Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 51

Search results for: pragmatics

51 Interlanguage Pragmatics Instruction: Evidence from EFL Teachers

Authors: Asma Ben Abdallah


Interlanguage Pragmatics (ILP) Instruction has brought a lot of enlightenment for Foreign Language Teaching and has secured itself a deserved position in SLA research. In the Tunisian context, ILP instruction remains less explored for academics and educational practitioners. In our experience as teachers, both at secondary school and at university levels, the instruction and assessment of pragmatics seem to be contentious. This paper firstly introduces the theoretical models of Interlanguage pragmatics Instruction and focuses on their implications for foreign language teaching. This study builds on the work of Ben Abdallah (2015) that investigated the effects of pragmatic Instruction on Tunisian EFL Learners where pragmatic Instruction has been approached from the perspective of students and their learning strategies. The data for the present study, however, come from Tunisian EFL teachers by investigating their pragmatics practices and their perceptions of pragmatic instruction. The findings indicated that EFL teachers have pragmatic awareness; yet, their reflections revealed that their awareness was mostly on theoretical pragmatic knowledge, and not explicitly brought into practical pragmatic applications. The paper concludes by promoting pragmatics instruction with the suggestion that EFL teachers should teach pragmatics in class.

Keywords: interlanguage pragmatics theory, pragmatics, pragmatic instruction, SLA

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50 The Pragmatics of the Evil Eye: Compliment Response Strategies in Egyptian Colloquial Arabic

Authors: HebatAllah Mohamed


The present study aims at identifying compliment response strategies used by Egyptian students when responding to a problematic and cultural-specific type of compliments: those allegedly provoking the evil eye. Discourse Completion Tasks (DCTs) and interviews were used to collect the data. both The participants were 21 female and 16 male Egyptian graduate and undergraduate students at the American university in Cairo. The results revealed a number of both common and different main and sub-categories of responses utilized by participants of both genders. Pedagogical implications are discussed.

Keywords: Arabic pragmatics, compliment responses, evil eye pragmatics, pragmatics in Egypt

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49 Cross-Cultural Pragmatics: Apology Strategies by Libyans

Authors: Ahmed Elgadri


In the last thirty years, studies on cross-cultural pragmatics in general and apology strategies in specific have focused on western and East-Asian societies. A small volume of research has been conducted in investigating speech acts production by Arabic dialect speakers. Therefore, this study investigated the apology strategies used by Libyan Arabic speakers using an online Discourse Completion Task (DCT) questionnaire. The DCT consisted of six situations covering different social contexts. The survey was written in Libyan Arabic dialect to help generate vernacular speech as much as possible. The participants were 25 Libyan nationals, 12 females, and 13 males. Also, to get a deeper understanding of the motivation behind the use of certain strategies, the researcher interviewed four participants using the Libyan Arabic dialect as well. The results revealed a high use of IFID, offer of repair, and explanation. Although this might support the universality claim of speech acts strategies, it was clear that cultural norms and religion determined the choice of apology strategies significantly. This led to the discovery of new culture-specific strategies, as outlined later in this paper. This study gives an insight into politeness strategies in Libyan society, and it is hoped to contribute to the field of cross-cultural pragmatics.

Keywords: apologies, cross-cultural pragmatics, language and culture, Libyan Arabic, politeness, pragmatics, socio-pragmatics, speech acts

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48 The Effect of Computer-Mediated vs. Face-to-Face Instruction on L2 Pragmatics: A Meta-Analysis

Authors: Marziyeh Yousefi, Hossein Nassaji


This paper reports the results of a meta-analysis of studies on the effects of instruction mode on learning second language pragmatics during the last decade (from 2006 to 2016). After establishing related inclusion/ exclusion criteria, 39 published studies were retrieved and included in the present meta-analysis. Studies were later coded for face-to-face and computer-assisted mode of instruction. Statistical procedures were applied to obtain effect sizes. It was found that Computer-Assisted-Language-Learning studies generated larger effects than Face-to-Face instruction.

Keywords: meta-analysis, effect size, L2 pragmatics, comprehensive meta-analysis, face-to-face, computer-assisted language learning

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47 On the Semantics and Pragmatics of 'Be Able To': Modality and Actualisation

Authors: Benoît Leclercq, Ilse Depraetere


The goal of this presentation is to shed new light on the semantics and pragmatics of be able to. It presents the results of a corpus analysis based on data from the BNC (British National Corpus), and discusses these results in light of a specific stance on the semantics-pragmatics interface taking into account recent developments. Be able to is often discussed in relation to can and could, all of which can be used to express ability. Such an onomasiological approach often results in the identification of usage constraints for each expression. In the case of be able to, it is the formal properties of the modal expression (unlike can and could, be able to has non-finite forms) that are in the foreground, and the modal expression is described as the verb that conveys future ability. Be able to is also argued to expressed actualised ability in the past (I was able/could to open the door). This presentation aims to provide a more accurate pragmatic-semantic profile of be able to, based on extensive data analysis and one that is embedded in a very explicit view on the semantics-pragmatics interface. A random sample of 3000 examples (1000 for each modal verb) extracted from the BNC was analysed to account for the following issues. First, the challenge is to identify the exact semantic range of be able to. The results show that, contrary to general assumption, be able to does not only express ability but it shares most of the root meanings usually associated with the possibility modals can and could. The data reveal that what is called opportunity is, in fact, the most frequent meaning of be able to. Second, attention will be given to the notion of actualisation. It is commonly argued that be able to is the preferred form when the residue actualises: (1) The only reason he was able to do that was because of the restriction (BNC, spoken) (2) It is only through my imaginative shuffling of the aces that we are able to stay ahead of the pack. (BNC, written) Although this notion has been studied in detail within formal semantic approaches, empirical data is crucially lacking and it is unclear whether actualisation constitutes a conventional (and distinguishing) property of be able to. The empirical analysis provides solid evidence that actualisation is indeed a conventional feature of the modal. Furthermore, the dataset reveals that be able to expresses actualised 'opportunities' and not actualised 'abilities'. In the final part of this paper, attention will be given to the theoretical implications of the empirical findings, and in particular to the following paradox: how can the same expression encode both modal meaning (non-factual) and actualisation (factual)? It will be argued that this largely depends on one's conception of the semantics-pragmatics interface, and that this need not be an issue when actualisation (unlike modality) is analysed as a generalised conversational implicature and thus is considered part of the conventional pragmatic layer of be able to.

Keywords: Actualisation, Modality, Pragmatics, Semantics

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46 New Recipes of Communication in the New Linguistic World Order: End of Road for Aged Pragmatics

Authors: Shailendra Kumar Singh


With the rise of New Linguistic World Order in the 21st century, the Aged Pragmatics is palpitating on the edge of theoretical irrelevance. What appears to be a new sociolinguistic reality is that the enlightening combination of alternative west, inclusive globalization and techno-revolution is adding novel recipes to communicative actions, style and gain among new linguistic breed which is being neither dominated nor powered by the western supremacy. The paper has the following main, interrelated, aims: it is intended to introduce the concept of alternative pragmatics that can offer what exactly is needed for our emerging societal realities; it asserts as to how the basic pillar of linguistic success in the new linguistic world order rests upon linguistic temptation and calibration of all; and it also reviews an inevitability of emerging economies in shaping the communication trends at a time when the western world is struggling to maintain the same control on the others exercised in the past. In particular, the paper seeks answers for the following questions: (a) Do we need an alternative pragmatics, one with alternativist leaning in an era of inclusive globalization and alternative west? (b) What are the pulses of shift which are encapsulating emergence of new communicative behavior among the new linguistic breed by breaking yesterday’s linguistic rigidity? (c) Or, what are those shifts which are making linguistic shift more perceptible? (d) Is New Linguistic World Order succeeding in reversing linguistic priorities of `who speaks, what language, where, how, why, to whom and in which condition’ with no parallel in the history? (e) What is explicit about the contemporary world of 21st century which makes linguistic world all exciting and widely celebrative phenomenon and that is also forced into our vision? (f) What factors will hold key to the future of yesterday’s `influential languages’ and today’s `emerging languages’ as world is in the paradigm transition? (g) Is the collapse of Aged Pragmatics good for the 21st century for understanding the difference between pragmatism of old linguistic world and new linguistic world order? New Linguistic world Order today, unlike in the past, is about a branding of new world with liberal world view for a particular form of ideal to be imagined in the 21st century. At this time without question it is hope that a new set of ideals with popular vocabulary will become the implicit pragmatic model as one of benign majoritarianism in all aspects of sociolinguistic reality. It appears to be a reality that we live in an extraordinary linguistic world with no parallel in the past. In particular, the paper also highlights the paradigm shifts: Demographic, Social-psychological, technological and power. These shifts are impacting linguistic shift which is unique in itself. The paper will highlight linguistic shift in details in which alternative west plays a major role without challenging the west because it is an era of inclusive globalization in which almost everyone takes equal responsibility.

Keywords: inclusive globalization, new linguistic world order, linguistic shift, world order

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45 Effects of Therapeutic Horseback Riding in Speech and Communication Skills of Children with Autism

Authors: Aristi Alopoudi, Sofia Beloka, Vassiliki Pliogou


Autism is a complex neuro-developmental disorder with a variety of difficulties in many aspects such as social interaction, communication skills and verbal communication (speech). The aim of this study was to examine the impact of therapeutic horseback riding in improving the verbal and communication skills of children diagnosed with autism during 16 sessions. The researcher examined whether the expression of speech, the use of vocabulary, semantics, pragmatics, echolalia and communication skills were influenced by the therapeutic horseback riding when we increase the frequency of the sessions. The researcher observed two subjects of primary-school aged, in a two case observation design, with autism during 16 therapeutic horseback riding sessions (one riding session per week). Compared to baseline, at the end of the 16th therapeutic session, therapeutic horseback riding increased both verbal skills such as vocabulary, semantics, pragmatics, formation of sentences and communication skills such as eye contact, greeting, participation in dialogue and spontaneous speech. It was noticeable that echolalia remained stable. Increased frequency of therapeutic horseback riding was beneficial for significant improvement in verbal and communication skills. More specifically, from the first to the last riding session there was a great increase of vocabulary, semantics, and formation of sentences. Pragmatics reached a lower level than semantics but the same as the right usage of the first person (for example, I make a hug) and echolalia used for that. A great increase of spontaneous speech was noticed. The eye contact was presented in a lower level, and there was a slow but important raise at the greeting as well as the participation in dialogue. Last but not least; this is a first study conducted in therapeutic horseback riding studying the verbal communication and communication skills in autistic children. According to the references, therapeutic horseback riding is a therapy with a variety of benefits, thus; this research made clear that in the benefits of this therapy there should be included the improvement of verbal speech and communication.

Keywords: Autism, communication skills, speech, therapeutic horseback riding

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44 The Development of Explicit Pragmatic Knowledge: An Exploratory Study

Authors: Aisha Siddiqa


The knowledge of pragmatic practices in a particular language is considered key to effective communication. Unlike one’s native language where this knowledge is acquired spontaneously, more conscious attention is required to learn second language pragmatics. Traditional foreign language (FL) classrooms generally focus on the acquisition of vocabulary and lexico-grammatical structures, neglecting pragmatic functions that are essential for effective communication in the multilingual networks of the modern world. In terms of effective communication, of particular importance is knowledge of what is perceived as polite or impolite in a certain language, an aspect of pragmatics which is not perceived as obligatory but is nonetheless indispensable for successful intercultural communication and integration. While learning a second language, the acquisition of politeness assumes more prominence as the politeness norms and practices vary according to language and culture. Therefore, along with focusing on the ‘use’ of politeness strategies, it is crucial to examine the ‘acquisition’ and the ‘acquisitional development’ of politeness strategies by second language learners, particularly, by lower proficiency leaners as the norms of politeness are usually focused in lower levels. Hence, there is an obvious need for a study that not only investigates the acquisition of pragmatics by young FL learners using innovative multiple methods; but also identifies the potential causes of the gaps in their development. The present research employs a cross sectional design to explore the acquisition of politeness by young English as a foreign language learners (EFL) in France; at three levels of secondary school learning. The methodology involves two phases. In the first phase a cartoon oral production task (COPT) is used to elicit samples of requests from young EFL learners in French schools. These data are then supplemented by a) role plays, b) an analysis of textbooks, and c) video recordings of classroom activities. This mixed method approach allows us to explore the repertoire of politeness strategies the learners possess and delve deeper into the opportunities available to learners in classrooms to learn politeness strategies in requests. The paper will provide the results of the analysis of COPT data for 250 learners at three different stages of English as foreign language development. Data analysis is based on categorization of requests developed in CCSARP project. The preliminary analysis of the COPT data shows that there is substantial evidence of pragmalinguistic development across all levels but the developmental process seems to gain momentum in the second half of the secondary school period as compared to the early period at school. However, there is very little evidence of sociopragmatic development. The study aims to document the current classroom practices in France by looking at the development of young EFL learner’s politeness strategies across three levels of secondary schools.

Keywords: acquisition, English, France, interlanguage pragmatics, politeness

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43 Presence and Severity of Language Deficits in Comprehension, Production and Pragmatics in a Group of ALS Patients: Analysis with Demographic and Neuropsychological Data

Authors: M. Testa, L. Peotta, S. Giusiano, B. Lazzolino, U. Manera, A. Canosa, M. Grassano, F. Palumbo, A. Bombaci, S. Cabras, F. Di Pede, L. Solero, E. Matteoni, C. Moglia, A. Calvo, A. Chio


Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease of adulthood, which primarily affects the central nervous system and is characterized by progressive bilateral degeneration of motor neurons. The degeneration processes in ALS extend far beyond the neurons of the motor system, and affects cognition, behaviour and language. To outline the prevalence of language deficits in an ALS cohort and explore their profile along with demographic and neuropsychological data. A full neuropsychological battery and language assessment was administered to 56 ALS patients. Neuropsychological assessment included tests of executive functioning, verbal fluency, social cognition and memory. Language was assessed using tests for verbal comprehension, production and pragmatics. Patients were cognitively classified following the Revised Consensus Criteria and divided in three groups showing different levels of language deficits: group 1 - no language deficit; group 2 - one language deficit; group 3 - two or more language deficits. Chi-square for independence and non-parametric measures to compare groups were applied. Nearly half of ALS-CN patients (48%) reported one language test under the clinical cut-off, and only 13% of patents classified as ALS-CI showed no language deficits, while the rest 87% of ALS-CI reported two or more language deficits. ALS-BI and ALS-CBI cases all reported two or more language deficits. Deficits in production and in comprehension appeared more frequent in ALS-CI patients (p=0.011, p=0.003 respectively), with a higher percentage of comprehension deficits (83%). Nearly all ALS-CI reported at least one deficit in pragmatic abilities (96%) and all ALS-BI and ALS-CBI patients showed pragmatic deficits. Males showed higher percentage of pragmatic deficits (97%, p=0.007). No significant differences in language deficits have been found between bulbar and spinal onset. Months from onset and level of impairment at testing (ALS-FRS total score) were not significantly different between levels and type of language impairment. Age and education were significantly higher for cases showing no deficits in comprehension and pragmatics and in the group showing no language deficits. Comparing performances at neuropsychological tests among the three levels of language deficits, no significant differences in neuropsychological performances were found between group 1 and 2; compared to group 1, group 3 appeared to decay specifically on executive testing, verbal/visuospatial learning, and social cognition. Compared to group 2, group 3 showed worse performances specifically in tests of working memory and attention. Language deficits have found to be spread in our sample, encompassing verbal comprehension, production and pragmatics. Our study reveals that also cognitive intact patients (ALS-CN) showed at least one language deficit in 48% of cases. Pragmatic domain is the most compromised (84% of the total sample), present in nearly all ALS-CI (96%), likely due to the influence of executive impairment. Lower age and higher education seem to preserve comprehension, pragmatics and presence of language deficits. Finally, executive functions, verbal/visuospatial learning and social cognition differentiate the group with no language deficits from the group with a clinical language impairment (group 3), while attention and working memory differentiate the group with one language deficit from the clinical impaired group.

Keywords: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, language assessment, neuropsychological assessment, language deficit

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42 Pragmatics of Socio-Linguistic Influence on Neurologist-Patient Interaction in Selected Hospitals in Nigeria

Authors: Ayodele James Akinola


This study examines how social and linguistic variables influenced communication between neurologists and patients in selected university teaching hospitals (UTHs) in southwestern Nigeria. Jacob Mey’s Pragmatic Acts, complemented by Emanuel and Emanuel’s model of doctor-patient relationship, served as the theoretical framework. Data comprising 22 audio-recorded neurologist-patient interactions were collected from two UTHs in the southwestern region of Nigeria. Data revealed that educational attainment of patients has insignificant influence on the interaction where the linguistic prowess of the patient has been impaired for consultative communication. However, the status influenced the degree of attention paid to patients by neurologists and determines the amount of time 'trying to help patients to communicate'. Patients with lower educational status and who could not communicate in English spent more time narrating their ailment to neurologists. Patients with higher educational status and could communicate in English saves consultation time as they express themselves briefly unlike those who were of little or no education in the clinics. Through this, diagnoses and therapeutic processes took eight to 12 minutes. 20 minutes was the longest duration recorded. Neurologist-patient interaction in the observed hospitals is shaped by neurologists’ experience, patients’ social variables and language.

Keywords: medical pragmatics, neurologist-patient interaction, nigeria, socio-linguistic influence

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41 Pragmatic Competence in Pakistani English Language Learners

Authors: Ghazala Kausar


This study investigates Pakistani first year university students’ perception of the role of pragmatics in their general approach to learning English. The research is triggered by National Curriculum’s initiative to provide holistic opportunities to the students for language development and to equip them with competencies to use English language in academic and social contexts (New English National Curriculum for I-XII). The traditional grammar translation and examination oriented method is believed to reduce learners to silent listener (Zhang, 2008: Zhao 2009). This lead to the inability of the students to interpret discourse by relating utterances to their meaning, understanding the intentions of the users and how language is used in specific setting (Bachman & Palmer, 1996, 2010). Pragmatic competence is a neglected area as far as teaching and learning English in Pakistan is concerned. This study focuses on the different types of pragmatic knowledge, learners perception of such knowledge and learning strategies employed by different learners to process the learning in general and pragmatic in particular. This study employed three data collecting tools; a questionnaire, discourse completion task and interviews to elicit data from first year university students regarding their perception of pragmatic competence. Results showed that Pakistani first year university learners have limited pragmatic knowledge. Although they acknowledged the importance of linguistic knowledge for linguistic competence in the students but argued that insufficient English proficiency, limited knowledge of pragmatics, insufficient language material and tasks were major reasons of pragmatic failure.

Keywords: pragmatic competence, Pakistani college learners, linguistic competence

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40 Goals, Rights and Obligations, and Moral Order: An Evaluation Approach to Chinese-Kenyan Relating Experience

Authors: Zhaohui Tian


China’s growing and deepening engagement in Africa has attracted numerous controversial debates on Chinese-African social-racial relations both in the media and academia. Most research tends to discuss this issue and the tensions involved at the state level, but limited attention has been given to the individual relating processes of those two racial groups from an intercultural politeness evaluation angle. Thus, taking Kenya as a country focus and putting it under recent perspectives on pragmatics and politeness, this study explores the Chinese-Kenyan workplace relating experience in Chinese-owned companies with the aim to offer new insights on Chinese-African social-racial tensions. The original data were collected through 25 interviews from 29 Chinese and Kenyan participants working in different Chinese companies and industries, some of which had been later on converted into 182 short story data in order to better capture the process and content dimensions of their experiences using Spencer &Kádár’s politeness evaluation model. Both interview and story data were analysed in MAXQDA to understand the personal relating process and the criteria they were drawing from when making evaluative judgements of their relations. The result particular draws attention to tensions around goals, rights, and obligations, and social-moral dimensions that had been underrepresented in intercultural and pragmatics literature. The study offers alternative empirical insights into Chinese-Kenyan relations from an intercultural politeness management perspective and the possible mismatches of the evaluative criteria that potentially cause tension in this context.

Keywords: chinese-kenyan, evaluation, relating, workplace

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39 Functions and Pragmatic Aspects of English Nonsense

Authors: Natalia V. Ursul


In linguistic studies, the question of nonsense is attracting increasing interest. Nonsense is usually defined as spoken or written words that have no meaning. However, this definition is likely to be outdated as any speech act is generated due to the speaker’s pragmatic reasons, thus it cannot be purely illogical or meaningless. In the current paper a new working definition of nonsense as a linguistic medium will be formulated; moreover, the pragmatic peculiarities of newly coined linguistic patterns and possible ways of their interpretation will be discussed.

Keywords: nonsense, nonse verse, pragmatics, speech act

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38 Development of Interactional Competence: Listener Responses of Long-Term Stay Abroad Chinese L1 Speakers in Australian Universities

Authors: Wei Gao


The current study investigates the change of listener responses in social conversations of the second language (L2) speakers who are staying abroad with Chinese L1 speakers in Australian universities and how their long-term stay abroad impacted their design for L2 recipient actions. There is a limited amount of empirical work on L2 English listener response acquisition, particularly regarding the influence of long-term stay abroad in English-speaking countries. Little is known whether the development of L2 listener responses and the improvement of interactional competence is affected by the prolonged residency in the target L2 country. Forty-eight participants were recruited, and they participated in the designed speaking task through Computer-Mediated Communication. Results showed that long-term stay abroad Chinese L1 speakers demonstrated an English-like pattern of listener responses in communication. Long-term stay abroad experience had a significant impact on L2 English listener responses production and organization in social conversation. Long-term stay abroad L1 Chinese speakers had an active and productive response in listenership than their non-stay abroad counterparts in terms of frequency and placement in producing listener responses. However, the L2 English listener response production only occurred to be partial in response tokens, such as backchannels and reactive expressions, also in resumptive openers' employment. This study shows that L2 English listener responses could be acquired during a long-term stay abroad in English-speaking countries but showed partial acquisition in collaborative finishes production. In addition, the most prominent finding was that Chinese L1 speakers changed their overall listener responses pattern from L1 Chinese to L2 English. The study reveals specific interactional changes in English L2 listener responses acquisition. It generates pedagogical implications for cross-cultural communication and L2 pragmatics acquisition during a long-term stay abroad.

Keywords: listener responses, stay abroad, interactional competence, L2 pragmatics acquisition

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37 Enhancing Learners' Metacognitive, Cultural and Linguistic Proficiency through Egyptian Series

Authors: Hanan Eltayeb, Reem Al Refaie


To be able to connect and relate to shows spoken in a foreign language, advanced learners must understand not only linguistics inferences but also cultural, metacognitive, and pragmatic connotations in colloquial Egyptian TV series. These connotations are needed to both understand the different facets of the dramas put before them, and they’re also consistently grown and formulated through watching these shows. The inferences have become a staple in the Egyptian colloquial culture over the years, making their way into day-to-day conversations as Egyptians use them to speak, relate, joke, and connect with each other, without having known one another from previous times. As for advanced learners, they need to understand these inferences not only to watch these shows, but also to be able to converse with Egyptians on a level that surpasses the formal, or standard. When faced with some of the somewhat recent shows on the Egyptian screens, learners faced challenges in understanding pragmatics, cultural, and religious background of the target language and consequently not able to interact effectively with a native speaker in real-life situations. This study aims to enhance the linguistic and cultural proficiency of learners through studying two genres of TV Colloquial Egyptian series. Study samples derived from two recent comedian and social Egyptian series ('The Seventh Neighbor' سابع جار, and 'Nelly and Sherihan' نيللي و شريهان). When learners watch such series, they are usually faced with a problem understanding inferences that have to do with social, religious, and political events that are addressed in the series. Using discourse analysis of the sematic, semantic, pragmatic, cultural, and linguistic characteristics of the target language, some major deductions were highlighted and repeated, showing a pattern in both. The research paper concludes that there are many sets of lingual and para-lingual phrases, idioms, and proverbs to be acquired and used effectively by teaching these series. The strategies adopted in the study can be applied to different types of media, like movies, TV shows, and even cartoons, to enhance student proficiency.

Keywords: Egyptian series, culture, linguistic competence, pragmatics, semantics, social

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36 Collaborative Stylistic Group Project: A Drama Practical Analysis Application

Authors: Omnia F. Elkommos


In the course of teaching stylistics to undergraduate students of the Department of English Language and Literature, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, the linguistic tool kit of theories comes in handy and useful for the better understanding of the different literary genres: Poetry, drama, and short stories. In the present paper, a model of teaching of stylistics is compiled and suggested. It is a collaborative group project technique for use in the undergraduate diverse specialisms (Literature, Linguistics and Translation tracks) class. Students initially are introduced to the different linguistic tools and theories suitable for each literary genre. The second step is to apply these linguistic tools to texts. Students are required to watch videos performing the poems or play, for example, and search the net for interpretations of the texts by other authorities. They should be using a template (prepared by the researcher) that has guided questions leading students along in their analysis. Finally, a practical analysis would be written up using the practical analysis essay template (also prepared by the researcher). As per collaborative learning, all the steps include activities that are student-centered addressing differentiation and considering their three different specialisms. In the process of selecting the proper tools, the actual application and analysis discussion, students are given tasks that request their collaboration. They also work in small groups and the groups collaborate in seminars and group discussions. At the end of the course/module, students present their work also collaboratively and reflect and comment on their learning experience. The module/course uses a drama play that lends itself to the task: ‘The Bond’ by Amy Lowell and Robert Frost. The project results in an interpretation of its theme, characterization and plot. The linguistic tools are drawn from pragmatics, and discourse analysis among others.

Keywords: applied linguistic theories, collaborative learning, cooperative principle, discourse analysis, drama analysis, group project, online acting performance, pragmatics, speech act theory, stylistics, technology enhanced learning

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35 The Formation of the Diminutive in Colloquial Jordanian Arabic

Authors: Yousef Barahmeh


This paper is a linguistic and pragmatic analysis of the use of the diminutive in Colloquial Jordanian Arabic (CJA). It demonstrates a peculiar form of the diminutive in CJA inflected by means of feminine plural ends with -aat suffix. The analysis shows that the pragmatic function(s) of the diminutive in CJA refers primarily to ‘littleness’ while the morphological inflection conveys the message of ‘the plethora’. Examples of this linguistic phenomenon are intelligible and often include a large number of words that are culture-specific to the rural dialect in the north of Jordan. In both cases, the diminutive in CJA is an adaptive strategy relative to its pragmatic and social contexts.

Keywords: Colloquial Jordanian Arabic, diminutive, morphology, pragmatics

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34 Implicature of Jokes in Broadcast Messages

Authors: Yuli Widiana


The study of implicature which is one of the discussions of pragmatics is an interesting and challenging topic to discuss. Implicature is a meaning which is implied in an utterance which is not the same as its literal meaning. The rapid development of information technology results in social networks as media to broadcast messages. The broadcast messages may be in the form of jokes which contain implicature. The research applies the pragmatic equivalent method to analyze the topics of jokes based on the implicatures contained in them. Furthermore, the method is also applied to reveal the purpose of creating implicature in jokes. The findings include the kinds of implicature found in jokes which are classified into conventional implicature and conversational implicature. Then, in detailed analysis, implicature in jokes is divided into implicature related to gender, culture, and social phenomena. Furthermore, implicature in jokes may not only be used to give entertainment but also to soften criticisms or satire so that it does not sound rude and harsh.

Keywords: implicature, broadcast messages, conventional implicature, conversational implicature

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33 Effects of Exposing Learners to Speech Acts in the German Teaching Material Schritte International: The Case of Requests

Authors: Wan-Lin Tsai


Speech act of requests is an important issue in the field of language learning and teaching because we cannot avoid making requesting in our daily life. This study examined whether or not the subjects who were freshmen and majored in German at Wenzao University of Languages were able to use the linguistic forms which they had learned from their course book Schritte International to make appropriate requests through dialogue completed tasks (DCT). The results revealed that the majority of the subjects were unable to use the forms to make appropriate requests in German due to the lack of explicit instructions. Furthermore, Chinese interference was observed in students' productions. Explicit instructions in speech acts are strongly recommended.

Keywords: Chinese interference, German pragmatics, German teaching, make appropriate requests in German, speech act of requesting

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32 Language Activation Theory: Unlocking Bilingual Language Processing

Authors: Leorisyl D. Siarot


It is conventional to see and hear Filipinos, in general, speak two or more languages. This phenomenon brings us to a closer look on how our minds process the input and produce an output with a specific chosen language. This study aimed to generate a theoretical model which explained the interaction of the first and the second languages in the human mind. After a careful analysis of the gathered data, a theoretical prototype called Language Activation Model was generated. For every string, there are three specialized banks: lexico-semantics, morphono-syntax, and pragmatics. These banks are interrelated to other banks of other language strings. As the bilingual learns more languages, a new string is replicated and is filled up with the information of the new language learned. The principles of the first and second languages' interaction are drawn; these are expressed in laws, namely: law of dominance, law of availability, law of usuality and law of preference. Furthermore, difficulties encountered in the learning of second languages were also determined.

Keywords: bilingualism, psycholinguistics, second language learning, languages

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31 Spatial Deictics in Face-to-Face Communication: Findings in Baltic Languages

Authors: Gintare Judzentyte


The present research is aimed to discuss semantics and pragmatics of spatial deictics (deictic adverbs of place and demonstrative pronouns) in the Baltic languages: in spoken Lithuanian and in spoken Latvian. The following objectives have been identified to achieve the aim: 1) to determine the usage of adverbs of place in spoken Lithuanian and Latvian and to verify their meanings in face-to-face communication; 2) to determine the usage of demonstrative pronouns in spoken Lithuanian and Latvian and to verify their meanings in face-to-face communication; 3) to compare the systems between the two spoken languages and to identify the main tendencies. As meanings of demonstratives (adverbs of place and demonstrative pronouns) are context-bound, it is necessary to verify their usage in spontaneous interaction. Besides, deictic gestures play a very important role in face-to-face communication. Therefore, an experimental method is necessary to collect the data. Video material representing spoken Lithuanian and spoken Latvian was recorded by means of the method of a qualitative interview (a semi-structured interview: an empirical research is all about asking right questions). The collected material was transcribed and evaluated taking into account several approaches: 1) physical distance (location of the referent, visual accessibility of the referent); 2) deictic gestures (the combination of language and gesture is especially characteristic of the exophoric use); 3) representation of mental spaces in physical space (a speaker sometimes wishes to mark something that is psychically close as psychologically distant and vice versa). The research of the collected data revealed that in face-to-face communication the participants choose deictic adverbs of place instead of demonstrative pronouns to locate/identify entities in situations where the demonstrative pronouns would be expected in spoken Lithuanian and in spoken Latvian. The analysis showed that visual accessibility of the referent is very important in face-to-face communication, but the main criterion while localizing objects and entities is the need for contrast: lith. čia ‘here’, šis ‘this’, latv. šeit ‘here’, šis ‘this’ usually identify distant entities and are used instead of distal demonstratives (lith. ten ‘there’, tas ‘that’, latv. tur ‘there’, tas ‘that’), because the referred objects/subjects contrast to further entities. Furthermore, the interlocutors in examples from a spontaneously situated interaction usually extend their space and can refer to a ‘distal’ object/subject with a ‘proximal’ demonstrative based on the psychological choice. As the research of the spoken Baltic languages confirmed, the choice of spatial deictics in face-to-face communication is strongly effected by a complex of criteria. Although there are some main tendencies, the exact meaning of spatial deictics in the spoken Baltic languages is revealed and is relevant only in a certain context.

Keywords: Baltic languages, face-to-face communication, pragmatics, semantics, spatial deictics

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30 Teaching Turn-Taking Rules and Pragmatic Principles to Empower EFL Students and Enhance Their Learning in Speaking Modules

Authors: O. F. Elkommos


Teaching and learning EFL speaking modules is one of the most challenging productive modules for both instructors and learners. In a student-centered interactive communicative language teaching approach, learners and instructors should be aware of the fact that the target language must be taught as/for communication. The student must be empowered by tools that will work on more than one level of their communicative competence. Communicative learning will need a teaching and learning methodology that will address the goal. Teaching turn-taking rules, pragmatic principles and speech acts will enhance students' sociolinguistic competence, strategic competence together with discourse competence. Sociolinguistic competence entails the mastering of speech act conventions and illocutionary acts of refusing, agreeing/disagreeing; emotive acts like, thanking, apologizing, inviting, offering; directives like, ordering, requesting, advising, and hinting, among others. Strategic competence includes enlightening students’ consciousness of the various particular turn-taking systemic rules of organizing techniques of opening and closing conversation, adjacency pairs, interrupting, back-channeling, asking for/giving opinion, agreeing/disagreeing, using natural fillers for pauses, gaps, speaker select, self-select, and silence among others. Students will have the tools to manage a conversation. Students are engaged in opportunities of experiencing the natural language not as a mere extra student talking time but rather an empowerment of knowing and using the strategies. They will have the component items they need to use as well as the opportunity to communicate in the target language using topics of their interest and choice. This enhances students' communicative abilities. Available websites and textbooks now use one or more of these tools of turn-taking or pragmatics. These will be students' support in self-study in their independent learning study hours. This will be their reinforcement practice on e-Learning interactive activities. The students' target is to be able to communicate the intended meaning to an addressee that is in turn able to infer that intended meaning. The combination of these tools will be assertive and encouraging to the student to beat the struggle with what to say, how to say it, and when to say it. Teaching the rules, principles and techniques is an act of awareness raising method engaging students in activities that will lead to their pragmatic discourse competence. The aim of the paper is to show how the suggested pragmatic model will empower students with tools and systems that would support their learning. Supporting students with turn taking rules, speech act theory, applying both to texts and practical analysis and using it in speaking classes empowers students’ pragmatic discourse competence and assists them to understand language and its context. They become more spontaneous and ready to learn the discourse pragmatic dimension of the speaking techniques and suitable content. Students showed a better performance and a good motivation to learn. The model is therefore suggested for speaking modules in EFL classes.

Keywords: communicative competence, EFL, empowering learners, enhance learning, speech acts, teaching speaking, turn taking, learner centred, pragmatics

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29 Study of Effective Factors Influencing the Pragmatics of Knowledge Management in Iranian Oil Terminals Company

Authors: Ali Asghar Asad Sangabi, Afsaneh Aeen, Mohammad Behroozi


Knowledge management is vital in today's world as one of the most valuable intangible assets regarded by companies. This study aimed to identify factors that affect the application of knowledge management in the Iranian Oil Terminals Company in 2022. In this study, 12 of the factors affecting the application of knowledge management have been studied, and implement practical solutions, and reuse has been studied. This study is descriptive data from the questionnaire factors affecting knowledge management application used by Cronbach's Coefficient Alpha equal to 0.85. The population of this study consisted of 1500 IOTC employees. The sample is determined by the Cochran formula sample; the results of this study showed that between the application of knowledge management and factors, there is a significant correlation. Among the factors that have been studied, valuable teamwork and organizational culture were the most effective, and the infrastructure of information systems had the least impact on Knowledge management.

Keywords: knowledge management, knowledge-based organization, Iranian Oil Terminals

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28 The Role of Communicative Grammar in Cross-Cultural Learning Environment

Authors: Tonoyan Lusine


The Communicative Grammar (CG) of a language deals with semantics and pragmatics in the first place as communication is a process of generating speech. As it is well known people can communicate with the help of limited word expressions and grammatical means. As to non-verbal communication, both vocabulary and grammar are not essential at all. However, the development of the communicative competence lies in verbal, non-verbal, grammatical, socio-cultural and intercultural awareness. There are several important issues and environment management strategies related to effective communication that one might need to consider for a positive learning experience. International students bring a broad range of cultural perspectives to the learning environment, and this diversity has the capacity to improve interaction and to enrich the teaching/learning process. Intercultural setting implies creative and thought-provoking work with different cultural worldviews and international perspectives. It is worth mentioning that the use of Communicative Grammar models creates a profound background for the effective intercultural communication.

Keywords: CG, cross-cultural communication, intercultural awareness, non-verbal behavior

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27 The Philippines’ War on Drugs: a Pragmatic Analysis on Duterte's Commemorative Speeches

Authors: Ericson O. Alieto, Aprillete C. Devanadera


The main objective of the study is to determine the dominant speech acts in five commemorative speeches of President Duterte. This study employed Speech Act Theory and Discourse analysis to determine how the speech acts features connote the pragmatic meaning of Duterte’s speeches. Identifying the speech acts is significant in elucidating the underlying message or the pragmatic meaning of the speeches. From the 713 sentences or utterances from the speeches, assertive with 208 occurrences from the corpus or 29% is the dominant speech acts. It was followed by expressive with 177 or 25% occurrences, directive accounts for 152 or 15% occurrences. While commisive accounts for 104 or 15% occurrences and declarative got the lowest percentage of occurrences with 72 or 10% only. These sentences when uttered by Duterte carry a certain power of language to move or influence people. Thus, the present study shows the fundamental message perceived by the listeners. Moreover, the frequent use of assertive and expressive not only explains the pragmatic message of the speeches but also reflects the personality of President Duterte.

Keywords: commemorative speech, discourse analysis, duterte, pragmatics

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26 Musical Education of Preschool Children: From the Average to the Gifted

Authors: Eudjen Cinc


The contemporary society, which is, whether we like it or not, oriented towards utilitarianism, pragmatics and professional flexibility, lives in a certain paradox. On the one hand, at least declaratively, the accent of modern society is on knowledge; knowledge is even considered to be a commodity, the popularity of education is increased as the only means of survival in the market-oriented world, while on the other hand modern society is moving towards simplification and decreasing the amount of information and areas which are considered necessary in the generally excepted concept of education. We cannot talk about the preschool teacher profession without mentioning work with gifted children. The preschool teacher knowing the characteristics of gifted children is of utmost importance because their early identification and professional guidance are of cardinal importance for the direction in which the children will develop. When we talk about musical ability, in the first phase, the role of preschool teachers in the identification and stimulation of gifted children naturally refers to monitoring children’s musical manifestation. The identification process and work with the gifted presupposes a good relationship with the family, synergy of these two important influences in the child’s education and upbringing.

Keywords: music education, gifted children, methodology, kindergarten

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25 A Study of Chinese-specific Terms in Government Work Report(2017-2019) from the Perspective of Relevance Theory

Authors: Shi Jiaxin


The Government Work Report is an essential form of document in the government of the People’s Republic of China. It covers all aspects of Chinese society and reflects China’s development strategy and trend. There are countless special terms in Government Work Report. Only by understanding Chinese-specific terms can we understand the content of the Government Work Report. Only by accurately translating the Chinese-specific terms can people come from all across the world know the Chinese government work report and understand China. Relevance theory is a popular theory of cognitive pragmatics. Relevance Translation Theory, which is closely related to Relevance Theory, has crucial and major guiding significance for the translation of Chinese-specific. Through studying Relevance Theory and researching the translation techniques, strategies and applications in the process of translating Chinese-specific terms from the perspective of Relevance Theory, we can understand the meaning and connotation of Chinese-specific terms, then solve various problems in the process of C-E translation, and strengthen our translation ability.

Keywords: government work report, Chinese-specific terms, relevance theory, translation

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24 Pragmatic Discoursal Study of Hedging Constructions in English Language

Authors: Mohammed Hussein Ahmed, Bahar Mohammed Kareem


This study is concerned with the pragmatic discoursal study of hedging constructions in English language. Hedging is a mitigated word used to lessen the impact of the utterance uttered by the speakers. Hedging could be either adverbs, adjectives, verbs and sometimes it may consist of clauses. It aims at finding out the extent to which speakers and participants of the discourse use hedging constructions during their conversations. The study also aims at finding out whether or not there are any significant differences in the types and functions of the frequency of hedging constructions employed by male and female. It is hypothesized that hedging constructions are frequent in English discourse more than any other languages due to its formality and that the frequency of the types and functions are influenced by the gender of the participants. To achieve the aims of the study, two types of procedures have been followed: theoretical and practical. The theoretical procedure consists of presenting a theoretical background of hedging topic which includes its definitions, etymology and theories. The practical procedure consists of selecting a sample of texts and analyzing them according to an adopted model. A number of conclusions will be drawn based on the findings of the study.

Keywords: hedging, pragmatics, politeness, theoretical

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23 Foregrounding Events in Modern Sundanese: The Pragmatics of Particle-to-Active Voice Marking Shift

Authors: Rama Munajat


Discourse information levels may be viewed from either a background-foreground distinction or a multi-level perspective, and cross-linguistic studies on this area suggest that each information level is marked by a specific linguistic device. In this sense, Sundanese, spoken in Indonesia’s West Javanese Province, further differentiates the background and foreground information into ordinary and significant types. This paper will report an ongoing shift from particle-to-active voice marking in the way Sundanese signals foregrounding events. The shift relates to decades of contact with Bahasa Indonesia (Indonesia’s official language) and linguistic compatibility between the two surface marking strategies. Representative data analyzed include three groups of short stories in both Sundanese and Bahasa Indonesia (Indonesian) published in three periods: before 1945, 1965-2006, and 2016-2019. In the first group of Sundanese data, forward-moving events dominantly appear in particle KA (Kecap Anteuran, word-accompanying) constructions, where the KA represents different particles that co-occur with a special group of verbs. The second group, however, shows that the foregrounded events are more frequently described in active-voice forms with a subject-predicate (SP) order. Subsequently, the third offers stronger evidence for the use of the SP structure. As for the Indonesian data, the foregrounding events in the first group occur in verb-initial and passive-voice constructions, while in the second and third, the events more frequently appear in active-voice structures (subject-predicate sequence). The marking shift above suggests a structural influence from Indonesian, stemmed from generational differences among authors of the Sundanese short stories, particularly related to their education and language backgrounds. The first group of short stories – published before 1945 or before Indonesia's independence from Dutch – were written by native speakers of Sundanese who spoke Indonesian as a foreign language and went through the Dutch education system. The second group of authors, on the other hand, represents a generation of Sundanese native speakers who spoke Indonesian as a second language. Finally, the third group consists of authors who are bilingual speakers of both Sundanese and Indonesian. The data suggest that the last two groups of authors completed the Indonesian education system. With these, the use of subject-predicate sequences to denote foregrounding events began to appear more frequently in the second group and then became more dominant in those of the third. The coded data also signify that cohesion, coherence, and pragmatic purposes in Particle KA constructions are intact in their respective active-voice structure counterparts. For instance, the foregrounding events in Particle KA constructions occur in Sentence-initial KA and Pre-verbal KA forms, whereas those in the active-voice are described in Subject-Predicate (SP) and Zero-Subject active-voice patterns. Cross-language data further demonstrate that the Sentence-initial KA and the SP active-voice structures each contain an overt noun phrase (NP) co-referential with one of the entities introduced in a preceding context. Similarly, the pre-verbal KA and Zero-Subject active-voice patterns have a deleted noun phrase unambiguously referable to the only one entity previously mentioned. The presence and absence of an NP inform a pragmatic strategy to place prominence on topic/given and comment/new information, respectively.

Keywords: discourse analysis, foregrounding marking, pragmatics, language contact

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22 The Complaint Speech Act Set Produced by Arab Students in the UAE

Authors: Tanju Deveci


It appears that the speech act of complaint has not received as much attention as other speech acts. However, the face-threatening nature of this speech act requires a special attention in multicultural contexts in particular. The teaching context in the UAE universities, where a big majority of teaching staff comes from other cultures, requires investigations into this speech act in order to improve communication between students and faculty. This session will outline the results of a study conducted with this purpose. The realization of complaints by Freshman English students in Communication courses at Petroleum Institute was investigated to identify communication patterns that seem to cause a strain. Data were collected using a role-play between a teacher and students, and a judgment scale completed by two of the instructors in the Communications Department. The initial findings reveal that the students had difficulty putting their case, produced the speech act of criticism along with a complaint and that they produced both requests and demands as candidate solutions. The judgement scales revealed that the students’ attitude was not appropriate most of the time and that the judges would behave differently from students. It is concluded that speech acts, in general, and complaint, in particular, need to be taught to learners explicitly to improve interpersonal communication in multicultural societies. Some teaching ideas are provided to help increase foreign language learners’ sociolinguistic competence.

Keywords: speech act, complaint, pragmatics, sociolinguistics, language teaching

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