Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 215

Search results for: chitosan

215 Synthesis and Characterization of Chitosan Microparticles for Scaffold Structure and Bioprinting

Authors: J. E. Mendes, T. T. de Barros, O. B. G. de Assis, J. D. C. Pessoa


Chitosan, a natural polysaccharide of β-1,4-linked glucosamine residues, is a biopolymer obtained primarily from the exoskeletons of crustaceans. Interest in polymeric materials increases year by year. Chitosan is one of the most plentiful biomaterials, with a wide range of pharmaceutical, biomedical, industrial and agricultural applications. Chitosan nanoparticles were synthesized via the ionotropic gelation of chitosan with sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP). Two concentrations of chitosan microparticles (0.1 and 0.2%) were synthesized. In this study, it was possible to synthesize and characterize microparticles of chitosan biomaterial and this will be used for future applications in cell anchorage for 3D bioprinting.

Keywords: chitosan microparticles, biomaterial, scaffold, bioprinting

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214 Local Activities of the Membranes Associated with Glycosaminoglycan-Chitosan Complexes in Bone Cells

Authors: Chih-Chang Yeh, Min-Fang Yang, Hsin-I Chang


Chitosan is a cationic polysaccharide derived from the partial deacetylation of chitin. Hyaluronic acid (HA), chondroitin sulfate (CS) and heparin (HP) are anionic glycosaminoglycans (GCGs) which can regulate osteogenic activity. In this study, chitosan membranes were prepared by glutaraldehyde crosslinking reaction and then complexed with three different types of GCGs. 7F2 osteoblasts-like cells and macrophages Raw264.7 were used as models to study the influence of chitosan membranes on osteometabolism. Although chitosan membranes are highly hydrophilic, the membranes associated with GCG-chitosan complexes showed about 60-70% cell attachment. Furthermore, the membranes associated with HP-chitosan complexes could increase ALP activity in comparison with chitosan films only. Three types of the membranes associated with GCG-chitosan complexes could significantly inhibit LPS induced-nitric oxide expression. In addition, chitosan membranes associated with HP and HA can down-regulate tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity but not CS-chitosan complexes. Based on these results, we conclude that chitosan membranes associated with HP can increase ALP activity in osteoblasts and chitosan membranes associated with HP and HA reduce TRAP activity in osteoclasts.

Keywords: osteoblast, osteoclast, chitosan, glycosaminoglycan

Procedia PDF Downloads 346
213 An Investigation on Viscoelastic and Electrical Properties of Biopolymer-Based Composites

Authors: K. Sever, Y. Seki, Z. Yenier, İ. Şen, M. Sarikanat


It is known that Chitosan, as a natural polymer, has many excellent properties such as bicompotability, biodegradability and nontoxicity. Besides it has some limitations such as poor solubility in water and low conductivity in electrical devices and sensor applications. In order to improve electrical conductivity properties grapheme loading was conducted into chitosan. For this aim, chitosan solution was prepared in acidic condition and Graphene at different ratios was mixed with chitosan solution by the help of homogenizator. After film formation electrical conductivity values of chitosan and graphene loaded chitosan were determined. After grapheme loading into chitosan,solution significant increases in surface resistivity value of chitosan were observed. Besides variations on viscoeleastic properties with graphene loading was determined by dynamic mechanical analysis. Storage and Loss moduli were obtained for chitosan and grapheme loaded chitosan samples.

Keywords: chitosan, graphene, viscoelastic properties, electrical conductivity

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212 Water Soluble Chitosan Derivatives via the Freeze Concentration Technique

Authors: Senem Avaz, Alpay Taralp


Chitosan has been an attractive biopolymer for decades, but its processibility is lowered by its poor solubility, especially in physiological pH values. Freeze concentrated reactions of Chitosan with several organic acids including acrylic, citraconic, itaconic, and maleic acid revealed improved solubility and morphological properties. Solubility traits were assessed with a modified ninhydrin test. Chitosan derivatives were characterized by ATR-FTIR and morphological characteristics were determined by SEM. This study is a unique approach to chemically modify Chitosan to enhance water solubility.

Keywords: chitosan, freeze concentration, frozen reactions, ninhydrin test, water soluble chitosan

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211 The Effect of Solution pH of Chitosan on Antimicrobial Properties of Nylon 6,6 Fabrics

Authors: Nilüfer Yıldız Varan


The antimicrobial activities of chitosan against various bacteria and fungi are well known, and the antimicrobial activity of chitosan depends on pH. This study investigates the antimicrobial activity at different pH levels. Nylon 6,6 fabrics were treated with different chitosan solutions. Additionally, samples were treated also in basic conditions to see the antimicrobial activities. AATCC Test Method 100 was followed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity using Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 test inoculum. The pH of the chitosan solutions was controlled below 6.5 since chitosan shows its antimicrobial activity only in acidic conditions because of its poor solubility above 6.5. In basic conditions, the samples did not show any antimicrobial activity. It appears from SEM images that the bonded chitosan in the structures exists. In acidic media (ph < 6.5), all samples showed antimicrobial activity. No correlation was found between pH levels and antimicrobial activity in acidic media.

Keywords: chitosan, nylon 6, 6, crosslinking, pH stability, antimicrobial

Procedia PDF Downloads 83
210 Green Approach towards Synthesis of Chitosan Nanoparticles for in vitro Release of Quercetin

Authors: Dipali Nagaonkar, Mahendra Rai


Chitosan, a carbohydrate polymer at nanoscale level has gained considerable momentum in drug delivery applications due to its inherent biocompatibility and non-toxicity. However, conventional synthetic strategies for chitosan nanoparticles mainly rely upon physicochemical techniques, which often yield chitosan microparticles. Hence, there is an emergent need for development of controlled synthetic protocols for chitosan nanoparticles within the nanometer range. In this context, we report the green synthesis of size controlled chitosan nanoparticles by using Pongamia pinnata (L.) leaf extract. Nanoparticle tracking analysis confirmed formation of nanoparticles with mean particle size of 85 nm. The stability of chitosan nanoparticles was investigated by zetasizer analysis, which revealed positive surface charged nanoparticles with zeta potential 20.1 mV. The green synthesized chitosan nanoparticles were further explored for encapsulation and controlled release of antioxidant biomolecule, quercetin. The resulting drug loaded chitosan nanoparticles showed drug entrapment efficiency of 93.50% with drug-loading capacity of 42.44%. The cumulative in vitro drug release up to 15 hrs was achieved suggesting towards efficacy of green synthesized chitosan nanoparticles for drug delivery applications.

Keywords: Chitosan nanoparticles, green synthesis, Pongamia pinnata, quercetin

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209 Synthesis and Study the Effect of HNTs on PVA/Chitosan Composite Material

Authors: Malek Ali


Composites materials of Poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/Chitosan (CS) have been synthesized and characterized successfully. HNTs have been added to composites to enhance the mechanical and degradation properties by hydrogen bonding interactions, compatibility, and chemical crosslink between HNTs and PVA. PVA/CS/HNTs composites prepared with different concentration ratio. SEM micrographs of composites surface showed that more agglomeration with more chitosan ratio. Mechanical and degradation properties were characterized and the result indicates that Mechanical and degradation of 80%PVA/5%Chitosan/15%HNTs higher than the others PVA/CS/HNTs composites.

Keywords: PVA/chitosan, composites, PVA/CS/HNTs, HNTs

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
208 Fabrication of Chitosan/Polyacrylonitrile Blend and SEMI-IPN Hydrogel with Epichlorohydrin

Authors: Muhammad Omer Aijaz, Sajjad Haider, Fahad S. Al Mubddal, Yousef Al-Zeghayer, Waheed A. Al Masry


The present study is focused on the preparation of chitosan-based blend and Semi-Interpenetrating Polymer Network (SEMI-IPN) with polyacrylonitrile (PAN). Blend Chitosan/Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) hydrogel films were prepared by solution blending and casting technique. Chitosan in the blend was cross-linked with epichlorohydrin (ECH) to prepare SEMI-IPN. The developed Chitosan/PAN blend and SEMI-IPN hydrogels were characterized with SEM, FTIR, TGA, and DSC. The result showed good miscibility between chitosan and PAN, crosslinking of chitosan in the blend, and improved thermal properties for SEMI-IPN. The swelling of the different blended and SEMI-IPN hydrogels samples were examined at room temperature. Blend (C80/P20) sample showed highest swelling (2400%) and fair degree of stability (28%) whereas SEMI-IPN hydrogel exhibited relatively low degree of swelling (244%) and high degree of aqueous stability (85.5%).

Keywords: polymer hydrogels, chitosan, SEMI-IPN, polyacrylonitrile, epichlorohydrin

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
207 Application of Chitosan as a Natural Antimicrobial Compound in Stirred Yoghurt

Authors: Javad Hesari, Tahereh Donyatalab, Sodeif Azadmard Damirchi, Reza Rezaii Mokaram, Abbas Rafat


The main objective of this research was to increase shelf life of stirred yoghurt by adding chitosan as a naturally antimicrobial compound. Chitosan were added at different concentrations (0.1, 0.3 and 0.6%) to the stirred yoghurt. Samples were stored at refrigerator and room temperature for 3 weeks and tested with respect of microbial properties (counts of starter bacteria, mold and yeast, coliforms and E. coli). Starter bacteria and yeast counts in samples containing chitosan was significantly (p<0.05) lower than those in control samples and its antibacterial and anti-yeast effects increased with increasing concentration of chitosan. The lowest counts of starter bacteria and yeast were observed at samples whit 0.6% of chitosan. The Results showed Chitosan had a positive effect on increasing shelf life and controlling of yeasts and therefore can be used as a natural preservative in stirred yogurt.

Keywords: chitosan, natural preservative, stirred yoghurt, self-life

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206 Thermal Properties of Chitosan-Filled Empty Fruit Bunches Filter Media

Authors: Aziatul Niza Sadikin, Norasikin Othman, Mohd Ghazali Mohd Nawawi, Umi Aisah Asli, Roshafima Rasit Ali, Rafiziana Md Kasmani


Non-woven fibrous filter media from empty fruit bunches were fabricated by using chitosan as a binder. Chitosan powder was dissolved in a 1 wt% aqueous acetic acid and 1 wt% to 4 wt% of chitosan solutions was prepared. Chitosan-filled empty fruit bunches filter media have been prepared via wet-layup method. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was performed to study various thermal properties of the fibrous filter media. It was found that the fibrous filter media have undergone several decomposition stages over a range of temperatures as revealed by TGA thermo-grams, where the temperature for 10% weight loss for chitosan-filled EFB filter media and binder-less filter media was at 150oC and 300oC, Respectively.

Keywords: empty fruit bunches, chitosan, filter media, thermal property

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205 The Next Generation of Mucoadhesive Polymer

Authors: Flavia Laffleur, Andreas Bernkop-Schnürch


Purpose: This study was aimed to investigate preactivated thiomers for their mucoadhesive potential. Methods: Accordingly, chitosan-thioglycolic-mercaptonicotinamide conjugates (chitosan-TGA-MNA) were synthesized by the oxidative S-S coupling of chitosan-thioglycolic acid (chitosan-TGA) with 6-mercaptonicotin amide (MNA). Unmodified chitosan, chitosan-TGA (thiomers) and chitosan-TGA-MNA conjugates were compressed into test discs to investigate cohesive properties, cytotoxicity assays and mucoadhesion studies. Results: Due to the immobilization of MNA, the chitosan-TGA-MNA conjugates exhibit comparatively higher swelling properties and cohesive properties corresponding unmodified chitosan. On the rotating cylinder, discs based on chitosan-TGA-MNA conjugates displayed 3.1-fold improved mucoadhesion time compared to thiolated polymers. Tensile study results were found in good agreement with rotating cylinder results. Moreover, preactivated thiomers showed higher stability. All polymers were found non-toxic over Caco-2 cells. Conclusion: On the basis of achieved results the pre activated thiomeric therapeutic agent seems to represent a promising generation of mucoadhesive polymers which are safe to use for a prolonged residence time to target the mucosa.

Keywords: biomedical application, drug delivery, polymer, thiomer

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204 Assessing the Antimicrobial Activity of Chitosan Nanoparticles by Fluorescence-Labeling

Authors: Laidson P. Gomes, Cristina T. Andrade, Eduardo M. Del Aguila, Cameron Alexander, Vânia M. F. Paschoalin


Chitosan is a natural polysaccharide prepared by the N-deacetylation of chitin. In this study, the physicochemical and antibacterial properties of chitosan nanoparticles, produced by ultrasound irradiation, were evaluated. The physicochemical properties of the nanoparticles were determined by dynamic light scattering and zeta potential analysis. Chitosan nanoparticles inhibited the growth of E. coli. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were lower than 0.5 mg/mL, and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values were similar or higher than MIC values. Confocal laser scanning micrographs (CLSM) were used to observe the interaction between E. coli suspensions mixed with FITC-labeled chitosan polymers and nanoparticles.

Keywords: chitosan nanoparticles, dynamic light scattering, zeta potential, confocal microscopy, antibacterial activity

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203 Hemostasis Poly Vinyl Alcohol Gauze Coated with Chitosan Encapsulated with Polymer and Drug

Authors: Abhishekkumar Ramasamy, Parameshwari


Chitosan is the deacyelitated derivative of chitin, the second most abundant biopolymer just after cellulose. Without doubt, its biomedical usages have gained more importance among the vast variety of chitosan applications owing to its good biocompatibility and biodegradability. In recent years, particular interest has been devoted to chitosan hydrogels as a promising alternative in competition with conventional sutures or bioadhesives. Different parameters such as acid type and concentration, and degree of deacetylation (DD%) of chitosan, were altered to modify hydrogel properties including viscosity, pH, cohesive strength, and tissue bioadhesiveness. In the current work, we have investigated the effectiveness of chitosan hydrogel encapsulated with tanexamic acid to stop bleeding. Chitosan film was obtained with solubilization of chitosan powder in aqueous acidic media. In vivo experiments have been conducted on rat and rabbit models that provide a convenient way to evaluate the efficacy of prepared samples. The arteries vein was punctured on the hind limb of the rat and the gauze was been applied on the punchered area. Bioadhesive strength as well as irritant effects were discussed. Samples with higher degree of deacetylation, including Chs-16 and Chs-19 that were dissolved in lactic media showed best sealing effect.

Keywords: chitosan, biocomaptibility, biodegradability, bioadhersive, deacetylation

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202 Phosphoproteomic Analysis of the Response of Rice Leaves to Chitosan under Drought Stress

Authors: Narumon Phaonakrop, Janthima Jaresitthikunchai, Sittiruk Roytrakul, Wasinee Pongprayoon


Chitosan has been proposed as a natural polymer, and it is derived from chitin. The objective of this research was to determine the growth promoting responses induced by chitosan at the molecular physiology level in Khao Dawk Mali 105 (KDML 105) rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings under drought stress by adding of 2% polyethylene glycol 4000 (PEG4000) to the nutrient solution and after removal of the drought stress (re-water). Oligomeric chitosan at 40 ppm could enhance shoot fresh weight and shoot dry weight during drought stress and re-water. After 7 days of drought stress and re-water, significant increases in chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b contents in KDML 105 cultivar were observed. The 749 phosphoproteins in rice leaf treated with chitosan could be resolved by phosphoprotein enrichment, tryptic digestion and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. They can be classified into 10 groups. Proteins involved in the metabolic process and biological regulation were upregulated in response to chitosan during drought stress. This work will help us to understand protein phosphorylation relating to chitosan response during drought stress in aromatic rice seedlings.

Keywords: Chitosan, drought, phosphoproteome, rice

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201 Modelling of Filters CO2 (Carbondioxide) and CO (Carbonmonoxide) Portable in Motor Vehicle's Exhaust with Absorbent Chitosan

Authors: Yuandanis Wahyu Salam, Irfi Panrepi, Nuraeni


The increased of greenhouse gases, that is CO2 (carbondioxide) in atmosphere induce the rising of earth’s surface average temperature. One of the largest contributors to greenhouse gases is motor vehicles. Smoke which is emitted by motor’s exhaust containing gases such as CO2 (carbondioxide) and CO (carbon monoxide). Chemically, chitosan is cellulose like plant fiber that has the ability to bind like absorbant foam. Chitosan is a natural antacid (absorb toxins), when chitosan is spread over the surface of water, chitosan is able to absorb fats, oils, heavy metals, and other toxic substances. Judging from the nature of chitosan is able to absorb various toxic substances, it is expected that chitosan is also able to filter out gas emission from the motor vehicles. This study designing a carbondioxide filter in the exhaust of motor vehicles using chitosan as its absorbant. It aims to filter out gases in the exhaust so that CO2 and CO can be reducted before emitted by exhaust. Form of this reseach is study of literature and applied with experimental research of tool manufacture. Data collected through documentary studies by studying books, magazines, thesis, search on the internet as well as the relevant reference. This study will produce a filters which has main function to filter out CO2 and CO emissions that generated by vehicle’s exhaust and can be used as portable.

Keywords: filter, carbon, carbondioxide, exhaust, chitosan

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
200 Effect of Chitosan and Ascorbic Acid Coating on the Refrigerated Tilapia Fish Fillet (Oreochromis niliticus)

Authors: Jau-Shya Lee, Rossita Shapawi, Vin Cent Pua


Tilapia is a popular cultured fresh-water fish in Malaysia. The highly perishable nature of the fish and increasing demand for high-quality ready-to-cook fish has intensified the search for better fish preservation method. Chitosan edible coating has been evident to extend the shelf life of fish fillet. This work was attempted to explore the potential of ascorbic acid in enhancing the shelf life extension ability of chitosan coated Tilapia fillet under refrigeration condition (4 ± 1oC). A 3 2 Factorial Design which comprising of three concentrations of chitosan (1, 1.5 and 2%) and two concentrations of ascorbic acids (2.5 and 5%) was used. The fish fillets were analyzed for total viable count, thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value, pH, aw and colour changes at 3-day interval over 15-day storage. The shelf life of chitosan coated (1.5% and 2%) fillet was increased to 15 days as compared to uncoated fish fillet which can only last for nine days. The inhibition of microbial growth of fish fillet was enhanced with the addition of 5% of ascorbic acids in 2% of chitosan. The TBA value, pH and aw for chitosan coated samples were found lower than that of uncoated sample (p<0.05). The colour stability of the fish fillet was also improved by the composite coating. Overall, 2% of chitosan and 5% of ascorbic acid formed the most effective coating to enhance the quality and to lengthen the shelf life of refrigerated Tilapia fillet.

Keywords: ascorbic acid, chitosan, edible coating, fish fillet

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199 Synthesis and Characterization of Water Soluble Ferulic Acid-Grafted Chitosan

Authors: Sarekha Woranuch, Rangrong Yoksan


Chitosan is a derivative of chitin, which is a second most naturally abundant polysaccharide found in crab shells, shrimp shells, and squid pens. The applications of chitosan in pharmaceutical, cosmetics, food and packaging industries have been reported owing to its general recognition as safe, excellent biodegradability and biocompatibility, as well as ability to form films, membranes, gels, beads, fibers and particles. Nevertheless, chitosan is an amino polysaccharide consisting of strong inter- and intramolecular hydrogen bonds which limit its solubility in neutral pH water resulting in restricted utilization. Chemical modification is an alternative way to impede hydrogen bond formation. The objective of the present research is to improve water solubility and antioxidant activity of chitosan by grafting with ferulic acid. Ferulic acid was grafted onto chitosan at the C-2 position via a carbodiimide-mediated coupling reaction. Different mole ratios of chitosan to ferulic acid (i.e. 1.0:0.0, 1.0:0.5, 1.0:1.0, 1.0:1.5, 1.0:2.0, and 1.0:2.5) and various reaction temperatures (i.e. 40, 60, and 80 °C) were used. The reaction was performed at different times (i.e. 1.5, 3.0, 4.5, and 6.0 h). The obtained ferulic acid-grafted chitosan was characterized by FTIR and 1H NMR technique. The influences of ferulic acid on crystallinity, solubility and radical scavenging activity of chitosan were also investigated. Ferulic acid grafted chitosan was successfully synthesized as confirmed from (i) the appearance of FTIR absorption band at 1517 cm-1 belonging to C=C aromatic ring of ferulic acid and the increased C–H stretching band intensity and (ii) the appearance of proton signals at δ = 6.31-7.67 ppm ascribing to methine protons of ferulic acid. The condition in which the reaction temperature of 60°C, reaction time of 3 h and the mole ratio of chitosan to ferulic acid of 1:1 gave the highest ferulic acid substitution degree, i.e. 0.37. The resulting ferulic acid grafted chitosan was soluble in water (1.3 mg/mL) due to its reduced crystallinity as compared with chitosan and also exhibited 90% greater radical scavenging activity than chitosan. The result suggested the utilization of ferulic acid grafted chitosan as an antioxidant material.

Keywords: antioxidant property, chitosan, ferulic acid, grafting

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198 Production, Extraction and Purification of Fungal Chitosan and Its Modification for Medical Applications

Authors: Debajyoti Bose


Chitosan has received much attention as a functional biopolymer for diverse applications, especially in pharmaceutics and medicine. Chitosan is a positively charged natural biodegradable and biocompatible polymer. It is a linear polysaccharide consisting of β-1,4 linked monomers of glucosamine and N-acetylglucosamine. Chitosan can be mainly obtained from fungal sources during large fermentation process. In this study,three different fungal strains Aspergillus niger NCIM 1045, Aspergillus oryzae NCIM 645 and Mucor indicus MTCC 3318 were used for the production of chitosan. The growth mediums were optimized for maximum fungal production. The produced chitosan was characterized by determining degree of deacetylation. Chitosan possesses one reactive amino at the C-2 position of the glucosamine residue, and these amines confer important functional properties to chitosan which can be exploited for biofabrication to generate various chemically modified derivatives and explore their potential for pharmaceutical field. Chitosan nanoparticles were prepared by ionic cross-linking with tripolyphosphate (TPP). The major effect on encapsulation and release of protein (e.g. enzyme diastase) in chitosan-TPP nanoparticles was investigated in order to control the loading and release efficiency. It was noted that the chitosan loading and releasing efficiency as a nanocapsule, obtained from different fungal sources was almost near to initial enzyme activity(12026 U/ml) with a negligible loss. This signify, chitosan can be used as a polymeric drug as well as active component or protein carrier material in dosage by design due to its appealing properties such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, low toxicity and relatively low production cost from abundant natural sources. Based upon these initial experiments, studies were also carried out on modification of chitosan based nanocapsules incorporated with physiologically important enzymes and nutraceuticals for target delivery.

Keywords: fungi, chitosan, enzyme, nanocapsule

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197 Preparation and Biological Evaluation of 186/188Re-Chitosan for Radiosynovectomy

Authors: N. Ahmadi, H. Yousefnia, A. Bahrami-Samani


Chitosan is a natural and biodegradable polysaccharide with special characteristic for application in intracavital therapy. 166Ho-chitosan has been reported for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma and RSV with promising results. The aim of this study was to prepare 186/188Re-chitosan for radiosynovectomy purposes and investigate the probability of its leakage from the knee joint. 186/188Re was produced by neutron irradiation of the natural rhenium in a research reactor. Chemical processing was performed to obtain (186/188Re)-NaReO4- according to the IAEA manual. A stock solution of chitosan was prepared by dissolving in 1 % acetic acid aqueous solution (10 mg/mL). 1.5 mL of this stock solution was added to the vial containing the activity and the mixture was stirred for 5 min in the room temperature. The radiochemical purity of the complex was checked by the ITLC method, showing the purity of higher than 98%. Distribution of the radiolabeled complex was determined after intra-articular injection into the knees of rats. Excellent retention was observed in the joint with approximately no activity in the other organs.

Keywords: chitosan, leakage, radiosynovectomy, rhenium

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196 Development of 90y-Chitosan Complex for Radiosynovectomy

Authors: A. Mirzaei, S. Zolghadri, M. Athari-Allaf, H. Yousefnia, A. R. Jalilian


Rheumatoid arthritis is the most common autoimmune disease, leading to the destruction of the joints. The aim of this study was the preparation of 90Y-chitosan complex as a novel agent for radiosynovectomy. The complex was prepared in the diluted acetic acid solution. At the optimized condition, the radiochemical purity of higher than 99% was obtained by ITLC method on Whatman No. 1 and by using a mixture of methanol/water/acetic acid (4:4:2) as the mobile phase. The complex was stable in acidic media (pH=3) and its radiochemical purity was above 98% even after 48 hours. The biodistribution data in rats showed that there was no significant leakage of the injected activity even after 48 h. Considering all of the excellent features of the complex, 90Y-chitosan can be used to manipulate synovial inflammation effectively.

Keywords: chitosan, Y-90, radiosynovectomy, biodistribution

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195 Electromechanical Behaviour of Chitosan Based Electroactive Polymer

Authors: M. Sarikanat, E. Akar, I. Şen, Y. Seki, O. C. Yılmaz, B. O. Gürses, L. Cetin, O. Özdemir, K. Sever


Chitosan is a natural, nontoxic, polyelectrolyte, cheap polymer. In this study, chitosan based electroactive polymer (CBEAP) was fabricated. Electroactive properties of this polymer were investigated at different voltages. It exhibited excellent tip displacement at low voltages (1, 3, 5, 7 V). Tip displacement was increased as the applied voltage increased. Best tip displacement was investigated as 28 mm at 5V. Characterization of CBEAP was investigated by scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction and tensile testing. CBEAP exhibited desired electroactive properties at low voltages. It is suitable for using in artificial muscle and various robotic applications.

Keywords: chitosan, electroactive polymer, electroactive properties

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194 Kinetic and Thermodynamic Modified Pectin with Chitosan by Forming Polyelectrolyte Complex Adsorbent to Remediate of Pb(II)

Authors: Budi Hastuti, Mudasir, Dwi Siswanta, Triyono


Biosorbent, such as pectin and chitosan, are usually produced with low physical stability, thus the materials need to be modified. In this research, the physical characteristic of adsorbent was increased by grafting chitosan using acetate carboxymetyl chitosan (CC). Further, CC and Pectin (Pec) were crosslinked using cross-linking agent BADGE (bis phenol A diglycidyl ether) to get CC-Pec-BADGE (CPB) adsorbent. The cross-linking processes aim to form stable structure and resistance on acidic media. Furthermore, in order to increase the adsorption capacity in removing Pb(II), the adsorbent was added with NaCl to form macroporous adsorbent named CCPec-BADGE-Na (CPB-Na). The physical and chemical characteristics of the porogenic adsorbent structure were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The adsorption parameter of CPB-Na to adsorb Pb(II) ion was determined. The kinetics and thermodynamics of the bath sorption of Pb(II) on CPB-Na adsorbent and using chitosan and pectin as a comparison were also studied. The results showed that the CPB-Na biosorbent was stable on acidic media. It had a rough and porous surface area, increased and gave higher sorption capacity for removal of Pb(II) ion. The CPB-Na 1/1 and 1/3 adsorbent adsorbed Pb(II) with adsorption capacity of 45.48 mg/g and 45.97 mg/g respectively, whereas pectin and chitosan were of 39.20 mg /g and 24.67 mg /g respectively.

Keywords: porogen, Pectin, Carboxymethyl Chitosan (CC), CC- Pec-BADGE-Na

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193 Preparation and Characterization of Chitosan-Hydrocortisone Nanoshell for Drug Delivery Application

Authors: Suyeon Kwon, Ik Joong Kang, Wang Bingjie


Chitosan is a polymer that is usually produced from N-deacetylation of chitin. It is emerging as a promising biocompatible polymer that is harmless to humans. For the reason that many merits such as good adsorptive, biodegradability, many researches are being done on the chitosan for drug delivery system. Drug delivery system (DDS) has been developed for the control of drug. It makes the drug can be delivered effectively and safely into the targeted human body. The drug used in this work is hydrocortisone that is used in Rheumatism, skin diseases, allergy treatment. In this work, hydrocortisone was used to make allergic rhinitis medicine. Our study focuses on drug delivery through the nasal mucosa by using hydrocortisone impregnated chitosan nanoshells. This study has performed an investigation in order to establish the optimal conditions, changing concentration, quantity of hydrocortisone. DLS, SEM, TEM, FT-IR, UV spectrum were used to analyze the manufactured chitosan-hydrocortisone silver nanoshell and silver nanoshell, whose function as drug carriers. This study has performed an investigation on new drug carriers and delivery routes for hydrocortisone. Various methods of manufacturing chitosan-hydrocortisone nanoshells were attempted in order to establish the optimal condition. As a result, the average size of chitosan-hydrocortisone silver nanoshell is about 80 nm. So, chitosan-hydrocortisone silver nanoshell is suitable as drug carriers because optimal size of drug carrier in human body is less than 120 nm. UV spectrum of Chitosan-hydrocortisone silver nanoshell shows the characteristic peak of silver nanoshell at 420 nm. Likewise, the average size of chitosan-hydrocortisone silver nanoshell is about 100nm. It is also suitable for drug carrier in human body. Also, multi-layered silver shell over chitosan nanoshells induced the red-shift of absorption peak and increased the intensity of absorption peak. The resultant chitosan–silver nanocomposites (or nanoshells) exhibited the absorption peak around 430nm attributed to silvershell formation. i.e. the absorption peak was red-shifted by ca. 40 nm in reference to 390 nm of silver nanoshells.

Keywords: chitosan, drug delivery, hydrocortisone, rhinitis, nanoshell

Procedia PDF Downloads 149
192 A Universal Hybrid Adsorbent Based on Chitosan for Water Treatment

Authors: Sandrine Delpeux-Ouldriane, Min Cai, Laurent Duclaux, Laurence Reinert, Fabrice Muller


A novel hybrid adsorbent, based on chitosan biopolymer, clays and activated carbon was prepared. Hybrid chitosan beads containing dispersed clays and activated carbons were prepared by precipitation in basic medium. Such a composite material is still very porous and presents a wide adsorption spectrum. The obtained composite adsorbent is able to handle all the pollution types including heavy metals, polar and hydrophobic organic molecules and nitrates. It could find a place of choice in tertiary water treatment processes or for an ‘at source’ treatment concerning chemical or pharmaceutical industries.

Keywords: adsorption, chitosan, clay mineral, activated carbon

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191 Advanced Catechol-Modified Chitosan Hydrogels with the Inducement of Iron (III) Ion at Acidic Condition

Authors: Ngoc Quang Nguyen, Daewon Sohn


Chitosan (CS) is a natural polycationic polysaccharide and pH-sensitive polymer with incomplete deacetylation from claiming chitin. It is also a guaranteeing material in terms of pharmaceutical, chemical, and sustenance industry due to its exceptional structure (reactive –OH and –NH2 groups). In this study, a catechol-functionalized chitosan (CCS, for an eminent level for substitution) was synthesized and propelled by marine mussel cuticles in place on research those intricate connections between Fe³⁺ and catechol under acidic conditions. The ratios of catechol, chitosan and other reagents decide the structure of the hydrogel. The gel formation is then well-maintained by dual cross-linking through electrostatic interactions between Fe³⁺ and CCS and covalent catechol-coupling-based coordinate bonds. The hydrogels showed enhanced cohesiveness and shock-absorbing properties with increasing pH due to coordinate bonds inspired by mussel byssal threads. Thus, the gelation time, rheological properties, UV-vis and ¹H-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy, and the morphologic aspects were elucidated to describe those crosslinking components and the physical properties of the chitosan backbones and hydrogel frameworks.

Keywords: catechol, chitosan, iron ion, gelation, hydrogel

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190 Crab Shell Waste Chitosan-Based Thin Film for Acoustic Sensor Applications

Authors: Maydariana Ayuningtyas, Bambang Riyanto, Akhiruddin Maddu


Industrial waste of crustacean shells, such as shrimp and crab, has been considered as one of the major issues contributing to environmental pollution. The waste processing mechanisms to form new, practical substances with added value have been developed. Chitosan, a derived matter from chitin, which is obtained from crab and shrimp shells, performs prodigiously in broad range applications. A chitosan composite-based diaphragm is a new inspiration in fiber optic acoustic sensor advancement. Elastic modulus, dynamic response, and sensitivity to acoustic wave of chitosan-based composite film contribute great potentials of organic-based sound-detecting material. The objective of this research was to develop chitosan diaphragm application in fiber optic microphone system. The formulation was conducted by blending 5% polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) solution with dissolved chitosan at 0%, 1% and 2% in 1:1 ratio, respectively. Composite diaphragms were characterized for the morphological and mechanical properties to predict the desired acoustic sensor sensitivity. The composite with 2% chitosan indicated optimum performance with 242.55 µm thickness, 67.9% relative humidity, and 29-76% light transmittance. The Young’s modulus of 2%-chitosan composite material was 4.89×104 N/m2, which generated the voltage amplitude of 0.013V and performed sensitivity of 3.28 mV/Pa at 1 kHz. Based on the results above, chitosan from crustacean shell waste can be considered as a viable alternative material for fiber optic acoustic sensor sensing pad development. Further, the research in chitosan utilisation is proposed as novel optical microphone development in anthropogenic noise controlling effort for environmental and biodiversity conservation.

Keywords: acoustic sensor, chitosan, composite, crab shell, diaphragm, waste utilisation

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189 Chitosan Functionalized [email protected] Core-Shell Nanomaterials for Targeted Drug Delivery

Authors: S. S. Pati, L. Herojit Singh, A. C. Oliveira, V. K. Garg


Chitosan functionalized Fe3O4-Au core shell nanoparticles have been prepared using a two step wet chemical approach using NaBH4 as reducing agent for formation of Au inethylene glycol. X-ray diffraction studies shows individual phases of Fe3O4 and Au in the as prepared samples with crystallite size of 5.9 and 11.4 nm respectively. The functionalization of the core-shell nanostructure with Chitosan has been confirmed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy along with signatures of octahedral and tetrahedral sites of Fe3O4 below 600cm-1. Mössbauer spectroscopy shows decrease in particle-particle interaction in presence of Au shell (72% sextet) than pure oleic coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles (88% sextet) at room temperature. At 80K, oleic acid coated Fe3O4 shows only sextets whereas the Chitosan functionalized Fe3O4 and Chitosan functionalized [email protected] core shell show presence of 5 and 11% doublet, respectively.

Keywords: core shell, drug delivery, gold nanoparticles, magnetic nanoparticles

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188 Conjugated Chitosan-Carboxymethyl-5-Fluorouracil Nanoparticles for Skin Delivery

Authors: Mazita Mohd Diah, Anton V. Dolzhenko, Tin Wui Wong


Nanoparticles, being small with a large specific surface area, increase solubility, enhance bioavailability, improve controlled release and enable precision targeting of the entrapped compounds. In this study, chitosan as polymeric permeation enhancer was conjugated to a polar pro-drug, carboxymethyl-5-fluorouracil (CMFU) to increase the skin drug permeation. Chitosan-CMFU conjugate was synthesized using chemical conjugation process through succinate linker. It was then transformed into nanoparticles via spray drying method. The conjugation was elucidated using Fourier Transform Infrared and Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance techniques. The nanoparticle size, size distribution, zeta potential, drug content, skin permeation and retention profiles were characterized. The conjugation was denoted using 1H NMR by new peaks at signal δ = 4.184 ppm (singlet, 2H for CH2) and 7.676-7.688 ppm (doublet, 1H for C6) attributed to CMFU in chitosan-CMFU NMR spectrum. The nanoparticles had profiles of particle size: 93.97 ±35.11 nm, polydispersity index: 0.40 ± 0.14, zeta potential: +18.25 ±2.95 mV and drug content: 6.20 ± 1.98 % w/w. Almost 80 % w/w CMFU in the form of nanoparticles permeated through the skin in 24 hours and close to 50 % w/w permeation occurred in first 1-2 hours. Without conjugation to chitosan and nanoparticulation, less than 40 % w/w CMFU permeated through the skin in 24 hours. The skin drug retention likewise was higher with chitosan-CMFU nanoparticles (15.34 ± 5.82 % w/w) than CMFU (2.24 ± 0.57 % w/w). CMFU, through conjugation with chitosan permeation enhancer and processed in nanogeometry, had its skin permeation and retention degree promoted.

Keywords: carboxymethyl-5-fluorouracil, chitosan, conjugate, skin permeation, skin retention

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187 Optimization of Chitosan Membrane Production Parameters for Zinc Ion Adsorption

Authors: Peter O. Osifo, Hein W. J. P. Neomagus, Hein V. D. Merwe


Chitosan materials from different sources of raw materials were characterized in order to determine optimal preparation conditions and parameters for membrane production. The membrane parameters such as molecular weight, viscosity, and degree of deacetylation were used to evaluate the membrane performance for zinc ion adsorption. The molecular weight of the chitosan was found to influence the viscosity of the chitosan/acetic acid solution. An increase in molecular weight (60000-400000 kg.kmol-1) of the chitosan resulted in a higher viscosity (0.05-0.65 Pa.s) of the chitosan/acetic acid solution. The effect of the degree of deacetylation on the viscosity is not significant. The effect of the membrane production parameters (chitosan- and acetic acid concentration) on the viscosity is mainly determined by the chitosan concentration. For higher chitosan concentrations, a membrane with a better adsorption capacity was obtained. The membrane adsorption capacity increases from 20-130 mg Zn per gram of wet membrane for an increase in chitosan concentration from 2-7 mass %. Chitosan concentrations below 2 and above 7.5 mass % produced membranes that lack good mechanical properties. The optimum manufacturing conditions including chitosan concentration, acetic acid concentration, sodium hydroxide concentration and crosslinking for chitosan membranes within the workable range were defined by the criteria of adsorption capacity and flux. The adsorption increases (50-120 mg.g-1) as the acetic acid concentration increases (1-7 mass %). The sodium hydroxide concentration seems not to have a large effect on the adsorption characteristics of the membrane however, a maximum was reached at a concentration of 5 mass %. The adsorption capacity per gram of wet membrane strongly increases with the chitosan concentration in the acetic acid solution but remains constant per gram of dry chitosan. The optimum solution for membrane production consists of 7 mass % chitosan and 4 mass % acetic acid in de-ionised water. The sodium hydroxide concentration for phase inversion is at optimum at 5 mass %. The optimum cross-linking time was determined to be 6 hours (Percentage crosslinking of 18%). As the cross-linking time increases the adsorption of the zinc decreases (150-50 mg.g-1) in the time range of 0 to 12 hours. After a crosslinking time of 12 hours, the adsorption capacity remains constant. This trend is comparable to the effect on flux through the membrane. The flux decreases (10-3 with an increase in crosslinking time range of 0 to 12 hours and reaches a constant minimum after 12 hours.

Keywords: chitosan, membrane, waste water, heavy metal ions, adsorption

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186 Biological Control of Blue Mold Disease of Grapes by Pichia anomala Supplemented by Chitosan and Its Possible Control Mechanism

Authors: Esa Abiso Godana, Qiya Yang, Kaili Wang, Zhang Hongyin, Xiaoyun Zhang, Lina Zhao


Blue mold decay caused by Penicillium expansum is among the recent identified diseases of grapes (Vitis vinifera). The increasing concern about use of chemical substance and pesticide in postharvest fruit push the trends of research toward biocontrol strategies which are more sustainable and ecofriendly. In this study, we determined the biocontrol efficacy of Pichia anomala alone and supplemented with 1% chitosan in the grapefruit against blue mold disease caused by P. expansum. The result showed that 1% chitosan better enhances the biocontrol efficacy P. anomala. Chitosan (1% w/v) also improved the number of population of P. anomala in grape wounds, surface and on nutrient yeast dextrose broth (NYDB). P. anomala supplemented with 1% w/v chitosan significantly reduced the disease incidence, lesion diameter and natural decay of grapefruits without affecting the fruit quality as compared to the control. The scanned electron microscope (SEM) concisely illustrates how the high number of yeast cells on the wounds reduced the growth of P. expansum. P. anomala alone or P. anomala supplemented with 1% w/v chitosan are presented as a potential biocontrol alternative against the postharvest blue mold of grapefruit.

Keywords: biocontrol, Pichia anomala, chitosan, Penicillium expansum, grape

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