Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 61

Search results for: Bouazza Tayb Habibi Chawki

61 Half Mode Substrate Integrated Wave Guide of Band Pass Filter Based to Defected Ground Structure Cells

Authors: Damou Mehdi, Nouri Keltoum, Feham Mohammed, Khazini Mohammed, Bouazza Tayb Habibi Chawki


The Half mode SIW filter is treated by two softwares (HFSS (High Frequency Structure Simulator) and CST (Computer Simulation Technology)). The filter HMSIW has a very simple structure and a very compact size. The simulated results by CST are presented and compared with the results simulated by a high-frequency structure simulator. Good agreement between the simulated CST and simulated results by HFSS is observed. By cascading two of them according to design requirement, a X-band bandpass filter is designed and simulated to meet compact size, low insertion loss, good return loss as well as second harmonic suppression. As an example, we designed the proposed HMSIW filter at X band by HFSS. The filter has a pass-band from 7.3 GHz to 9.8 GHz, and its relative operating fraction bandwidth is 29.5 %. There are one transmission zeros are located at 14.4 GHz.

Keywords: substrate integrated waveguide, filter, HMSIW, defected ground structures (DGS), simulation BPF

Procedia PDF Downloads 378
60 SOI-Multi-FinFET: Impact of Fins Number Multiplicity on Corner Effect

Authors: A.N. Moulay Khatir, A. Guen-Bouazza, B. Bouazza


SOI-Multifin-FET shows excellent transistor characteristics, ideal sub-threshold swing, low drain induced barrier lowering (DIBL) without pocket implantation and negligible body bias dependency. In this work, we analyzed this combination by a three-dimensional numerical device simulator to investigate the influence of fins number on corner effect by analyzing its electrical characteristics and potential distribution in the oxide and the silicon in the section perpendicular to the flow of the current for SOI-single-fin FET, three-fin and five-fin, and we provide a comparison with a Trigate SOI Multi-FinFET structure.

Keywords: SOI, FinFET, corner effect, dual-gate, tri-gate, Multi-Fin FET

Procedia PDF Downloads 385
59 Thermal Effect in Power Electrical for HEMTs Devices with InAlN/GaN

Authors: Zakarya Kourdi, Mohammed Khaouani, Benyounes Bouazza, Ahlam Guen-Bouazza, Amine Boursali


In this paper, we have evaluated the thermal effect for high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) heterostructure InAlN/GaN with a gate length 30nm high-performance. It also shows the analysis and simulated these devices, and how can be used in different application. The simulator Tcad-Silvaco software has used for predictive results good for the DC, AC and RF characteristic, Devices offered max drain current 0.67A; transconductance is 720 mS/mm the unilateral power gain of 180 dB. A cutoff frequency of 385 GHz, and max frequency 810 GHz These results confirm the feasibility of using HEMTs with InAlN/GaN in high power amplifiers, as well as thermal places.

Keywords: HEMT, Thermal Effect, Silvaco, InAlN/GaN

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58 Simulation of High Performance Nanoscale Partially Depleted SOI n-MOSFET Transistors

Authors: Fatima Zohra Rahou, A. Guen Bouazza, B. Bouazza


Invention of transistor is the foundation of electronics industry. Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) has been the key for the development of nanoelectronics technology. In the first part of this manuscript, we present a new generation of MOSFET transistors based on SOI (Silicon-On-Insulator) technology. It is a partially depleted Silicon-On-Insulator (PD SOI MOSFET) transistor simulated by using SILVACO software. This work was completed by the presentation of some results concerning the influence of parameters variation (channel length L and gate oxide thickness Tox) on our PDSOI n-MOSFET structure on its drain current and kink effect.

Keywords: SOI technology, PDSOI MOSFET, FDSOI MOSFET, kink effect

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57 Power HEMTs Transistors for Radar Applications

Authors: A. boursali, A. Guen Bouazza, M. Khaouani, Z. Kourdi, B. Bouazza


This paper presents the design, development and characterization of the devices simulation for X-Band Radar applications. The effect of an InAlN/GaN structure on the RF performance High Electron Mobility Transistor (HEMT) device. Systematic investigations on the small signal as well as power performance as functions of the drain biases are presented. Were improved for X-band applications. The Power Added Efficiency (PAE) was achieved over 23% for X-band. The developed devices combine two InAlN/GaN HEMTs of 30nm gate periphery and exhibited the output power of over 50W. An InAlN/GaN HEMT with 30nm gate periphery was developed and exhibited the output power of over 120W.

Keywords: InAlN/GaN, HEMT, RF analyses, PAE, X-Band, radar

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56 Modeling the Transport of Charge Carriers in the Active Devices MESFET Based of GaInP by the Monte Carlo Method

Authors: N. Massoum, A. Guen. Bouazza, B. Bouazza, A. El Ouchdi


The progress of industry integrated circuits in recent years has been pushed by continuous miniaturization of transistors. With the reduction of dimensions of components at 0.1 micron and below, new physical effects come into play as the standard simulators of two dimensions (2D) do not consider. In fact the third dimension comes into play because the transverse and longitudinal dimensions of the components are of the same order of magnitude. To describe the operation of such components with greater fidelity, we must refine simulation tools and adapted to take into account these phenomena. After an analytical study of the static characteristics of the component, according to the different operating modes, a numerical simulation is performed of field-effect transistor with submicron gate MESFET GaInP. The influence of the dimensions of the gate length is studied. The results are used to determine the optimal geometric and physical parameters of the component for their specific applications and uses.

Keywords: Monte Carlo simulation, transient electron transport, MESFET device, GaInP

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55 3D Quantum Simulation of a HEMT Device Performance

Authors: Z. Kourdi, B. Bouazza, M. Khaouani, A. Guen-Bouazza, Z. Djennati, A. Boursali


We present a simulation of a HEMT (high electron mobility transistor) structure with and without a field plate. We extract the device characteristics through the analysis of DC, AC and high frequency regimes, as shown in this paper. This work demonstrates the optimal device with a gate length of 15 nm, InAlN/GaN heterostructure and field plate structure, making it superior to modern HEMTs when compared with otherwise equivalent devices. This improves the ability to bear the burden of the current density passes in the channel. We have demonstrated an excellent current density, as high as 2.05 A/mm, a peak extrinsic transconductance of 590 mS/mm at VDS=2 V, and cutting frequency cutoffs of 638 GHz in the first HEMT and 463 GHz for Field plate HEMT., maximum frequency of 1.7 THz, maximum efficiency of 73%, maximum breakdown voltage of 400 V, DIBL=33.52 mV/V and an ON/OFF current density ratio higher than 1 x 1010. These values were determined through the simulation by deriving genetic and Monte Carlo algorithms that optimize the design and the future of this technology.

Keywords: HEMT, Silvaco, field plate, genetic algorithm, quantum

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54 Performance Improvement of SOI-Tri Gate FinFET Transistor Using High-K Dielectric with Metal Gate

Authors: Fatima Zohra Rahou, A.Guen Bouazza, B. Bouazza


SOI TRI GATE FinFET transistors have emerged as novel devices due to its simple architecture and better performance: better control over short channel effects (SCEs) and reduced power dissipation due to reduced gate leakage currents. As the oxide thickness scales below 2 nm, leakage currents due to tunneling increase drastically, leading to high power consumption and reduced device reliability. Replacing the SiO2 gate oxide with a high-κ material allows increased gate capacitance without the associated leakage effects. In this paper, SOI TRI-GATE FinFET structure with use of high K dielectric materials (HfO2) and SiO2 dielectric are simulated using the 3-D device simulator Devedit and Atlas of TCAD Silvaco. The simulated results exhibits significant improvements in the performances of SOI TRI GATE FinFET with gate oxide HfO2 compared with conventional gate oxide SiO2 for the same structure. SOI TRI-GATE FinFET structure with the use of high K materials (HfO2) in gate oxide results into the increase in saturation current, threshold voltage, on-state current and Ion/Ioff ratio while off-state current, subthreshold slope and DIBL effect are decreased.

Keywords: technology SOI, short-channel effects (SCEs), multi-gate SOI MOSFET, SOI-TRI Gate FinFET, high-K dielectric, Silvaco software

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53 High Performance of Square GAA SOI MOSFET Using High-k Dielectric with Metal Gate

Authors: Fatima Zohra Rahou, A. Guen Bouazza, B. Bouazza


Multi-gate SOI MOSFETs has shown better results in subthreshold performances. The replacement of SiO2 by high-k dielectric can fulfill the requirements of Multi-gate MOSFETS with a scaling trend in device dimensions. The advancement in fabrication technology has also boosted the use of different high -k dielectric materials as oxide layer at different places in MOSFET structures. One of the most important multi-gate structures is square GAA SOI MOSFET that is a strong candidate for the next generation nanoscale devices; show an even stronger control of short channel effects. In this paper, GAA SOI MOSFET structure with using high -k dielectrics materials Al2O3 (k~9), HfO2 (k~20), La2O3 (k~30) and metal gate TiN are simulated by using 3-D device simulator DevEdit and Atlas of SILVACO TCAD tools. Square GAA SOI MOSFET transistor with High-k HfO2 gate dielectrics and TiN metal gate exhibits significant improvements performances compared to Al2O3 and La2O3 dielectrics for the same structure. Simulation results of GAA SOI MOSFET transistor with HfO2 dielectric show the increase in saturation current and Ion/Ioff ratio while leakage current, subthreshold slope and DIBL effect are decreased.

Keywords: technology SOI, short-channel effects (SCEs), multi-gate SOI MOSFET, square GAA SOI MOSFET, high-k dielectric, Silvaco software

Procedia PDF Downloads 169
52 Image Compression Using Block Power Method for SVD Decomposition

Authors: El Asnaoui Khalid, Chawki Youness, Aksasse Brahim, Ouanan Mohammed


In these recent decades, the important and fast growth in the development and demand of multimedia products is contributing to an insufficient in the bandwidth of device and network storage memory. Consequently, the theory of data compression becomes more significant for reducing the data redundancy in order to save more transfer and storage of data. In this context, this paper addresses the problem of the lossless and the near-lossless compression of images. This proposed method is based on Block SVD Power Method that overcomes the disadvantages of Matlab's SVD function. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has a better compression performance compared with the existing compression algorithms that use the Matlab's SVD function. In addition, the proposed approach is simple and can provide different degrees of error resilience, which gives, in a short execution time, a better image compression.

Keywords: image compression, SVD, block SVD power method, lossless compression, near lossless

Procedia PDF Downloads 291
51 Theoretical Investigation of Proton-Bore Fusion in Hot Spots

Authors: Morteza Habibi


As an alternative to D–T fuel, one can consider advanced fuels like D3-He and p-11B fuels, which have potential advantages concerning availability and/or environmental impact. Hot spots are micron-sized magnetically self-contained sources observed in pinched plasma devices. In hot spots, fusion power for 120 keV < Ti < 800 keV and 32 keV < Te < 129 keV exceeds bremsstrahlung loss and fraction of fusion power to bremsstrahlung loss reaches to 1.9. In this case, gain factor for a 150 kJ typical pulsed generator as a hot spot source will be 7.8 which is considerable for a commercial pinched plasma device.

Keywords: P-B fuel, hot spot, bremmsstrahlung loss, ion temperature

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50 Characterization Microstructural Dual Phase Steel for Application In Civil Engineering

Authors: S. Habibi, T. E. Guarcia, A. Megueni, A. Ziadi, L. Aminallah, A. S. Bouchikhi


The characterization of the microstructure of Dual Phase steel in various low-carbon, with a yield stress between 400 and 900 MPa were conducted .In order to assess the mechanical properties of steel, we examined the influence of their chemical compositions interictal and heat treatments (austenite + ferrite area) on their micro structures. In this work, we have taken a number of commercial DP steels, micro structurally characterized and used the conventional tensile testing of these steels for mechanical characterization.

Keywords: characterization, construction in civil engineering, micro structure, tensile DP steel

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49 Comprehensive Study of X-Ray Emission by APF Plasma Focus Device

Authors: M. Habibi


The time-resolved studies of soft and hard X-ray were carried out over a wide range of argon pressures by employing an array of eight filtered photo PIN diodes and a scintillation detector, simultaneously. In 50% of the discharges, the soft X-ray is seen to be emitted in short multiple pulses corresponding to different compression, whereas it is a single pulse for hard X-rays corresponding to only the first strong compression. It should be stated that multiple compressions dominantly occur at low pressures and high pressures are mostly in the single compression regime. In 43% of the discharges, at all pressures except for optimum pressure, the first period is characterized by two or more sharp peaks.The X–ray signal intensity during the second and subsequent compressions is much smaller than the first compression.

Keywords: plasma focus device, SXR, HXR, Pin-diode, argon plasma

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48 The Optical OFDM Equalization Based on the Fractional Fourier Transform

Authors: A. Cherifi, B. S. Bouazza, A. O. Dahman, B. Yagoubi


Transmission over Optical channels will introduce inter-symbol interference (ISI) as well as inter-channel (or inter-carrier) interference (ICI). To decrease the effects of ICI, this paper proposes equalizer for the Optical OFDM system based on the fractional Fourier transform (FrFFT). In this FrFT-OFDM system, traditional Fourier transform is replaced by fractional Fourier transform to modulate and demodulate the data symbols. The equalizer proposed consists of sampling the received signal in the different time per time symbol. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulation are discussed.

Keywords: OFDM, fractional fourier transform, internet and information technology

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47 Intelligent and Optimized Placement for CPLD Devices

Authors: Abdelkader Hadjoudja, Hajar Bouazza


The PLD/CPLD devices are widely used for logic synthesis since several decades. Based on sum of product terms (PTs) architecture, the PLD/CPLD offer a high degree of flexibility to support various application requirements. They are suitable for large combinational logic, finite state machines as well as intensive I/O designs. CPLDs offer very predictable timing characteristics and are therefore ideal for critical control applications. This paper describes how the logic synthesis techniques, such as 1) XOR detection, 2) logic doubling, 3) complement of a Boolean function are combined, applied and used to optimize the CPLDs devices architecture that is based on PAL-like macrocells. Our goal is to use these techniques for minimizing the number of macrocells required to implement a circuit and minimize the delay of mapped circuit.

Keywords: CPLD, doubling, optimization, XOR

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46 Buckling Behavior of FGM Plates Using a Simplified Shear Deformation Theory

Authors: Mokhtar Bouazza


In this paper, the simplified theory will be used to predict the thermoelastic buckling behavior of rectangular functionally graded plates. The material properties of the functionally graded plates are assumed to vary continuously through the thickness, according to a simple power law distribution of the volume fraction of the constituents. The simplified theory is used to obtain the buckling of the plate under different types of thermal loads. The thermal loads are assumed to be uniform, linear, and non-linear distribution through the thickness. Additional numerical results are presented for FGM plates that show the effects of various parameters on thermal buckling response.

Keywords: buckling, functionally graded, plate, simplified higher-order deformation theory, thermal loading

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45 Study of Transport in Electronic Devices with Stochastic Monte Carlo Method: Modeling and Simulation along with Submicron Gate (Lg=0.5um)

Authors: N. Massoum, B. Bouazza


In this paper, we have developed a numerical simulation model to describe the electrical properties of GaInP MESFET with submicron gate (Lg = 0.5 µm). This model takes into account the three-dimensional (3D) distribution of the load in the short channel and the law effect of mobility as a function of electric field. Simulation software based on a stochastic method such as Monte Carlo has been established. The results are discussed and compared with those of the experiment. The result suggests experimentally that, in a very small gate length in our devices (smaller than 40 nm), short-channel tunneling explains the degradation of transistor performance, which was previously enhanced by velocity overshoot.

Keywords: Monte Carlo simulation, transient electron transport, MESFET device, simulation software

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44 Equalization Algorithm for the Optical OFDM System Based on the Fractional Fourier Transform

Authors: A. Cherifi, B. Bouazza, A. O. Dahmane, B. Yagoubi


Transmission over Optical channels will introduce inter-symbol interference (ISI) as well as inter-channel (or inter-carrier) interference (ICI). To decrease the effects of ICI, this paper proposes equalizer for the Optical OFDM system based on the fractional Fourier transform (FrFFT). In this FrFT-OFDM system, traditional Fourier transform is replaced by fractional Fourier transform to modulate and demodulate the data symbols. The equalizer proposed consists of sampling the received signal in the different time per time symbol. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulation are discussed.

Keywords: OFDM, (FrFT) fractional fourier transform, optical OFDM, equalization algorithm

Procedia PDF Downloads 348
43 Lithium-Ion Battery State of Charge Estimation Using One State Hysteresis Model with Nonlinear Estimation Strategies

Authors: Mohammed Farag, Mina Attari, S. Andrew Gadsden, Saeid R. Habibi


Battery state of charge (SOC) estimation is an important parameter as it measures the total amount of electrical energy stored at a current time. The SOC percentage acts as a fuel gauge if it is compared with a conventional vehicle. Estimating the SOC is, therefore, essential for monitoring the amount of useful life remaining in the battery system. This paper looks at the implementation of three nonlinear estimation strategies for Li-Ion battery SOC estimation. One of the most common behavioral battery models is the one state hysteresis (OSH) model. The extended Kalman filter (EKF), the smooth variable structure filter (SVSF), and the time-varying smoothing boundary layer SVSF are applied on this model, and the results are compared.

Keywords: state of charge estimation, battery modeling, one-state hysteresis, filtering and estimation

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42 Different Biological and Chemical Parameters that Influence the Polyphenols from Some Medicinal Plants in Western Algeria

Authors: Mustapha Mahmoud, Fouzia Toumi Benali, Mohamed Benyahia, Sofiane Bouazza


This work focuses on the influences of biological and chemical parameters on the phenolic compounds such as flavonoids and tannins in different medicinal plants in western Algeria (Papaver rhoeas, Daphnegnidium, Lavandula multifida, Lavandula dentata, Lavandula stoicha, ...). Thus we look the difference between species of the same genus, difference between the different organs of the same species, the influence of environment all temperature influences, time, percentage of solvent on the extraction. Quantification of the phenolic compounds was performed by spectrophotometric method then treated with statistics tools such as variance analysis, multivariant analyzes, response surface methodology). The results show that the polyphenols are influenced by the parameters mentioned.

Keywords: polyphenols, influences, medicinal plants, west Algeria

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41 Dynamics of Plant Communities with Chamaerops humilis in the Region of Tlemcen

Authors: O. Hasnaoui, A. Bekkouche, A. Mostefai, M. Bouazza


The region of Tlemcen (west Algeria) is known by their very important floral diversity bound to the conjugation of the multiple factors. Chamaerops humilis covers a big surface in this region, which appears in the majority of the cases in the form of more or less degraded matorral. Our work is dedicated to the comparative analysis of the groupings in chamaeropaie of the mounts of Tlemcen and mounts of traras, based on a phytoécologique approach. Four representative stations of chamaeropaies were retained to make this work. 120 floristic surveys were realized by using a minimal area of 100 m2. The obtained results show that the Mounts of Tlemcen present a wealth more important than those met at the level of the Mounts of Traras. More we go away from the coast towards the Mounts of Tlemcen, we notice a regressive evolution and a transformation of the plant carpet towards a thérophytisation, as well as an accentuation of the aridity.

Keywords: Tlemcen, west Algeria, Chamaerops humilis L., phytoécological, floristic survey, thérophytisation

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
40 Customers’ Priority to Implement SSTs Using AHP Analysis

Authors: Mohammad Jafariahangari, Marjan Habibi, Miresmaeil Mirnabibaboli, Mirza Hassan Hosseini


Self-service technologies (SSTs) make an important contribution to the daily life of people nowadays. However, the introduction of SST does not lead to its usage. Thereby, this paper was an attempt on discovery of the most preferred SST in the customers’ point of view. To fulfill this aim, the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) was applied based on Saaty’s questionnaire which was administered to the customers of e-banking services located in Golestan providence, north of Iran. This study used qualitative factors in association with the intention of consumers’ usage of SSTs to rank three SSTs: ATM, mobile banking, and internet banking. The results showed that mobile banking get the highest weight in consumers’ point of view. This research can be useful both for managers and service providers and also for customers who intend to use e-banking.

Keywords: analytical hierarchy process, decision-making, e-banking, self-service technologies, Iran

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39 Zero Cross-Correlation Codes Based on Balanced Incomplete Block Design: Performance Analysis and Applications

Authors: Garadi Ahmed, Boubakar S. Bouazza


The Zero Cross-Correlation (C, w) code is a family of binary sequences of length C and constant Hamming-weight, the cross correlation between any two sequences equal zero. In this paper, we evaluate the performance of ZCC code based on Balanced Incomplete Block Design (BIBD) for Spectral Amplitude Coding Optical Code Division Multiple Access (SAC-OCDMA) system using direct detection. The BER obtained is better than 10-9 for five simultaneous users.

Keywords: spectral amplitude coding-optical code-division-multiple-access (SAC-OCDMA), phase induced intensity noise (PIIN), balanced incomplete block design (BIBD), zero cross-correlation (ZCC)

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38 Spatial Emission of Ions Produced by the APF Plasma Focus Device

Authors: M. Habibi


The angular distribution of ion beam emission from the APF plasma focus device (15kV, 40μf, 115nH) filled with nitrogen gas has been examined through investigating the effect of ion beams on aluminum thin foils in different angular positions. The samples are studied in different distances from the anode end with different shots. The optimum pressure that would be obtained at the applied voltages of 12kV was 0.7 torr. The ions flux declined as the pressure inclined and the maximum ion density at 0.7 torr was about 10.26 × 1022 ions/steradian. The irradiated foils were analyzed with SEM method in order to study their surface and morphological changes. The results of the analysis showed melting and surface evaporation effects and generation of some cracks in the specimens. The result of ion patterns on the samples obtained in this study can be useful in determining ion spatial distributions on the top of anode.

Keywords: plasma focus, spatial distribution, high energy ions, ion angular distribution

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37 Comparison of Competitive State Anxiety among Elite and Non-Elite Futsal Players and Its Relationship with Situational Factors

Authors: Hassan Habibi, Hossein Soltani, Amir Moghadam, Najmeh Bakhshi


The purpose of this study was to compare competitive state anxiety among elite and non-elite futsal players and its relationship with situational factors. 130 non-elite and 70 elite male futsal players participated in the study. Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 and situational factors Inventory were applied. Data was analyzed using one-way ANOVA and product moment correlation. Results showed there was significant difference between competitive state anxiety subscales (cognitive anxiety somatic anxiety & self-confidence) and situational factors among elite and non-elite futsal players (P<0.05) but there was no significant correlations between situational factors subscales among elite and non-elite futsal players (P<0.05).

Keywords: competitive state anxiety, situational factors, elite players, non-elite players

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36 Foraminiferal Associations and Paleoecology of the Oligocene Sediments in Zagros Basin, SW Iran

Authors: Tahereh Habibi


The Oligocene carbonates are widespread along Fars Province, Zagros Basin, SW Iran. Distribution of planktonic and larger benthic foraminfera, stratal patterns and facies architecture are used as a tool to define microfacies and foraminiferal associations of these strata at Kavar Section. The presence of Nummulites spp. indicated the age of the sequence as Rupelian-Chattian (Nummulites vascus-Nummulites fichteli and Archaias asmaricus/hensoni-Miogypsinoides complanatus assemblage zones). The paleoenvironmental setting is interpreted as a homoclinal ramp environment according to the recognition of eight microfacies types. Four foraminiferal associations are recognized in the investigated ramp setting. They represent a salinity of 34-40 to 50 psu and higher than 50 psu in more restricted conditions. The depth ranges from 200 m as evidenced by the presence of planktonic foraminifera and to less than 30m in the more restricted inner ramp environment. Warm tropical and subtropical water with temperature of 18-25° C is proposed.

Keywords: foraminiferal associations, microfacies, oligocene, paleoecology

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35 Optimisation of Extraction of Phenolic Compounds in Algerian Lavandula multifida, Algeria, NW

Authors: Mustapha Mahmoud Dif, Fouzia Benali-Toumi, Mohamed Benyahia, Sofiane Bouazza, Abbes Dellal, Slimane Baha


L. multifida is applied to treat rheumatism and cold and has hypoglycemic and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study is to optimize the extraction of phenolic compounds in Algerian Lavandula multifida. The influences of parameters including temperature (decoction and maceration) and extraction time (15min to 45 min) on the flavonoids concentration are studied. The optimal conditions are determined and the quadratic response surfaces draw from the mathematical models. Total phenols were evaluated using Folin sicaltieu methods, total flavonoids were estimated using the Tri chloral aluminum method. The maximum concentration extracted, for total flavonoids, equal to 0.043 mg/g was achieved with decoction and extraction time of 41.55 min. However, for total phenol compounds highest concentration of 0.218 mg/g, is obtained with 45 min at 49.99°C.

Keywords: L multifidi, phenolic content, optimization, time, temperature

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34 Fabrication and Characterization of Gelatin Nanofibers Dissolved in Concentrated Acetic Acid

Authors: Kooshina Koosha, Sima Habibi, Azam Talebian


Electrospinning is a simple, versatile and widely accepted technique to produce ultra-fine fibers ranging from nanometer to micron. Recently there has been great interest in developing this technique to produce nanofibers with novel properties and functionalities. The electrospinning field is extremely broad, and consequently there have been many useful reviews discussing various aspects from detailed fiber formation mechanism to the formation of nanofibers and to discussion on a wide range of applications. On the other hand, the focus of this study is quite narrow, highlighting electrospinning parameters. This work will briefly cover the solution and processing parameters (for instance; concentration, solvent type, voltage, flow rate, distance between the collector and the tip of the needle) impacting the morphological characteristics of nanofibers, such as diameter. In this paper, a comprehensive work would be presented on the research of producing nanofibers from natural polymer entitled Gelatin.

Keywords: electrospinning, solution parameters, process parameters, natural fiber

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33 Quantom Magnetic Effects of P-B Fusion in Plasma Focus Devices

Authors: M. Habibi


The feasibility of proton-boron fusion in plasmoids caused by magneto hydrodynamics instabilities in plasma focus devices is studied analytically. In plasmoids, fusion power for 76 keV < Ti < 1500 keV exceeds bremsstrahlung loss (W/Pb=5.39). In such situation gain factor and the ratio of Te to Ti for a typical 150 kJ plasma focus device will be 7.8 and 4.8 respectively. Also with considering the ion viscous heating effect, W/Pb and Ti/Te will be 2.7 and 6 respectively. Strong magnetic field will reduces ion-electron collision rate due to quantization of electron orbits. While approximately there is no change in electron-ion collision rate, the effect of quantum magnetic field makes ions much hotter than electrons which enhance the fraction of fusion power to bremsstrahlung loss. Therefore self-sustained p-11B fusion reactions would be possible and it could be said that p-11B fuelled plasma focus device is a clean and efficient source of energy.

Keywords: plasmoids, p11B fuel, ion viscous heating, quantum magnetic field, plasma focus device

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32 Effect of Accelerated Ions Interacted with Al Targets Using Plasma Focus Device

Authors: Morteza Habibi, Reza Amrollahi


The Aluminum made targets were placed at the central part of a Fillipov type (90KJ) plasma focus cathode. These targets were exposed to perpendicular dense plasma stream incidence. Melt layer erosion by melt motion, surface smoothing, and bubble formation were some of different effects caused by diverse working conditions. Micro hardness of surface layer tends to decrease particularly in the central region of the sample where destruction is more intense. The most pronouced melt motion is registered in the region of the maximum gradient of pressure and the etching of aluminium surface is noticeable in the central part of target. The crater with a maximum depth of 200µm, and the diameter of about 8.5mm is observed close to the mountains. Adding Krypton admixture to the Deuterium gas lead to collapsing bubbles and greater surface damage.

Keywords: fillipov type plasma focus, al target interaction, bubbling effect, melt layer motion, surface smoothing

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