervia lervia) were investigated 20 years following the 1999 introduction of 10 individuals into the fenced nature reserve of Amassine, High Atlas range, Morocco, for promoting wildlife watching and tourism. Population age-sex structure and density were determined in late winter-early spring during four consecutive years (2016-2019) by direct observation before the dispersal of the herd. In this latter case, the line transect distance sampling was successfully applied. Population size increased from 37 to 62 animals during the four-year study period; the maximal population size being 82 individuals recorded in 2006. An estimated population density ranged from 0.25 to 0.41 Barbary sheep/ha during the study period. The adult sex ratio varied from 91 to 67 per 100 females. The apparent birth rate was 14 to 73/100 females. Juveniles and subadults comprised 27-43% of the population, adult males 26-31% and adult females 29-45%. The survival rate from birth to 1 year of age approximated 35%, for adult males was estimated to average 69%/year. The obtained results would be helpful for developing sustainable population management and habitat restoration plan and assessing the feasibility of potential reintroduction/restocking in other areas of the Atlas range.

Keywords: atlas mountains, barbary sheep, demography, management

Procedia PDF Downloads 108
225 The Structure of Southern Tunisian Atlas Deformation Front: Integrated Geological and Geophysical Interpretation

Authors: D. Manai, J. Alvarez-Marron, M. Inoubli

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The southern Tunisian Atlas is a part of the wide Cenozoic intracontinental deformation that affected North Africa as a result of convergence between African and Eurasian plates. The Southern Tunisian Atlas Front (STAF) corresponds to the chotts area that covers several hundreds of Km² and represents a 60 km wide transition between the deformed Tunisian Atlas to the North and the undeformed Saharan platform to the South. It includes three morphostructural alignments, a fold and thrust range in the North, a wide depression in the middle and a monocline to horizontal zone to the south. Four cross-sections have been constructed across the chotts area to illustrate the structure of the Southern Tunisian Atlas Front based on integrated geological and geophysical data including geological maps, petroleum wells, and seismic data. The fold and thrust zone of the northern chotts is interpreted as related to a detachment level near the Triassic-Jurassic contact. The displacement of the basal thrust seems to die out progressively under the Fejej antiform and it is responsible to the south dipping of the southern chotts range. The restoration of the cross-sections indicates that the Southern Tunisian Atlas front is a weakly deformed wide zone developed during the Cenozoic inversion with a maximum calculated shortening in the order of 1000 m. The wide structure of this STAF has been influenced by a pre-existing large thickness of upper Jurassic-Aptian sediments related to the rifting episodes associated to the evolution of Tethys in the Maghreb. During Jurassic to Aptian period, the chotts area corresponded to a highly subsiding basin.

Keywords: Southern Tunisian Atlas Front, subsident sub- basin, wide deformation, balanced cross-sections.

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224 Geophysical Contribution to Reveal the Subsurface Structural Setting Using Gravity, Seismic and Seismological Data in the Chott Belts, Southern Atlas of Tunisia

Authors: Nesrine Frifita, Mohamed Gharbi, Kevin Mickus

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Physical methods based on gravity, seismic and seismological data were adopted to clarify the relationship between the distribution of seismicity and the crustal deformations under the chott belts and surrounding regions, in southern atlas of Tunisia. Gafsa and its surrounding were described as a moderate seismic zone, and the fault of Gafsa is one of most seismically active faults in Tunisia in general, and in the southern Atlas in particularly. The present work aims to prove a logical relationship between the distribution of seismicity and deformations which strongly related to thickness and density variations within the basement and sedimentary cover along the study area, through several physical methods; gravity, seismic and seismological data were interpreted to calculate physical propriety of the subsurface rocks, the depth and geometry of active faults and causatives bodies. Findings show that depths variation and mixed thin and thick skinned structural style characterizing the chott belts explain the moderate seismicity in the study area.

Keywords: potential fields, seismicity, Southern Atlas, Tunisia

Procedia PDF Downloads 37
223 Transient Simulation Using SPACE for ATLAS Facility to Investigate the Effect of Heat Loss on Major Parameters

Authors: Suhib A. Abu-Seini, Kyung-Doo Kim

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A heat loss model for ATLAS facility was introduced using SPACE code predefined correlations and various dialing factors. As all previous simulations were carried out using a heat loss free input; the facility was considered to be completely insulated and the core power was reduced by the experimentally measured values of heat loss to compensate to the account for the loss of heat, this study will consider heat loss throughout the simulation. The new heat loss model will be affecting SPACE code simulation as heat being leaked out of the system throughout a transient will alter many parameters corresponding to temperature and temperature difference. For that, a Station Blackout followed by a multiple Steam Generator Tube Rupture accident will be simulated using both the insulated system approach and the newly introduced heat loss input of the steady state. Major parameters such as system temperatures, pressure values, and flow rates to be put into comparison and various analysis will be suggested upon it as the experimental values will not be the reference to validate the expected outcome. This study will not only show the significance of heat loss consideration in the processes of prevention and mitigation of various incidents, design basis and beyond accidents as it will give a detailed behavior of ATLAS facility during both processes of steady state and major transient, but will also present a verification of how credible the data acquired of ATLAS are; since heat loss values for steady state were already mismatched between SPACE simulation results and ATLAS data acquiring system. Acknowledgement- This work was supported by the Korean institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) and the Ministry of Trade, Industry & Energy (MOTIE) of the Republic of Korea.

Keywords: ATLAS, heat loss, simulation, SPACE, station blackout, steam generator tube rupture, verification

Procedia PDF Downloads 147
222 The Agroclimatic Atlas of Croatia for the Periods 1981–2010 and 1991–2020

Authors: Višnjica Vučetić, Mislav Anić, Jelena Bašić, Petra Sviličić, Ivana Tomašević

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The Agroclimatic Atlas of Croatia (Atlas) for the periods 1981–2010 and 1991–2020 is monograph of six chapters in digital form. Detailed descriptions of particular agroclimatological data are given in separate chapters as follows: agroclimatic indices based on air temperature (degree days, Huglinheliothermal index), soil temperature, water balance components (precipitation, potential evapotranspiration, actual evapotranspiration, soil moisture content, runoff, recharge, and soil moisture loss) and fire weather indices. The last chapter is a description of the digital methods for the spatial interpolations (R and GIS). The Atlas comprises textual description of the relevant climate characteristic, maps of the spatial distribution of climatological elements at 109 stations (26 stations for soil temperature), and tables of the 30-year mean monthly, seasonal and annual values of climatological parameters at 24 stations. The Atlas was published in 2021, on the seventieth anniversary of the agrometeorology development at the Meteorological and Hydrological Service of Croatia. It is intended to support the improvement of sustainable system of agricultural production and forest protection from fire and as a rich source of information for agronomic and forestry experts, but also for the decision-making bodies to use it for the development of strategic plans.

Keywords: agrometeorology, agroclimatic indices, soil temperature, water balance components, fire weather index, meteorological and hydrological service of croatia

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221 The Use of Bituminaria bituminosa (L.) Stirton and Microbial Biotechnologies for Restoration of Degraded Pastoral Lands: The Case of the Middle Atlas of Morocco

Authors: O. Zennouhi, M. El Mderssa, J. Ibijbijen, E. Bouiamrine, L. Nassiri

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Rangelands and silvopastoral systems of the middle Atlas are under a heavy pressure, which led to pasture degradation, invasion by non-palatable and toxic species and edaphic aridification due to the regression of the global vegetation cover. In this situation, the introduction of multipurpose leguminous shrubs, such as Bituminaria bituminosa (L.) Stirton, commonly known as bituminous clover, could be a promising socio-ecological alternative for the rehabilitation of these degraded areas. The application of biofertilizers like plant growth promoting rhizobacteria especially phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) can ensure a successful installation of this plant in the selected degraded areas. The main objective of the present work is to produce well-inoculated seedlings using the best efficient PSB strains in the greenhouse to increase their ability to resist to environmental constraints once transplanted to the field in the central Middle Atlas.

Keywords: biofertilizers, bituminaria bituminosa, phosphate solubilizing bacteria, rehabilitation

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220 Impact of the Action Antropic in the Desertification of Steppe in Algeria

Authors: Kadi-Hanifi Halima

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Stipa tenacissima is a plant with a big ecological value (against desertification) and economical stake (paper industry). It is important by its pastoral value due to the inflorescence. It occupied large areas between the Tellian atlas and the Saharian atlas, at the present, these areas of alfa have regressed a lot. This regression is estimated at 1% per year. The principal cause is a human responsibility. The drought is just an aggravating circumstance. The eradication of such a kind of species will have serious consequences upon the equilibrium of all the steppic ecosystem. Thus, we have thought necessary and urgent to know the alfa ecosystem, under all its aspects (climatic, floristic, and edaphic), this diagnostic could direct the fight actions against desertification

Keywords: desertification, anthropic action, soils, Stipa tenacissima

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
219 Morphological Features Fusion for Identifying INBREAST-Database Masses Using Neural Networks and Support Vector Machines

Authors: Nadia el Atlas, Mohammed el Aroussi, Mohammed Wahbi

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In this paper a novel technique of mass characterization based on robust features-fusion is presented. The proposed method consists of mainly four stages: (a) the first phase involves segmenting the masses using edge information’s. (b) The second phase is to calculate and fuse the most relevant morphological features. (c) The last phase is the classification step which allows us to classify the images into benign and malignant masses. In this step we have implemented Support Vectors Machines (SVM) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), which were evaluated with the following performance criteria: confusion matrix, accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, receiver operating characteristic ROC, and error histogram. The effectiveness of this new approach was evaluated by a recently developed database: INBREAST database. The fusion of the most appropriate morphological features provided very good results. The SVM gives accuracy to within 64.3%. Whereas the ANN classifier gives better results with an accuracy of 97.5%.

Keywords: breast cancer, mammography, CAD system, features, fusion

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218 Age Estimation Using Atlas Method with Orthopantomogram and Digital Tracing on Lateral Cephalogram

Authors: Astika Swastirani

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Chronological age estimation can be done by looking at the stage of growth and development of teeth from orthopantomogram and mandibular remodeling from lateral cephalogram. Mandibular morphological changes associated with the size and remodeling during growth is a strong indicator of age estimation. These changes can be observed with lateral cephalogram. Objective: To prove the difference between chronological age and age estimation using orthopantomogram (dental age) and lateral cephalogram (skeletal age). Methods: Sample consisted of 100 medical records, 100 orthopantomograms digital and 100 lateral cephalograms digital belongs to 50 male and 50 female of Airlangga University hospital of dentistry. Orthopantomogram were matched with London atlas and lateral cephalograms were observed by digital tracing. The difference of dental age and skeletal age was analyzed by pair t –test. Result: Result of the pair t-test between chronological age and dental age in male (p-value 0.002, p<0.05), in female (p-value 0.605, p>0.05). Result of pair t-test between the chronological age and skeletal age (variable length Condylion-Gonion, Gonion-Gnathion, Condylion-Gnathion in male (p-value 0.000, p<0.05) in female (variable Condylion-Gonion length (p-value 0.000, Condylion-Gnathion length (p-value 0,040) and Gonion-Gnathion length (p-value 0.493). Conclusion: Orthopantomogram with London atlas and lateral cephalograms with Gonion- Gnathion variable can be used for age estimation in female. Orthopantomogram with London atlas and lateral cephalograms with Condylion-Gonion variable, Gonion-Gnathion variable and Condylion-Gnathion can not be used for age estimation in male.

Keywords: age estimation, chronological age, dental age, skeletal age

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217 Study of the Microflora of Cedar Forests with Different Degrees of Decline in the National Park Belezma (Batna, Algeria)

Authors: Cherak Imen, Sellami Mehdi

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The Atlas cedar, Cedrus atlantica, is endemic to the mountains of North Africa. This is one of the most valuable softwood, both economically, ecologically, aesthetically and culturally. In Algeria, the cedar forests currently have worrying symptoms of decline which therefore require special monitoring. Fungal endophytes are involved in various diseases of the Atlas cedar. They attack all organs on which they cause many symptoms. These microflora live in complex interaction with plants. In this study, we identified a total of 09 mycotaxons collected needles Cedarwood at three stations with different degrees of decline (Talmet, Boumerzoug and Tuggurt) in the National Park Belezma (Batna, Algeria). The study conducted on a total of 12 trees were identified 08 mycoendophytes in Talmet station, 04 species in the Boumerzoug station and 03 in Tuggurt station. The total species richness mycoendophytes depending on the types of cedar forests showed that the largest diversity was recorded at the cedar forest healthy, Alternaria is the most common type in all stations. This work should be completed by further detailed studies to identify other endophyte species and better know its interactions with the Atlas cedar.

Keywords: Cedrus atlantica, endophytic fungi, microflora, mycotaxons, mycoendophyte

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
216 Evolution and Parameter of Gravity Flap Structures In The Southern Central Atlas of Tunisia. Example: Northern Of Orbata Anticline in Gafsa Basin (Ben Zannouch Structure)

Authors: Soulef Amamria, Mohamed Sadok Bensalem, Mohamed Ghanmi

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Several works found in the fold-and-thrust belt area of the southern central atlas of Tunisia, which were often related with tectonic shortening, are in fact related to superficial gravity structures. These gravitational collapse structures have developed in the northern flank of jebelOrbata. These include rock-slides, rock falls, wrinkle folds, slip sheets, and flaps. The Gravity collapse structures of ben zannouchare parallel to the major thrust of BouOmrane between Orbata and El Ong structures. The thrust activity of BouOmrane associated to the important paleo-slope to the south, and plastic lithology (incompetent marly and gypsum layers) facilitates the development of the Ben Zannouch Flap structure. The definition in the first time of gravitional collapse structures in Tunisia, particularly in the northern flank of Jebel Orbata, is controlled by three principal structural conditions: the fragmentation of the landslide surfaces, the lithology, and the topography. Other regional factors can be distinguished in the southern-central Tunisian Atlas as the seismity activity of the Gafsa fault and the wetter conditions during the postglacial period.

Keywords: collapse structure, flap structure, gravity structures, thrust activity

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
215 Effect of Parameters for Exponential Loads on Voltage Transmission Line with Compensation

Authors: Benalia Nadia, Bensiali Nadia, Zerzouri Noura

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This paper presents an analysis of the effects of parameters np and nq for exponential load on the transmission line voltage profile, transferred power and transmission losses for different shunt compensation size. For different values for np and nq in which active and reactive power vary with it is terminal voltages as in exponential form, variations of the load voltage for different sizes of shunt capacitors are simulated with a simple two-bus power system using Matlab SimPowerSystems Toolbox. It is observed that the compensation level is significantly affected by the voltage sensitivities of loads.

Keywords: static load model, shunt compensation, transmission system, exponentiel load model

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214 The Evolution of Deformation in the Southern-Central Tunisian Atlas: Parameters and Modelling

Authors: Mohamed Sadok Bensalem, Soulef Amamria, Khaled Lazzez, Mohamed Ghanmi

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The southern-central Tunisian Atlas presents a typical example of external zone. It occupies a particular position in the North African chains: firstly, it is the eastern limit of atlassicstructures; secondly, it is the edges between the belts structures to the north and the stable Saharan platform in the south. The evolution of deformation studyis based on several methods such as classical or numerical methods. The principals parameters controlling the genesis of folds in the southern central Tunisian Atlas are; the reactivation of pre-existing faults during later compressive phase, the evolution of decollement level, and the relation between thin and thick-skinned. One of the more principal characters of the southern-central Tunisian Atlas is the variation of belts structures directions determined by: NE-SW direction named the attlassic direction in Tunisia, the NW-SE direction carried along the Gafsa fault (the oriental limit of southern atlassic accident), and the E-W direction defined in the southern Tunisian Atlas. This variation of direction is the result of an important variation of deformation during different tectonics phases. A classical modeling of the Jebel ElKebar anticline, based on faults throw of the pre-existing faults and its reactivation during compressive phases, shows the importance of extensional deformation, particular during Aptian-Albian period, comparing with that of later compression (Alpine phases). A numerical modeling, based on the software Rampe E.M. 1.5.0, applied on the anticline of Jebel Orbata confirms the interpretation of “fault related fold” with decollement level within the Triassic successions. The other important parameter of evolution of deformation is the vertical migration of decollement level; indeed, more than the decollement level is in the recent series, most that the deformation is accentuated. The evolution of deformation is marked the development of duplex structure in Jebel AtTaghli (eastern limit of Jebel Orbata). Consequently, the evolution of deformation is proportional to the depth of the decollement level, the most important deformation is in the higher successions; thus is associated to the thin-skinned deformation; the decollement level permit the passive transfer of deformation in the cover.

Keywords: evolution of deformation, pre-existing faults, decollement level, thin-skinned

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
213 Seismotectonics and Seismology the North of Algeria

Authors: Djeddi Mabrouk

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The slow coming together between the Afro-Eurasia plates seems to be the main cause of the active deformation in the whole of North Africa which in consequence come true in Algeria with a large zone of deformation in an enough large limited band, southern through Saharan atlas and northern through tell atlas. Maghrebin and Atlassian Chain along North Africa are the consequence of this convergence. In junction zone, we have noticed a compressive regime NW-SE with a creases-faults structure and structured overthrust. From a geological point of view the north part of Algeria is younger then Saharan platform, it’s changing so unstable and constantly in movement, it’s characterized by creases openly reversed, overthrusts and reversed faults, and undergo perpetually complex movement vertically and horizontally. On structural level the north of Algeria it's a part of erogenous alpine peri-Mediterranean and essentially the tertiary age It’s spread from east to the west of Algeria over 1200 km.This oogenesis is extended from east to west on broadband of 100 km.The alpine chain is shaped by 3 domains: tell atlas in north, high plateaus in mid and Saharan atlas in the south In extreme south we find the Saharan platform which is made of Precambrian bedrock recovered by Paleozoic practically not deformed. The Algerian north and the Saharan platform are separated by an important accident along of 2000km from Agadir (Morocco) to Gabes (Tunisian). The seismic activity is localized essentially in a coastal band in the north of Algeria shaped by tell atlas, high plateaus, Saharan atlas. Earthquakes are limited in the first 20km of the earth's crust; they are caused by movements along faults of inverted orientation NE-SW or sliding tectonic plates. The center region characterizes Strong Earthquake Activity who locates mainly in the basin of Mitidja (age Neogene).The southern periphery (Atlas Blidéen) constitutes the June, more Important seism genic sources in the city of Algiers and east (Boumerdes region). The North East Region is also part of the tellian area, but it is characterized by a different strain in other parts of northern Algeria. The deformation is slow and low to moderate seismic activity. Seismic activity is related to the tectonic-slip earthquake. The most pronounced is that of 27 October 1985 (Constantine) of seismic moment magnitude Mw = 5.9. North-West region is quite active and also artificial seismic hypocenters which do not exceed 20km. The deep seismicity is concentrated mainly a narrow strip along the edge of Quaternary and Neogene basins Intra Mountains along the coast. The most violent earthquakes in this region are the earthquake of Oran in 1790 and earthquakes Orléansville (El Asnam in 1954 and 1980).

Keywords: alpine chain, seismicity north Algeria, earthquakes in Algeria, geophysics, Earth

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212 Synchronous Generator in Case Voltage Sags for Different Loads

Authors: Benalia Nadia, Bensiali Nadia, Zezouri Noura

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This paper studies the effects of voltage sags, both symmetrical and unsymmetrical, on the three-phase Synchronous Machine (SM) when powering an isolate load or infinite bus bar. The vast majority of the electrical power generation systems in the world is consist of synchronous generators coupled to the electrical network though a transformer. Voltage sags on SM cause speed variations, current and torque peaks and hence may cause tripping and equipment damage. The consequences of voltage sags in the machine behavior depends on different factors such as its magnitude (or depth), duration , the parameters of the machine and also the size of load. In this study, we consider the machine feeds an infinite bus bar in the first and the isolate load using symmetric and asymmetric defaults to see the behavior of the machine in both case the simulation have been used on SIMULINK MATLAB.

Keywords: power quality, voltage sag, synchronous generator, infinite system

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211 Modeling of Water Erosion in the M'Goun Watershed Using OpenGIS Software

Authors: M. Khal, Ab. Algouti, A. Algouti

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Water erosion is the major cause of the erosion that shapes the earth's surface. Modeling water erosion requires the use of software and GIS programs, commercial or closed source. The very high prices for commercial GIS licenses, motivates users and researchers to find open source software as relevant and applicable as the proprietary GIS. The objective of this study is the modeling of water erosion and the hydrogeological and morphophysical characterization of the Oued M'Goun watershed (southern flank of the Central High Atlas) developed by free programs of GIS. The very pertinent results are obtained by executing tasks and algorithms in a simple and easy way. Thus, the various geoscientific and geostatistical analyzes of a digital elevation model (SRTM 30 m resolution) and their combination with the treatments and interpretation of satellite imagery information allowed us to characterize the region studied and to map the area most vulnerable to water erosion.

Keywords: central High-Atlas, hydrogeology, M’Goun watershed, OpenGis, water erosion

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
210 Urban Growth Prediction Using Artificial Neural Networks in Athens, Greece

Authors: Dimitrios Triantakonstantis, Demetris Stathakis

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Urban areas have been expanded throughout the globe. Monitoring and modeling urban growth have become a necessity for a sustainable urban planning and decision making. Urban prediction models are important tools for analyzing the causes and consequences of urban land use dynamics. The objective of this research paper is to analyze and model the urban change, which has been occurred from 1990 to 2000 using CORINE land cover maps. The model was developed using drivers of urban changes (such as road distance, slope, etc.) under an Artificial Neural Network modeling approach. Validation was achieved using a prediction map for 2006 which was compared with a real map of Urban Atlas of 2006. The accuracy produced a Kappa index of agreement of 0,639 and a value of Cramer's V of 0,648. These encouraging results indicate the importance of the developed urban growth prediction model which using a set of available common biophysical drivers could serve as a management tool for the assessment of urban change.

Keywords: artificial neural networks, CORINE, urban atlas, urban growth prediction

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209 Effect of Environmental Conditions on the Substrate Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Solar Cell Performances

Authors: Mekhannene Amine

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In this paper, we began in the first step by two-dimensional simulation of a CIGS solar cell, in order to increase the current record efficiency of 20.48% for a single CIGS cell. Was created by utilizing a set of physical and technological parameters a solar cell of reference (such as layer thicknesses, gallium ratio, doping levels and materials properties) documented in bibliography and very known in the experimental field. This was accomplished through modeling and simulation using Atlas SILVACO-TCAD, an tool two and three dimensions very powerful and very adapted. This study has led us to determine the influence of different environmental parameters such as illumination (G) and temperature (T). In the second step, we continued our study by determining the influence of physical parameters (the acceptor of concentration NA) and geometric (thickness t) of the CIGS absorber layer, were varied to produce an optimum efficiency of 24.36%. This approach is promising to produce a CIGS classic solar cell to conduct a maximum performance.

Keywords: solar cell, cigs, photovoltaic generator, illumination, temperature, Atlas SILVACO-TCAD

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208 Energy Atlas: Geographic Information Systems-Based Energy Analysis and Planning Tool

Authors: Katarina Pogacnik, Ursa Zakrajsek, Nejc Sirk, Ziga Lampret

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Due to an increase in living standards along with global population growth and a trend of urbanization, municipalities and regions are faced with an ever rising energy demand. A challenge has arisen for cities around the world to modify the energy supply chain in order to reduce its consumption and CO₂ emissions. The aim of our work is the development of a computational-analytical platform for dynamic support in decision-making and the determination of economic and technical indicators of energy efficiency in a smart city, named Energy Atlas. Similar products in this field focuse on a narrower approach, whereas in order to achieve its aim, this platform encompasses a wider spectrum of beneficial and important information for energy planning on a local or regional scale. GIS based interactive maps provide an extensive database on the potential, use and supply of energy and renewable energy sources along with climate, transport and spatial data of the selected municipality. Beneficiaries of Energy atlas are local communities, companies, investors, contractors as well as residents. The Energy Atlas platform consists of three modules named E-Planning, E-Indicators and E-Cooperation. The E-Planning module is a comprehensive data service, which represents a support towards optimal decision-making and offers a sum of solutions and feasibility of measures and their effects in the area of efficient use of energy and renewable energy sources. The E-Indicators module identifies, collects and develops optimal data and key performance indicators and develops an analytical application service for dynamic support in managing a smart city in regards to energy use and sustainable environment. In order to support cooperation and direct involvement of citizens of the smart city, the E-cooperation is developed with the purpose of integrating the interdisciplinary and sociological aspects of energy end-users. Interaction of all the above-described modules contributes to regional development because it enables for a precise assessment of the current situation, strategic planning, detection of potential future difficulties and also the possibility of public involvement in decision-making. From the implementation of the technology in Slovenian municipalities of Ljubljana, Piran, and Novo mesto, there is evidence to suggest that the set goals are to be achieved to a great extent. Such thorough urban energy planning tool is viewed as an important piece of the puzzle towards achieving a low-carbon society, circular economy and therefore, sustainable society.

Keywords: circular economy, energy atlas, energy management, energy planning, low-carbon society

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207 Modeling and Power Control of DFIG Used in Wind Energy System

Authors: Nadia Ben Si Ali, Nadia Benalia, Nora Zerzouri

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Wind energy generation has attracted great interests in recent years. Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) for wind turbines are largely deployed because variable-speed wind turbines have many advantages over fixed-speed generation such as increased energy capture, operation at maximum power point, improved efficiency, and power quality. This paper presents the operation and vector control of a Doubly-fed Induction Generator (DFIG) system where the stator is connected directly to a stiff grid and the rotor is connected to the grid through bidirectional back-to-back AC-DC-AC converter. The basic operational characteristics, mathematical model of the aerodynamic system and vector control technique which is used to obtain decoupled control of powers are investigated using the software Mathlab/Simulink.

Keywords: wind turbine, Doubly Fed Induction Generator, wind speed controller, power system stability

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206 Status of the European Atlas of Natural Radiation

Authors: G. Cinelli, T. Tollefsen, P. Bossew, V. Gruber, R. Braga, M. A. Hernández-Ceballos, M. De Cort

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In 2006, the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Commission started the project of the 'European Atlas of Natural Radiation'. The Atlas aims at preparing a collection of maps of Europe displaying the levels of natural radioactivity caused by different sources (indoor and outdoor radon, cosmic radiation, terrestrial radionuclides, terrestrial gamma radiation, etc). The overall goal of the project is to estimate, in geographical resolution, the annual dose that the public may receive from natural radioactivity, combining all the information from the different radiation components. The first map which has been developed is the European map of indoor radon (Rn) since in most cases Rn is the most important contribution to exposure. New versions of the map are realised when new countries join the project or when already participating countries send new data. We show the latest status of this map which currently includes 25 European countries. Second, the JRC has undertaken to map a variable which measures 'what earth delivers' in terms of Rn. The corresponding quantity is called geogenic radon potential (RP). Due to the heterogeneity of data sources across the Europe there is need to develop a harmonized quantity which at the one hand adequately measures or classifies the RP, and on the other hand is suited to accommodate the variety of input data used to estimate this target quantity. Candidates for input quantities which may serve as predictors of the RP, and for which data are available across Europe, to different extent, are Uranium (U) concentration in rocks and soils, soil gas radon and soil permeability, terrestrial gamma dose rate, geological information and indoor data from ground floor. The European Geogenic Radon Map gives the possibility to characterize areas, on European geographical scale, for radon hazard where indoor radon measurements are not available. Parallel to ongoing work on the European Indoor Radon, Geogenic Radon and Cosmic Radiation Maps, we made progress in the development of maps of terrestrial gamma radiation and U, Th and K concentrations in soil and bedrock. We show the first, preliminary map of the terrestrial gamma dose rate, estimated using the data of ambient dose equivalent rate available from the EURDEP system (about 5000 fixed monitoring stations across Europe). Also, the first maps of U, Th, and K concentrations in soil and bedrock are shown in the present work.

Keywords: Europe, natural radiation, mapping, indoor radon

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205 Control Power in Doubly Fed Induction Generator Wind Turbine with SVM Control Inverter

Authors: Zerzouri Nora, Benalia Nadia, Bensiali Nadia

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This paper presents a grid-connected wind power generation scheme using Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG). This can supply power at constant voltage and constant frequency with the rotor speed varying. This makes it suitable for variable speed wind energy application. The DFIG system consists of wind turbine, asynchronous wound rotor induction generator, and inverter with Space Vector Modulation (SVM) controller. In which the stator is connected directly to the grid and the rotor winding is in interface with rotor converter and grid converter. The use of back-to-back SVM converter in the rotor circuit results in low distortion current, reactive power control and operate at variable speed. Mathematical modeling of the DFIG is done in order to analyze the performance of the systems and they are simulated using MATLAB. The simulation results for the system are obtained and hence it shows that the system can operate at variable speed with low harmonic current distortion. The objective is to track and extract maximum power from the wind energy system and transfer it to the grid for useful work.

Keywords: Doubly Fed Induction Generator, Wind Energy Conversion Systems, Space Vector Modulation, distortion harmonics

Procedia PDF Downloads 362
204 Short Association Bundle Atlas for Lateralization Studies from dMRI Data

Authors: C. Román, M. Guevara, P. Salas, D. Duclap, J. Houenou, C. Poupon, J. F. Mangin, P. Guevara

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Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging (dMRI) allows the non-invasive study of human brain white matter. From diffusion data, it is possible to reconstruct fiber trajectories using tractography algorithms. Our previous work consists in an automatic method for the identification of short association bundles of the superficial white matter (SWM), based on a whole brain inter-subject hierarchical clustering applied to a HARDI database. The method finds representative clusters of similar fibers, belonging to a group of subjects, according to a distance measure between fibers, using a non-linear registration (DTI-TK). The algorithm performs an automatic labeling based on the anatomy, defined by a cortex mesh parcelated with FreeSurfer software. The clustering was applied to two independent groups of 37 subjects. The clusters resulting from both groups were compared using a restrictive threshold of mean distance between each pair of bundles from different groups, in order to keep reproducible connections. In the left hemisphere, 48 reproducible bundles were found, while 43 bundles where found in the right hemisphere. An inter-hemispheric bundle correspondence was then applied. The symmetric horizontal reflection of the right bundles was calculated, in order to obtain the position of them in the left hemisphere. Next, the intersection between similar bundles was calculated. The pairs of bundles with a fiber intersection percentage higher than 50% were considered similar. The similar bundles between both hemispheres were fused and symmetrized. We obtained 30 common bundles between hemispheres. An atlas was created with the resulting bundles and used to segment 78 new subjects from another HARDI database, using a distance threshold between 6-8 mm according to the bundle length. Finally, a laterality index was calculated based on the bundle volume. Seven bundles of the atlas presented right laterality (IP_SP_1i, LO_LO_1i, Op_Tr_0i, PoC_PoC_0i, PoC_PreC_2i, PreC_SM_0i, y RoMF_RoMF_0i) and one presented left laterality (IP_SP_2i), there is no tendency of lateralization according to the brain region. Many factors can affect the results, like tractography artifacts, subject registration, and bundle segmentation. Further studies are necessary in order to establish the influence of these factors and evaluate SWM laterality.

Keywords: dMRI, hierarchical clustering, lateralization index, tractography

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
203 Wind Resource Estimation and Economic Analysis for Rakiraki, Fiji

Authors: Kaushal Kishore

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Immense amount of imported fuels are used in Fiji for electricity generation, transportation and for carrying out miscellaneous household work. To alleviate its dependency on fossil fuel, paramount importance has been given to instigate the utilization of renewable energy sources for power generation and to reduce the environmental dilapidation. Amongst the many renewable energy sources, wind has been considered as one of the best identified renewable sources that are comprehensively available in Fiji. In this study the wind resource assessment for three locations in Rakiraki, Fiji has been carried out. The wind resource estimation at Rokavukavu, Navolau and at Tuvavatu has been analyzed. The average wind speed at 55 m above ground level (a.g.l) at Rokavukavu, Navolau, and Tuvavatu sites are 5.91 m/s, 8.94 m/s and 8.13 m/s with the turbulence intensity of 14.9%, 17.1%, and 11.7% respectively. The moment fitting method has been used to estimate the Weibull parameter and the power density at each sites. A high resolution wind resource map for the three locations has been developed by using Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program (WAsP). The results obtained from WAsP exhibited good wind potential at Navolau and Tuvavatu sites. A wind farm has been proposed at Navolau and Tuvavatu site that comprises six Vergnet 275 kW wind turbines at each site. The annual energy production (AEP) for each wind farm is estimated and an economic analysis is performed. The economic analysis for the proposed wind farms at Navolau and Tuvavatu sites showed a payback period of 5 and 6 years respectively.

Keywords: annual energy production, Rakiraki Fiji, turbulence intensity, Weibull parameter, wind speed, Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program

Procedia PDF Downloads 99
202 Soil Degradati̇on Mapping Using Geographic Information System, Remote Sensing and Laboratory Analysis in the Oum Er Rbia High Basin, Middle Atlas, Morocco

Authors: Aafaf El Jazouli, Ahmed Barakat, Rida Khellouk

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Mapping of soil degradation is derived from field observations, laboratory measurements, and remote sensing data, integrated quantitative methods to map the spatial characteristics of soil properties at different spatial and temporal scales to provide up-to-date information on the field. Since soil salinity, texture and organic matter play a vital role in assessing topsoil characteristics and soil quality, remote sensing can be considered an effective method for studying these properties. The main objective of this research is to asses soil degradation by combining remote sensing data and laboratory analysis. In order to achieve this goal, the required study of soil samples was taken at 50 locations in the upper basin of Oum Er Rbia in the Middle Atlas in Morocco. These samples were dried, sieved to 2 mm and analyzed in the laboratory. Landsat 8 OLI imagery was analyzed using physical or empirical methods to derive soil properties. In addition, remote sensing can serve as a supporting data source. Deterministic potential (Spline and Inverse Distance weighting) and probabilistic interpolation methods (ordinary kriging and universal kriging) were used to produce maps of each grain size class and soil properties using GIS software. As a result, a correlation was found between soil texture and soil organic matter content. This approach developed in ongoing research will improve the prospects for the use of remote sensing data for mapping soil degradation in arid and semi-arid environments.

Keywords: Soil degradation, GIS, interpolation methods (spline, IDW, kriging), Landsat 8 OLI, Oum Er Rbia high basin

Procedia PDF Downloads 86
201 Making the Neighbourhood: Analyzing Mapping Procedures to Deal with Plurality and Conflict

Authors: Barbara Roosen, Oswald Devisch

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Spatial projects are often contested. Despite participatory trajectories in official spatial development processes, citizens engage often by their power to say no. Participatory mapping helps to produce more legible and democratic ways of decision-making. It has proven its value in producing a multitude of knowledges and views, for individuals and community groups and local stakeholders to imagine desired and undesired futures and to give them the rhetorical power to present their views throughout the development process. From this perspective, mapping works as a social process in which individuals and groups share their knowledge, learn from each other and negotiate their relationship with each other as well as with space and power. In this way, these processes eventually aim to activate communities to intervene in cooperation in real problems. However, these are fragile and bumpy processes, sometimes leading to (local) conflict and intractable situations. Heterogeneous subjectivities and knowledge that become visible during the mapping process and which are contested by members of the community, is often the first trigger. This paper discusses a participatory mapping project conducted in a residential subdivision in Flanders to provide a deeper understanding of how or under which conditions the mapping process could moderate discordant situations amongst inhabitants, local organisations and local authorities, towards a more constructive outcome. In our opinion, this implies a thorough documentation and presentation of the different steps of the mapping process to design and moderate an open and transparent dialogue. The mapping project ‘Make the Neighbourhood’, is set up in the aftermath of a socio-spatial design intervention in the neighbourhood that led to polarization within the community. To start negotiation between the diverse claims that came to the fore, we co-create a desired future map of the neighbourhood together with local organisations and inhabitants as a way to engage them in the development of a new spatial development plan for the area. This mapping initiative set up a new ‘common’ goal or concern, as a first step to bridge the gap that we experienced between different sociocultural groups, bottom-up and top-down initiatives and between professionals and non-professionals. An atlas of elements (materials), an atlas of actors with different roles and an atlas of ways of cooperation and organisation form the work and building material of the future neighbourhood map, assembled in two co-creation sessions. Firstly, we will consider how the mapping procedures articulate the plurality of claims and agendas. Secondly, we will elaborate upon how social relations and spatialities are negotiated and reproduced during the different steps of the map making. Thirdly, we will reflect on the role of the rules, format, and structure of the mapping process in moderating negotiations between much divided claims. To conclude, we will discuss the challenges of visualizing the different steps of mapping process as a strategy to moderate tense negotiations in a more constructive direction in the context of spatial development processes.

Keywords: conflict, documentation, participatory mapping, residential subdivision

Procedia PDF Downloads 134
200 GC-MS Analysis of Essential Oil from the Leaves and Fruits of Artemesia Campestris from Algeria

Authors: B. Bakchiche, H. Guenane, M. Bireche, A. Noureddinne, A. Gherib

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The chemical composition of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from Artemisia campestris L (family Asteraceae) collected in Djebel Amour (Sahara Atlas, Algeria). Aerial parts were also evaluated by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The analyses for leaves and fruits of A. campestris resulted in the identification of thirty-one compounds, representing 91.8 % of the total oil and the yields were 0.33% (v/dry weight). The main components were β-pinene and sabinene (25.6% and 17% respectively) followed by α-pinene (9.9%), limonene (6.6 %) and p-cymene (4.1%).

Keywords: essential oil, GC-MS, Artemesia campestris, Algeria

Procedia PDF Downloads 314