Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1478

Search results for: Saudi vision 2030

1478 Analysing Social Media Coverage of Political Speeches in Relation to Discourse and Context

Authors: Yaser Mohammed Altameemi


This research looks at the representation of the social media for the Saudi Government decrees regarding the developmental projects of the Saudi 2030 vision. The paper analyses a television interview with the Crown Prince Mohammed Bin Salman who talks about the progress of the Saudi vision of 2030, and how the government had acted as response to the COVID-19 pandemic. The interview was on 28/4/2021. The paper analyses the tweets on Twitter that cover the interview for the purpose of investigating the development of concepts and meanings regarding the Saudi peoples’ orientations towards the Saudi projects. The data include all related tweets from the day of the interview and the following seven days after the interview. The finding of the collocation analysis suggests that nationalism notion is explicitly expressed by users in Twitter. The main finding of this paper suggests the importance of further analyses for the concordance lines. However, the collocation network suggests that there is a clear highlight for nationalism.

Keywords: social media, twitter, political interview, prince Mohammed Bin Salman, Saudi vision 2030

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1477 Industrial Engineering Higher Education in Saudi Arabia: Assessing the Current Status

Authors: Mohammed Alkahtani, Ahmed El-Sherbeeny


Industrial engineering is among engineering disciplines that have been introduced relatively recently to higher education in Saudi Arabian engineering colleges. The objective of this paper is to shed light on the history and status of IE higher education in different Saudi universities, including statistics comparing student enrollment and graduation in different Saudi public and private universities. This paper then proposes how industrial engineering programs could participate successfully in the Saudi Vision 2030. Finally, the authors show the results of a survey conducted on a number of IE students evaluating various academic and administrative aspects of the IE program at King Saud University.

Keywords: higher education, history, industrial engineering, Vision 2030

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1476 Saudi Women Facing Challenges in a Mixed-Gender Work Environment

Authors: A. Aldawsari


The complex issue of women working in a mixed-gender work environment has its roots in social and cultural factors. This research was done to identify and explore the social and cultural challenges Saudi women face in a mixed-gender work environment in Saudi Arabia. Over the years, Saudi women in mixed-gender work environments in Saudi Arabia have been of interest in various research areas, especially within the context of a hospital work environment. This research, which involves a female researcher interacting one-on-one with Saudi women, will address this issue as well as the effect of the 2030 Vision in Saudi Arabia, and it will aim to include several new fields of work environments for women in Saudi Arabia. The aim of this research is to examine the perceptions of Saudi women who work in a mixed gender environment regarding the general empowerment of women in these settings. The objective of this research is to explore the cultural and social challenges that influence Saudi women's rights to work in a mixed-gender environment in Saudi Arabia. The significance of this research lies in the fact that there is an urgency to resolve issue of female employment in Saudi Arabia, where Saudi women still suffer from inequality in employment opportunity. Although the Saudi government is seeking to empower women by integrating them into a mixed-gender work environment, which is a key goal and prominent social change advocated for in the 2030 Vision, this same goal is one of the main challenges in the face of achieving female empowerment. The methodology section focuses on appropriate methods that can be used to study the effect of social and cultural challenges on the employment of women. It then determines the conditions and limitations of the research by applying a qualitative research approach to the investigation and analysing the data collected from the interviews. A statistical analysis tool, such as NVivo, will be used for the qualitative analysis of the interviews. The study found that the factor most responsible for creating social and cultural challenges is family—whether close family or distant family—more so than tribe or community.

Keywords: women, work, mixed-gender, environment

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1475 The New Universities Law in Saudi Arabia, Bath to Develop the Higher Education in the Kingdom

Authors: Gassrm Alfaleh


The new Law of Universities has many goals, one of them is how each university can be independent financially and educationally. Another goal is to open doors for foreign universities to open branches in the kingdom. This paper focuses on how these goals can create competition between local and foreign universities. And how this new law can bring significant changes in the Kingdom’s higher education sector. The methodology of this study is to compare the new Saudi law to another legal system, especially in Australia. And how this new law can affect the higher education environment and Saudi culture. It covers the view of other different legal jurisdictions and compares it to this new law. The major findings are that the new law of universities can give a chance to Saudi universities to achieve their goals based on empowerment, quality, and participate in developing the educational and research methods. It may allow universities to start their own resources, permit them to create endowments and companies, and may allow them to create their degrees and programs. It will help those universities to increase the efficiency of spending, developing financial resources, and human capabilities for universities in line with the Kingdom’s Vision 2030. As a result, this paper states whether this new law can improve higher education in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Keywords: law, education, Saudi legal system, university

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1474 Mobile Application to Generate Automate Plan for Tourist in The South and West of Saudi Arabia, Saferk

Authors: Hanan M. Alghamdi, Kholud E. Alsalami, Manal I. Alshaikhi, Nouf M. Alsalami, Sara A. Awad, Ruqaya A. Alrabei


Tourism in Saudi Arabia is one of the emerging sectors with rapid growth. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is characterized by its wonderful and historical areas, which constitute important cultural and tourist landmarks. These landmarks attract the attention of the government of Saudi Arabia; hence the improvement of the tourism sector becomes one of the important axes of Saudi Arabia's vision 2030. There is a need to enhance the tourist experience by facilitating the tourism process for visitors to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. This project aims to design an application to serve domestic tourists and visitors from outside the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. This application will contain an automated tourist generate plan service by sentiment analysis of comments in Google Map using Lexicon for method Rule-based approach. There are thirteen regions in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The regions supported in this application will be Makkah and Asir regions. According to the output of the sentiment analysis, the application will recommend restaurants and cafes, activities (parks, museums) and shopping (shopping centers) in the generated plan. After that, the system will show the user a drop-down list of “Mega-events in Saudi Arabia” containing a link to the site of events in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. and “important information for you” public decency regulations.

Keywords: tourist automated plan, sentiment analysis, comments in google map, tourism in Saudi Arabia

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1473 Feasibility Study of Air Conditioners Operated by Solar Energy in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Eman Simbawa, Budur Alasmri, Hanan Munahir, Hanin Munahir


Solar energy has become currently the subject of attention around the world and is undergoing many researches and studies. Using solar energy, which is a renewable energy, is aligned with the Saudi Vision 2030. People are more aware of it and are starting to use it more for environmental and economical reasons. A questionnaire was conducted in this paper to measure the awareness of people in Saudi Arabia regarding solar energy and their attitude towards it. Then, two kinds of air conditioners (one powered by electricity only and one powered by solar panels and electricity) are compared in terms of their cost over a period of 20 years. This will help the users to decide which kind of device to use depending on its cost. The result shows that as the electricity tariffs in Saudi Arabia increases, depending on the sector, the solar air conditioner is cheaper. In fact, if the tariff in the future increases to reach 50 Halalah/kWh, the solar air conditioner is more economical. This will influence users to buy more solar powered devices, and it will decrease the consumption of electricity. Therefore, the dependence on oil will decrease.

Keywords: Airconditioner, solar energy, photovoltaic cells, present value

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1472 Semantic Network Analysis of the Saudi Women Driving Decree

Authors: Dania Aljouhi


September 26th, 2017, is a historic date for all women in Saudi Arabia. On that day, Saudi Arabia announced the decree on allowing Saudi women to drive. With the advent of vision 2030 and its goal to empower women and increase their participation in Saudi society, we see how Saudis’ Twitter users deliberate the 2017 decree from different social, cultural, religious, economic and political factors. This topic bridges social media 'Twitter,' gender and social-cultural studies to offer insights into how Saudis’ tweets reflect a broader discourse on Saudi women in the age of social media. The present study aims to explore the meanings and themes that emerge by Saudis’ Twitter users in response to the 2017 royal decree on women driving. The sample used in the current study involves (n= 1000) tweets that were collected from Sep 2017 to March 2019 to account for the Saudis’ tweets before and after implementing the decree. The paper uses semantic and thematic network analysis methods to examine the Saudis’ Twitter discourse on the women driving issue. The paper argues that Twitter as a platform has mediated the discourse of women driving among the Saudi community and facilitated social changes. Finally, framing theory (Goffman, 1974) and Networked framing (Meraz & Papacharissi 2013) are both used to explain the tweets on the decree of allowing Saudi women to drive based on # Saudi women-driving-cars.

Keywords: Saudi Arabia, women, Twitter, semantic network analysis, framing

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1471 Hybrid Renewable Power Systems

Authors: Salman Al-Alyani


In line with the Kingdom’s Vision 2030, the Saudi Green initiative was announced aimed at reducing carbon emissions by more than 4% of the global contribution. The initiative included plans to generate 50% of its energy from renewables by 2030. The geographical location of Saudi Arabia makes it among the best countries in terms of solar irradiation and has good wind resources in many areas across the Kingdom. Saudi Arabia is a wide country and has many remote locations where it is not economically feasible to connect those loads to the national grid. With the improvement of battery innovation and reduction in cost, different renewable technologies (primarily wind and solar) can be integrated to meet the need for energy in a more effective and cost-effective way. Saudi Arabia is famous for high solar irradiations in which solar power generation can extend up to six (6) hours per day (25% capacity factor) in some locations. However, the net present value (NPV) falls down to negative in some locations due to distance and high installation costs. Wind generation in Saudi Arabia is a promising technology. Hybrid renewable generation will increase the net present value and lower the payback time due to additional energy generated by wind. The infrastructure of the power system can be capitalized to contain solar generation and wind generation feeding the inverter, controller, and load. Storage systems can be added to support the hours that have an absence of wind or solar energy. Also, the smart controller that can help integrate various renewable technologies primarily wind and solar, to meet demand considering load characteristics. It could be scalable for grid or off-grid applications. The objective of this paper is to study the feasibility of introducing a hybrid renewable system in remote locations and the concept for the development of a smart controller.

Keywords: battery storage systems, hybrid power generation, solar energy, wind energy

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1470 Development a Battery of Measurements to Assess Giftedness Initiatives in Light of the Objectives of Saudi Arabia's Future Vision of Gifted Education

Authors: Saeed M. Al Qahtani, Alaa Eldin A. Ayoub


The study aimed to develop a battery of measures to assessment gifted initiatives in Saudi Arabia. The battery consisted of 17 measures developed in light of Saudi Arabia's future vision objectives for gifted education. A battery was applied to 193 gifted students who benefit from gifted initiatives and programs, 42 teachers of gifted as well as, 40 experts of gifted. Samples were taken from three main regions: Riyadh, Sharqia, Gharbia in Saudi Arabia. The results indicated that battery measures have a reliability and stability index ranging from 0.6 to 0.87. Besides that, results showed that the educational environment lacks many basic components such as facilities, laboratories, and activities that may stimulate creativity and innovation. Furthermore, results showed that there is a weakness in private sector involvement in the construction of educational buildings, special centers for gifted people and the provision of certain facilities that support talented programs. The recommendations of the study indicate the need for the private sector participation in the provision of services and projects for the care of gifted students in Saudi Arabia.

Keywords: battery of measures, gifted care initiatives, Saudi future vision, gifted student

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1469 Social and Digital Transformation of the Saudi Education System: A Cyberconflict Analysis

Authors: Mai Alshareef


The Saudi government considers the modernisation of the education system as a critical component of the national development plan, Saudi Vision 2030; however, this sudden reform creates tension amongst Saudis. This study examines first the reflection of the social and digital education reform on stakeholders and the general Saudi public, and second, the influence of information and communication technologies (ICTs) on the ethnoreligious conflict in Saudi Arabia. This study employs Cyberconflict theory to examine conflicts in the real world and cyberspace. The findings are based on a qualitative case study methodology that uses netnography, an analysis of 3,750 Twitter posts and semi-structural interviews with 30 individuals, including key actors in the Saudi education sector and Twitter activists during 2019\2020. The methods utilised are guided by thematic analysis to map an understanding of factors that influence societal conflicts in Saudi Arabia, which in this case include religious, national, and gender identity. Elements of Cyberconflict theory are used to better understand how conflicting groups build their identities in connection to their ethnic/religious/cultural differences and competing national identities. The findings correspond to the ethnoreligious components of the Cyberconflict theory. Twitter became a battleground for liberals, conservatives, the Saudi public and elites, and it is used in a novel way to influence public opinion and to challenge the media monopoly. Opposing groups relied heavily on a discourse of exclusion and inclusion and showed ethnic and religious affiliations, national identity, and chauvinism. The findings add to existing knowledge in the cyberconflict field of study, and they also reveal outcomes that are critical to the Saudi Arabian national context.

Keywords: education, cyberconflict, Twitter, national identity

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1468 Water Resources Crisis in Saudi Arabia, Challenges and Possible Management Options: An Analytic Review

Authors: A. A. Ghanim


The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is heading towards a severe and rapidly expanding water crisis, which can have negative impacts on the country’s environment and economy. Of the total water consumption in KSA, the agricultural sector accounts for nearly 87% of the total water use and, therefore, any attempt that overlooks this sector will not help in improving the sustainability of the country’s water resources. KSA Vision 2030 gives priority of water use in the agriculture sector for the regions that have natural renewable water resources. It means that there is little concern for making reuse of municipal wastewater for irrigation purposes in any region in general and in water-scarce regions in particular. The use of treated wastewater is very limited in Saudi Arabia, but it has very considerable potential for future expansion due its numerous beneficial uses. This study reviews the current situation of water resources in Saudi Arabia, providing more highlights on agriculture and wastewater reuse. The reviewed study is proposing some corrective measures for development and better management of water resources in the Kingdom. Suggestions also include consideration of treated water as an alternative source for irrigation in some regions of the country. The study concluded that a sustainable solution for the water crisis in KSA requires implementation of multiple measures in an integrated manner. The integrated solution plan should focus on two main directions: first, improving the current management practices of the existing water resources; second, developing new water supplies from both conventional and non-conventional sources.

Keywords: Saudia Arabia, water resources, water crises, wastewater reuse

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1467 Early-Stage Venture Investment Model: Evidence from Saudi Arabia

Authors: Tibah Alharbi, Renzo Cordina, David Power


Relatively few studies have explored how venture capitalist investors (VCs) make investment decisions and the information they rely on when taking an equity stake in an investee company. In addition, little is known about how much investors monitor start-ups after the decision to invest has been made. The VC scene in the US or European context is understood better than that of developing countries such as those in the Middle East. Although some differences among VC investors have been identified, the reasons behind such differences have not been fully explored – especially in a country such as Saudi Arabia. Therefore, this research seeks to understand the impact of external factors on the VC investor’ behaviour. The unique cultural and legal environments in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, the growing VC sector in the country, and the increasing importance attached to start-ups under the Saudi Government’s Vision 2030 program make such an investigation timely. Ascertaining the perceptions of VC investors in such a context will provide a deeper understanding of the determinants of VC investment in a novel setting. Using semi-structured interviews with over 20 participants, the research explores the structure of VC funds, the cycle of the VC investment in a start-up from the sourcing of deals, the screening and evaluation of such deals, the closing of such deals, and finally, the monitoring of such investments before the decision to exit such deals at the appropriate time. The results show some similarities to the VC model, which characterizes such investment in the US and Europe, but several differences emerge given the unique cultural and legal settings within the Kingdom. The results provide an in-depth understanding of the VC investors’ mindset relative to the existing studies in the literature.

Keywords: exit, monitoring, start-ups, venture capital

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1466 Agricultural Mechanization for Transformation

Authors: Lawrence Gumbe


Kenya Vision 2030 is the country's programme for transformation covering the period 2008 to 2030. Its objective is to help transform Kenya into a newly industrializing, middle-income, exceeding US$10000, country providing a high quality of life to all its citizens by 2030, in a clean and secure environment. Increased agricultural and production and productivity is crucial for the realization of Vision 2030. Mechanization of agriculture in order to achieve greater yields is the only way to achieve these objectives. There are contending groups and views on the strategy for agricultural mechanization. The first group are those who oppose the widespread adoption of advanced technologies (mostly internal combustion engines and tractors) in agricultural mechanization as entirely inappropriate in most situations in developing countries. This group argues that mechanically powered -agricultural mechanization often leads to displacement of labour and hence increased unemployment, and this results in a host of other socio-economic problems, amongst them, rural-urban migration, inequitable distribution of wealth and in many cases an increase in absolute poverty, balance of payments due to the need to import machinery, fuel and sometimes technical assistance to manage them. The second group comprises of those who view the use of the improved hand tools and animal powered technology as transitional step between the most rudimentary step in technological development (characterized by entire reliance on human muscle power) and the advanced technologies (characterized 'by reliance on tractors and other machinery). The third group comprises those who regard these intermediate technologies (ie. improved hand tools and draught animal technology in agriculture) as a ‘delaying’ tactic and they advocate the use of mechanical technologies as-the most appropriate. This group argues that alternatives to the mechanical technologies do not just exist as a practical matter, or, if they are available, they are inefficient and they cannot be compared to the mechanical technologies in terms of economics and productivity. The fourth group advocates a compromise between groups two and third above. This group views the improved hand tools and draught animal technology as more of an 18th century technology and the modem tractor and combine harvester as too advanced for developing countries. This group has been busy designing an ‘intermediate’, ‘appropriate’, ‘mini’, ‘micro’ tractor for use by farmers in developing countries. This paper analyses and concludes on the different agricultural mechanization strategies available to Kenya and other third world countries

Keywords: agriculture, mechanazation, transformation, industrialization

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1465 Predicting Long-Term Meat Productivity for the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Ahsan Abdullah, Ahmed A. S. Bakshwain


Livestock is one of the fastest-growing sectors in agriculture. If carefully managed, have potential opportunities for economic growth, food sovereignty and food security. In this study we mainly analyse and compare long-term i.e. for year 2030 climate variability impact on predicted productivity of meat i.e. beef, mutton and poultry for the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia w.r.t three factors i.e. i) climatic-change vulnerability ii) CO2 fertilization and iii) water scarcity and compare the results with two countries of the region i.e. Iraq and Yemen. We do the analysis using data from diverse sources, which was extracted, transformed and integrated before usage. The collective impact of the three factors had an overall negative effect on the production of meat for all the three countries, with adverse impact on Iraq. High similarity was found between CO2 fertilization (effecting animal fodder) and water scarcity i.e. higher than that between production of beef and mutton for the three countries considered. Overall, the three factors do not seem to be favorable for the three Middle-East countries considered. This points to possibility of a vegetarian year 2030 based on dependency on indigenous live-stock population.

Keywords: prediction, animal-source foods, pastures, CO2 fertilization, climatic-change vulnerability, water scarcity

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1464 Meeting the Challanges of Regulating Artificial Intelligence

Authors: Abdulrahman S. Shryan Aldossary


Globally, artificial intelligence (AI) is already performing legitimate tasks on behalf of humans. In Saudi Arabia, large-scale national projects, primarily based on AI technologies and receiving billions of dollars of funding, are projected for completion by 2030. However, the legal aspect of these projects is seriously vulnerable, given AI’s unprecedented ability to self-learn and act independently. This paper, therefore, identifies the critical legal aspects of AI that authorities and policymakers should be aware of, specifically whether AI can possess identity and be liable for the risk of public harm. The article begins by identifying the problematic characteristics of AI and what should be considered by legal experts when dealing with it. Also discussed are the possible competent institutions that could regulate AI in Saudi Arabia. Finally, a procedural proposal is presented for controlling AI, focused on Saudi Arabia but potentially of interest to other jurisdictions facing similar concerns about AI safety.

Keywords: regulation, artificial intelligence, tech law, automated systems

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1463 Visual Improvement with Low Vision Aids in Children with Stargardt’s Disease

Authors: Anum Akhter, Sumaira Altaf


Purpose: To study the effect of low vision devices i.e. telescope and magnifying glasses on distance visual acuity and near visual acuity of children with Stargardt’s disease. Setting: Low vision department, Alshifa Trust Eye Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Methods: 52 children having Stargardt’s disease were included in the study. All children were diagnosed by pediatrics ophthalmologists. Comprehensive low vision assessment was done by me in Low vision clinic. Visual acuity was measured using ETDRS chart. Refraction and other supplementary tests were performed. Children with Stargardt’s disease were provided with different telescopes and magnifying glasses for improving far vision and near vision. Results: Out of 52 children, 17 children were males and 35 children were females. Distance visual acuity and near visual acuity improved significantly with low vision aid trial. All children showed visual acuity better than 6/19 with a telescope of higher magnification. Improvement in near visual acuity was also significant with magnifying glasses trial. Conclusions: Low vision aids are useful for improvement in visual acuity in children. Children with Stargardt’s disease who are having a problem in education and daily life activities can get help from low vision aids.

Keywords: Stargardt, s disease, low vision aids, telescope, magnifiers

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1462 Impact of Adolescent Smoking on the Behaviour, Academic and Health Aspects in Qatar

Authors: Abdelsalam Gomaa, Mahjabeen Ramzan, Tooba Ali Akbar, Huma Nadeem


The use of tobacco and the health risks linked to it are well known in this day and age due to the presence of easily available information through the internet. The media is a powerful platform that is used by many anti-smoking awareness campaigns to reach their target audience; yet, it has been found that adolescents are taking up smoking every passing day. Half of this smoking population of youngsters resides in Asia alone, which includes Qatar, the focus country of this study. As smoking happens to be one of the largest avoidable causes of serious diseases like cancers and heart problems, children are taking up smoking at an alarming rate everywhere including Qatar. Importance of the health of the citizens of Qatar is one of the pillars of the Qatar vision 2030, which is to ensure a healthy population, both physically and mentally. Since the youth makes up a significant percentage of the population and in order to achieve the health objectives of the Qatar vision 2030, it is essential to ensure the health and well-being of this part of the population of the country as they are the future of Qatar. Children, especially boys who tend to be more aggressive by nature, are highly likely to develop behavioral and health issues due to smoking at an early age. Research conducted around the world has also emphasized on this association between the smokers developing a bad behaviour as well as poor social communication skills. However, due to lack of research into this association, very little is known about the extent to which smoking impacts the children’s academics, health and behaviour. Moreover, a study of this nature has not yet been conducted in Qatar previously as most of the studies focus on adult smokers and ways to minimize the number of smoking habits in universities and workplaces. This study solely focuses on identifying a relationship between smoking and its impacts on the adolescents by conducting a research on different schools across Qatar.

Keywords: adolescents, modelling techniques, Qatar, smoking

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1461 Philippine National Police Strategies in the Implementation of 'Peace and Order Agenda for Transformation and Upholding of the Rule-Of-Law' Plan 2030

Authors: Ruby A. L. Espineli


The study assessed the Philippine National Police strategies in the implementation of ‘Peace and Order Agenda for Transformation and Upholding of the Rule-of-Law’ P.A.T.R.O.L Plan 2030. Its operational roadmap presents four perspectives which include resource management, learning and growth, process excellence; and community. Focused group discussion, observation, and distribution of survey questionnaire to selected PNP officers and community members were done to identify and describe the implementation, problems encountered and measures to address the problems of the PNP P.A.T.R.O.L Plan 2030. In resource management, PNP allocates most sufficient funds in providing service firearms, patrol vehicle, and internet connections. In terms of learning and growth, the attitude of PNP officers is relatively higher than their knowledge and skills. Moreover, in terms of process excellence, the PNP use several crime preventions and crime solution strategies to deliver an immediate response to calls of the community. As regards, community perspective, PNP takes effort in establishing partnership with community. It is also interesting to note that PNP officers and community were both undecided on the existence of problems encountered in the implementation of P.A.T.R.O.L Plan 2030. But, they had proactive behavior as they agreed on all the specified measures to address the problems encountered in implementation of PNP P.A.T.R.O.L. Plan 2030. A strategic framework, based on the findings was formulated in this study that could improve and entrench the harmonious working relationship between the PNP and stakeholders in the enhancement of the implementation of PNP P.A.T.R.O.L. Plan 2030.

Keywords: community perspectives, learning and growth, process excellence, resource management

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1460 Policy Recommendations for Reducing CO2 Emissions in Kenya's Electricity Generation, 2015-2030

Authors: Paul Kipchumba


Kenya is an East African Country lying at the Equator. It had a population of 46 million in 2015 with an annual growth rate of 2.7%, making a population of at least 65 million in 2030. Kenya’s GDP in 2015 was about 63 billion USD with per capita GDP of about 1400 USD. The rural population is 74%, whereas urban population is 26%. Kenya grapples with not only access to energy but also with energy security. There is direct correlation between economic growth, population growth, and energy consumption. Kenya’s energy composition is at least 74.5% from renewable energy with hydro power and geothermal forming the bulk of it; 68% from wood fuel; 22% from petroleum; 9% from electricity; and 1% from coal and other sources. Wood fuel is used by majority of rural and poor urban population. Electricity is mostly used for lighting. As of March 2015 Kenya had installed electricity capacity of 2295 MW, making a per capital electricity consumption of 0.0499 KW. The overall retail cost of electricity in 2015 was 0.009915 USD/ KWh (KES 19.85/ KWh), for installed capacity over 10MW. The actual demand for electricity in 2015 was 3400 MW and the projected demand in 2030 is 18000 MW. Kenya is working on vision 2030 that aims at making it a prosperous middle income economy and targets 23 GW of generated electricity. However, cost and non-cost factors affect generation and consumption of electricity in Kenya. Kenya does not care more about CO2 emissions than on economic growth. Carbon emissions are most likely to be paid by future costs of carbon emissions and penalties imposed on local generating companies by sheer disregard of international law on C02 emissions and climate change. The study methodology was a simulated application of carbon tax on all carbon emitting sources of electricity generation. It should cost only USD 30/tCO2 tax on all emitting sources of electricity generation to have solar as the only source of electricity generation in Kenya. The country has the best evenly distributed global horizontal irradiation. Solar potential after accounting for technology efficiencies such as 14-16% for solar PV and 15-22% for solar thermal is 143.94 GW. Therefore, the paper recommends adoption of solar power for generating all electricity in Kenya in order to attain zero carbon electricity generation in the country.

Keywords: co2 emissions, cost factors, electricity generation, non-cost factors

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1459 Optimizing Machine Vision System Setup Accuracy by Six-Sigma DMAIC Approach

Authors: Joseph C. Chen


Machine vision system provides automatic inspection to reduce manufacturing costs considerably. However, only a few principles have been found to optimize machine vision system and help it function more accurately in industrial practice. Mostly, there were complicated and impractical design techniques to improve the accuracy of machine vision system. This paper discusses implementing the Six Sigma Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control (DMAIC) approach to optimize the setup parameters of machine vision system when it is used as a direct measurement technique. This research follows a case study showing how Six Sigma DMAIC methodology has been put into use.

Keywords: DMAIC, machine vision system, process capability, Taguchi Parameter Design

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1458 Ground Source Ventilation and Solar PV Towards a Zero-Carbon House in Riyadh

Authors: Osamah S. Alanazi, Mohammad G. Kotbi, Mohammed O. AlFadil


While renewable energy technology is developing in Saudi Arabia, and the ambitious 2030 vision encourages the shift towards more efficient and clean energy usage. The research on the application of geothermal resources in residential use for the Saudi Arabian context will contribute towards a more sustainable environment. This paper is a part of an ongoing master's thesis, which its main goal is to investigate the possibility of achieving a zero-carbon house in Riyadh by applying a ground-coupled system into a current sustainable house that uses a grid-tied solar system. The current house was built and designed by King Saud University for the 2018 middle east solar decathlon competition. However, it failed to reach zero-carbon operation due to the high cooling demand. This study will redesign and validate the house using Revit and Carriers Hourly Analysis 'HAP' software with the use of ordinary least square 'OLS' regression. After that, a ground source ventilation system will be designed using the 'GCV Tool' to reduce cooling loads. After the application of the ground source system, the new electrical loads will be compared with the current house. Finally, a simple economic analysis that includes the cost of applying a ground source system will be reported. The findings of this study will indicate the possibility and feasibility of reaching a zero-carbon house in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, using a ground-coupled ventilation system. While cooling in the residential sector is the dominant energy consumer in the Gulf region, this work will certainly help in moving towards using renewable sources to meet those demands. This paper will be limited to highlight the literature review, the methodology of the research, and the expected outcome.

Keywords: renewable energy, zero-carbon houses, sustainable buildings, geothermal energy, solar PV, GCV Tool

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1457 Quantification of Methane Emissions from Solid Waste in Oman Using IPCC Default Methodology

Authors: Wajeeha A. Qazi, Mohammed-Hasham Azam, Umais A. Mehmood, Ghithaa A. Al-Mufragi, Noor-Alhuda Alrawahi, Mohammed F. M. Abushammala


Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) disposed in landfill sites decompose under anaerobic conditions and produce gases which mainly contain carbon dioxide (CO₂) and methane (CH₄). Methane has the potential of causing global warming 25 times more than CO₂, and can potentially affect human life and environment. Thus, this research aims to determine MSW generation and the annual CH₄ emissions from the generated waste in Oman over the years 1971-2030. The estimation of total waste generation was performed using existing models, while the CH₄ emissions estimation was performed using the intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC) default method. It is found that total MSW generation in Oman might be reached 3,089 Gg in the year 2030, which approximately produced 85 Gg of CH₄ emissions in the year 2030.

Keywords: methane, emissions, landfills, solid waste

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1456 Exploring the Experiences of Transnational TESOL Professionals about Their Writing Assessment Practices: A Critical Ethnography in the Saudi EFL Context

Authors: Abdullah Alshakhi


This study aims to explore the assessment practices of transnational western teachers in Saudi EFL writing classrooms. The study adopts a critical ethnographic approach to understand the views and the experiences of four transnational TESOL professionals about how they navigate and negotiate their writing assessment practices in the Saudi EFL context. The qualitative data were collected through classroom observations and video recordings of the classroom teaching, which were followed by semi-structured interviews with the four TESOL teachers from Australia, England, USA, and Ireland. The data were analyzed from three perspectives of these transnational TESOL teachers in the Saudi EFL context: as a transnational teacher in monolingual context, as a transitional teacher abides by the prescribed curriculum and assessment instructions, and as a transnational teacher’s vision for monolingual students. The results of the study revealed that owing to the transnational teachers’ lack of understanding of the Saudi monolingual culture, bureaucratic structures, and top-down assessment policies in the institute where they work, their teaching and assessment of writing and other language skills are negatively affected and consequently had to be modified. Also, the Saudi learners’ lack of interest and their lower level of English proficiency pose serious challenges to those transnational teachers’ writing assessment practices. More often, the teachers find the prescribed writing curriculum and assessment tools ineffective in the Saudi EFL context. Because of these experiences, the transnational teachers in this study have exhibited their awareness of their monolingual/monoculture background, Saudi’s cultural and religious values, and institutional structures, which have helped them customize or supplement the writing assessment practices accordingly.

Keywords: critical ethnography, Saudi EFL context, TESOL professionals, transnationalism, writing assessment

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1455 Saudi Arabia and the Yemen War: A Fruitless Struggle

Authors: Majid Dashtgerd, Eisa Moradi Afrapoli


The “Yemen War” is one of the longest wars of the recent century, which was launched on 26 March 2015 after the Saudi Arabia-led alliance's military intervention in Yemen. The war began with the aim of fighting Yemen's Houthis and preventing Iranian influence in the region, and Saudi leaders expected a quick victory; However, the “Yemen War” lasted about seven years and is still going on (May 2022), and Saudi Arabia has not been able to achieve its strategic objectives. This study seeks to examine some of the most important reasons for Saudi Arabia's protracted war and failure in Yemen.

Keywords: Saudi Arabia, yemen war, houthis, Iran

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1454 A Systematic Categorization of Arguments against the Vision Zero Goal: A Literature Review

Authors: Henok Girma Abebe


The Vision Zero is a long-term goal of preventing all road traffic fatalities and serious injuries which was first adopted in Sweden in 1997. It is based on the assumption that death and serious injury in the road system is morally unacceptable. In order to approach this end, vision zero has put in place strategies that are radically different from the traditional safety work. The vision zero, for instance, promoted the adoption of the best available technology to promote safety, and placed the ultimate responsibility for traffic safety on system designers. Despite Vision Zero’s moral appeal and its expansion to different safety areas and also parts of the world, important philosophical concerns related to the adoption and implementation of the vision zero remain to be addressed. Moreover, the vision zero goal has been criticized on different grounds. The aim of this paper is to identify and systematically categorize criticisms that have been put forward against vision zero. The findings of the paper are solely based on a critical analysis of secondary sources and snowball method is employed to identify the relevant philosophical and empirical literatures. Two general categories of criticisms on the vision zero goal are identified. The first category consists of criticisms that target the setting of vision zero as a ‘goal’ and some of the basic assumptions upon which the goal is based. Among others, the goal of achieving zero fatalities and serious injuries, together with vision zero’s lexicographical prioritization of safety has been criticized as unrealistic. The second category consists of criticisms that target the strategies put in place to achieve the goal of zero fatalities and serious injuries. For instance, Vision zero’s responsibility ascription for road safety and its rejection of cost-benefit analysis in the formulation and adoption of safety measures has both been criticized as counterproductive. In this category also falls the criticism that Vision Zero safety measures tend to be too paternalistic. Significant improvements have been recorded in road safety work since the adoption of vision zero, however, for the vision zero to even succeed more, it is important that issues and criticisms of philosophical nature associated with it are identified and critically dealt with.

Keywords: criticisms, systems approach, traffic safety, vision zero

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1453 Women's Liberation: A Study of the Movement in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Rachel Hasan


Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has witnessed various significant social and political developments in 2018. Crown Prince of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Muhammad bin Salman, also serving as Deputy Prime Minister of Saudi Arabia, has made several social, cultural, and political changes in the country under his grand National Transformation Program. Program provides a vision of more economically viable, culturally liberal, and politically pleasant Saudi Arabia. One of the most significant and ground breaking changes that has been made under this program is awarding women the long awaited rights. Legislative changes are made to allow woman to drive. Seemingly basic on surface but driving rights to women represent much deeper meaning to the culture of Saudi Arabia and to the world outside. Ever since this right is awarded to the women, world media is interpreting this change in various colors. This paper aims to investigate the portrayal of gender rights in various online media publications and websites. The methodology applied has been quantitative content analysis method to analyze the various aspects of media's coverage of various social and cultural changes with reference to women's rights. For the purpose of research, convenience sampling was done for eight international online articles from media websites. The articles discussed the lifting of ban for females on driving cars in Saudi Arabia as well as gender development for these women. These articles were analyzed for media frames, and various categories of analysis were developed, which highlighted the stance that was observed. Certain terms were conceptualized and operationalized and were also explained for better understanding of the context.

Keywords: gender rights, media coverage, political change, women's liberation

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1452 Application of Cloud Based Healthcare Information System through a Smart Card in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Wasmi Woishi


Smart card technology is a secure and safe technology that is expanding its capabilities day by day in terms of holding important information without alteration. It is readily available, and its ease of portability makes it more efficient in terms of its usage. The smart card is in use by many industries such as financial, insurance, governmental industries, personal identification, to name a few. Smart card technology is popular for its wide familiarity, adaptability, accessibility, benefits, and portability. This research aims to find out the perception toward the application of a cloud-based healthcare system through a smart card in KSA. The research has compiled the countries using a smart card or smart healthcare card and indicated the potential benefits of implementing smart healthcare cards. 120 participants from Riyadh city were surveyed by the means of a closed-ended questionnaire. Data were analyzed through SPSS. This research extends the research body in the healthcare system. Empirical evidence regarding smart healthcare cards is scarce and hence undertaken in this study. The study provides a useful insight into collecting, storing, analyzing, manipulating, and accessibility of medical information regarding smart healthcare cards. Research findings can help achieve KSA's Vision 2030 goals in terms of the digitalization of healthcare systems in improving its efficiency and effectiveness in storing and accessing healthcare data.

Keywords: smart card technology, healthcare using smart cards, smart healthcare cards, KSA healthcare information system, cloud-based healthcare cards

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1451 Impact of Social Media on Content of Saudi Television News Networks

Authors: Majed Alshaibani


Social media has emerged as a serious contender to TV news networks in Saudi Arabia. The growing usage of social media as a source of news and information has led to significant impact on the content presented by the news networks in Saudi Arabia. This study explored the various ways in which social media has influenced content aired on Saudi news networks. Data were collected by using semi structured interviews with 13 journalists and content editors working for four Saudi TV news networks and six senior academic experts on TV and media teaching in Saudi universities. The findings of the study revealed that social media has affected four aspects of the content on Saudi TV news networks. As a result the content aired on Saudi news networks is more neutral, real time, diverse in terms of sources and includes content on broader subjects and from different parts of the world. This research concludes that social media has contributed positively and significantly to improving the content on Saudi TV news networks.

Keywords: TV news networks, Saudi Arabia, social media, media content

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1450 A Qualitative Analysis of Audience Interpretations of the Saudi Youtube Soap Opera Takki

Authors: Noor Attar


This paper proposes a qualitative study to examine the roles of the female characters in the Saudi YouTube soap opera Takki and audience reactions to them. It draws on concepts from Western feminist media studies and information about current portrayals of Saudi women in Saudi TV. The study will identify the themes that Takki presents related to new professional and personal opportunities for Saudi women and investigate Saudi women’s views of those themes. And finally, it will demonstrate how those themes may relate to the evolving positions and aspirations of Saudi women.

Keywords: a qualitative analysis, female characters, Saudi Arabia, Western feminist media

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1449 A Transition Towards Sustainable Feed Production Using Algae: The Development of Algae Biotechnology in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (DAB-KSA Project)

Authors: Emna Mhedhbi, Claudio Fuentes Grunewald


According to preliminary results of DAB-KSA project and considering the current 0.09-ha microalgae pilot plant facilities, we can produce 2.6 tons/year of microalgae biomass for proteins applications in animal feeds in KSA. By 2030, our projections are to reach 65,940,593.4 tons deploying 100.000 ha's production plants. We also have assessed the energy cost (industrial) in KSA (€0.061/kWh) and compared to (€0.32/kWh)in Germany, we can argue a clear lower OPEX for microalgae biomass production cost in KSA.

Keywords: microalgae, feed production, bioprocess, fishmeal

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