Commenced in January 2007
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Paper Count: 12

Search results for: stigmasterol

12 Antitrypanosomal Activity of Stigmasterol: An in silico Approach

Authors: Mohammed Auwal Ibrahim, Aminu Mohammed

Abstract:

Stigmasterol has previously been reported to possess antitrypanosomal activity using in vitro and in vivo models. However, the mechanism of antitrypanosomal activity is yet to be elucidated. In the present study, molecular docking was used to decipher the mode of interaction and binding affinity of stigmasterol to three known antitrypanosomal drug targets viz; adenosine kinase, ornithine decarboxylase and triose phosphate isomerase. Stigmasterol was found to bind to the selected trypanosomal enzymes with minimum binding energy of -4.2, -6.5 and -6.6 kcal/mol for adenosine kinase, ornithine decarboxylase, and triose phosphate isomerase respectively. However, hydrogen bond was not involved in the interaction of stigmasterol with all the three enzymes, but hydrophobic interaction seemed to play a vital role in the binding phenomenon which was predicted to be non-competitive like type of inhibition. It was concluded that binding to the three selected enzymes, especially triose phosphate isomerase, might be involved in the antitrypanosomal activity of stigmasterol but not mediated via a hydrogen bond interaction.

Keywords: antitrypanosomal, in silico, molecular docking, stigmasterol

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11 Study on Meristem Culture of Purwoceng (Pimpinella pruatjan Molk.) and Its Stigmasterol Detected by Thin Layer Chromatography

Authors: Totik Sri Mariani, Sukrasno Isna, Tet Fatt Chia

Abstract:

Purwoceng (Pimpinella pruatjan Molk) is a legend plant used for increasing stamina by Kings in Java Island, Indonesia. Purpose of this study was to perform meristem culture and detected its stigmasterol by thin layer chromatography (TLC). Our result show that meristem culture could be propagated and grew into plantlet. After extracting intact acclimatized plant derived from meristem culture by hexane, we could detected stigmasterol by TLC. For suggestion, our extraction and TLC method could be used for detecting stigmasterol in others plant.

Keywords: purwoceng (pimpinella pruatjan), meristem culture, extraction, thin layer chromatography

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10 Bioavailability Enhancement of Ficus religiosa Extract by Solid Lipid Nanoparticles

Authors: Sanjay Singh, Karunanithi Priyanka, Ramoji Kosuru, Raju Prasad Sharma

Abstract:

Herbal drugs are well known for their mixed pharmacological activities with the benefit of no harmful side effects. The use of herbal drugs is limited because of their higher dose requirement, frequent drug administration, poor bioavailability of phytochemicals and delayed onset of action. Ficus religiosa, a potent anti-oxidant plant useful in the treatment of diabetes and cancer was selected for the study. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) of Ficus religiosa extract was developed for the enhancement in oral bioavailability of stigmasterol and β-sitosterol-d-glucoside, principal components present in the extract. Hot homogenization followed by ultrasonication method was used to develop extract loaded SLN. Developed extract loaded SLN were characterized for particle size, PDI, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, in vitro drug release and kinetics, fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, powder X-ray diffractrometry and stability studies. Entrapment efficiency of optimized extract loaded SLN was found to be 68.46 % (56.13 % of stigmasterol and 12.33 % of β-sitosteryl-d-glucoside, respectively). RP HPLC method development was done for simultaneous estimation of stigmasterol and β-sitosterol-d-glucoside in Ficus religiosa extract in rat plasma. Bioavailability studies were carried out for extract in suspension form and optimized extract loaded SLN. AUC of stigmasterol and β-sitosterol-d-glucoside were increased by 6.7-folds by 9.2-folds, respectively in rats treated with extract loaded SLN compared to extract suspension. Also, Cmax of stigmasterol and β-sitosterol-d-glucoside were increased by 4.3-folds by 3.9-folds, respectively in rats treated with extract loaded SLN compared to extract suspension. Mean residence times (MRT) for stigmasterol were found to be 12.3 ± 0.67 hours from extract and 7.4 ± 2.1 hours from SLN and for β-sitosterol-d-glucoside, 10.49 ± 2.9 hours from extract and 6.4 ± 0.3 hours from SLN. Hence, it was concluded that SLN enhanced the bioavailability and reduced the MRT of stigmasterol and β-sitosterol-d-glucoside in Ficus religiosa extract which in turn may lead to reduction in dose of Ficus religiosa extract, prolonged duration of action and also enhanced therapeutic efficacy.

Keywords: Ficus religiosa, phytosterolins, bioavailability, solid lipid nanoparticles, stigmasterol and β-sitosteryl-d-glucoside

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9 Antidiabetic Effect of Methanolic Leaves Extract and Isolated Constituents from Saraca Asoca

Authors: Sunil Kumar

Abstract:

Background: The present study was performed to investigate the antidiabetic effect of the constituents isolated from Sarca asoca by enzyme inhibitory activity. Methods: The dried leaves of Sarca asoca were defatted with petroleum ether and further the same amount plant materials were extracted with methanol. The dried methanol extract was subjected to fractionation and chromatographic separation, which led to the isolation of kaemferol, β-sitosterol and quercetin stigmasterol. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic studies as well as by comparison with the data available in the literature. The compounds were evaluated for in vitro enzyme inhibition effect. Results: The isolated compounds kaemferol, β-sitosterol and stigmasterol showed 45.32, 40.5 and 41.23% α-amylase inhibition respectively and 43.45, 39.29 and 32.43% α-glucosidase inhibition respectively at the conc. of 50 µg/kg. Conclusion: The compounds isolated from Sarca asoca showed in vitro and in vivo antidiabetic activity. So, Euphorbia hirta is a beneficial plant for management of diabetic disorders.

Keywords: diabetes, quercetin, sitosterol, stigmasterol

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8 Isolation and Identification of Compounds from the Leaves of Actinodaphne sesquipedalis Hook. F. Var. Glabra (Lauraceae)

Authors: O. Hanita, S. A. Ainnul Hamidah, A. H. Yang Zalila, M. R. Siti Nadiah, M. H. Najihah, M. A. Hapipah

Abstract:

The crude extract of the leaves of Actinodaphne sesquipedalis Hook. F. Var. Glabra (Kochummen), was taken under phytochemical investigation. The crude methanolic extract was partitioned with a different solvent system by increasing their polarities (n-hexane, dichloromethane, and methanol). The compounds were fractionated and isolated from n-hexane partition by using column chromatography with silica gel 60 or Sephadex LH-20 as a stationary phase and preparative thin layer chromatographic technique. Isolates were characterized using TLC, FTIR, UV spectrophotometer and NMR spectroscopy. The n-hexane fractionates yielded a total of four compounds namely N-methyllaurotetanine (1), dicentrine (2), β-sitosterol (3), and stigmasterol (4). The result indicates that the leaves of Actinodaphne sesquipedalis may provide a rich source of alkaloids and triterpenoids.

Keywords: actinodaphne sesquipedalis, alkaloids, phytochemical investigation, triterpenoids

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7 Isolation, Characterization and Biological Activities of Compounds Isolated from Callicarpa maingayi

Authors: Muhammad A. Ado, Intan S. Ismail, Hasanah M. Ghazali, Faridah Abas

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In this study, we have investigated the phytochemical constituents of soluble fractions of dichloromethane (DCM) of methanolic leaves extract of the Callicarpa maingayi. The phytochemicals investigation has resulted in the isolation of three triterpenoids (euscaphic acid (1), arjunic acid (2), and ursolic acid (3)) together with two flavones apigenin (4) and acacetin (5)), two phytosterols (stigmasterol 3-O-β-glycopyranoside (6) and sitosterol 3-O-β-glycopyranoside (7)), and one fatty acid (n-hexacosanoic acid (8)). Six (6) compounds isolated from this species were isolated for the first time (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 8). Their structures were elucidated and identified by spectral methods of one and two-dimensional NMR techniques, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and comparison with the previously reported literature. The biological activity of three compounds (1-3) was carried out on acetylcholinesterase inhibition activity. Compound (3) was found to displayed good inhibition against AChE with an IC₅₀ value of 21.5 ± 0.022 μM.

Keywords: acetylcholinesterase, Callicarpa maingayi, euscaphic acid, ursolic acid

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6 Chemical Profiling of Hymenocardia acida Stem Bark Extract and Modulation of Selected Antioxidant and Esterase Enzymes in Kidney and Heart Ofwistar Rats

Authors: Adeleke G. E., Bello M. A., Abdulateef R. B., Olasinde T. T., Oriaje K. O., AransiI A., Elaigwu K. O., Omidoyin O. S., Shoyinka E. D., Awoyomi M. B., Akano M., Adaramoye O. A.

Abstract:

Hymenocardia acidatul belongs to the genus, Hymenocardiaceae, which is widely distributed in Africa. Both the leaf and stem bark of the plant have been used in the treatment of several diseases. The present study examined the chemical constituents of the H. acida stem bark extract (HASBE) and its effects on some antioxidant indices and esterase enzymes in female Wistar rats. The HASBE was obtained by Soxhlet extraction using methanol and then subjected to Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) for elemental analysis, and Fourier-Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy, for functional group analysis, while High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and Gas Chromatography-Flame ionization detection (GC-FID) were carried out for compound identification. Forty-eight female Wistar rats were assigned into eight groups of six rats each and separately administered orally with normal saline (Control), 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350 mg/kg of HASBE twice per week for eight weeks. The rats were sacrificed under chloroform anesthesia, and kidneys and heart were excised and processed to obtain homogenates. The levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, Malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and carboxylesterase (CE) were determined spectrophotometrically. The AAS of HASBE shows the presence of eight elements, including Cobalt (0.303), Copper (0.222), Zinc (0.137), Iron (2.027), Nickel (1.304), Chromium (0.313), Manganese (0.213), and Magnesium (0.337 ppm). The FT-IR result of HASBE shows four peaks at 2961.4, 2926.0, 1056.7, and 1034.3 cm-1, while UV analysis shows a maximum absorbance (0.522) at 205 nm. The HPLC spectrum of HASBE indicates the presence of four major compounds, including orientin (77%), β-sitosterol (6.58%), rutin (5.02%), and betulinic acid (3.33%), while GC-FID result shows five major compounds, including rutin (53.27%), orientin (13.06%) and stigmasterol (11.73%), hymenocardine (6.43%) and homopterocarpin (5.29%). The SOD activity was significantly (p < 0.05) lowered in the kidney but elevated in the heart, while catalase was elevated in both organs relative to control rats. The GPx activity was significantly elevated only in the kidney, while MDA was not significantly (p > 0.05) affected in the two organs compared with controls. The activity of AChE was significantly elevated in both organs, while CE activity was elevated only in the kidney relative to control rats. The present study reveals that Hymenocardia acida stem bark extract majorly contains orientin, rutin, stigmasterol, hymenocardine, β-sitosterol, homopterocarpin, and betulinic acid. In addition, these compounds could possibly enhance redox status and esterase activities in the kidney and heart of Wistar rats.

Keywords: hymenocardia acida, elemental analysis, compounds identification, redox status, organs

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5 Secondary Metabolite Profiling and Antimicrobial Activity of Leaf Extract of Tecomella undulata (Sm.) Seem

Authors: Richa Bhardwaj

Abstract:

Tecomella undulata (Sm.) Seem is a monotypic genus belonging to family Bignoniaceae. The plant holds tremendous potential of medicinal value and has been traditionally used in various ailments like syphilis, leukoderma, blood disorders to name a few. The plant has gained prominence due to the presence of some prominent secondary metabolites. The present study focuses on the GC-MS analysis of leaf extracts of T. undulata which revealed the presence of certain bioactive compounds like stigmasterol, sitosterol, thiazoline, phytol, pthalic acid, methyl alpha ketopalmitate and so forth. A total of about 20 bioactive compounds were identified from the leaf extract spectra. Antimicrobial activity of the leaf extract was assayed against pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The alkaloids from leaf extracts showed antimicrobial activity against E.coli and B.subtilis. The flavonoids from leaves showed positive activity against Penicillium species and Candida albicans. The study thus infers that the presence of bioactive components may be the principle behind the antimicrobial property of different plant parts and therefore Tecomella forms a potential plant for herbal drug formulation.

Keywords: Tecomella undulata, bioactive compounds, GC-MS, antimicrobial activity

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4 Antimicrobial Action and Its Underlying Mechanism by Methanolic Seed Extract of Syzygium cumini on Bacillus subtilis

Authors: Alok Kumar Yadav, Saurabh Saraswat, Preeti Sirohi, Manjoo Rani, Sameer Srivastava, Manish Pratap Singh, Nand K. Singh

Abstract:

The development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria is increasing at an alarming rate, and this is considered as one of the most serious threats in the history of medicine, and an alternative solution should be derived so as to tackle this problem. In many countries, people use the medicinal plants for the treatment of various diseases as these are cheaper, easily available and least toxic. Syzygium cumini is used for the treatment of various kinds of diseases but their mechanism of action is not reported. The antimicrobial activity of Syzygium cumini was tested by the well diffusion assay and zone of inhibition was reported to be 20.06 mm as compared to control with MIC of 0.3 mg/ml. Genomic DNA fragmentation of Bacillus subtilis revealed apoptosis and FE-SEM indicate cell wall cracking on several intervals of time. Propidium iodide staining results showed that few bacterial cells were stained in the control and population of stained cells increase after exposing them for various period of time. Flow cytometric kinetic data analysis on the membrane permeabilization in bacterial cell showed the significant contribution of antimicrobial potential of the seed extract on antimicrobial-induced permeabilization. Two components of Syzygium cumini methanolic seed extract was found to be quite active against four enzymes like PDB ID- 1W5D, 4OX3, 3MFD and 5E2F which have a very crucial role in membrane synthesis in Bacillus subtilis by in silico analysis. Through in silico analysis, lupeol showed highest binding energy for macromolecule 1W5D and 4OX3 whereas stigmasterol showed the highest binding energy for macromolecule 3MFD and 5E2F respectively. It showed that methanolic seed extract of Syzygium cumini can be used for the inhibition of foodborne infections caused by Bacillus subtilis and also as an alternative of prevalent antibiotics.

Keywords: antibiotics, Bacillus subtilis, inhibition, Syzygium cumini

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3 Bioactivities and Phytochemical Studies of Acrocarpus fraxinifolius Bark Wight and Arn

Authors: H. M. El-Rafie, A. H. Abou Zeid, R. S. Mohammed, A. A. Sleem

Abstract:

Acrocarpus is a genus of flowering plants in the legume family Fabaceae which considered as a large and economically important family. This study aimed to investigate the phytoconstituents of the petroleum ether extract (PEE) of Acrocarpus fraxinofolius bark by Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of its fractions (fatty acid and unsaponifiable matter). Concerning this, identification of 52 compounds constituting 97.03 % of the total composition of the unsaponifiable matter fraction. Cycloeucalenol was found to be the major compound representing 32.52% followed by 4a, 14a-dimethyl-A8~24(28)-ergostadien (26.50%) and ß-sitosterol(13.74%), furthermore Gas liquid chromatography (GLC) analysis of the sterol fraction revealed the identification of cholesterol (7.22 %), campesterol (13.30 %), stigmasterol (10.00 %) and β - sitosterol (69.48 %). Meanwhile, the identification of 33 fatty acids representing 90.71% of the total fatty acid constituents. Methyl-9,12-octadecadienoate (40.39%) followed by methyl hexadecanoate (23.64%) were found to be the major compounds. On the other hand, column chromatography and Thin layer chromatography (TLC) fractionation of PEE separate the triterpenoid: 21β-hydroxylup-20(29)-en-3-one and β- amyrin which were structurally identified by spectroscopic analysis (NMR, MS and IR). PEE has been biologically evaluated for 1: management of diabetes in alloxan induced diabetic rats 2: cytotoxic activity against four human tumor cell lines (Cervix carcinoma cell line[HELA], Breast carcinoma cell line [MCF7], Liver carcinoma cell line[HEPG2] and Colon carcinoma cell line[HCT-116] 3: hepatoprotective activity against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats and the activity was studied by assaying the serum marker enzymes like AST, ALT, and ALP. Concerning this, the anti-diabetic activity exhibited by 100mg of PEE extract was 74.38% relative to metformin (100% potency). It also showed a significant anti-proliferative activity against MCF-7 (IC50= 2.35µg), Hela(IC50=3.85µg) and HEPG-2 (IC50= 9.54µg) compared with Doxorubicin as reference drug. The hepatoprotective activity was evidenced by significant decrease in liver function enzymes, i.e. AST, ALT and ALP by (29.18%, 28.26%, and 34.11%, respectively using silymarin as the reference drug, compared to their concentration levels in an untreated group with liver damage induced by CCl₄. This study was performed for the first time on the bark of this species.

Keywords: Acrocarpus fraxinofolius, antidiabetic, cytotoxic, hepatoprotective

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2 Cytotoxic Effects of Ag/TiO2 Nanoparticles on the Unicellular Organism Paramecium tetraurelia

Authors: Juan Bernal-Martinez, Zoe Quinones-Jurado, Miguel Waldo-Mendoza, Elias Perez

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Introduction and Objective: Ag-TiO2 nanoparticles (NP) have been characterized as effective antibacterial compounds against E. aureous, E. coli, Salmonella and others. Because these nanoparticles have been used in plastic-food containers, there is a concern about the toxicity of Ag-TiO2 NP for higher organisms from protozoan, invertebrates, and mammals. The objective of this study is to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of Ag-TiO2 NP on the survival and swimming behavior of the unicellular organism Paramecium tetraurelia. Material and Methods: Preparation of metallic silver on TiO2 surface was based on chemical reduction route of AgNO3. Aqueous suspension of TiO2 nanoparticles was preparing by adding 5 g of TiO2 to 250 ml of deionized water and followed by sonication for 10 min. The required amount of AgNO3 solutions was added to TiO2 suspension, maintaining heating and stirring. Silver concentration was 0.5, 1.5, 5.0, 25, 35 and 45 % w/w versus TiO2. Paramecium tetraurelia (Carolina Biological, Cat. # 131560) was used as a biological preparation. It was cultured in artificial culture media made as follows: Stigmasterol 5 mg/ml of ethanol, Caseaminoacids 0.3 gr/lt.; KCl 4mM; CaCl2 1mM; MgCl2 100uM and MOPS 1mM, pH 7.3. This media was inoculated with Enterobacter-sp. Paramecium was concentrated after 24 hours of incubation by centrifugation. The pellet of cells was resuspended in 4.1.1 solution prepared as follows (in mM): KCl, 4 mM; CaCl2, 1mM and Trizma, 1mM; pH 7.3. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies were performed to evaluate the appropriate dispersion and topographic distribution AgNPs deposited on TiO2. The experimental solutions were prepared as follows: 50 mg of Polyvinyhlpirolidone were added to 5 ml of 4.1.1. solution. Then, 50 mg of powder 25-Ag-TiO2 was added, mixing for 10 min and sonicated for 60 min. Survival of Paramecium and possible toxic effects after 25-Ag-TiO2 treatment was observed through an inverted microscope. The Paramecium swimming behavior and possible dead cells were recorded for periods of approximately 20-50 seconds by using a digital USB camera adapted to the microscope. Results and Discussion: TEM micrographs demonstrated the topographic distribution of AgNPs deposited on TiO2. 25Ag-TiO2 NP was efficiently dissolved and dispersed in 4.1.1 solution at concentrations from 0.1, 1 and 10 mg/ml. When Paramecium were treated with 25Ag-TiO2 NP at 100 ug/ml, it was observed that cells started swimming backwards. This backward swimming behavior is the typical avoiding reaction of the ciliate in response to a noxious stimulus. After 10 min of incubation, it was observed that Paramecium stopped swimming backwards and exploited. We can argue that this toxic effect of 25Ag-TiO2 NP is probably due to the calcium influx and calcium accumulation during the long-lasting swimming backwards. Conclusions: Here we have demonstrated that 25Ag-TiO2 NP has a specific toxic effect on an organism higher than bacteria such as the protozoan Paremecium. Probably these toxic phenomena could be expected to be observed in a higher organism such as invertebrates and mammals.

Keywords: Ag-TiO2, calcium permeability, cytotoxicity, paramecium

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1 Gas Chromatographic: Mass Spectroscopic Analysis of Citrus reticulata Fruit Peel, Zingiber officinale Rhizome, and Sesamum indicum Seed Ethanolic Extracts Possessing Antioxidant Activity and Lipid Profile Effects

Authors: Samar Saadeldin Abdelmotalab Omer, Ikram Mohamed Eltayeb Elsiddig, Saad Mohammed Hussein Ayoub

Abstract:

A variety of herbal medicinal plants are known to confer beneficial effects in regards to modification of cardiovascular ri’=sk factors. The anti-hypercholesterolaemic and antioxidant activities of the crude ethanolic extracts of Citrus reticulate fruit peel, Zingiber officinale rhizome and Sesamum indicum seed extracts have been demonstrated. These plants are assumed to possess biologically active principles, which impart their pharmacologic activities. GC-MS analysis of the ethanolic extracts was carried out to identify the active principles and their percentages of occurrence in the analytes. Analysis of the extracts was carried out using (GS-MS QP) type Schimadzu 2010 equipped with a capillary column RTX-50 (restec), (length 30mm, diameter 0.25mm, and thickness 0.25mm). Helium was used as a carrier gas, the temperature was programmed at 200°C for 5 minutes at a rate of 15ml/minute, and the extracts were injected using split injection mode. The identification of different components was achieved from their Mass Spectra and Retention time, compared with those in the NIST library. The results revealed the presence of 80 compounds in Sudanese locally grown C. reticulata fruit peel extract, most of which were monoterpenoid compounds including Limonene (3.03%), Alpha & Gamma - terpinenes (2.61%), Linalool (1.38%), Citral (1.72%) which are known to have profound antioxidant effects. The Sesquiterpenoids Humulene (0.26%) and Caryophyllene (1.97%) were also identified, the latter known to have profound anti-anxiety and anti-depressant activity in addition to the beneficiary effects in lipid regulation. The analysis of the locally grown S. indicum oily and water soluble portions of seed extract revealed the presence of a total of 64 compounds with considerably high percentage of the mono-unsaturated fatty acid ester methyl oleate (66.99%) in addition to methyl stearate (9.35%) and palmitate (15.71%) of oil portion, whereas, plant sterols including Gamma-sitosterol (13.5%), fucosterol (2.11%) and stigmasterol (1.95%) in addition to gamma-tocopherol (1.16%) were detected in extract water-soluble portion. The latter indicate various principles known to have valuable pharmacological benefits including antioxidant activities and beneficiary effects on intestinal cholesterol absorption and regulation of serum cholesterol levels. Z. officinale rhizome extract analysis revealed the presence of 93 compounds, the most abundant were alpha-zingeberine (16.5%), gingerol (9.25%), alpha-sesquiphellandrene (8.3%), zingerone (6.78%), beta-bisabolene (4.19%), alpha-farnesene (3.56%), ar-curcumene (3.29%), gamma-elemene (1.25%) and a variety of other compounds. The presence of these active principles reflected on the activity of the extract. Activity could be assigned to a single or a combination of two or more extract components. GC-MS analysis concluded the occurrence of compounds known to possess antioxidant activity and lipid profile effects.

Keywords: gas chromatography, indicum, officinale, reticulata

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