Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 316

Search results for: Sahira N. Muslim

316 Cultural Studies: The Effect of Western Culture on Muslim Lifestyle

Authors: Farah Wahida Binti Mohamad Said

Abstract:

Islamic culture is the way of life a Muslim is defined by the Qur’an and Sunnah. On the other hand, Western culture is fashioned by a host of people; Capitalists, atheists, people who believe in same-gender marriages and others of a similar nature. The main issue that faced by the Muslim in Malaysia is the effect of western culture on Muslim lifestyle. This is because of the influence from western culture that dominates mind of the Muslim and also impressed on their lifestyle. Practically, majority all things have connected with western culture. However, the main objective for this project is to develop the effect of western culture on Muslim lifestyle. This project also focuses on a few aspects that relate with cultural of Muslim and western culture nowadays. This paper will include a few method .The methods for this project are a video, interview etc. Another methodology we will put on next paper for more detail information. As a result, this research found that western cultural will be effect on Muslim lifestyle.

Keywords: effect of western culture, Muslim lifestyle, western culture, western and Muslim culture

Procedia PDF Downloads 408
315 Improvement of Antibacterial Activity for Ceftazidime by Partially Purified Tannase from Penicillium expansum

Authors: Sahira N. Muslim, Alaa N. Mohammed, Saba Saadoon Khazaal, Batool Kadham Salman, Israa M. S. AL-Kadmy, Sraa N. Muslim, Ahmed S. Dwaish, Sawsan Mohammed Kareem, Sarah N. Aziz, Ruaa A. Jasim

Abstract:

Tannase has wide applications in food, beverage, brewing, cosmetics and chemical industries and one of the major applications of tannase is the production of gallic acid. Gallic acid is used for manufacturing of trimethoprim. In the present study, a local fungal strain of Penicillium expansum A4 isolated from spoilt apple samples gave the highest production level of tannase. Tannase was partially purified with a recovery yield of 92.52% and 6.32 fold of purification by precipitation using ammonium sulfate at 50% saturation. Tannase led to increased antimicrobial activity of ceftazidime against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and S. aureus and had a synergism effect at low concentrations of ceftazidime, and thus, tannase may be a useful adjuvant agent for the treatment of many bacterial infections in combination with ceftazidime.

Keywords: ceftazidime, Penicillium expansum, tannase, antimicrobial activity

Procedia PDF Downloads 372
314 Muslim Consumer Purchase Behavior on Doubtful Halal Packed Food

Authors: Aliffaizi Arsat, Nur Ida Fatihah, Che Shalifullizam

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Malaysia is well known as a Muslim country and is quickly becoming a Global Halal-hub of Halal business in promoting Halal food products in both Muslim countries and non-Muslim countries. The objective of this study is to analyse the Muslim consumer purchased behaviour on doubtful Halal packed food by using theory of planned behaviour, to examine the mediating effects between certification, and Muslim consumer purchased behaviour on doubtful Halal packed food. The relevant questionnaires have been distributed in Kuala Selangor. Among the 300 Muslim participants from Kuala Selangor, Selangor, Malaysia, only 107 of them have returned the questionnaire with complete answers. The respondent’s rate was discovered to be at 35.67%. The data have been analysed by using SPSS version 22 and Structural equation modelling Partial Least Square SEM-PLS. There are three dimensions needed to identify Muslim consumer purchased behaviour on doubtful Halal packed food. They are attitude towards behaviour, subjective norm and perceived behavioural. All the results from this study show that the hypothesis has been supported. However, subjective norm had shown that there is a negative relationship towards Muslim consumer purchased behaviour on doubtful Halal packed food.

Keywords: Muslim consumer purchase behaviour, theory planned behaviour, doubtful Halal, certification

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
313 Gendered Self-Expression and Muslim Medieval Women's Participation in the Creation and Production of Islam's Literary Heritage

Authors: Safa Moussoud

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Contrary to modern misconceptions, women in the Muslim Middle Ages enjoyed a generous degree of liberty both in the public and private sphere. Poetry was a significant component of public life throughout the Muslim Civilization as its vitality and multi-generic nature acted as a way for medieval Muslims to communicate with each other. As such, a continuity of poetic literary heritage was preserved through multiple centuries and dynasties. This paper will argue that Muslim women were active participants in medieval Muslim society’s social and public sphere and therefore, can be seen as vital contributors to the intellectual and literary creation of the Muslim Civilization. This paper will examine poetry written by Safiyya al-Baghddadiya and Salma bint al-Qaratisi from the Abbasid period, as well as Wallada bint al-Mustakfi from the Andalusian period and focus particularly at the poetesses’ modes of self-expression regarding beauty and sexuality to argue that Medieval Muslim women enjoyed creative and literary liberty thus allowing them to proclaim their subjectivity publicly through poetry. By emphasizing women’s involvement in the social aspects of Medieval Muslim societies, this paper will ultimately urge for a more thorough investigation of Muslim women’s role and function in the making of the Muslim Civilization.

Keywords: Arabo-Islamic society, medieval Muslims, Muslim poetesses, self-expression

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312 The name of Thai Muslim students: The Reflection of value and Identity of Thai Muslim

Authors: Apichaya Kaewuthai

Abstract:

To study the meaning of Muslim name in order to analyse the underlining value and identity from first year to forth year Muslim students at Prince of Songkla University, Hatyai Campus. The questionnaires are employed as a main analytical tool to acquire the names from 80 Muslim students in four study years. The meanings of obtained names are subsequently analysed and summarized base upon related documents to uncover the beneath value. The study reveals that name of male is derived from the name of prophet; Nabi Muhammad, merit, dignity, origins, leadership and the faith in Islam. For female, on the other hand, their names are related to virtue and beauty, cleanliness and peace, hope and flowers which comply with their characteristics. One of the reasons contribute to the principle of naming is the regulation of Ministry of Culture which states that the name should represent one’s nature and characters. The given name reflects value and identity of Muslim which can be classified into three categories including 1) Value related to belief in Islam 2) value related to relationship among families and relatives 3) value about relationship with nature and environment. All the above mentioned reflect Muslim value and identity vividly. The name of Muslim students allows the researcher to perceive the perspective, belief and value in giving the name of Thai Muslim. Besides, it reveals social condition and their culture. It can also be the fundamental of studying the meaning of name in other races.

Keywords: the naming, Thai Muslim, culture, economic

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311 Muslim Husbands’ Participation in Women’s Health and Illness: A Descriptive Exploratory Study Applied to Muslim Women in Indonesia

Authors: Restuning Widiasih, Katherine Nelson, Joan Skinner

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Muslim husbands have significant roles in the family including their roles in women’s health and illness. However, studies that explore Muslim husbands’ participation in women’s health is limited. The objective of this study was to uncover Muslim husbands’ participation in women’ health and illness including cancer prevention and screening. A descriptive exploratory approach was used involving 20 Muslim women from urban and rural areas of West Java Province, Indonesia. Muslim women shared experience related to their husbands support and activities in women’s health and illness. The data from the interviews were analyzed using the Comparative Analysis for Interview (CAI). Women perceived that husbands fully supported their health by providing opportunities for activities, and reminding them about healthy food, their workloads, and family planning. Husbands actively involved when women faced health issues including sharing knowledge and experience, discussing any health problems, advising for medical check-ups, and accompanying them for treatments. The analysis also found that husbands were less active and offered less advice regarding prevention and early detection of cancer. This study highlights the significant involvement of Muslim husbands in women’s health and illness, yet a lack of support from husbands related to screening and cancer prevention. This condition could be a burden for Muslim women to participate in health programs related to cancer prevention and early detection. Health education programs to improve Muslim husbands’ understanding of women’s health is needed.

Keywords: descriptive exploratory study, Muslim husbands, Muslim women, women's health and illness

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310 Fiqh Al Aqalliyat (Jurisprude for Muslim Minorities): An Emerging Discourse for Western Minorities

Authors: Sana Tahzeeb

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Role of Muslim minority in a democratic state has been the most debatable as well as attractive issue in the writings of the contemporary Muslim scholars, never discussed in the classical Islamic literature of history. Islam as a dominant religion has been the issue of academic discussions in the entire classical literature of Islamic jurisprudence the division of world into Dar al-Islam (abode of Islam), Dar al-Harb (abode of war) has been the main division on the basis of which Islam’s relation with the remaining world were defined and formulated. Now living in a global society the classical division of territories seems to be irrelevant. The new division of the same became necessary in the present situation particularly in view of the pluralistic society and need of power sharing in non-Muslim countries. It is important to note that a number of Muslim scholars of modern period examined this problem and other issues of Muslim minorities from legal point of view. Fiqh al-Aqalliyat is a newly developed discipline of Islamic jurisprudence. The rationale for this development is that there are so many issues of the Muslim minorities particularly in the European countries which are required to be discussed and examined juridically by Muslim jurists and scholars. There was also need for reinterpreting the term Dar al-Harb and relevance of its applicability to the west. The present paper shed a light on these emerging trends in Islamic world.

Keywords: fiqh al Aqalliyat, Muslim minorities, Europe, Islam

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309 Political Antinomy and Its Resolution in Islam

Authors: Abdul Nasir Zamir

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After the downfall of Ottoman Caliphate, it scattered into different small Muslim states. Muslim leaders, intellectuals, revivalists as well as modernists started trying to boost up their nation. Some Muslims are also trying to establish the caliphate. Every Muslim country has its own political system, i.e., kingship, dictatorship or democracy, etc. But these are not in their original forms as the historian or political science discussed in their studies. The laws and their practice are mixed, i.e., others with Islamic laws, e.g., Saudi Arabia (K.S.A) and the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, etc. There is great conflict among the revivalist Muslim parties (groups) and governments about political systems. The question is that the subject matter is Sharia or political system? Leaders of Modern Muslim states are alleged as disbelievers due to neglecting the revelation in their laws and decisions. There are two types of laws; Islamic laws and management laws. The conflict is that the non-Islamic laws are in practice in Muslim states. Non-Islamic laws can be gradually changed with Islamic laws with a legal and peaceful process according to the practice of former Muslim leaders and scholars. The bloodshed of Muslims is not allowed in any case. Weak Muslim state is a blessing than nothing. The political system after Muhammad and guided caliphs is considered as kingship. But during this period Muslims not only developed in science and technology but conquered many territories also. If the original aim is in practice, then the Modern Muslim states can be stabled with different political systems. Modern Muslim states are the hope of survival, stability, and development of Muslim Ummah. Islam does not allow arm clash with Muslim army or Muslim civilians. The caliphate is based on believing in one Allah Almighty and good deeds according to Quran and Sunnah. As faith became weak and good deeds became less from its standard level, caliphate automatically became weak and even ended. The last weak caliphate was Ottoman Caliphate which was a hope of all the Muslims of the world. There is no caliphate or caliph present in the world. But every Muslim country or state is like an Amarat (a part of caliphate or small and alternate form of the caliphate) of Muslims. It is the duty of all Muslims to stable these modern Muslim states with tolerance.

Keywords: caliphate, conflict resolution, modern Muslim state, political conflicts, political systems, tolerance

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308 Working Effectively with Muslim Communities in the West

Authors: Lisa Tribuzio

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This paper explores the complexity of working with Muslim communities in Australia. It will draw upon the notions of belonging, social inclusion and effective community programming to engage Muslim communities in Western environments given the current global political climate. Factors taken into consideration for effective engagement include: family engagement, considering key practices such as Ramadan, fasting and prayer and food requirements, gender relations, core values around faith and spirituality, considering attitudes towards self disclosure in a counseling setting and the notion of Us and Them in the media and systems and its effect on minority communities. It will explore recent research in the field from Australian researchers as well as recommendations from United Nations in working with Muslim communities. It will also explore current practice models applied in Australia in engaging effectively with diverse communities and addressing racism and discrimination in innovative ways.

Keywords: Muslim, cultural diversity, social inclusion, racism

Procedia PDF Downloads 306
307 Exploring the Prevailing Unfairness in Muslim Marriage and Divorce Laws in Singapore's Dual Court System

Authors: J. Jayaletchmi

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In seeking to manage a multiracial and multi-religious society, Singapore provides a unique solution – a dual court system whereby a common law system co-exists with a Syariah law system that administers Syariah law for the Muslim population. In this respect, Singapore seems to provide a feasible example of legal pluralism to countries grappling with a burgeoning Muslim population. However, problems have arisen regarding this peaceful coexistence of secular and religious laws that seek to balance the rights of women and religious freedom. Singapore’s interpretation of Syariah law in the context of marriage and divorce has resulted in certain inequalities for Muslim women, which are exemplified in light of the Women’s Charter, a landmark piece of legislation which provides the legal basis for equity between husband and wife, but excludes Muslims from its ambit. The success of Singapore’s dual court system has largely been at the expense of Muslim women’s rights, and, as a result, the Muslim community as a whole has begun trailing behind the progressive society it forms a part of. This paper explores the prevailing unfairness of rules governing Muslim marriage and divorce in Singapore, and puts forth bold reforms.

Keywords: legal pluralism, Singapore, Syariah law, women’s rights

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306 The Causes and Consequences of Anti-muslim Prejudice: Evidence from a National Scale Longitudinal Study in New Zealand

Authors: Aarif Rasheed, Joseph Bulbulia

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Western democracies exhibit signs of distinctive anti-Muslim prejudice, but little is known about its causes and effects on Muslim minorities. Here, drawing on nine years of responses from a nationally representative longitudinal sample of New Zealanders (New Zealand Attitudes and Values Study, N > 31,000), we systematically investigate the demographic and ideological predictors of factors that predict both positive and negative change in Muslim attitudes. First, we find that that education, moderate and liberal political ideology, and positive views about religion predict greater Muslim acceptance. Second, we find a there though there is a general trend for increasing acceptance over nine years, we find evidence of increasing extremism at the margins. Third, focusing on the Muslim sub-sample and comparing it to other religious sub-groups, we find substantially higher reports of perceived anti-religious prejudice. Collectively, these results point to serious challenges to the health of New Zealand as a democracy where people can worship freely without discrimination. Finally, we find consistency in our responses with the reported experiences of victims of the Christchurch attacks, in terms of harassment, assault, slurs, and other hostile behaviour both before and after the attacks.

Keywords: democracy, longitudinal, Muslim, panel data, prejudice

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305 Survey of American Women to Promote Social Citizenship among White, African American, and Muslim American Women

Authors: Rachel Turney

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American Woman is a discussion of being a woman in American through the lens of intersectionality, critical race theory, Muslim American identities, and social citizenship. The survey design and resulting paper are based on the researcher’s personal experience studying intersectionality and Muslim American identities through National Endowment for the Humanities. The researcher poses three questions to White, African American, and Muslim American women about female identify in America. Results are coded and analyzed in their meaning in the context of American society. Results show the similarities, primarily the idea of motherhood and fighting in society. Results also examine differences like those related to faith and family identifies in responses. The researcher examines the specific overlap in responses in the context of social citizenship.

Keywords: women, Muslim women, intersectionality, feminism

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304 Encounter of Muslim World with Western Social Sciences: Reception, Indigenization, Islamization

Authors: Mohammad Hossein Panahi

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Modern social sciences developed in Western Europe, and from there, it disseminated to the rest of the world, including Muslim World. Within the hierarchical world social science system that emerged in the 19th and 20th centuries, the West occupied the center, and the Third and Muslim Worlds fell into its periphery. Many social scientists, especially sociologists, in the Third and Muslim World since the 1970s have criticized this worldwide unequal division of scientific labor and have called for the development of independent/indigenous social sciences relevant to their own social conditions. Based on the conceptual framework of the World Social Science System, this paper studied the encounter of Muslim social scientists/sociologists with the Western social sciences. Using inductive thematic content analysis as the method of research, the author analyzed 32 purposefully selected articles from among over 500 collected articles from the 1970s to 2018 and categorized the obtained themes. The findings revealed three main types of encounters: reception, indigenization, and Islamization. ‘Reception’ refers to the encounter of those Muslim social scientists who embrace the positivist approach and believe that Western social sciences are valid and applicable worldwide, including the Muslim World. ‘Indigenization’ refers to the approach of those Muslim social scientists who, along with many critical Third World social scientists, reject the universality of Western social sciences and call for the development of indigenous social sciences. ‘Islamization’ refers to the position of those religious Muslim social scientists who believe that Muslim nations should Islamize social sciences based on the Islamic value and knowledge systems, in order to attain viable social sciences and free themselves from Western domination. Discussing these encounters, their supporters and opponents, the paper concludes that despite various efforts, none of the two alternatives to the Western social sciences have been able to replace it so far.

Keywords: indigenization, Islamization, Muslim world, social sciences, world social science system

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303 Muslim Women and Gender Justice Facts and Reality: An Indian Scenario

Authors: Asmita A. Vaidya, Shahista S. Inamdar

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Society is dynamic, in this changing and development processes, Indian Muslim women where no exception to this social change. Islam has elevated her status from being chattels/commodity to individual human being having separate legal personality and equal to that of men but in India, even two women are not equal in availing their matrimonial rights and remedies, separate personal laws are applicable to them and thus gender justice is a fragile myth.

Keywords: Muslim women, gender justice, polygamy, Islamic jurisprudence, equality

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302 'Gender' and 'Gender Equalities': Conceptual Issues

Authors: Moustafa Ali

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The aim of this paper is to discuss and question some of the widely accepted concepts within the conceptual framework of gender from terminological, scientific, and Muslim cultural perspectives, and to introduce a new definition and a model of gender in the Arab and Muslim societies. This paper, therefore, uses a generic methodology and document analysis and comes in three sections and a conclusion. The first section discusses some of the terminological issues in the conceptual framework of gender. The second section highlights scientific issues, introduces a definition and a model of gender, whereas the third section offers Muslim cultural perspectives on some issues related to gender in the Muslim world. The paper, then, concludes with findings and recommendations reached so far.

Keywords: gender definition, gender equalities, sex-gender separability, fairness-based model of gender

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301 Analysis of Key Factors Influencing Muslim Women’s Buying Intentions of Clothes: A Study of UK’s Ethnic Minorities and Modest Fashion Industry

Authors: Nargis Ali

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Since the modest fashion market is growing in the UK, there is still little understanding and more concerns found among researchers and marketers about Muslim consumers. Therefore, the present study is designed to explore critical factors influencing Muslim women’s intention to purchase clothing and to identify the differences in the purchase intention of ethnic minority groups in the UK. The conceptual framework is designed using the theory of planned behavior and social identity theory. In order to satisfy the research objectives, a structured online questionnaire was published on Facebook from 20 November to 21 March. As a result, 1087 usable questionnaires were received and used to assess the proposed model fit through structural equation modeling. Results revealed that social media does influence the purchase intention of Muslim women. Muslim women search for stylish clothes that provide comfort during summer while they prefer soft and subdued colors. Furthermore, religious knowledge and religious practice, and fashion uniqueness strongly influence their purchase intention, while hybrid identity is negatively related to the purchase intention of Muslim women. This research contributes to the literature linked to Muslim consumers at a time when the UK's large retailers were seeking to attract Muslim consumers through modestly designed outfits. Besides, it will be helpful to formulate or revise product and marketing strategies according to UK’s Muslim women’s tastes and needs.

Keywords: fashion uniqueness, hybrid identity, religiosity, social media, social identity theory, structural equation modeling, theory of planned behavior

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300 The Impact of Social Media to Indonesian Muslim Fashion Trend

Authors: Siti Dewi Aisyah

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Islamic Muslim fashion has become a trend in Indonesia. It is said that social media has a huge impact on its development. Indonesia is ranked among the most users of social media. That is why people who wear hijab also use social media for different purposes, one of this is to introduce hijab fashion. Consequently, they are becoming famous in social media. Social media has become a tool for communicating their beliefs as a Muslim as well as personal branding as a good hijabi yet with a fashionable style. This research will examine the social media such as Blog and Instagram, how it triggers the consumer culture to hijabi, what is the actual meaning behind of their feed posts in their social media, how they produce good photograph in their social media and for what reason they use social media. This research had been conducted through in-depth interviews with several bloggers who created Hijabers Community who have made a new trend in Muslim fashion and also Instagrammers who made their feeds as a style inspiration. The methodology used for this research is by analyzing Blog and Instagram through visual analysis that also examines the semiotic meaning behind the photographs that are posted by the people on the social media especially about the Islamic Modest Fashion trend. The theoretical framework for this research is about studying social media that is examined through visual analysis. The Muslim fashion trend was lead by several bloggers and continued to Instagram which then created a consumption pattern. From colourful colors, pastel colors, monochrome colors to neutral coffee tone colors, it was influenced by the Muslim fashion designers that also become digital influencers in social media. It was concluded that social media had been a powerful promotional and effective tool to change the trend in Indonesian Muslim Fashion trend.

Keywords: blog, instagram, consumer culture, muslim fashion, social media, visual analysis

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299 New Trends in Pakistani Cinema: Muslim Women, Cinematic Struggle and the Global World

Authors: Sana Zia

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One of the most important questions for research on Muslim women's representation is the relationship between Islam and women’s situation in Islamic countries. In this context, certain questions can be raised like is it possible to analyze women’s situation in Islamic countries like Pakistan? Or what is the relationship between Islam and patriarchy? So this paper will examine all these questions by analysing Muslim women's representation in Pakistani Cinema. It is also significant to note that despite political and religious constraints in Muslim countries, in particular, Pakistan, women have not only been part of the film industry for long, but they also have chosen films as their feminist tool to question and expose the effects of patriarchy, religious fundamentalism, and gender-specific socio-cultural oppression. The religious-cultural ethos that could include gender-specific restrictions and limitations on their creative expression as Muslim women in an Islamic society. A new wave of Pakistani cinema is pivoting around strong Muslim female characters and opened up a new thought about Islamic women.Their contributions and success through this medium emphasized the need to investigate the significance and effectiveness of contemporary cinema as a tool of resistance and cross-cultural communication in a Muslim society. So this research can also provide a better understanding about Islam that needs to be modernized and reclaimed from the clutches of fundamentalism and extremism. This paper thus investigates the interrelation of women's representation and Pakistani cinema by analysing two films ‘Bol: To speak up’ and ‘Dukhter: Daughter’. The feminist analysis of these films not only helps to understand the new trends and dimensions in representation of Muslim women in Pakistani cinema, but this also helps to raise awareness globally regarding the depiction of Muslim women. So to foreground the above mentioned discussion, the films under study helps to evaluate their significance, the role they play towards activism, resistance, and global awareness in terms of what could be termed as a Muslim woman. The paper thus provides a valuable insight that how and why Islam is being used as a mechanism to merge social, political and economic factors to define the rights and conditions of Pakistani Muslim women and highlight the cinematic struggle of the film maker’s which by using films as an awareness tool are going to highlight the problems and issues of Muslim women in the global world.

Keywords: Muslim women, Pakistani cinema, patriarchy, religious fundamentalism

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298 US-ASEAN Counter Terrorism Cooperation: Maintaining International Security and Avoiding Muslim Stereotypes

Authors: Jordan Daud, Satriya Wibawa, Wahyu Wardhana

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The US Global War on Terror has had effect on Southeast Asia as Second Front of Global War on Terror. Since 2001, ASEAN had adopted legal framework to counter the terrorist threat through numerous approach which accommodate various counterterrorism policy of the ten member states. ASEAN have also enhanced multilateral cooperation with US and its allies in Asia Pacific region in addressing terrorist threat, terrorist funding, cyber terrorism and other forms of terrorism. This cooperation is essential to maintain international security and stability and also assure economic development. This work focuses on the US-ASEAN counterterrorism cooperation due to they identified terrorism as a mutual enemy that posed to human security, infrastructure security, and national security. Having in mind that international terrorism usually connected with Muslim community, this paper will also elaborate the concept of Jihad and Islam revivalism in politics to avoid negative image of Islam and Muslim. This paper argues that as region with large Muslim community, Southeast Asia still need to tighten counter terrorism cooperation and also lessening Muslim stereotypes with terrorism through educating public understanding and inter-faith and intra-faith dialogue to create a better world.

Keywords: ASEAN, U.S., counter terrorism, Muslim stereotypes

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297 Untapped Market of Islamic Pension Fund: Muslim Attitude and Expectation

Authors: Yunice Karina Tumewang

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As we have seen, the number of Muslim and their awareness toward financial products and services that conform to Islamic principles are growing rapidly today. Thus, it makes the market environment potentially beneficial for Shari-compliant funds with the expanding prospective client base. However, over the last decade, only small portion of this huge potential market has been covered by the established Islamic asset management firms. This study aims to examine the factors of this untapped market particularly in the demand side. This study will use the qualitative method with primary data through a questionnaire distributed to 500 samples of Muslim population. It will shed light on Muslim attitudes and expectations toward Sharia-compliant retirement planning and pensions. It will also help to raise the awareness of market players to see Islamic pension fund as a promising industry in the foreseeable future.

Keywords: Islamic marketing, Islamic finance, Islamic asset management, Islamic pension fund

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296 Conversion from Catholicism to Islam in and out of Prison: A Comparative Study

Authors: Nerissa Gloria Balboa, Aire Yukdawan, Venice Gordula, Rhea Jannagen Curva

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This research examined the lived experiences and compared their similarities and differences of former Catholics turned Muslim converts in and out of prison. Qualitative comparative study with an Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis approach was used to explore the lives of Muslim converts. Interviews were conducted at Islamic Studies, Call and Guidance of the Philippines (ISCAG) and Tarbiyyah Islamic Female Institute for Muslim converts out of prison, New Bilibid Prison (NBP) and Correctional Institution for Women (CIW) for Muslim converts in prison. Results of the study show that first, for Muslim converts out of prison, exploration begins through (1) experiences of Catholicism as a norm in the family and eventual realization of its emptiness in practice, (2) experiences of Islam as a norm in the environment and discovery of meaningfulness of Islam (3) experiences of gradual holistic transformation of being a Muslim; and (4) experiences of extension of oneself towards family and society. Secondly, for Muslim converts in prison, exploration begins through (1) experiences of Apathy towards Catholicism and eventual deviation from moral standards, (2) experiences of prison condition as an environment of reflection on spirituality; and (3) experiences of positive effects of being a Muslim inside Prison. Comparisons show that there exists similarities and differences across the two settings in terms of (1) experiences of Catholicism and the degree of its internalization and actualization, (2) experiences of Islamic encounters and the process of conversion; and (3) experience of Islamic devotion and Islamic construct for the self. Theoretical bases of religious conversion found in unique contexts are discussed, initiating a paradigm shift of thinking that is needed to address the deeply rooted prejudices within Catholic and Islamic circles.

Keywords: Catholicism, Islamic conversion, social psychology, religion

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295 Predicting Halal Food Consumption for Muslim Turkish Immigrants Living in Germany

Authors: Elif Eroglu Hall, Nurdan Sevim

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The purposes of this research are to clarify the determinants of Muslim immigrants in consuming halal food by using components of Theory of Planned Behavior. The study was done by surveying Turkish immigrants living in Cologne Germany. The results of this study show that the intentions of Muslim Turkish immigrants in consuming halal food is influenced by attitude, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control.

Keywords: halal food, immigrants, religion, theory of planned behavior

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294 Co-Existence of Thai Muslim People and Other in an Ancient Community Located in the Heart of Bangkok: The Case Study of Petchaburi 7 Community

Authors: Saowapa Phaithayawat

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The objectives of the study are the following: 1) To study the way of life in terms of one hundred years co-existence of the Muslim and local community in this area 2) To analyze factors affect to this community with happy co-existence. The study requires quantitative research to study a history together with the study of humanity. The result of this study showed that the area of Petchburi 7 community is an ancient area which has owned by the Muslim for almost 100 years. There is a sanctuary as the center of unity. Later Bangkok becomes more developed and provides more infrastructures like the motorway and other transportation: however, the owners of lands in this community still keep their lands and build many buildings to run the business. With this purpose, there are many non-Muslim people come to live here with co-existence. Not only do they convenient to work but also easy to transport by sky train. There are factors that make them live harmonious as following: 1) All Muslims in this area are strict to follow their rules and allocate their community for business. 2) All people, who come and live here, are middle-aged and working men and women. They rent rooms closed to their work. 3) There are Muslim food and desserts, especially Roti, the popular fried flour, and local Chachak, tea originated from the south of Thailand. All these food and deserts are famous for working men and women to home and join after work 4) All Muslim in this area are independent to lead their own lives although a society changes rapidly.

Keywords: co-existence, Muslims, other group of people, the ancient community, social sciences

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293 Broad Spectrum Biofilm Inhibition by Chitosanase Purified from Bacillus licheniformis Isolated from Spoilt Vegetables

Authors: Sahira Nsayef Muslim, Israa M. S. Al-Kadmy, Nadheema Hammood Hussein, Alaa Naseer Mohammed Ali, Buthainah Mohammed Taha, Rayim Sabah Abbood, Sarah Naji Aziz

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A novel strain of Bacillus licheniformis isolated from spoilt cucumber and pepper samples have the ability to produce the chitosanase enzyme when grown on chitosan substrate. Chitosanase was purified to homogeneity with a recovery yield of 35.71% and 5.5 fold of purification by using ammonium sulfate at 45% saturation followed by ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose column and gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G-100 column. The purified chitosanase inhibited the biofilm formation ability for all Gram-negative and Gram-positive biofilm-forming bacteria (biofilm producers) after using Congo Red agar and Microtiter plates methods. Highly antibiofilm of chitosanase recorded against Pseudomonas aeruginosa followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae with reduction of biofilm formation ratio to 22 and 29%, respectively compared with (100)% of control. Thus, chitosanase has promising benefit as antibiofilm agent against biofilm forming pathogenic bacteria and has promising application as alternative antibiofilm agents to combat the growing number of multidrug-resistant pathogen-associated infections, especially in situation where biofilms are involved.

Keywords: chitosanase, Bacillus licheniformis, vegetables, biofilm

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292 Asabiyyah Prejudice and Its Harmful Effects on Muslim Community

Authors: Lawal Abdulkareem

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Asabiyyah prejudice is one of the causes of enmity, hatred and disharmony among Muslims. It is man’s supporting of his people to whom he belongs, whether they are right or wrong, oppressing or oppressed. This belonging can be due to kith and kin, ethnicity, color, birth place, citizenship, school of thought, or a group of people with common interest. The prejudice in its different forms and kinds is one of the deadly diseases that transformed the once unified, merciful, and cohesive Muslim community into differing, conflicting and warring entities. This has been witnessed within the Muslims from the earliest generations to the present. It is against this background that this research is undertaken to examine the major types of Asabiyyah prejudice and their harmful effects on Muslim community.

Keywords: Asabiyyah, causes, enmity, hatred

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291 Internet Versus Muslim Communities Challenges, Problems and Solutions

Authors: Bashir Muhammad

Abstract:

The present research contains the definition of the internet, the inter-relationship between and globalization as well as the divergent views of scholars on internet net-work. Additionally, both the positive and the negative impacts of the internet on Muslim communities were elucidated. As an example, it is part of the positive effect that the internet constitutes a vital source of vast information and data acquisition in various academic sciences in general and Islamic Studies in particular. The most recent and current facts and scientific discoveries by specialists of various ramifications could be fund as fast as possible. Many other exciting points were also cited. And on the negative side of the internet, among many other points, it releases uncontrolled promiscuous pictures and sometimes misguiding information about Islam, which could gradually and easily destroy the sound moral up bring of our young Muslim generation and pollute their positive thinking and reasoning. Another problem is that, Muslims in most cases pertaining to internet services are passive consumers, having no power to control it and manipulate it for their welfare and well being. Due to that, they have to pay the price for that, directly or indirectly.

Keywords: internet, muslim, challenges, communities

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290 The Roles of Muslims Scholars in Minifying Religious Extremism for Religious Tolerance and Peace Building in Nigeria

Authors: Mukhtar Sarkin-Kebbi

Abstract:

Insurgency, religious extremism and other related religious crises become hydra-headed in Nigeria, which caused destruction of human lives and properties worth of billions naira. As result, millions people were displaced and million children were out of school most of whom from Muslims community. The wrong teaching and misinterpretation of Islam by some Muslim community fuel the spread of extremist ideology hatred among Muslim sects, non-Muslims and emergency of extremist groups, like Boko Haram. A multi-religious country like Nigeria to realise its development in all human aspects, there must be unity and religious tolerance. Many agreed that changing the ideologies of insurgents and religious extremism will require intellectual role with vigorous campaign. Muslim scholars can play a vital role in promoting social reform and peaceful coexistence. This paper discusses the importance of unity among Muslim community and religious tolerance in light of the Qur’an and the Hadith. The paper also reviews the relationship between Muslims and non Muslims during the life time the Prophet (S.A.W.) in order to serve as exemplary model. Contemporary issues such as religious extremism, sectarians, intolerance and their consequences were examined. To minify religious intolerance and extremism,the paper identifies the roles to be played by Muslim scholars with references from Qur’an and Sunnah. The paper concludes that to realise overall human development and eternal salvation, Muslim should shun away from any religious crises and embrace unity and religious tolerance. Finally the paper recommends among others that only pious and learned scholars should be allowed to preach in any religious gathering, Muslim should exercise patience, tolerance in dealing with Muslims and non Muslims. Muslims should leave by example from the teaching of Qur’an and Sunnah of the Prophet (S.A.W.).

Keywords: Muslim scholars, peace building, religious extremism, religious tolerance

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289 Millenial Muslim Women’s Views on Religious Identity and Religious Leaders: The Role of the State on Religious Issues and Religious Radicalism in Jakarta

Authors: Achmad Muchadam Fahham, Sony Hendra Permana

Abstract:

Millennial Muslims are a generation of young people between 20-30 years. They will play an important role in various aspects of life for the next 10 to 20 years. In Indonesia, the population of this generation is quite large and in the next ten to twenty years they will occupy strategic position in various fields of social, economic and political life. One of the characteristics of the millenials generation are always connected to the internet and independence to learn anything from the internet. In terms of religion, the majority of millennial are Muslim. In digital era, the generation of millenial Muslim is vulnerable to the influence of radical Islamic thinking because of their easy access to that thought on social media, new media, and the books they read. This study seeks to examine the religious views of millennial Muslim women in four main focuses, namely religious identity, religious leaders, the role of the state on religious issues, and religious radicalism. This study was conducted with a qualitative approach, the data collection was carried out by the interview method. The study was conducted in Jakarta, mainly in religious study groups located in several mosques and shopping center in Jakarta. This study is expected to portray the religious views of millennial Muslim women, especially their commitment to Islamic identity, their views on the authority of religious leaders, the role of the state in various religious problems, and religious radicalism.

Keywords: millenial Muslims, radicalism, muslim mowen, religious identity

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288 Lived Experience of Breast Cancer for Arab Muslim Women

Authors: Nesreen M. Alqaissi

Abstract:

Little is known about the lived experiences of breast cancer among Arab Muslim women. The researcher used a qualitative interpretive phenomenological research design to explore the lived experiences of breast cancer as described by Jordanian Muslim women. A purposive sample of 20 women with breast cancer was recruited. Data were collected utilizing individual semi-structured interviews, and analyzed using Heideggerian Hermeneutical methodology. Results: Five related themes and one constitutive pattern: (a) breast cancer means death; (b) matriarchal family members as important source of support; (c) spirituality as a way to live and survive breast cancer; (d) concealing cancer experiences to protect self and families; (e) physicians as protectors and treatment decision makers; (f) the constitutive pattern: culture influencing Jordanian women experiences with breast cancer. In conclusion, researchers and healthcare providers should consider the influence of culture, spirituality, and families, when caring for women with breast cancer from Jordan.

Keywords: breast cancer, Arab Muslim, Jordan, lived experiences, spirituality, culture

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287 Local Ordinances with Sharia Nuances in Pluralism Society of Indonesia: Convergence or Divergence

Authors: Farida Prihatini

Abstract:

As a largest Muslim country in the world with around 215 Muslim inhabitants, Indonesia interestingly is not an Islamic country. Yet, Indonesia is not a secular country as well. The country has committed to be a unity in diversity country where people from various socio-political background may be coexistent live in this archipelago country. However, many provinces and Muslim groups are disposed of special regulation for Muslim people, namely local ordinances with sharia nuances, applied specifically in provinces, cities or regions where Muslim inhabitants are the majority. For the last two decades, particularly since Indonesia reform movement of 1998, a lot of local ordinances (Peraturan Daerah) with Sharia nuance have been enacted and applied in several provinces, cities and regions in Indonesia. The local ordinances are mostly deal with restriction of alcohol, prohibition of prostitution, Al Qur'an literacy, obligation to wear Muslim attire and zakat or alms management. Some of local ordinances have been warmly welcomed by society, while other ordinances have created tension. Those who oppose the ordinances believe that such things regulated by the ordinances are in violation of human rights and democracy, part of privacy rights of the people and must not be regulated by the State or local government. This paper describes the dynamic of local Ordinances with sharia nuances in Indonesia, in this research is limited to three ordinances: on the restriction of alcohol, prohibition of prostitution and obligation to wear Muslim attire. The researcher employs a normative method by studying secondary data and local ordinances in selected areas in Indonesia. The findings of the paper are that local ordinances with sharia nuances are indeed part of the needs of society, yet, in their implementation must take the pluralism of Indonesia and the state basic foundation, which is Pancasila (five pillars) into account.

Keywords: local, ordinances, sharia, rights

Procedia PDF Downloads 199