Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 485

Search results for: birth

485 Pregnancy and Birth Experience, Opinions regarding the Delivery Method of the Patients' Vaginal Deliveries

Authors: Umran Erciyes, Filiz Okumus

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The purpose of this study was the determination of factors which impact the pregnancy, birth experience and the opinions regarding the delivery type of the puerperants, after vaginal birth. This descriptive study includes 349 patients who gave births with normal birth in one of the hospital in İstanbul in May- November 2014. After birth, we interview with these women face to face. The descriptive information form and Perception of Birth Scale were used as data collection tool. SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) was used for statistical analysis. The average age of patients was 27.13, and the average score was 76.93±20.22. The patients are primary school graduate, and they do not have a job. They expressed an income outcome equality. More than half of women did not get educated before birth. Among educated patients, few women got educated overcoming the pain during labor process. As the time spent in the hospital for the birth increases, the birth perception of mothers is affected negatively. %86.8 of participants gave assisted delivery. Spontaneous vaginal birth has positive effects on birth perception. Establishing a vascular access, induction of labor performing enema, restriction of orally intake and movement, fundal pressure, episiotomy, nor to perform skin to skin contact with the baby after birth has adverse effects on the birth perceptions.

Keywords: antenatal care, birth experience, perception of birth, vaginal birth

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484 Anemia Maternal in Pregnancy as a Risk Factor of Low Birth Weight: A Systematic Review

Authors: Herlena Hayati, Diyan Reni Jayathi, Hairida Anggun, Citra Amelia

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This systematic review research is aimed to find out anemia maternal during pregnancy as a risk factor of low birth weight. This research was done by searching some journals which have associated to maternal anemia during pregnancy with low birth weight that had been published in journal accreditation and scopus index. Study literature that researcher had been done by March – April 2016 through online library of UI. The journals that had been selected according to inclusive criteria and exclusive criteria had been through the critial appraisal process. This systematic review towards 4 journals that had been selected and published showed the significant result statistically that anemia maternal is one of the risk factors which causes low birth weight. Anemia maternal on the first-trimester pregnancy showed significant association with low birth weight. Moderate anemia and severe anemia also showed significant association with low birth weight. Meanwhile, mild anemia doesn’t have an association with low birth weight. The conclusion of this study is anemia maternal (as an independent risk factor) have an influence towards low birth weight.

Keywords: anemia maternal, low birth weight, pregnancy, systematic review

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483 Genetics of Birth and Weaning Weight of Holstein, Friesians in Sudan

Authors: Safa A. Mohammed Ali, Ammar S. Ahamed, Mohammed Khair Abdalla

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The objectives of this study were to estimate the means and genetic parameters of birth and weaning weight of calves of pure Holstein-Friesian cows raised in Sudan. The traits studied were:*Weight at birth *Weight at weaning. The study also included some of the important factors that affected these traits. The data were analyzed using Harvey’s Least Squares and Maximum Likelihood programme. The results obtained showed that the overall mean weight at birth of the calves under study was 34.36±0.94kg. Male calves were found to be heavier than females; the difference between the sexes was highly significant (P<0.001). The mean weight at birth of male calves was 34.27±1.17 kg while that of females was 32.51±1.14kg. The effect of sex of calves, sire and parity of dam were highly significant (P<0.001). The overall mean of weight at weaning was 67.10 ± 5.05 kg, weight at weaning was significantly (p<0.001) effected by sex of calves, sire, year and season of birth have highly significant (P<0.001) effect on either trait. Also estimates heritabilities of birth weight was (0.033±0.015) lower than heritabilities of weaning weight (0.224±0.039), and genetic correlation was 0.563, the phenotypic correlation 0.281, and the environmental correlation 0.268.

Keywords: birth, weaning, weight, friesian

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482 Results of Longitudinal Assessments of Very Low Birth Weight and Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants

Authors: Anett Nagy, Anna Maria Beke, Rozsa Graf, Magda Kalmar

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Premature birth involves developmental risks – the earlier the baby is born and the lower its birth weight, the higher the risks. The developmental outcomes for immature, low birth weight infants are hard to predict. Our aim is to identify the factors influencing infant and preschool-age development in very low birth weight (VLBW) and extremely low birth weight (ELBW) preterms. Sixty-one subjects participated in our longitudinal study, which consisted of thirty VLBW and thirty-one ELBW children. The psychomotor development of the infants was assessed using the Brunet-Lezine Developmental Scale at the corrected ages of one and two years; then at three years of age, they were tested with the WPPSI-IV IQ test. Birth weight, gestational age, perinatal complications, gender, and maternal education, were added to the data analysis as independent variables. According to our assessments, our subjects as a group scored in the average range in each subscale of the Brunet-Lezine Developmental Scale. The scores were the lowest in language at both measurement points. The children’s performances improved between one and two years of age, particularly in the domain of coordination. At three years of age the mean IQ test results, although still in the average range, were near the low end of it in each index. The ELBW preterms performed significantly poorer in Perceptual Reasoning Index. The developmental level at two years better predicted the IQ than that at one year. None of the measures distinguished the genders.

Keywords: preterm, extremely low birth-weight, perinatal complication, psychomotor development, intelligence, follow-up

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481 Role of Zinc in Catch-Up Growth of Low-Birth Weight Neonates

Authors: M. A. Abdel-Wahed, Nayera Elmorsi Hassan, Safaa Shafik Imam, Ola G. El-Farghali, Khadija M. Alian

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Low-birth-weight is a challenging public health problem. Aim: to clarify role of zinc on enhancing catch-up growth of low-birth-weight and find out a proposed relationship between zinc effect on growth and the main growth hormone mediator, IGF-1. Methods: Study is a double-blind-randomized-placebo-controlled trial conducted on low-birth-weight-neonates delivered at Ain Shams University Maternity Hospital. It comprised 200 Low-birth-weight-neonates selected from those admitted to NICU. Neonates were randomly allocated into one of the following two groups: group I: low-birth-weight; AGA or SGA on oral zinc therapy at dose of 10 mg/day; group II: Low-birth-weight; AGA or SGA on placebo. Anthropometric measurements were taken including birth weight, length; head, waist, chest, mid-upper arm circumferences, triceps and sub-scapular skin-fold thicknesses. Results: At 12-month-old follow-up visit, mean weight, length; head (HC), waist, chest, mid-upper arm circumferences and triceps; also, infant’s proportions had values ≥ 10th percentile for weight, length and HC were significantly higher among infants of group I when compared to those of group II. Oral zinc therapy was associated with 24.88%, 25.98% and 19.6% higher proportion of values ≥ 10th percentile regarding weight, length and HC at 12-month-old visit, respectively [NNT = 4, 4 and 5, respectively]. Median IGF-1 levels measured at 6 months were significantly higher in group I compared to group II (median (range): 90 (19 – 130) ng/ml vs. 74 (21 – 130) ng/ml, respectively, p=0.023). Conclusion: Oral zinc therapy in low-birth-weight neonates was associated with significantly more catch-up growth at 12-months-old and significantly higher serum IGF-1 at 6-month-old.

Keywords: low-birth-weight, zinc, catch-up growth, neonates

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480 Various Body Measurements of Hair, Boer x Hair F1 Crossbred Kids and Effects of Some Environmental Factors on These Traits

Authors: M. Bolacalı, Y. Öztürk, O. Yılmaz, M. Küçük, M. A. Karslı

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The aim of the study was to determine various body measurements from the birth to the 30-day age of Boer x Hair goats F1 crossbred kids and pure Hair goat kids raised in Van in Eastern Anatolia region, and reveal factors such as the effects of year, dame body weight, genotype, dame age, birth type and sex on this parameter. 49 kids born in 2012 and 76 kids born in 2014 were utilized in the study. In the statistical analysis of various body measurements data was performed using the General Lineer Model procedure in SPSS software. Duncan's multiple range test was used for multiple comparisons. Boer x Hair goats F1 crossbred kids and pure Hair goat kids from various body measurements cidago height, body length, chest length, chest depth, chest circumference, circumference of leg, cannon bone circumference, chest width were determinated in general respectively 29.90 and 27.88 cm; 29.49 and 27.93 cm; 17.28 and 16.68 cm; 13.34 and 12.82 cm; 31.74 and 29.85 cm; 28.43 and 23.95 cm; 5.41 and 5.15 cm; 8.71 and 7.63 cm at birth, respectively; 35.01 and 32.98 cm; 35.20 and 33.30 cm; 18.82 and 18.17 cm; 15.64 and 14.83 cm; 39.08 and 37.30 cm; 34.29 and 29.25 cm; 5.80 and 5.42 cm; 9.87 and 8.85 cm at 30 days age, respectively. Among factors affecting cidago height in this study, the effect of dame body weight and sex were not significant, but genotype, dame age and birth type were significant (P < 0,05 and P < 0,01) at birth; dame body weight effect of the cidago height was not significant, but the effect of genotype, birth type, of dame age and sex were significant (P < 0.05, P < 0.05 and P<0.001) at 30-day age. The effect of genotype and sex of body length were not significant, but dam age, dame body weight and birth type were significant (P < 0.05, P < 0.05 and P<0.001, respectively) at birth; the effect of sex to body length was not significant, but genotype, dame age, dame body weight and birth type were significant (P < 0.01, P < 0.05, P < 0.05 and P < 0.001, respectively) at 30-day age. While circumference of leg was insignificant the effect of dame age and sex, genotype, dame body weight and type of the birth were significant (P < 0.001, P < 0.05 and P < 0.001) at birth; the circumstance of leg at 30-day age was found to be important the effect of examined other factors except for sex (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001). The obtained results, when considered in terms of a variety of body sizes, from birth to 30-day age growth period, showed that the kids of Boer x Hair Goat F1 hybrids have higher values than the kids of Hair Goats.

Keywords: Boer x hair goat F1 crossbred, hair goat, body measurements, cidago height

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479 Trauma after Childbirth: The Mediating Effects of Subjective Experience

Authors: Grace Baptie, Jackie Andrade, Alison Bacon, Alyson Norman

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Background: Many women experience their childbirth as traumatic, and 4-6% of mothers present with postnatal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as a result of their birth. Aims: To measure the relationship between obstetric and subjective experience of childbirth on mothers’ experience of postnatal trauma and identify salient aspects of the birth experience considered traumatic. Methods: Women who had given birth within the last year completed an online mixed-methods survey reporting on their subjective and obstetric birth experience as well as symptoms of postnatal trauma, depression and anxiety. Findings: 29% of mothers experienced their labour as traumatic and 15% met full or partial criteria for PTSD. Feeling supported and in control mediated the relationship between obstetric intervention and postnatal trauma symptoms. Five key themes were identified from the qualitative data regarding aspects of the birth considered traumatic including: obstetric complications; lack of control; concern for baby; psychological trauma and lack of support. Conclusion: Subjective birth experience is a significantly stronger predictor of postnatal trauma than level of medical intervention, the psychological consequences of which can be buffered by an increased level of support and control.

Keywords: birth trauma, perinatal mental health, postnatal PTSD, subjective experience

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478 Correlations between Pushing Skills and Pushing Perceptions, Second-Stage Labor Duration, Postpartum Fatigue, and Birth Satisfaction

Authors: Yu-Ching Huang

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Background: Delivery bridges the antepartum and postpartum period. Subsequent fatigue can affect indices, including postpartum recovery and life quality. Milk secretion, breastfeeding quality, and newborn participation may be compromised. Correspondingly, using proper pushing skills during the second stage of labor has the potential to effectively reduce postpartum fatigue and enhance birth satisfaction in new mothers. Purpose: To compare the effects of using different pushing skills on maternal pushing perception, postpartum fatigue, and birth satisfaction. Methodology: The present study used a descriptive research approach and recruited 382 participants from a medical center in northern Taiwan. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire, which included a demographic and obstetrics information datasheet, the Labor Pushing Experience Scale, a fatigue scale, and a birth satisfaction scale. Research Results: Using pushing skills (including upright position [t= 2.28, p < .05] and delayed pushing [t= -1.98, p < .05] during the second stage of labor was shown to enhance birth satisfaction in participants. Additionally, open glottis pushing ( t = 5.46, p < .001) resulted in a mean duration of second-stage labor that was 17.67 minutes less than that achieved using Valsalva pushing. Moreover, a better perceived pushing experience was associated with lower perceived postpartum fatigue (r = .46, p < .05) and higher birth satisfaction (r = -.16, p < .05). Finally, postpartum fatigue perception was negatively associated with birth satisfaction (r = -.16, p < .05). Conclusion and Clinical Application: The findings suggest that midwives should advocate that women adopt upright positions, delayed pushing, and open glottis pushing during the second stage of labor in order to enhance their birth satisfaction.

Keywords: second stage labor duration of pushing skill, pushing experience perception, postpartum fatigue, birth satisfaction

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477 Effect of the Birth Order and Arrival of Younger Siblings on the Development of a Child: Evidence from India

Authors: Swati Srivastava, Ashish Kumar Upadhyay

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Using longitudinal data from three waves of Young Lives Study and Ordinary Least Square methods, study has investigated the effect of birth order and arrival of younger siblings on child development in India. Study used child’s height for age z-score, weight for age z-score, BMI for age z-score, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT-Score)c, maths score, Early Grade Reading Assessment Test (ERGA) score, and memory score to measure the physical and cognitive development of child during wave-3. Findings suggest that having a high birth order is detrimental for child development and the gap between adjacent siblings is larger for children late in the birth sequences than early in the birth sequences. Study also reported that not only older siblings but arrival of younger siblings before assessment of test also reduces the development of a child. The effects become stronger in case of female children than male children.

Keywords: height for age z-score, weight for age z-score, BMI for z-score, PPVT score, math score, EGRA score, memory score, birth order, siblings, Young Lives Study, India

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476 Son Preference in Afghanistan and Its Impact on Fertility Outcomes

Authors: Saha Naseri

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Introduction/Objective: Son preference, a preference for sons over daughters, is a practice deeply-rooted in gender inequality that is widespread in many societies and across different religions and cultures. In this study, we are aiming to study the effects of son preference on fertility outcomes (birth interval and current contraceptive use) in Afghanistan, where have been perceived with high rates of son preference. The objectives of the study are to examine the association between the sex of the previous child and the duration of the subsequent birth interval and to evaluate the effect of son preference on current contraceptive use. Methodology: Afghanistan Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) (2015) was used to study the impact of son preference on fertility outcomes among married women. The data collected from 28,661 on currently-married women, aged between 15 and 49 years who have at least one child, have used to conduct this quantitative study. Outcomes of interest are birth interval and current contraceptive use. Simple and multiple regression analysis have been conducted to assess the effect of son preference on these fertility outcomes. Results: The present study has highlighted that son preference somehow exists among married women in Afghanistan. It is indicated that the sex of the first birth is significantly associated with the succeeding birth interval. Having a female child as the first baby was associated with a shorter average succeeding birth interval by 1.8 months compared to a baby boy (p-value = 0.000). For the second model, the results identified that women who desire for more sons have 7% higher odds to be current contraceptive user compared to those who have no preference (p-value = 0.03). The latter results do not indicate the son preference. However, one limitation for this result was the timeliness of the questions asked since contraceptive use in the current time was asked along with a question on ‘future’ desired sex composition. Moreover, women may have just given birth and want to reach a certain time span of birth interval before planning for another child, even if it was a boy, which might have affected the results. Conclusion: Overall, this study has demonstrated that there is a positive relationship between son preference and one main fertility behaviors, birth interval. The second fertility outcome, current contraceptive use, was not a good indicator to measure son preference. Based on the finding, recommendations will be made for appropriate interventions addressing gender norms and related fertility decisions.

Keywords: Afghanistan, birth interval, contraceptive, son preference

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475 Comparative Analysis of Effecting Factors on Fertility by Birth Order: A Hierarchical Approach

Authors: Ali Hesari, Arezoo Esmaeeli

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Regarding to dramatic changes of fertility and higher order births during recent decades in Iran, access to knowledge about affecting factors on different birth orders has crucial importance. In this study, According to hierarchical structure of many of social sciences data and the effect of variables of different levels of social phenomena that determine different birth orders in 365 days ending to 1390 census have been explored by multilevel approach. In this paper, 2% individual row data for 1390 census is analyzed by HLM software. Three different hierarchical linear regression models are estimated for data analysis of the first and second, third, fourth and more birth order. Research results displays different outcomes for three models. Individual level variables entered in equation are; region of residence (rural/urban), age, educational level and labor participation status and province level variable is GDP per capita. Results show that individual level variables have different effects in these three models and in second level we have different random and fixed effects in these models.

Keywords: fertility, birth order, hierarchical approach, fixe effects, random effects

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474 Women's Use of Maternal Health-Care Services in Hawassa Zuriya Worda: A Qualitative Study of Women's Childbearing Preference Location

Authors: Elin Mordal, Meseret Tsegaye, Hirut Gemeda, Ingeborg Ulvund

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Background: Even the rural-urban gap in the provision of skilled care during childbirth has narrowed, developing countries have the highest percentage of maternal deaths. More important than uncovering deficiencies during pregnancy, is preventing situations of risk during childbirth. The aim of this study was to identify factors women in the rural area consider before they decide where to give birth. Methods: This study utilizes a qualitative descriptive design based on individual interviews with 25 women of childbearing age who has given birth at least once, where women who delivered both at home and a health centre were included. Data collection took place in rural areas around Hawassa Zuriya Worda in Ethiopia February 2015. To identify conditions associated to where women prefer to give birth a thematic analysis was carried out. Result: Experienced risks regarding child birth were the most common reason for women and their families to seek help from skilled birth attendants. Decision-making and planning were identified as a major factor contributing to where women give birth. The women’s position and responsibilities pointed to the fact that women's role is mainly to take care of children and manage the household, while husbands, mother in laws and the elderly are the family members who take most of the decisions. This includes decision about where women give birth. The infrastructure also influences where women choose to give birth. Conclusion: To further improve childbirth care in Hawassa Zuriya Worda it’s important that women get positive experiences, and are met in a safe and supportive way at Health Centers. Challenges appear to women’s autonomy, quality aspects, and infrastructure.

Keywords: childbirth, women, health care utilization, Hawassa Zuriya Worda, Ethiopia, rural area

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473 A Mimetic Textuality in Robert Frost's 'Nothing Gold Can Stay'

Authors: Kurt S. Candilas

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This study is a critical analysis of the work of Robert Frost, 'Nothing Gold Can Stay'. It subjects the literary piece into a qualitative analysis using the critical theory of mimesis. In effect, this study is proposed to find out and shed light on the mimetic feature of the poem’s textuality. Generally, it aims to analyze the poem’s deeper meaning in the context of the reality of life from birth to death. For the most part, this critical analysis discerns, investigates, and highlights the features which present the imitation of life in detail and from a deeper view. Based on the result of analysis, it shows that Frost has portrayed the cycle of life from birth to midst life as about proving oneself to others as far as achievements and accomplishments are concerned; secondly, at some point of one’s life, successes and achievements are just one’s perfect signature of living. As Frost discloses his poem, his message of the reality of life from birth to death is clear enough, that nothing is going to last forever.

Keywords: Nothing Gold Can Stay, mimesis, birth, death

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472 Partition of Nonylphenol between Different Compartment for Mother-Fetus Pairs and Health Effects of Newborns

Authors: Chun-Hao Lai, Yu-Fang Huang, Pei-Wei Wang, Meng-Han Lin, Mei-Lien Chen

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Nonylphenol (NP) is a degradation product of nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEOs). It is a well-known endocrine disruptor which may cause estrogenic effects. The growing fetus and infants are more vulnerable to exposure to NP than adults. It is important to know the levels and influences of prenatal exposure to NP. The aims of this study were (1) to determine the levels of prenatal exposure among Taiwanese, (2) to evaluate the potential risk for the infants who were breastfed and exposed to NP through the milk. (3) To investigate the correlation between birth outcomes and prenatal exposure to NP. We analyzed thirty one pairs of maternal urines, placentas, first month’ breast milk by high-performance liquid chromatography coupling with fluorescence detector. The questionnaire included socio- demographics, lifestyle, delivery method, dietary and work history. Information about the birth outcomes were obtained from medical records. The daily intake of NP from breast milk was calculated using deterministic and probabilistic risk assessment methods. The geometric means and geometric standard deviation of NP levels in placenta, and breast milk in the first month were 31.2 (1.8) ng/g, 17.2 (1.6) ng/g, respectively. The medium of daily intake NP in breast milk was 1.33 μg/kg-bw/day in the first month. We found negative association between NP levels of placenta and birth height. And we observed negative correlation between maternal urine NP levels and birth weight. In this study, we could provide the NP exposure profile among Taiwan pregnant women and the daily intake of NP in Taiwan infants. Prenatal exposure to higher levels of NP may increase the risk of lower birth weight and shorter birth height.

Keywords: nonylphenol, mother, fetus, placenta, breast milk, urine

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471 Anemia and Nutritional Status as Dominant Factor of the Event Low Birth Weight in Indonesia: A Systematic Review

Authors: Lisnawati Hutagalung

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Background: Low birth weight (LBW) is one cause of newborn death. Babies with low birth weight tend to have slower cognitive development, growth retardation, more at risk of infectious disease event at risk of death. Objective: Identifying risk factors and dominant factors that influence the incidence of LBW in Indonesia. Method: This research used some database of public health such as Google Scholar, UGM journals, UI journals and UNAND journals in 2012-2015. Data were filtered using keywords ‘Risk Factors’ AND ‘Cause LBW’ with amounts 2757 study. The filtrate obtained 5 public health research that meets the criteria. Results: Risk factors associated with LBW, among other environment factors (exposure to cigarette smoke and residence), social demographics (age and socio-economic) and maternal factors (anemia, placental abnormal, nutritional status of mothers, examinations antenatal, preeclampsia, parity, and complications in pregnancy). Anemia and nutritional status become the dominant factor affecting LBW. Conclusions: The risk factors that affect LBW, most commonly found in the maternal factors. The dominant factors are a big effect on LBW is anemia and nutritional status of the mother during pregnancy.

Keywords: low birth weight, anemia, nutritional status, the dominant factor

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470 Maternal Exposure to Bisphenol A and Its Association with Birth Outcomes

Authors: Yi-Ting Chen, Yu-Fang Huang, Pei-Wei Wang, Hai-Wei Liang, Chun-Hao Lai, Mei-Lien Chen

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Background: Bisphenol A (BPA) is commonly used in consumer products, such as inner coatings of cans and polycarbonated bottles. BPA is considered to be an endocrine disrupting substance (EDs) that affects normal human hormones and may cause adverse effects on human health. Pregnant women and fetuses are susceptible groups of endocrine disrupting substances. Prenatal exposure to BPA has been shown to affect the fetus through the placenta. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the potential health risk of fetal exposure to BPA during pregnancy. The aims of this study were (1) to determine the urinary concentration of BPA in pregnant women, and (2) to investigate the association between BPA exposure during pregnancy and birth outcomes. Methods: This study recruited 117 pregnant women and their fetuses from 2012 to 2014 from the Taiwan Maternal- Infant Cohort Study (TMICS). Maternal urine samples were collected in the third trimester and questionnaires were used to collect socio-demographic characteristics, eating habits and medical conditions of the participants. Information about birth outcomes of the fetus was obtained from medical records. As for chemicals analysis, BPA concentrations in urine were determined by off-line solid-phase extraction-ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a Q-Tof mass spectrometer. The urinary concentrations were adjusted with creatinine. The association between maternal concentrations of BPA and birth outcomes was estimated using the logistic regression model. Results: The detection rate of BPA is 99%; the concentration ranges (μg/g) from 0.16 to 46.90. The mean (SD) BPA levels are 5.37(6.42) μg/g creatinine. The mean ±SD of the body weight, body length, head circumference, chest circumference and gestational age at birth are 3105.18 ± 339.53 g, 49.33 ± 1.90 cm, 34.16 ± 1.06 cm, 32.34 ± 1.37 cm and 38.58 ± 1.37 weeks, respectively. After stratifying the exposure levels into two groups by median, pregnant women in higher exposure group would have an increased risk of lower body weight (OR=0.57, 95%CI=0.271-1.193), smaller chest circumference (OR=0.70, 95%CI=0.335-1.47) and shorter gestational age at birth newborn (OR=0.46, 95%CI=0.191-1.114). However, there are no associations between BPA concentration and birth outcomes reach a significant level (p < 0.05) in statistics. Conclusions: This study presents prenatal BPA profiles and infants in northern Taiwan. Women who have higher BPA concentrations tend to give birth to lower body weight, smaller chest circumference or shorter gestational age at birth newborn. More data will be included to verify the results. This report will also present the predictors of BPA concentrations for pregnant women.

Keywords: bisphenol A, birth outcomes, biomonitoring, prenatal exposure

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469 The History of the Birth of Tunisian Higher Accounting Education

Authors: Rim Khemiri, Mariam Dammak

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The aim of this study is to trace the historical evolution of Tunisian higher accounting education and to understand and highlight the circumstances of its birth and its development. A documentary study (archival documents, official documents, public speeches, etc.), as well as semi-directive interviews with key actors, were carried out as part of this research work. These interviews aim to fill a lack of information on this subject and to confirm events addressed by other sources, but for which it lacks the elements necessary for a good understanding. After having put forward the specificities of the Tunisian context, we will, first of all, proceed to a review of the literature related to our theme in various contexts of the world. Then, we will present the evolution of the accounting curriculum by highlighting the circumstances of its birth and those of the successive reforms led by the Tunisian government. The study of higher accounting education in Tunisia and its evolution has several interests. The first lies in understanding the circumstances of its birth and its evolution in relation to the historical, socio-economic, and political context of the country. The second is to propose a reading grid that allows an understanding of the reforms that led to the university accountancy accounting course as we know it today. And, the third, aims to complete the literature on the processes of evolution of higher education accounting, by treating a different context, in order to provide additional knowledge necessary to compare experiences in this area around the world.

Keywords: accounting history, higher accounting education, socio-economic and political context, Tunisian context

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468 Walls against Legal Identity: A Qualitative Study on Children of Refugees without Birth Registration in Malaysia

Authors: Rodziana M. Razali, Tamara J. Duraisingham

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Malaysia is not a signatory to the 1951 Refugee Convention and its 1967 Protocol despite receiving the largest share of refugee inflows in Southeast Asia aside from Thailand. In Peninsular Malaysia, the majority of refugees and asylum seekers are from Myanmar, with Rohingya refugees recording the highest number compared to all other ethnicities. In the eastern state of Sabah, the presence of refugees who have long established themselves in the state is connected to those who escaped military persecution in southern Philippines in the 1970’s and 1980’s. A combination of legal and non-legal factors has created and sustained an adverse atmosphere of deprivation of legal identity for children of migrants including refugees born in Malaysia. This paper aims to qualitatively analyse the barriers to birth registration as the cornerstone of every person’s legal identity for children of refugees born in this country, together with the associated human rights implications. Data obtained through semi-structured interviews with refugees in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah and Rohingya refugees in Peninsular Malaysia shall be studied alongside secondary sources. Results show that births out of medical facilities, suspension of birth records, illiteracy, lack of awareness on the importance and procedures of birth registration, inability to meet documentary requirements, as well as fear of immigration enforcement, are the key factors hindering birth registration. These challenges exist against the backdrop of restrictive integration policy to avoid destabilising demographic and racial balance, political sentiment stirring xenophobic prejudices, as well as other economic and national security considerations. With no proof of their legal identity, the affected children grow up in a legal limbo, facing multiple human rights violations across generations. This research concludes that the country’s framework and practice concerning birth registration is in need of serious reform and improvement to reflect equality and universality of access to its birth registration system. Such would contribute significantly towards meeting its commitments to the post-2015 sustainable development agenda that pledges to 'Leave no one behind', as well as its recently announced National Human Rights Action Plan.

Keywords: birth registration, children, Malaysia, refugees

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467 First-Year Growth and Development of 445 Preterm Infants: A Clinical Study

Authors: Ying Deng, Fan Yang

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Aim: To study the growth pattern of preterm infants during the first year of life and explore the association between head circumference (HC) and neurodevelopment sequences and to get a general knowledge of the incidence of anemia in preterm babies in Chengdu, Southwest China. Method: We conducted a prospective longitudinal study, neonates with gestational age < 37 weeks were enrolled this study from 2012.1.1 to 2014.7.9. Anthropometry (weight, height, HC) was obtained at birth, every month before 6 months-old and every 2 months in the next half year. All the infants’ age were corrected to 40 weeks. Growth data presented as Z-scores which was calculated by WHO Anthro software. Z-score defined as (the actual value minus the average value)/standard deviation. Neurodevelopment was assessed at 12 months-old [9-11 months corrected age (CA)] by using “Denver Development Screen Test (DDST)". The hemoglobin (Hb) was examined at 6 months for CA. Result: 445 preterm infants were followed-up 1 year, including 64 very low birth weight infants (VLBW), 246 low birth weight infants (LBW) and 135 normal birth weight infants(NBW). From full-term to 12 months after birth, catch-up growth was observed in most preterm infants. From VLBW to NBW, HCZ was -1.17 (95 % CI: -1.53,-0.80; P value < 0.0001) lower during the first12 months. WAZ was-1.12(95 % CI: -1.47,-0.76; p < 0.0001) lower. WHZ and HAZ were -1.04 (95%CI:-1.38, -0.69; P<0.0001) and -0.69 (95%CI:-1.06,-0.33; P < 0.0001) lower respectively. The peak of WAZ appeared during 0-3 months CA among preterm infants. For VLBW infants, the peak of HAZ and HCZ emerged at 8-11 months CA. However, the trend of HAZ and HCZ is the same as WAZ in LBW and NBW infants. Growth in the small for gestational age (SGA) infants was poorer than appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants. The rate of DQ < 70 in VLBW and LBW were 29.6%, 7.7%, respectively (P < 0.0001). HCZ < -1SD at 3 months emerged as an independent predictor of DQ scores below 85 at 12 months after birth. The incidence of anemia in preterm infants was 11% at 6 months for CA. Moreover, 7 children (1.7%) diagnosed with Cerebral palsy (CP). Conclusions: The catch-up growth was observed in most preterm infants. VLBW and SGA showed poor growth. There was imbalance between WAZ and HAZ in VLBW infants. The VLBW babies had higher severe abnormal scores than LBW and NBW, especially in boys. Z score for HC at 3 months < -1SDwas a significant risk factor for abnormal DQ scores at the first year. The iron supplement reduced the morbidity of anemia in preterm infants.

Keywords: preterm infant, growth and development, DDST, Z-scores

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466 Community Involvement in Reducing Maternal and Perinatal Mortality in Cross River State, Nigeria: 'The Saving Mother Giving Life' Strategic Approach in Cross River State

Authors: Oluwayemisi Femi-Pius, Kazeem Arogundade, Eberechukwu Eke, Jimmy Eko

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Introduction: Globally, community involvement in improving their own health has been widely adopted as a strategy in Sub-Saharan Africa principally to ensure equitable access to essential health care as well as improve the uptake of maternal and newborn health services especially in poor-resource settings. Method: The Saving Mother Giving Life (SMGL) Initiative implemented by Pathfinder International with funding support from USAID conducted a Health Facility Assessment (HFA) and found out that maternal mortality ratio in Cross River State was 812 per 100,000 live birth and perinatal mortality was 160 per 1000 live birth. To reduce maternal and perinatal mortality, Pathfinder International mobilized, selected and trained community members as community volunteers, traditional birth attendants, and emergency transport service volunteer drivers mainly to address the delay in decision making and reaching the health facility among pregnant women. Results: The results showed that maternal mortality ratio in Cross River State decrease by 25% from 812 per 100,000 live birth at baseline to 206 per 100,000 live birth at June 2018 and perinatal mortality reduced by 35% from 160 per 100,000 at baseline to 58 per 1000 live birth at June 2018. Data also show that ANC visit increased from 7,451 to 11,344; institutional delivery increased from 8,931 at baseline to 10,784 in June 2018. There was also a remarkable uptake of post-partum family planning from 0 at baseline to 233 in June 2018. Conclusion: There is clear evidence that community involvement yields positive maternal outcomes and is pivotal for sustaining most health interventions.

Keywords: maternal mortality, Nigeria, pathfinder international, perinatal mortality, saving mother giving life

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465 Effects of Environmental and Genetic Factors on Growth Performance, Fertility Traits and Milk Yield/Composition in Saanen Goats

Authors: Deniz Dincel, Sena Ardicli, Hale Samli, Mustafa Ogan, Faruk Balci

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The aim of the study was to determine the effects of some environmental and genetic factors on growth, fertility traits, milk yield and composition in Saanen goats. For this purpose, the total of 173 Saanen goats and kids were investigated for growth, fertility and milk traits in Marmara Region of Turkey. Fertility parameters (n=70) were evaluated during two years. Milk samples were collected during the lactation and the milk yield/components (n=59) of each goat were calculated. In terms of CSN3 and AGPAT6 gene; the genotypes were defined by PCR-RFLP. Saanen kids (n=86-112) were measured from birth to 6 months of life. The birth, weaning, 60ᵗʰ, 90ᵗʰ, 120ᵗʰ and 180tᵗʰ days of average live weights were calculated. The effects of maternal age on pregnancy rate (p < 0.05), birth rate (p < 0.05), infertility rate (p < 0.05), single born kidding (p < 0.001), twinning rate (p < 0.05), triplet rate (p < 0.05), survival rate of kids until weaning (p < 0.05), number of kids per parturition (p < 0.01) and number of kids per mating (p < 0.01) were found significant. The impacts of year on birth rate (p < 0.05), abortion rate (p < 0.001), single born kidding (p < 0.01), survival rate of kids until weaning (p < 0.01), number of kids per mating (p < 0.01) were found significant for fertility traits. The impacts of lactation length on all milk yield parameters (lactation milk, protein, fat, totally solid, solid not fat, casein and lactose yield) (p < 0.001) were found significant. The effects of age on all milk yield parameters (lactation milk, protein, fat, total solid, solid not fat, casein and lactose yield) (p < 0.001), protein rate (p < 0.05), fat rate (p < 0.05), total solid rate (p < 0.01), solid not fat rate (p < 0.05), casein rate (p < 0.05) and lactation length (p < 0.01), were found significant too. However, the effect of AGPAT6 gene on milk yield and composition was not found significant in Saanen goats. The herd was found monomorphic (FF) for CSN3 gene. The effects of sex on live weights until 90ᵗʰ days of life (birth, weaning and 60ᵗʰ day of average weight) were found significant statistically (p < 0.001). The maternal age affected only birth weight (p < 0,001). The effects month at birth on all of the investigated day [the birth, 120ᵗʰ, 180ᵗʰ days (p < 0.05); the weaning, 60ᵗʰ, 90ᵗʰ days (p < 0,001)] were found significant. The birth type was found significant on the birth (p < 0,001), weaning (p < 0,01), 60ᵗʰ (p < 0,01) and 90ᵗʰ (p < 0,01) days of average live weights. As a result, screening the other regions of CSN3, AGPAT6 gene and also investigation the phenotypic association of them should be useful to clarify the efficiency of target genes. Environmental factors such as maternal age, year, sex and birth type were found significant on some growth, fertility and milk traits in Saanen goats. So consideration of these factors could be used as selection criteria in dairy goat breeding.

Keywords: fertility, growth, milk yield, Saanen goats

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464 Contribution to the Study of Phenotypic, Reproduction and Growth Parameters of Sheep in Eastern Algeria

Authors: Mohammed Titaouine, Toufik Meziane, Kahramen Deghnouche, Hanane Mohamdi, Nabil Mohamdi

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In order to better understand the morphological characters and the zootechniques measures of sheeps races in the in South-East Algeria, a study that was conducted on 1344 heads, taken from 8 farms in different parts of the region, namely T’kout 1, T’kout 2, Tafrent, Barika, Sidi-Okba, Biskra, Ouled-Djellal and Msila. The results from the present study showed significant differences in the group of 14 morphological studied variables, the body length is the most important variable. Reproduction performance of 160 ewes and growth performances of 56 lambs were analysed. The analyses of the data showed that the ewes have a fertility level of 69%, a prolificacy level of 114% and a fecundity level of 79%. Lambs weigh 3.5kg at birth, 9.38kg at 30d, 13.45kg at 60d, 16.91kg at 90d and 21.51 kg at 120d. The speed of the growth level 0.20kg/d from birth to 30d, 0.14 kg/d between 30d and 60d, 0.12kg/d between 60d and 90d and 0.15kg/d between 90d and 120d. The simple born lambs were more heavy than the double born lambs. By contrast, sex was not significant for all the variables except the weight at 60d, the birth month has a significant effect on the weight at birth, at 30d, at 60d and it was no significant for the weight at 90d and at 120d.The flocks born on September, October, November, and December were more heavy than the flocks born on January, February, and March.

Keywords: morphological characterization, reproduction performance, growth performances, algeria

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463 Assessment of Very Low Birth Weight Neonatal Tracking and a High-Risk Approach to Minimize Neonatal Mortality in Bihar, India

Authors: Aritra Das, Tanmay Mahapatra, Prabir Maharana, Sridhar Srikantiah

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In the absence of adequate well-equipped neonatal-care facilities serving rural Bihar, India, the practice of essential home-based newborn-care remains critically important for reduction of neonatal and infant mortality, especially among pre-term and small-for-gestational-age (Low-birth-weight) newborns. To improve the child health parameters in Bihar, ‘Very-Low-Birth-Weight (vLBW) Tracking’ intervention is being conducted by CARE India, since 2015, targeting public facility-delivered newborns weighing ≤2000g at birth, to improve their identification and provision of immediate post-natal care. To assess the effectiveness of the intervention, 200 public health facilities were randomly selected from all functional public-sector delivery points in Bihar and various outcomes were tracked among the neonates born there. Thus far, one pre-intervention (Feb-Apr’2015-born neonates) and three post-intervention (for Sep-Oct’2015, Sep-Oct’2016 and Sep-Oct’2017-born children) follow-up studies were conducted. In each round, interviews were conducted with the mothers/caregivers of successfully-tracked children to understand outcome, service-coverage and care-seeking during the neonatal period. Data from 171 matched facilities common across all rounds were analyzed using SAS-9.4. Identification of neonates with birth-weight ≤ 2000g improved from 2% at baseline to 3.3%-4% during post-intervention. All indicators pertaining to post-natal home-visits by frontline-workers (FLWs) improved. Significant improvements between baseline and post-intervention rounds were also noted regarding mothers being informed about ‘weak’ child – at the facility (R1 = 25 to R4 = 50%) and at home by FLW (R1 = 19%, to R4 = 30%). Practice of ‘Kangaroo-Mother-Care (KMC)’– an important component of essential newborn care – showed significant improvement in postintervention period compared to baseline in both facility (R1 = 15% to R4 = 31%) and home (R1 = 10% to R4=29%). Increasing trend was noted regarding detection and birth weight-recording of the extremely low-birth-weight newborns (< 1500 g) showed an increasing trend. Moreover, there was a downward trend in mortality across rounds, in each birth-weight strata (< 1500g, 1500-1799g and >= 1800g). After adjustment for the differential distribution of birth-weights, mortality was found to decline significantly from R1 (22.11%) to R4 (11.87%). Significantly declining trend was also observed for both early and late neonatal mortality and morbidities. Multiple regression analysis identified - birth during immediate post-intervention phase as well as that during the maintenance phase, birth weight > 1500g, children of low-parity mothers, receiving visit from FLW in the first week and/or receiving advice on extra care from FLW as predictors of survival during neonatal period among vLBW newborns. vLBW tracking was found to be a successful and sustainable intervention and has already been handed over to the Government.

Keywords: weak newborn tracking, very low birth weight babies, newborn care, community response

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462 Garden Culture in Islamic Civilization: A Glance at the Birth, Development and Current Situation

Authors: Parisa Göker

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With the birth of Islam, the definitions of paradise in Quran have spread across three continents since 7th century, showing itself in the palace gardens as a reflection of Islamic Culture. The design characteristics of Islamic gardens come forth with the influence of religious beliefs, as well as taking its form as per the cultural, climatic and soil characteristics of its geography, and showing its difference. It is possible to see these differences from the garden examples that survived to present time from the civilizations in the lands of Islamic proliferation. The main material of this research is the Islamic gardens in Iran and Spain. Field study was carried out in Alhambra Palace in Spain, Granada and Shah Goli garden in Iran, Tabriz. In this study, the birth of Islamic gardens, spatial perception of paradise, design principles, spatial structure, along with the structural/plantation materials used are examined. Also the characteristics and differentiation of the gardens examined in different cultures and geographies have been revealed. In the conclusion section, Iran and Spain Islamic garden samples were evaluated and their properties were determined.

Keywords: Islamic civilization, Islamic architecture, cultural landscape, Islamic garden

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461 Growth and Development Parameters of Saanen Kids Raised under Intensive Conditions in Konya/Turkey

Authors: Vahdetti̇n Sariyel, Bi̇rol Dağ

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In this research, growth and development parameters in Konya, a private company in Saanen kids reared in intensive conditions in the province were examined. Average birth weights were 3.42, 2.96, 3.57, 3.23 and 2.77 kg for male, female, single, twins and triplets kids. Average weaning weights (three months of age) were 12.65, 12.09, 12.80, 12.65 and 11.68 kg for male, female, single, twins and triplets kids. Average body weights at seven months of age were 20.55, 18.98, 20.12, 20.12 and 19.05 kg for male, female, single, twins and triplets kids respectively. Considering the gender of the live weight factors birth control and rule in favor of the first en ( P <0.01), the second control finally it disappeared statistically significant ( P> 0.05). Main age and the effect of birth weight in the first month, while significant (P < 0.01); The effect of the second month following the live weight of the kid was not significant.

Keywords: Saanen kids, growth, development, body weight

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460 Effect of Fortification of Expressed Human Breast Milk with Olive Oil and Skimmed Milk in Improving Weight Gain in Very Low Birth Weight Neonates and Shortening Their Length of Hospital Stay

Authors: Sumrina Kousar

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Objective: The aim of this study was to observe the effect of fortification of expressed human breast milk with olive oil and skimmed milk in improving weight gain in very low birth weight neonates and shortening their length of hospital stay. Study Design and place: A randomized controlled trial was carried out at the Combined Military Hospital Lahore from March 2018 to March 2019. Methods: Neonates admitted with very low birth weight and gestational age of < 34 weeks were included in the study. Sixty babies were enrolled using non-probability consecutive sampling; a random number table was used to allocate them into a fortification group and a control group. The control group received expressed milk alone, while olive oil 1 ml twice daily and skimmed milk 1 gram in every third feed were added to expressed milk in the fortification group. Data was analyzed on SPSS 20. Proportions were compared by applying the chi-square test. An independent sample t-test was applied for comparing means. A p-value of ≤ 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The study comprised of 60 neonates, with 30 in each of the groups. Weight gain was 24.83±5.63 in the fortification group and 11.72±3.95 in the control group (p =< 0.001). Mean hospital stay was 20.5716.511 in the fortification group and 27.678.89 in the control group (p =< 0.043). Conclusion: Olive oil and skimmed milk fortification of breast milk was effective for weight gain and reducing the length of hospital stay in very low birth weight neonates.

Keywords: fortification, olive oil, skimmed milk, weight gain

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459 Prediction of Slaughter Body Weight in Rabbits: Multivariate Approach through Path Coefficient and Principal Component Analysis

Authors: K. A. Bindu, T. V. Raja, P. M. Rojan, A. Siby

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The multivariate path coefficient approach was employed to study the effects of various production and reproduction traits on the slaughter body weight of rabbits. Information on 562 rabbits maintained at the university rabbit farm attached to the Centre for Advanced Studies in Animal Genetics, and Breeding, Kerala Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Kerala State, India was utilized. The manifest variables used in the study were age and weight of dam, birth weight, litter size at birth and weaning, weight at first, second and third months. The linear multiple regression analysis was performed by keeping the slaughter weight as the dependent variable and the remaining as independent variables. The model explained 48.60 percentage of the total variation present in the market weight of the rabbits. Even though the model used was significant, the standardized beta coefficients for the independent variables viz., age and weight of the dam, birth weight and litter sizes at birth and weaning were less than one indicating their negligible influence on the slaughter weight. However, the standardized beta coefficient of the second-month body weight was maximum followed by the first-month weight indicating their major role on the market weight. All the other factors influence indirectly only through these two variables. Hence it was concluded that the slaughter body weight can be predicted using the first and second-month body weights. The principal components were also developed so as to achieve more accuracy in the prediction of market weight of rabbits.

Keywords: component analysis, multivariate, slaughter, regression

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458 Transcendental Birth of the Column from the Full Jar Expressed at the Notre Dame of Paris and Saint Germain-des-Pres

Authors: Kang Woobang

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The base of the column is not only a support but also the embodiment of profound symbolism full of cosmic energy. Finding the full jars from which various energy emanate at the Notre Dame of Paris and Saint-Germain-des-Pres in France, the author was so shocked. As the column is cosmic tree, from the Full Jar full with cosmic energy emerges the cosmic tree composed of shaft and capital.

Keywords: full picher or jar, transcendental or supernatural birth from yonggi, yonggimun, yonggissak

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457 Maternal Nutrition Supplementation for Improving Progress and Outcome of Pregnancy in a Tribal Block of Maharashtra

Authors: Rajnish Gourh, Nitesh Sharma, Nikhil Patil

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Introduction: Adequate nutrition is essential for improving pregnancy and its outcomes. Failure to comply with the required daily intake of nutrition can lead to complications threatening both mother and child survival. Objectives: To provide access to nutritious diet to mothers in antenatal and post-natal stage for supporting a healthy progressive pregnancy, positive delivery outcome, and lactation and to promote regular consumption of the foods by the mothers and help overcome the dietary gap by nutrition education during pregnancy time. Methodology: Total of 95 ANC mothers were identified from Malvada PHC area, in Palghar district of Maharashtra. This short-term cohort intended for the proposed supplementation and education was targeted for follow-up until birth and six-months of post-natal period. In month of May 2016 to June 2017. Results: Average weight of women was observed 40.01kg, (SD- 5.024) at registered for ANC at Centre in the first month. In same month, average Haemoglobin level of women was observed 9.13gm/dl. Average increase in weight of women during pregnancy in month October 2016 was 48.83kg. Birth weight of 14 babies was less than 2 kgs. 13 babies with birth weight in range of 2.1kgs to 2.4kgs. 68 babies with birth weight in range of 2.5kg to 3kg and above. Conclusion: Importance of consumption of food, improving levels of nutrient intake and outcome of delivery was excellent.

Keywords: delivery status, nutrition, pregnancy, education

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456 Maternal Risk Factors Associated with Low Birth Weight Neonates in Pokhara, Nepal: A Hospital Based Case Control Study

Authors: Dipendra Kumar Yadav, Nabaraj Paudel, Anjana Yadav

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Background: Low Birth weight (LBW) is defined as the weight at birth less than 2500 grams, irrespective of the period of their gestation. LBW is an important indicator of general health status of population and is considered as the single most important predictors of infant mortality especially of deaths within the first month of life that is birth weight determines the chances of newborn survival. Objective of this study was to identify the maternal risk factors associated with low birth weight neonates. Materials and Methods: A hospital based case-control study was conducted in maternity ward of Manipal Teaching Hospital, Pokhara, Nepal from 23 September 2014 to 12 November 2014. During study period 59 cases were obtained and twice number of control group were selected with frequency matching of the mother`s age with ± 3 years and total controls were 118. Interview schedule was used for data collection along with record review. Data were entered in Epi-data program and analysis was done with help of SPSS software program. Results: From bivariate logistic regression analysis, eighteen variables were found significantly associated with LBW and these were place of residence, family monthly income, education, previous still birth, previous LBW, history of STD, history of vaginal bleeding, anemia, ANC visits, less than four ANC visits, de-worming status, counseling during pregnancy, CVD, physical workload, stress, extra meal during pregnancy, smoking and alcohol consumption status. However after adjusting confounding variables, only six variables were found significantly associated with LBW. Mothers who had family monthly income up to ten thousand rupees were 4.83 times more likely to deliver LBW with CI (1.5-40.645) and p value 0.014 compared to mothers whose family income NRs.20,001-60,000. Mothers who had previous still birth were 2.01 times more likely to deliver LBW with CI (0.69-5.87) and p value 0.02 compared to mothers who did not has previous still birth. Mothers who had previous LBW were 5.472 times more likely to deliver LBW with CI (1.2-24.93) and p value 0.028 compared to mothers who did not has previous LBW. Mothers who had anemia during pregnancy were 3.36 times more likely to deliver LBW with CI (0.77-14.57) and p value 0.014 compared to mothers who did not has anemia. Mothers who delivered female newborn were 2.96 times more likely to have LBW with 95% CI (1.27-7.28) and p value 0.01 compared to mothers who deliver male newborn. Mothers who did not get extra meal during pregnancy were 6.04 times more likely to deliver LBW with CI (1.11-32.7) and p value 0.037 compared to mothers who getting the extra meal during pregnancy. Mothers who consumed alcohol during pregnancy were 4.83 times more likely to deliver LBW with CI (1.57-14.83) and p value 0.006 compared to mothers who did not consumed alcohol during pregnancy. Conclusions: To reduce low birth weight baby through economic empowerment of family and individual women. Prevention and control of anemia during pregnancy is one of the another strategy to control the LBW baby and mothers should take full dose of iron supplements with screening of haemoglobin level. Extra nutritional food should be provided to women during pregnancy. Health promotion program will be focused on avoidance of alcohol and strengthen of health services that leads increasing use of maternity services.

Keywords: low birth weight, case-control, risk factors, hospital based study

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