Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 100

Search results for: Phantom

100 Simulation Of A Renal Phantom Using the MAG 3

Authors: Ati Moncef


We describe in this paper the results of a phantom of dynamics renal with MAG3. Our phantom consisted of (tow shaped of kidneys, 1 liver). These phantoms were scanned with static and dynamic protocols and compared with clinical data. in a normal conditions we use our phantoms it's possible to acquire a renal images when we can be compared with clinical scintigraphy. In conclusion, Renal phantom also can use in the quality control of a renal scintigraphy.

Keywords: Renal scintigraphy, MAG3, Nuclear medicine, Gamma Camera.

Procedia PDF Downloads 337
99 3D Printed Multi-Modal Phantom Using Computed Tomography and 3D X-Ray Images

Authors: Sung-Suk Oh, Bong-Keun Kang, Sang-Wook Park, Hui-Jin Joo, Jong-Ryul Choi, Seong-Jun Lee, Jeong-Woo Sohn


The imaging phantom is utilized for the verification, evaluation and tuning of the medical imaging device and system. Although it could be costly, 3D printing is an ideal technique for a rapid, customized, multi-modal phantom making. In this article, we propose the multi-modal phantom using 3D printing. First of all, the Dicom images for were measured by CT (Computed Tomography) and 3D X-ray systems (PET/CT and Angio X-ray system of Siemens) and then were analyzed. Finally, the 3D modeling was processed using Dicom images. The 3D printed phantom was scanned by PET/CT and MRI systems and then evaluated.

Keywords: imaging phantom, MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging), PET / CT (Positron Emission Tomography / Computed Tomography), 3D printing

Procedia PDF Downloads 423
98 Durable Phantom Production Identical to Breast Tissue for Use in Breast Cancer Detection Research Studies

Authors: Hayrettin Eroglu, Adem Kara


Recently there has been significant attention given to imaging of the biological tissues via microwave imaging techniques. In this study, a phantom for the test and calibration of Microwave imaging used in detecting unhealthy breast structure or tumors was produced by using sol gel method. The liquid and gel phantoms being used nowadays are not durable due to evaporation and their organic ingredients, hence a new design was proposed. This phantom was fabricated from materials that were widely available (water, salt, gelatin, and glycerol) and was easy to make. This phantom was aimed to be better from the ones already proposed in the literature in terms of its durability and stability. S Parameters of phantom was measured with 1-18 GHz Probe Kit and permittivity was calculated via Debye method in “85070” commercial software. One, three, and five-week measurements were taken for this phantom. Finally, it was verified that measurement results were very close to the real biological tissue measurement results.

Keywords: phantom, breast tissue, cancer, microwave imaging

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
97 Phantom Phenomena in Subjects after Limb Amutation Who Regularly Practice High Intensity Sports

Authors: Jolanta Uszko, Tomasz Wloch, Aneta Pirowska, Roman Nowobilski


Introduction: Phantom phenomena are often reported by subjects who have undergone limb amputation. Mostly, patients feel the amputated part of the limb as if it was still attached to the body. Two types of phantom phenomena: painless (phantom sensation) and painful (phantom pain) were described. Triggers of phantom sensations and phantom pain, as well as fully effective treatment, have not been clearly described yet. Purpose: To assess the influence of psychosocial factors and some clinical conditions on the occurrence of phantom phenomena in amputee athletes. Subjects: 21 men (age: 31 years, SD = 7.5 years) after lower or upper extremity amputation, who regularly performed high-intensity sports (Amp Football Team Players) were included to the study. Method and equipment: In the research, the following method and tools were used: Questionnaire [Pirowska] adapted for athletes with disabilities, Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) - for phantom pain assessment, McGill Pain Assessment Questionnaire (short version), Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI), State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI): X-1 and X-2, shortened version of The World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOLBREFF). Results: In the study group, the lower leg amputations with traumatic etiology were predominant. Phantom sensations were present in all subjects. Half of the respondents claimed to experience phantom sensations at least once a day, paroxysmally. There was a prevalence of phantom sensations characterized as incomplete, immobile limb. Phantom pain was reported by over 85% of respondents. The nature of phantom pain was frequently described as stabbing, squeezing, shooting, pulsing, tiring. There was a significant correlation between phantom pain intensity and anxiety, quality of life, depressive tendencies, perception of phantom pain as the obstacle in daily functioning and intensity of the limb pain before amputation. Conclusions: The etiology of phantom phenomena is complex. Psychological factors seem to have a significant influence on the intensity of the phantom pain. Particular attention should be paid to patients who complain about persistent limb pain before the amputation. These are patients with an increased risk of the phantom pain of relatively high intensity.

Keywords: amputation, phantom pain, phantom sensations, adaptive sports

Procedia PDF Downloads 90
96 Reproducibility of Dopamine Transporter Density Measured with I-123-N-ω-Fluoropropyl-2β-Carbomethoxy-3β-(4-Iodophenyl)Nortropane SPECT in Phantom Studies and Parkinson’s Disease Patients

Authors: Yasuyuki Takahashi, Genta Hoshi, Kyoko Saito


Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate the reproducibility of I-123-N-ω-fluoropropyl-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4- iodophenyl) nortropane (I-123 FP-CIT) SPECT by using specific binding ratio (SBR) in phantom studies and Parkinson’s Disease (PD) patients. Methods: We made striatum phantom originally and confirmed reproducibility. The phantom studies changed head position and accumulation of FP-CIT, each. And image processing confirms influence on SBR by 30 cases. 30 PD received a SPECT for 3 hours post injection of I-123 FP-CIT 167MBq. Results: SBR decreased in rotatory direction by the patient position by the phantom studies. And, SBR improved the influence after the attenuation and the scatter correction in the cases (y=0.99x+0.57 r2=0.83). However, Stage II recognized dispersion in SBR by low accumulation. Conclusion: Than the phantom studies that assumed the normal cases, the SPECT image after the attenuation and scatter correction had better reproducibility.

Keywords: 123I-FP-CIT, specific binding ratio, Parkinson’s disease

Procedia PDF Downloads 355
95 Estimation of Normalized Glandular Doses Using a Three-Layer Mammographic Phantom

Authors: Kuan-Jen Lai, Fang-Yi Lin, Shang-Rong Huang, Yun-Zheng Zeng, Po-Chieh Hsu, Jay Wu


The normalized glandular dose (DgN) estimates the energy deposition of mammography in clinical practice. The Monte Carlo simulations frequently use uniformly mixed phantom for calculating the conversion factor. However, breast tissues are not uniformly distributed, leading to errors of conversion factor estimation. This study constructed a three-layer phantom to estimated more accurate of normalized glandular dose. In this study, MCNP code (Monte Carlo N-Particles code) was used to create the geometric structure. We simulated three types of target/filter combinations (Mo/Mo, Mo/Rh, Rh/Rh), six voltages (25 ~ 35 kVp), six HVL parameters and nine breast phantom thicknesses (2 ~ 10 cm) for the three-layer mammographic phantom. The conversion factor for 25%, 50% and 75% glandularity was calculated. The error of conversion factors compared with the results of the American College of Radiology (ACR) was within 6%. For Rh/Rh, the difference was within 9%. The difference between the 50% average glandularity and the uniform phantom was 7.1% ~ -6.7% for the Mo/Mo combination, voltage of 27 kVp, half value layer of 0.34 mmAl, and breast thickness of 4 cm. According to the simulation results, the regression analysis found that the three-layer mammographic phantom at 0% ~ 100% glandularity can be used to accurately calculate the conversion factors. The difference in glandular tissue distribution leads to errors of conversion factor calculation. The three-layer mammographic phantom can provide accurate estimates of glandular dose in clinical practice.

Keywords: Monte Carlo simulation, mammography, normalized glandular dose, glandularity

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
94 Development of Ultrasounf Probe Holder for Automatic Scanning Asymmetric Reflector

Authors: Nabilah Ibrahim, Hafiz Mohd Zaini, Wan Fatin Liyana Mutalib


Ultrasound equipment or machine is capable to scan in two dimensional (2D) areas. However there are some limitations occur during scanning an object. The problem will occur when scanning process that involving the asymmetric object. In this project, the ultrasound probe holder for asymmetric reflector scanning in 3D image is proposed to make easier for scanning the phantom or object that has asymmetric shape. Initially, the constructed asymmetric phantom that construct will be used in 2D scanning. Next, the asymmetric phantom will be interfaced by the movement of ultrasound probe holder using the Arduino software. After that, the performance of the ultrasound probe holder will be evaluated by using the various asymmetric reflector or phantom in constructing a 3D image

Keywords: ultrasound 3D images, axial and lateral resolution, asymmetric reflector, Arduino software

Procedia PDF Downloads 479
93 Relative Depth Dose Profile and Peak Scatter Factors Measurement for Co-60 Teletherapy Machine Using Chemical Dosimetry

Authors: O. Moussous, T. Medjadj


The suitability of a Fricke dosimeter for the measurement of a relative depth dose profile and the peak scatter factors was studied. The measurements were carried out in the secondary standard dosimetry laboratory at CRNA Algiers using a collimated 60Co gamma source teletherapy machine. The measurements were performed for different field sizes at the phantom front face, at a fixed source-to-phantom distance of 80 cm. The dose measurements were performed by first placing the dosimeters free-in-air at the distance-source-detector (DSD) of 80.5 cm from the source. Additional measurements were made with the phantom in place. The water phantom type Med-Tec 40x40x40 cm for vertical beam was used in this work as scattering martial. The phantom was placed on the irradiation bench of the cobalt unit at the SSD of 80 cm from the beam focus and the centre of the field coincided with the geometric centre of the dosimeters placed at the depth in water of 5 mm Relative depth dose profile and Peak scatter factors measurements were carried out using our Fricke system. This was intercompared with similar measurements by ionization chamber under identical conditions. There is a good agreement between the relative percentage depth–dose profiles and the PSF values measured by both systems using a water phantom.

Keywords: Fricke dosimeter, depth–dose profiles, peak scatter factors, DSD

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
92 A Comparison of TLD Measurements to MIRD Estimates of the Dose to the Ovaries and Uterus from Tc-99m in Liver

Authors: Karim Adinehvand, Bakhtiar Azadbakht, Amin Sahebnasagh


Relation to high absorption fraction of Tc SESTAMIBI by internal organs in heart scan, and these organs are near to generation organs (Ovaries and uterus). In this study, Liver is specified as source organ. Method: we have set amount of absorbed fraction radiopharmaceutical in position of Liver in RANDO-phantom in form of elliptical surfaces, then absorbed dose to ovaries and uterus measured by TLD-100 that had set at position of these organs in RANDO-phantom. Calculation had done by MIRD method. Results from direct measurement and MIRD method are too similar. The absorbed dose to uterus and ovaries for Rest are 26.05µGyMBq-1, 17.23µGyMBq-1 and for Stress are 2.04µGyMBq-1, 1.35µGyMBq-1 respectively.

Keywords: absorbed dose, TLD, MIRD, RANDO-phantom, Tc-99m

Procedia PDF Downloads 478
91 Assessment of Breast, Lung and Liver Effective Doses in Heart Imaging by CT-Scan 128 Dual Sources with Use of TLD-100 in RANDO Phantom

Authors: Seyedeh Sepideh Amini, Navideh Aghaei Amirkhizi, Seyedeh Paniz Amini, Seyed Soheil Sayyahi, Mohammad Reza Davar Panah


CT-Scan is one of the lateral and sectional imaging methods that produce 3D-images with use of rotational x-ray tube around central axis. This study is about evaluation and calculation of effective doses around heart organs such as breast, lung and liver with CT-Scan 128 dual sources with TLD_100 and RANDO Phantom by spiral, flash and conventional protocols. In results, it is showed that in spiral protocol organs have maximum effective dose and minimum in flash protocol. Thus flash protocol advised for children and risk persons.

Keywords: X-ray computed tomography, dosimetry, TLD-100, RANDO, phantom

Procedia PDF Downloads 389
90 Evolution of Cord Absorbed Dose during Larynx Cancer Radiotherapy, with 3D Treatment Planning and Tissue Equivalent Phantom

Authors: Mohammad Hassan Heidari, Amir Hossein Goodarzi, Majid Azarniush


Radiation doses to tissues and organs were measured using the anthropomorphic phantom as an equivalent to the human body. When high-energy X-rays are externally applied to treat laryngeal cancer, the absorbed dose at the laryngeal lumen is lower than given dose because of air space which it should pass through before reaching the lesion. Specially in case of high-energy X-rays, the loss of dose is considerable. Three-dimensional absorbed dose distributions have been computed for high-energy photon radiation therapy of laryngeal and hypo pharyngeal cancers, using a coaxial pair of opposing lateral beams in fixed positions. Treatment plans obtained under various conditions of irradiation.

Keywords: 3D treatment planning, anthropomorphic phantom, larynx cancer, radiotherapy

Procedia PDF Downloads 472
89 Comparison of FNTD and OSLD Detectors' Responses to Light Ion Beams Using Monte Carlo Simulations and Exprimental Data

Authors: M. R. Akbari, H. Yousefnia, A. Ghasemi


Al2O3:C,Mg fluorescent nuclear track detector (FNTD) and Al2O3:C optically stimulated luminescence detector (OSLD) are becoming two of the applied detectors in ion dosimetry. Therefore, the response of these detectors to hadron beams is highly of interest in radiation therapy (RT) using ion beams. In this study, these detectors' responses to proton and Helium-4 ion beams were compared using Monte Carlo simulations. The calculated data for proton beams were compared with Markus ionization chamber (IC) measurement (in water phantom) from M.D. Anderson proton therapy center. Monte Carlo simulations were performed via the FLUKA code (version 2011.2-17). The detectors were modeled in cylindrical shape at various depths of the water phantom without shading each other for obtaining relative depth dose in the phantom. Mono-energetic parallel ion beams in different incident energies (100 MeV/n to 250 MeV/n) were collided perpendicularly on the phantom surface. For proton beams, the results showed that the simulated detectors have over response relative to IC measurements in water phantom. In all cases, there were good agreements between simulated ion ranges in the water with calculated and experimental results reported by the literature. For proton, maximum peak to entrance dose ratio in the simulated water phantom was 4.3 compared with about 3 obtained from IC measurements. For He-4 ion beams, maximum peak to entrance ratio calculated by both detectors was less than 3.6 in all energies. Generally, it can be said that FLUKA is a good tool to calculate Al2O3:C,Mg FNTD and Al2O3:C OSLD detectors responses to therapeutic proton and He-4 ion beams. It can also calculate proton and He-4 ion ranges with a reasonable accuracy.

Keywords: comparison, FNTD and OSLD detectors response, light ion beams, Monte Carlo simulations

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
88 Effective Dose and Size Specific Dose Estimation with and without Tube Current Modulation for Thoracic Computed Tomography Examinations: A Phantom Study

Authors: S. Gharbi, S. Labidi, M. Mars, M. Chelli, F. Ladeb


The purpose of this study is to reduce radiation dose for chest CT examination by including Tube Current Modulation (TCM) to a standard CT protocol. A scan of an anthropomorphic male Alderson phantom was performed on a 128-slice scanner. The estimation of effective dose (ED) in both scans with and without mAs modulation was done via multiplication of Dose Length Product (DLP) to a conversion factor. Results were compared to those measured with a CT-Expo software. The size specific dose estimation (SSDE) values were obtained by multiplication of the volume CT dose index (CTDIvol) with a conversion size factor related to the phantom’s effective diameter. Objective assessment of image quality was performed with Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) measurements in phantom. SPSS software was used for data analysis. Results showed including CARE Dose 4D; ED was lowered by 48.35% and 51.51% using DLP and CT-expo, respectively. In addition, ED ranges between 7.01 mSv and 6.6 mSv in case of standard protocol, while it ranges between 3.62 mSv and 3.2 mSv with TCM. Similar results are found for SSDE; dose was higher without TCM of 16.25 mGy and was lower by 48.8% including TCM. The SNR values calculated were significantly different (p=0.03<0.05). The highest one is measured on images acquired with TCM and reconstructed with Filtered back projection (FBP). In conclusion, this study proves the potential of TCM technique in SSDE and ED reduction and in conserving image quality with high diagnostic reference level for thoracic CT examinations.

Keywords: anthropomorphic phantom, computed tomography, CT-expo, radiation dose

Procedia PDF Downloads 151
87 Realistic Modeling of the Preclinical Small Animal Using Commercial Software

Authors: Su Chul Han, Seungwoo Park


As the increasing incidence of cancer, the technology and modality of radiotherapy have advanced and the importance of preclinical model is increasing in the cancer research. Furthermore, the small animal dosimetry is an essential part of the evaluation of the relationship between the absorbed dose in preclinical small animal and biological effect in preclinical study. In this study, we carried out realistic modeling of the preclinical small animal phantom possible to verify irradiated dose using commercial software. The small animal phantom was modeling from 4D Digital Mouse whole body phantom. To manipulate Moby phantom in commercial software (Mimics, Materialise, Leuven, Belgium), we converted Moby phantom to DICOM image file of CT by Matlab and two- dimensional of CT images were converted to the three-dimensional image and it is possible to segment and crop CT image in Sagittal, Coronal and axial view). The CT images of small animals were modeling following process. Based on the profile line value, the thresholding was carried out to make a mask that was connection of all the regions of the equal threshold range. Using thresholding method, we segmented into three part (bone, body (tissue). lung), to separate neighboring pixels between lung and body (tissue), we used region growing function of Mimics software. We acquired 3D object by 3D calculation in the segmented images. The generated 3D object was smoothing by remeshing operation and smoothing operation factor was 0.4, iteration value was 5. The edge mode was selected to perform triangle reduction. The parameters were that tolerance (0.1mm), edge angle (15 degrees) and the number of iteration (5). The image processing 3D object file was converted to an STL file to output with 3D printer. We modified 3D small animal file using 3- Matic research (Materialise, Leuven, Belgium) to make space for radiation dosimetry chips. We acquired 3D object of realistic small animal phantom. The width of small animal phantom was 2.631 cm, thickness was 2.361 cm, and length was 10.817. Mimics software supported efficiency about 3D object generation and usability of conversion to STL file for user. The development of small preclinical animal phantom would increase reliability of verification of absorbed dose in small animal for preclinical study.

Keywords: mimics, preclinical small animal, segmentation, 3D printer

Procedia PDF Downloads 299
86 Measurement of IMRT Dose Distribution in Rando Head and Neck Phantom using EBT3 Film

Authors: Pegah Safavi, Mehdi Zehtabian, Mohammad Amin Mosleh-Shirazi


Cancer is one of the leading causes of death in the world. Radiation therapy is one of the main choices for cancer treatment. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy is a new type of radiation therapy technique available for vital structures such as the parathyroid glands. It is very important to check the accuracy of the delivered IMRT treatment because any mistake may lead to more complications for the patient. This paper describes an experiment to determine the accuracy of a dose measured by EBT3 film. To test this method, the EBT3 film on the head and neck of the Rando phantom was irradiated by an IMRT device and the irradiation was repeated twice. Finally, the dose designed by the irradiation system was compared with the dose measured by the EBT3 film. Using this criterion, the accuracy of the EBT3 film was evaluated. When using this criterion, a 95% agreement was reached between the planned treatment and the measured values.

Keywords: EBT3, phantom, accuracy, cancer, IMRT

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
85 The Dose to Organs in Lumbar-Abdominal Computed Tomography Imaging Using TLD

Authors: M. Zehtabian, Z. Molaiemanesh, Z. Shafahi, M. Papie, M. Zahraie Moghaddam, M. Mehralizadeh, M. R. Vahidi, S. Sina


The introduction of CT scans has been a great improvement in diagnosis of different diseases. However, this imaging modality can expose the patients to cumulative radiation doses which may increase the risks of some health problems like cancer. In this study, the dose delivered to different organs in lumbar-abdominal imaging was measured by putting the TLD-100, and TLD-100H chips inside the Alderson Rando phantom. The lumbar-abdominal image of the phantom was obtained, while TLD chips were inside the holes of the phantom. According to the results obtained in this study using TLD-100 chips, the average dose received by liver, bladder, rectum, kidneys, and uterus were found to be 12.9 mSv, 8.9 mSv, 10.1 mSv, 11.0 mSv, 11.2 mSv, and 10.5 mSv respectively, while the measurements performed by TLD-100H show that the average dose to liver, bladder, rectum, kidneys, and uterus were found to be 12.4 mSv, 9.2 mSv, 9.5 mSv, 10.5 mSv, 10.7 mSv, and 9.9 mSv respectively. The results of this study indicates that the dose measured by the TLD-100H chips are in close agreement with those obtained by TLD-100.

Keywords: CT scan, dose, TLD-100, diagnosis

Procedia PDF Downloads 525
84 Water Equivalent from the Point of View of Fast Neutron Removal Cross-Section

Authors: Mohammed Alrajhi


Radiological properties of gel dosimeters and phantom materials are often evaluated in terms of effective atomic number, electron density, photon mass attenuation coefficient, photon mass energy absorption coefficient and total stopping power of electrons. To evaluate the water equivalence of such materials for fast neutron attenuation 19 different types of gel dosimeters and phantom materials were considered. Macroscopic removal cross-sections for fast neutrons (ΣR cm-1) have been calculated for a range of ferrous-sulphate and polymeric gel dosimeters using Nxcom Program. The study showed that the value of ΣR/ρ (cm2.g-1) for all polymer gels were in close agreement (1.5- 2.8%) with that of water. As such, the slight differences in ΣR/ρ between water and gels are small and may be considered negligible. Also, the removal cross-section of the studied phantom materials were very close (~ ±1.5%) to that of water except bone (cortical) which had about 38% variation. Finally, the variation of removal cross-section with hydrogen content was studied.

Keywords: cross-section, neutron, photon, coefficient, mathematics

Procedia PDF Downloads 309
83 A Study on Real-Time Fluorescence-Photoacoustic Imaging System for Mouse Thrombosis Monitoring

Authors: Sang Hun Park, Moung Young Lee, Su Min Yu, Hyun Sang Jo, Ji Hyeon Kim, Chul Gyu Song


A near-infrared light source used as a light source in the fluorescence imaging system is suitable for use in real-time during the operation since it has no interference in surgical vision. However, fluorescence images do not have depth information. In this paper, we configured the device with the research on molecular imaging systems for monitoring thrombus imaging using fluorescence and photoacoustic. Fluorescence imaging was performed using a phantom experiment in order to search the exact location, and the Photoacoustic image was in order to detect the depth. Fluorescence image obtained when evaluated through current phantom experiments when the concentration of the contrast agent is 25μg / ml, it was confirmed that it looked sharper. The phantom experiment is has shown the possibility with the fluorescence image and photoacoustic image using an indocyanine green contrast agent. For early diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases, more active research with the fusion of different molecular imaging devices is required.

Keywords: fluorescence, photoacoustic, indocyanine green, carotid artery

Procedia PDF Downloads 128
82 Optimizing Exposure Parameters in Digital Mammography: A Study in Morocco

Authors: Talbi Mohammed, Oustous Aziz, Ben Messaoud Mounir, Sebihi Rajaa, Khalis Mohammed


Background: Breast cancer is the leading cause of death for women around the world. Screening mammography is the reference examination, due to its sensitivity for detecting small lesions and micro-calcifications. Therefore, it is essential to ensure quality mammographic examinations with the most optimal dose. These conditions depend on the choice of exposure parameters. Clinically, practices must be evaluated in order to determine the most appropriate exposure parameters. Material and Methods: We performed our measurements on a mobile mammography unit (PLANMED Sofie-classic.) in Morocco. A solid dosimeter (AGMS Radcal) and a MTM 100 phantom allow to quantify the delivered dose and the image quality. For image quality assessment, scores are defined by the rate of visible inserts (MTM 100 phantom), obtained and compared for each acquisition. Results: The results show that the parameters of the mammography unit on which we have made our measurements can be improved in order to offer a better compromise between image quality and breast dose. The last one can be reduced up from 13.27% to 22.16%, while preserving comparable image quality.

Keywords: Mammography, Breast Dose, Image Quality, Phantom

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
81 Comparison of an Anthropomorphic PRESAGE® Dosimeter and Radiochromic Film with a Commercial Radiation Treatment Planning System for Breast IMRT: A Feasibility Study

Authors: Khalid Iqbal


This work presents a comparison of an anthropomorphic PRESAGE® dosimeter and radiochromic film measurements with a commercial treatment planning system to determine the feasibility of PRESAGE® for 3D dosimetry in breast IMRT. An anthropomorphic PRESAGE® phantom was created in the shape of a breast phantom. A five-field IMRT plan was generated with a commercially available treatment planning system and delivered to the PRESAGE® phantom. The anthropomorphic PRESAGE® was scanned with the Duke midsized optical CT scanner (DMOS-RPC) and the OD distribution was converted to dose. Comparisons were performed between the dose distribution calculated with the Pinnacle3 treatment planning system, PRESAGE®, and EBT2 film measurements. DVHs, gamma maps, and line profiles were used to evaluate the agreement. Gamma map comparisons showed that Pinnacle3 agreed with PRESAGE® as greater than 95% of comparison points for the PTV passed a ± 3%/± 3 mm criterion when the outer 8 mm of phantom data were discluded. Edge artifacts were observed in the optical CT reconstruction, from the surface to approximately 8 mm depth. These artifacts resulted in dose differences between Pinnacle3 and PRESAGE® of up to 5% between the surface and a depth of 8 mm and decreased with increasing depth in the phantom. Line profile comparisons between all three independent measurements yielded a maximum difference of 2% within the central 80% of the field width. For the breast IMRT plan studied, the Pinnacle3 calculations agreed with PRESAGE® measurements to within the ±3%/± 3 mm gamma criterion. This work demonstrates the feasibility of the PRESAGE® to be fashioned into anthropomorphic shape, and establishes the accuracy of Pinnacle3 for breast IMRT. Furthermore, these data have established the groundwork for future investigations into 3D dosimetry with more complex anthropomorphic phantoms.

Keywords: 3D dosimetry, PRESAGE®, IMRT, QA, EBT2 GAFCHROMIC film

Procedia PDF Downloads 337
80 Comparing Two Unmanned Aerial Systems in Determining Elevation at the Field Scale

Authors: Brock Buckingham, Zhe Lin, Wenxuan Guo


Accurate elevation data is critical in deriving topographic attributes for the precision management of crop inputs, especially water and nutrients. Traditional ground-based elevation data acquisition is time consuming, labor intensive, and often inconvenient at the field scale. Various unmanned aerial systems (UAS) provide the capability of generating digital elevation data from high-resolution images. The objective of this study was to compare the performance of two UAS with different global positioning system (GPS) receivers in determining elevation at the field scale. A DJI Phantom 4 Pro and a DJI Phantom 4 RTK(real-time kinematic) were applied to acquire images at three heights, including 40m, 80m, and 120m above ground. Forty ground control panels were placed in the field, and their geographic coordinates were determined using an RTK GPS survey unit. For each image acquisition using a UAS at a particular height, two elevation datasets were generated using the Pix4D stitching software: a calibrated dataset using the surveyed coordinates of the ground control panels and an uncalibrated dataset without using the surveyed coordinates of the ground control panels. Elevation values for each panel derived from the elevation model of each dataset were compared to the corresponding coordinates of the ground control panels. The coefficient of the determination (R²) and the root mean squared error (RMSE) were used as evaluation metrics to assess the performance of each image acquisition scenario. RMSE values for the uncalibrated elevation dataset were 26.613 m, 31.141 m, and 25.135 m for images acquired at 120 m, 80 m, and 40 m, respectively, using the Phantom 4 Pro UAS. With calibration for the same UAS, the accuracies were significantly improved with RMSE values of 0.161 m, 0.165, and 0.030 m, respectively. The best results showed an RMSE of 0.032 m and an R² of 0.998 for calibrated dataset generated using the Phantom 4 RTK UAS at 40m height. The accuracy of elevation determination decreased as the flight height increased for both UAS, with RMSE values greater than 0.160 m for the datasets acquired at 80 m and 160 m. The results of this study show that calibration with ground control panels improves the accuracy of elevation determination, especially for the UAS with a regular GPS receiver. The Phantom 4 Pro provides accurate elevation data with substantial surveyed ground control panels for the 40 m dataset. The Phantom 4 Pro RTK UAS provides accurate elevation at 40 m without calibration for practical precision agriculture applications. This study provides valuable information on selecting appropriate UAS and flight heights in determining elevation for precision agriculture applications.

Keywords: unmanned aerial system, elevation, precision agriculture, real-time kinematic (RTK)

Procedia PDF Downloads 98
79 Electro-Thermal Imaging of Breast Phantom: An Experimental Study

Authors: H. Feza Carlak, N. G. Gencer


To increase the temperature contrast in thermal images, the characteristics of the electrical conductivity and thermal imaging modalities can be combined. In this experimental study, it is objected to observe whether the temperature contrast created by the tumor tissue can be improved just due to the current application within medical safety limits. Various thermal breast phantoms are developed to simulate the female breast tissue. In vitro experiments are implemented using a thermal infrared camera in a controlled manner. Since experiments are implemented in vitro, there is no metabolic heat generation and blood perfusion. Only the effects and results of the electrical stimulation are investigated. Experimental study is implemented with two-dimensional models. Temperature contrasts due to the tumor tissues are obtained. Cancerous tissue is determined using the difference and ratio of healthy and tumor images. 1 cm diameter single tumor tissue causes almost 40 °mC temperature contrast on the thermal-breast phantom. Electrode artifacts are reduced by taking the difference and ratio of background (healthy) and tumor images. Ratio of healthy and tumor images show that temperature contrast is increased by the current application.

Keywords: medical diagnostic imaging, breast phantom, active thermography, breast cancer detection

Procedia PDF Downloads 350
78 Computation of Radiotherapy Treatment Plans Based on CT to ED Conversion Curves

Authors: B. Petrović, L. Rutonjski, M. Baucal, M. Teodorović, O. Čudić, B. Basarić


Radiotherapy treatment planning computers use CT data of the patient. For the computation of a treatment plan, treatment planning system must have an information on electron densities of tissues scanned by CT. This information is given by the conversion curve CT (CT number) to ED (electron density), or simply calibration curve. Every treatment planning system (TPS) has built in default CT to ED conversion curves, for the CTs of different manufacturers. However, it is always recommended to verify the CT to ED conversion curve before actual clinical use. Objective of this study was to check how the default curve already provided matches the curve actually measured on a specific CT, and how much it influences the calculation of a treatment planning computer. The examined CT scanners were from the same manufacturer, but four different scanners from three generations. The measurements of all calibration curves were done with the dedicated phantom CIRS 062M Electron Density Phantom. The phantom was scanned, and according to real HU values read at the CT console computer, CT to ED conversion curves were generated for different materials, for same tube voltage 140 kV. Another phantom, CIRS Thorax 002 LFC which represents an average human torso in proportion, density and two-dimensional structure, was used for verification. The treatment planning was done on CT slices of scanned CIRS LFC 002 phantom, for selected cases. Interest points were set in the lungs, and in the spinal cord, and doses recorded in TPS. The overall calculated treatment times for four scanners and default scanner did not differ more than 0.8%. Overall interest point dose in bone differed max 0.6% while for single fields was maximum 2.7% (lateral field). Overall interest point dose in lungs differed max 1.1% while for single fields was maximum 2.6% (lateral field). It is known that user should verify the CT to ED conversion curve, but often, developing countries are facing lack of QA equipment, and often use default data provided. We have concluded that the CT to ED curves obtained differ in certain points of a curve, generally in the region of higher densities. This influences the treatment planning result which is not significant, but definitely does make difference in the calculated dose.

Keywords: Computation of treatment plan, conversion curve, radiotherapy, electron density

Procedia PDF Downloads 397
77 Reconstruction of Holographic Dark Energy in Chameleon Brans-Dicke Cosmology

Authors: Surajit Chattopadhyay


Accelerated expansion of the current universe is well-established in the literature. Dark energy and modified gravity are two approaches to account for this accelerated expansion. In the present work, we consider scalar field models of dark energy, namely, tachyon and DBI essence in the framework of chameleon Brans-Dicke cosmology. The equation of state parameter is reconstructed and the subsequent cosmological implications are studied. We examined the stability for the obtained solutions of the crossing of the phantom divide under a quantum correction of massless conformally invariant fields and we have seen that quantum correction could be small when the phantom crossing occurs and the obtained solutions of the phantom crossing could be stable under the quantum correction. In the subsequent phase, we have established a correspondence between the NHDE model and the quintessence, the DBI-essence and the tachyon scalar field models in the framework of chameleon Brans–Dicke cosmology. We reconstruct the potentials and the dynamics for these three scalar field models we have considered. The reconstructed potentials are found to increase with the evolution of the universe and in a very late stage they are observed to decay.

Keywords: dark energy, holographic principle, modified gravity, reconstruction

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76 Monte Carlo Simulation of Thyroid Phantom Imaging Using Geant4-GATE

Authors: Parimalah Velo, Ahmad Zakaria


Introduction: Monte Carlo simulations of preclinical imaging systems allow opportunity to enable new research that could range from designing hardware up to discovery of new imaging application. The simulation system which could accurately model an imaging modality provides a platform for imaging developments that might be inconvenient in physical experiment systems due to the expense, unnecessary radiation exposures and technological difficulties. The aim of present study is to validate the Monte Carlo simulation of thyroid phantom imaging using Geant4-GATE for Siemen’s e-cam single head gamma camera. Upon the validation of the gamma camera simulation model by comparing physical characteristic such as energy resolution, spatial resolution, sensitivity, and dead time, the GATE simulation of thyroid phantom imaging is carried out. Methods: A thyroid phantom is defined geometrically which comprises of 2 lobes with 80mm in diameter, 1 hot spot, and 3 cold spots. This geometry accurately resembling the actual dimensions of thyroid phantom. A planar image of 500k counts with 128x128 matrix size was acquired using simulation model and in actual experimental setup. Upon image acquisition, quantitative image analysis was performed by investigating the total number of counts in image, the contrast of the image, radioactivity distributions on image and the dimension of hot spot. Algorithm for each quantification is described in detail. The difference in estimated and actual values for both simulation and experimental setup is analyzed for radioactivity distribution and dimension of hot spot. Results: The results show that the difference between contrast level of simulation image and experimental image is within 2%. The difference in the total count between simulation and actual study is 0.4%. The results of activity estimation show that the relative difference between estimated and actual activity for experimental and simulation is 4.62% and 3.03% respectively. The deviation in estimated diameter of hot spot for both simulation and experimental study are similar which is 0.5 pixel. In conclusion, the comparisons show good agreement between the simulation and experimental data.

Keywords: gamma camera, Geant4 application of tomographic emission (GATE), Monte Carlo, thyroid imaging

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75 Developing Motorized Spectroscopy System for Tissue Scanning

Authors: Tuba Denkceken, Ayse Nur Sarı, Volkan Ihsan Tore, Mahmut Denkceken


The aim of the presented study was to develop a newly motorized spectroscopy system. Our system is composed of probe and motor parts. The probe part consists of bioimpedance and fiber optic components that include two platinum wires (each 25 micrometer in diameter) and two fiber cables (each 50 micrometers in diameter) respectively. Probe was examined on tissue phantom (polystyrene microspheres with different diameters). In the bioimpedance part of the probe current was transferred to the phantom and conductivity information was obtained. Adjacent two fiber cables were used in the fiber optic part of the system. Light was transferred to the phantom by fiber that was connected to the light source and backscattered light was collected with the other adjacent fiber for analysis. It is known that the nucleus expands and the nucleus-cytoplasm ratio increases during the cancer progression in the cell and this situation is one of the most important criteria for evaluating the tissue for pathologists. The sensitivity of the probe to particle (nucleus) size in phantom was tested during the study. Spectroscopic data obtained from our system on phantom was evaluated by multivariate statistical analysis. Thus the information about the particle size in the phantom was obtained. Bioimpedance and fiber optic experiments results which were obtained from polystyrene microspheres showed that the impedance value and the oscillation amplitude were increasing while the size of particle was enlarging. These results were compatible with the previous studies. In order to motorize the system within the motor part, three driver electronic circuits were designed primarily. In this part, supply capacitors were placed symmetrically near to the supply inputs which were used for balancing the oscillation. Female capacitors were connected to the control pin. Optic and mechanic switches were made. Drivers were structurally designed as they could command highly calibrated motors. It was considered important to keep the drivers’ dimension as small as we could (4.4x4.4x1.4 cm). Then three miniature step motors were connected to each other along with three drivers. Since spectroscopic techniques are quantitative methods, they yield more objective results than traditional ones. In the future part of this study, it is planning to get spectroscopic data that have optic and impedance information from the cell culture which is normal, low metastatic and high metastatic breast cancer. In case of getting high sensitivity in differentiated cells, it might be possible to scan large surface tissue areas in a short time with small steps. By means of motorize feature of the system, any region of the tissue will not be missed, in this manner we are going to be able to diagnose cancerous parts of the tissue meticulously. This work is supported by The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TÜBİTAK) through 3001 project (115E662).

Keywords: motorized spectroscopy, phantom, scanning system, tissue scanning

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74 Preliminary Evaluation of Maximum Intensity Projection SPECT Imaging for Whole Body Tc-99m Hydroxymethylene Diphosphonate Bone Scanning

Authors: Yasuyuki Takahashi, Hirotaka Shimada, Kyoko Saito


Bone scintigraphy is widely used as a screening tool for bone metastases. However, the 180 to 240 minutes (min) waiting time after the intravenous (i.v.) injection of the tracer is both long and tiresome. To solve this shortcoming, a bone scan with a shorter waiting time is needed. In this study, we applied the Maximum Intensity Projection (MIP) and triple energy window (TEW) scatter correction to a whole body bone SPECT (Merged SPECT) and investigated shortening the waiting time. Methods: In a preliminary phantom study, hot gels of 99mTc-HMDP were inserted into sets of rods with diameters ranging from 4 to 19 mm. Each rod set covered a sector of a cylindrical phantom. The activity concentration of all rods was 2.5 times that of the background in the cylindrical body of the phantom. In the human study, SPECT images were obtained from chest to abdomen at 30 to 180 min after 99mTc- hydroxymethylene diphosphonate (HMDP) injection of healthy volunteers. For both studies, MIP images were reconstructed. Planar whole body images of the patients were also obtained. These were acquired at 200 min. The image quality of the SPECT and the planar images was compared. Additionally, 36 patients with breast cancer were scanned in the same way. The delectability of uptake regions (metastases) was compared visually. Results: In the phantom study, a 4 mm size hot gel was difficult to depict on the conventional SPECT, but MIP images could recognize it clearly. For both the healthy volunteers and the clinical patients, the accumulation of 99mTc-HMDP in the SPECT was good as early as 90 min. All findings of both image sets were in agreement. Conclusion: In phantoms, images from MIP with TEW scatter correction could detect all rods down to those with a diameter of 4 mm. In patients, MIP reconstruction with TEW scatter correction could improve the detectability of hot lesions. In addition, the time between injection and imaging could be shortened from that conventionally used for whole body scans.

Keywords: merged SPECT, MIP, TEW scatter correction, 99mTc-HMDP

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73 Low Cost Technique for Measuring Luminance in Biological Systems

Authors: N. Chetty, K. Singh


In this work, the relationship between the melanin content in a tissue and subsequent absorption of light through that tissue was determined using a digital camera. This technique proved to be simple, cost effective, efficient and reliable. Tissue phantom samples were created using milk and soy sauce to simulate the optical properties of melanin content in human tissue. Increasing the concentration of soy sauce in the milk correlated to an increase in melanin content of an individual. Two methods were employed to measure the light transmitted through the sample. The first was direct measurement of the transmitted intensity using a conventional lux meter. The second method involved correctly calibrating an ordinary digital camera and using image analysis software to calculate the transmitted intensity through the phantom. The results from these methods were then graphically compared to the theoretical relationship between the intensity of transmitted light and the concentration of absorbers in the sample. Conclusions were then drawn about the effectiveness and efficiency of these low cost methods.

Keywords: tissue phantoms, scattering coefficient, albedo, low-cost method

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72 Tactile Sensory Digit Feedback for Cochlear Implant Electrode Insertion

Authors: Yusuf Bulale, Mark Prince, Geoff Tansley, Peter Brett


Cochlear Implantation (CI) which became a routine procedure for the last decades is an electronic device that provides a sense of sound for patients who are severely and profoundly deaf. Today, cochlear implantation technology uses electrode array (EA) implanted manually into the cochlea. The optimal success of this implantation depends on the electrode technology and deep insertion techniques. However, this manual insertion procedure may cause mechanical trauma which can lead to a severe destruction of the delicate intracochlear structure. Accordingly, future improvement of the cochlear electrode implant insertion needs reduction of the excessive force application during the cochlear implantation which causes tissue damage and trauma. This study is examined tool-tissue interaction of large prototype scale digit embedded with distributive tactile sensor based upon cochlear electrode and large prototype scale cochlea phantom for simulating the human cochlear which could lead to small-scale digit requirements. The digit, distributive tactile sensors embedded with silicon-substrate was inserted into the cochlea phantom to measure any digit/phantom interaction and position of the digit in order to minimize tissue and trauma damage during the electrode cochlear insertion. The digit has provided tactile information from the digit-phantom insertion interaction such as contact status, tip penetration, obstacles, relative shape and location, contact orientation and multiple contacts. The tests demonstrated that even devices of such a relative simple design with low cost have a potential to improve cochlear implant surgery and other lumen mapping applications by providing tactile sensory feedback information and thus controlling the insertion through sensing and control of the tip of the implant during the insertion. In that approach, the surgeon could minimize the tissue damage and potential damage to the delicate structures within the cochlear caused by current manual electrode insertion of the cochlear implantation. This approach also can be applied to other minimally invasive surgery applications as well as diagnosis and path navigation procedures.

Keywords: cochlear electrode insertion, distributive tactile sensory feedback information, flexible digit, minimally invasive surgery, tool/tissue interaction

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71 Assessing Relationships between Glandularity and Gray Level by Using Breast Phantoms

Authors: Yun-Xuan Tang, Pei-Yuan Liu, Kun-Mu Lu, Min-Tsung Tseng, Liang-Kuang Chen, Yuh-Feng Tsai, Ching-Wen Lee, Jay Wu


Breast cancer is predominant of malignant tumors in females. The increase in the glandular density increases the risk of breast cancer. BI-RADS is a frequently used density indicator in mammography; however, it significantly overestimates the glandularity. Therefore, it is very important to accurately and quantitatively assess the glandularity by mammography. In this study, 20%, 30% and 50% glandularity phantoms were exposed using a mammography machine at 28, 30 and 31 kVp, and 30, 55, 80 and 105 mAs, respectively. The regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn to assess the gray level. The relationship between the glandularity and gray level under various compression thicknesses, kVp, and mAs was established by the multivariable linear regression. A phantom verification was performed with automatic exposure control (AEC). The regression equation was obtained with an R-square value of 0.928. The average gray levels of the verification phantom were 8708, 8660 and 8434 for 0.952, 0.963 and 0.985 g/cm3, respectively. The percent differences of glandularity to the regression equation were 3.24%, 2.75% and 13.7%. We concluded that the proposed method could be clinically applied in mammography to improve the glandularity estimation and further increase the importance of breast cancer screening.

Keywords: mammography, glandularity, gray value, BI-RADS

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