Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1694

Search results for: road traffic crash

1694 Geographic Information System-Based Identification of Road Traffic Crash Hotspots on Rural Roads in Oman

Authors: Mohammed Bakhit Kashoob, Mohammed Salim Al-Maashani, Ahmed Abdullah Al-Marhoon

Abstract:

The use of Geographic Information System (GIS) tools in the analysis of traffic crash data can help to identify locations or hotspots with high instances or risk of traffic crashes. The identification of traffic crash hotspots can effectively improve road safety measures. Mapping of road traffic crash hotspots can help the concerned authorities to give priority and take targeted measures and improvements to the road structure at these locations to reduce traffic crashes and fatalities. In Oman, there are countless rural roads that have more risks for traveling vehicles compared to urban roads. The likelihood of traffic crashes as well as fatality rate may increase with the presence of risks that are associated with the rural type of community. In this paper, the traffic crash hotspots on rural roads in Oman are specified using spatial analysis methods in GIS and traffic crash data. These hotspots are ranked based on the frequency of traffic crash occurrence (i.e., number of traffic crashes) and the rate of fatalities. The result of this study presents a map visualization of locations on rural roads with high traffic crashes and high fatalities rates.

Keywords: road safety, rural roads, traffic crash, GIS tools

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1693 Accidents Involving Pedestrians Walking along with/against Traffic: An Evaluation of Crash Characteristics and Injuries

Authors: Chih-Wei Pai, Rong-Chang Jou

Abstract:

Using A1 A2 police-reported accident data for years 2003–2010 in Taiwan, the paper examines anatomic injuries and crash characteristics specific to pedestrians in “facing traffic” and “back to traffic” crashes. There were 2768 and 7558 accidents involving pedestrians walking along with/against traffic respectively. Injuries sustained by pedestrians and crash characteristics in these two crash types were compared with those in other crash types (nearside crash, nearside dart-out crash, offside crash, offside dart-out crash). Main findings include that “back to traffic” crashes resulted in more severe injuries, and pedestrians in “back to traffic” crashes had increased head, neck, and spine injuries than those in other crash types; and there was an elevated risk of head injuries in unlit darkness and NBU (non-built-up) roadways. Several crash features (e.g. unlit darkness, overtaking maneuvers, phone use by pedestrians and drivers, intoxicated drivers) appear to be over-involved in “back to traffic” crashes. The implications of the research findings regarding pedestrian/driver education, enforcement, and remedial engineering design are discussed.

Keywords: pedestrian accident, crash characteristics, injury, facing traffic, back to traffic

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1692 Review of the Road Crash Data Availability in Iraq

Authors: Abeer K. Jameel, Harry Evdorides

Abstract:

Iraq is a middle income country where the road safety issue is considered one of the leading causes of deaths. To control the road risk issue, the Iraqi Ministry of Planning, General Statistical Organization started to organise a collection system of traffic accidents data with details related to their causes and severity. These data are published as an annual report. In this paper, a review of the available crash data in Iraq will be presented. The available data represent the rate of accidents in aggregated level and classified according to their types, road users’ details, and crash severity, type of vehicles, causes and number of causalities. The review is according to the types of models used in road safety studies and research, and according to the required road safety data in the road constructions tasks. The available data are also compared with the road safety dataset published in the United Kingdom as an example of developed country. It is concluded that the data in Iraq are suitable for descriptive and exploratory models, aggregated level comparison analysis, and evaluation and monitoring the progress of the overall traffic safety performance. However, important traffic safety studies require disaggregated level of data and details related to the factors of the likelihood of traffic crashes. Some studies require spatial geographic details such as the location of the accidents which is essential in ranking the roads according to their level of safety, and name the most dangerous roads in Iraq which requires tactic plan to control this issue. Global Road safety agencies interested in solve this problem in low and middle-income countries have designed road safety assessment methodologies which are basing on the road attributes data only. Therefore, in this research it is recommended to use one of these methodologies.

Keywords: road safety, Iraq, crash data, road risk assessment, The International Road Assessment Program (iRAP)

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
1691 Relationship between Driving under the Influence and Traffic Safety

Authors: Eun Hak Lee, Young-Hyun Seo, Hosuk Shin, Seung-Young Kho

Abstract:

Among traffic crashes, driving under the influence (DUI) of alcohol is the most dangerous behavior in Seoul, South Korea. In 2016 alone 40 deaths occurred on of 2,857 cases of DUI. Since DUI is one of the major factors in increasing the severity of crashes, the intensive management of DUI required to reduce traffic crash deaths and the crash damages. This study aims to investigate the relationship between DUI and traffic safety in order to establish countermeasures for traffic safety improvement. The analysis was conducted on the habitual drivers who drove under the influence. Information of habitual drivers is matched to crash data and fine data. The descriptive statistics on data used in this study, which consists of driver license acquisition, traffic fine, and crash data provided by the Korean National Police Agency, are described. The drivers under the influence are classified by statistically significant criteria, such as driver’s age, license type, driving experience, and crash reasons. With the results of the analysis, we propose some countermeasures to enhance traffic safety.

Keywords: driving under influence, traffic safety, traffic crash, traffic fine

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1690 Probabilistic Crash Prediction and Prevention of Vehicle Crash

Authors: Lavanya Annadi, Fahimeh Jafari

Abstract:

Transportation brings immense benefits to society, but it also has its costs. Costs include such as the cost of infrastructure, personnel and equipment, but also the loss of life and property in traffic accidents on the road, delays in travel due to traffic congestion and various indirect costs in terms of air transport. More research has been done to identify the various factors that affect road accidents, such as road infrastructure, traffic, sociodemographic characteristics, land use, and the environment. The aim of this research is to predict the probabilistic crash prediction of vehicles using machine learning due to natural and structural reasons by excluding spontaneous reasons like overspeeding etc., in the United States. These factors range from weather factors, like weather conditions, precipitation, visibility, wind speed, wind direction, temperature, pressure, and humidity to human made structures like road structure factors like bump, roundabout, no exit, turning loop, give away, etc. Probabilities are dissected into ten different classes. All the predictions are based on multiclass classification techniques, which are supervised learning. This study considers all crashes that happened in all states collected by the US government. To calculate the probability, multinomial expected value was used and assigned a classification label as the crash probability. We applied three different classification models, including multiclass Logistic Regression, Random Forest and XGBoost. The numerical results show that XGBoost achieved a 75.2% accuracy rate which indicates the part that is being played by natural and structural reasons for the crash. The paper has provided in-deep insights through exploratory data analysis.

Keywords: road safety, crash prediction, exploratory analysis, machine learning

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1689 Traffic Calming Measures at Rural Roads in Dhofar

Authors: Mohammed Bakhit Kashoob, Mohammed Salim Al-Maashani, Ahmed Abdullah Al-Marhoon

Abstract:

Traffic calming measures are different design features or strategies used to reduce the speed of a traveling vehicle on a particular road. These calming measures are common on rural roads of Oman. Some of these measures are road speed limits, vertical deflections, horizontal deflections, and road signs. In general, vertical deflections such as rumble strips, road studs (cat’s eye), speed tables, and speed humps are widely used. In this paper, as vehicle speeding is a major cause of road traffic crashes and high fatalities in Oman, the effectiveness of existing traffic calming measures at current locations on rural roads is assessed. The study was conducted on the rural roads of Dhofar Governorate, which is located in the south of Oman. A special focus is given to the calming measures implemented on the mountain roads of Dhofar. It is shown that vertical deflection calming measures are effective in reducing vehicle speed to 20 to 40 kph, depending on the vertical deflection type and spacing. Calming measures are also proposed at locations with a high probability of traffic crashes based on the number of traffic crashes at these locations, road type, and road geometry.

Keywords: road safety, rural roads, speed, traffic calming measures, traffic crash

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1688 Perception of Risk toward Traffic Violence among Road Users in Makassar, Indonesia

Authors: Sulasmi Sudirman, Rachmadanty Mujah Hartika

Abstract:

Traffic violence is currently a big issue in Indonesia. However, the road users perceived risk that is caused by traffic violence is low. The lack of safety driving awareness is one of the factors that road users committed to traffic violence. There are several lists of common traffic violence in Indonesia such as lack of physical fitness, not wearing helmet, unfasten seatbelt, breaking through the traffic light, not holding a driving license, and some more violence. This research sought to explore the perception of road users toward traffic violence. The participants were road users in Makassar, Indonesia who were using cars and motorbikes. The method of the research was a qualitative approach by using a personal interview to collect data. The research showed that there three main ideas of perceiving traffic violence which are motives, environment that supported traffic violence, and reinforcement. The road users committed traffic violence had particular motive, for example, rushing. The road users committed to traffic violence when other road users and significant other did the same. The road users committed traffic violence when the police were not there to give a ticket. It can be concluded that the perception of road users toward traffic violence determined by internal aspect, the social aspect, and regulation.

Keywords: perception, road users, traffic, violence

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1687 Assessment of the Road Safety Performance in National Scale

Authors: Abeer K. Jameel, Harry Evdorides

Abstract:

The Assessment of the road safety performance is a challengeable issue. This is not only because of the ineffective and unreliability of road and traffic crash data system but also because of its systematic character. Recent strategic plans and interventions implemented in some of the developed countries where a significant decline in the rate of traffic and road crashes considers that the road safety is a system. This system consists of four main elements which are: road user, road infrastructure, vehicles and speed in addition to other supporting elements such as the institutional framework and post-crash care system. To assess the performance of a system, it is required to assess all its elements. To present an understandable results of the assessment, it is required to present a unique term representing the performance of the overall system. This paper aims to develop an overall performance indicator which may be used to assess the road safety system. The variables of this indicators are the main elements of the road safety system. The data regarding these variables will be collected from the World Health Organization report. Multi-criteria analysis method is used to aggregate the four sub-indicators for the four variables. Two weighting methods will be assumed, equal weights and different weights. For the different weights method, the factor analysis method is used. The weights then will be converting to scores. The total score will be the overall indicator for the road safety performance in a national scale. This indicator will be used to compare and rank countries according to their road safety performance indicator. The country with the higher score is the country which provides most sustainable and effective interventions for successful road safety system. These indicator will be tested by comparing them with the aggregate real crash rate for each country.

Keywords: factor analysis, Multi-criteria analysis, road safety assessment, safe system indicator

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1686 Analysis of Traffic Crashes on Rural Roads in Oman

Authors: Mohammed Bakhit Kashoob, Mohammed Salim Al-Maashani, Ahmed Abdullah Al-Marhoon

Abstract:

Fatalities of Road Traffic Crashes (RTCs) on rural roads are usually higher than that on urban roads. The likelihood of traffic accidents may increase with the presence of factors that are associated with the rural type of community such as long-distance, road type, road geometry (e.g., curves and steepens), poor lighting, terrain, obstacles (e.g., animals crossing, boulders or tree branches), heavy truck traffic, weather conditions, and road flaws. Most of these factors are present on the rural roads of Oman. As many cities in Oman are surrounded by mountains and connected by rural roads, this is of great concern. In this paper, the causes of traffic crashes on rural roads in Oman are analyzed. The fatality rate of traffic deaths on rural roads is compared with the fatality rate on urban roads for different regions in Oman. Statistical data and police reports show that the leading cause of RTCs and deaths on rural roads is vehicle speeding, especially on long-distance roads. It is shown that crashes on rural roads result in higher fatalities than crashes on urban roads. In comparison to speed, the numbers of RTCs and deaths that resulted from other causes are small.

Keywords: causes of traffic crashes, road safety, road traffic crash, rural roads

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1685 Emergency Management and Patient Transportation of Road Traffic Accident Victims Admitted to the District General Hospital, Matale, Sri Lanka

Authors: Asanka U. K. Godamunne

Abstract:

Road traffic accidents (RTA) are a leading cause of death globally as well as in Sri Lanka and results in a large proportion of disability especially among young people. Ninety-percent of world’s road traffic deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries. The gross disparities in injury outcomes relate to immediate post-crash and hospital management. Emergency management, methods of patient transportation following road traffic accidents and safety measures are important factors to reduce mortality and morbidity. Studies in this area are limited in Sri Lanka. The main objective of this research was to assess the emergency management and proper method of transportation of road traffic accident victims. This offers the best way to explore the ways to reduce the mortality and morbidity and raise the public awareness. This study was conducted as a descriptive cross-sectional study. All the consecutive road traffic accident victims admitted to surgical wards at District General Hospital, Matale, Sri Lanka, over a period of three months were included in the study. Data from 387 victims were analyzed. The majority were in the 20-30 year age group. Seventy six percent of the patients were males. Motorcycles and trishaws were most affected. First-aid was given to only 2% of patients and it was given by non-medical persons. A significant proportion of patients (75%) were transported to the hospital by trishaws and only 1% transported by ambulance. About 86% of the patients were seated while transport and 14% were flat. Limbs and head were the most affected areas of the body. As per this study, immediate post-crash management and patient transportation were not satisfactory. There is a need to strengthen certain road safety laws and make sure people follow them.

Keywords: emergency management, patient transportation, road traffic accident victims, Sri Lanka

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1684 Identifying and Quantifying Factors Affecting Traffic Crash Severity under Heterogeneous Traffic Flow

Authors: Praveen Vayalamkuzhi, Veeraragavan Amirthalingam

Abstract:

Studies on safety on highways are becoming the need of the hour as over 400 lives are lost every day in India due to road crashes. In order to evaluate the factors that lead to different levels of crash severity, it is necessary to investigate the level of safety of highways and their relation to crashes. In the present study, an attempt is made to identify the factors that contribute to road crashes and to quantify their effect on the severity of road crashes. The study was carried out on a four-lane divided rural highway in India. The variables considered in the analysis includes components of horizontal alignment of highway, viz., straight or curve section; time of day, driveway density, presence of median; median opening; gradient; operating speed; and annual average daily traffic. These variables were considered after a preliminary analysis. The major complexities in the study are the heterogeneous traffic and the speed variation between different classes of vehicles along the highway. To quantify the impact of each of these factors, statistical analyses were carried out using Logit model and also negative binomial regression. The output from the statistical models proved that the variables viz., horizontal components of the highway alignment; driveway density; time of day; operating speed as well as annual average daily traffic show significant relation with the severity of crashes viz., fatal as well as injury crashes. Further, the annual average daily traffic has significant effect on the severity compared to other variables. The contribution of highway horizontal components on crash severity is also significant. Logit models can predict crashes better than the negative binomial regression models. The results of the study will help the transport planners to look into these aspects at the planning stage itself in the case of highways operated under heterogeneous traffic flow condition.

Keywords: geometric design, heterogeneous traffic, road crash, statistical analysis, level of safety

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1683 The Influence of Environmental Attributes on Children's Pedestrian-Crash Risk in School Zones

Authors: Jeongwoo Lee

Abstract:

Children are the most vulnerable travelers and they are at risk for pedestrian injury. Creating a safe route to school is important because walking to school is one of the main opportunities for promotion of needed physical exercise among children. This study examined how the built environmental attributes near an elementary school influence traffic accidents among school-aged children. The study used two complementary data sources including the locations of police-reported pedestrian crashes and the built environmental characteristics of school areas. The environmental attributes of road segments were collected through GIS measurements of local data and actual site audits using the inventory developed for measuring pedestrian-crash risk scores. The inventory data collected at 840 road segments near 32 elementary schools in the city of Ulsan. We observed all segments in a 300-meter-radius area from the entrance of an elementary school. Segments are street block faces. The inventory included 50 items, organized into four domains: accessibility (17items), pleasurability (11items), perceived safety from traffic (9items), and traffic and land-use measures (13items). Elementary schools were categorized into two groups based on the distribution of the pedestrian-crash hazard index scores. A high pedestrian-crash zone was defined as an school area within the eighth, ninth, and tenth deciles, while no pedestrian-crash zone was defined as a school zone with no pedestrian-crash accident among school-aged children between 2013 and 2016. No- and high pedestrian-crash zones were compared to determine whether different settings of the built environment near the school lead to a different rate of pedestrian-crash incidents. The results showed that a crash risk can be influenced by several environmental factors such as a shape of school-route, number of intersections, visibility and land-use in a street, and a type of sidewalk. The findings inform policy for creating safe routes to school to reduce the pedestrian-crash risk among children by focusing on school zones.

Keywords: active school travel, school zone, pedestrian crash, safety route to school

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1682 Latent Factors of Severity in Truck-Involved and Non-Truck-Involved Crashes on Freeways

Authors: Shin-Hyung Cho, Dong-Kyu Kim, Seung-Young Kho

Abstract:

Truck-involved crashes have higher crash severity than non-truck-involved crashes. There have been many studies about the frequency of crashes and the development of severity models, but those studies only analyzed the relationship between observed variables. To identify why more people are injured or killed when trucks are involved in the crash, we must examine to quantify the complex causal relationship between severity of the crash and risk factors by adopting the latent factors of crashes. The aim of this study was to develop a structural equation or model based on truck-involved and non-truck-involved crashes, including five latent variables, i.e. a crash factor, environmental factor, road factor, driver’s factor, and severity factor. To clarify the unique characteristics of truck-involved crashes compared to non-truck-involved crashes, a confirmatory analysis method was used. To develop the model, we extracted crash data from 10,083 crashes on Korean freeways from 2008 through 2014. The results showed that the most significant variable affecting the severity of a crash is the crash factor, which can be expressed by the location, cause, and type of the crash. For non-truck-involved crashes, the crash and environment factors increase severity of the crash; conversely, the road and driver factors tend to reduce severity of the crash. For truck-involved crashes, the driver factor has a significant effect on severity of the crash although its effect is slightly less than the crash factor. The multiple group analysis employed to analyze the differences between the heterogeneous groups of drivers.

Keywords: crash severity, structural structural equation modeling (SEM), truck-involved crashes, multiple group analysis, crash on freeway

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1681 Numerical Simulation of Truck Collision with Road Blocker

Authors: Engin Metin Kaplan, Kemal Yaman

Abstract:

In this study, the crash of a medium heavy vehicle onto a designed Road blocker (vehicle barrier) is studied numerically. Structural integrity of the Road blocker is studied by nonlinear dynamic methods under the loading conditions which are defined in the standards. NASTRAN® and LS-DYNA® which are commercial software are used to solve the problem. Outer geometry determination, alignment of the inner part and material properties of the road blocker are studied linearly to yield design parameters. Best design parameters are determined to achieve the most structurally optimized road blocker. Strain and stress values of the vehicle barrier are obtained by solving the partial differential equations.

Keywords: vehicle barrier, truck collision, road blocker, crash analysis

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1680 An Approach to Apply Kernel Density Estimation Tool for Crash Prone Location Identification

Authors: Kazi Md. Shifun Newaz, S. Miaji, Shahnewaz Hazanat-E-Rabbi

Abstract:

In this study, the kernel density estimation tool has been used to identify most crash prone locations in a national highway of Bangladesh. Like other developing countries, in Bangladesh road traffic crashes (RTC) have now become a great social alarm and the situation is deteriorating day by day. Today’s black spot identification process is not based on modern technical tools and most of the cases provide wrong output. In this situation, characteristic analysis and black spot identification by spatial analysis would be an effective and low cost approach in ensuring road safety. The methodology of this study incorporates a framework on the basis of spatial-temporal study to identify most RTC occurrence locations. In this study, a very important and economic corridor like Dhaka to Sylhet highway has been chosen to apply the method. This research proposes that KDE method for identification of Hazardous Road Location (HRL) could be used for all other National highways in Bangladesh and also for other developing countries. Some recommendations have been suggested for policy maker to reduce RTC in Dhaka-Sylhet especially in black spots.

Keywords: hazardous road location (HRL), crash, GIS, kernel density

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1679 Calibrating Risk Factors for Road Safety in Low Income Countries

Authors: Atheer Al-Nuaimi, Harry Evdorides

Abstract:

Daily, many individuals die or get harmed on streets around the globe, which requires more particular solutions for transport safety issues. International road assessment program (iRAP) is one of the models that are considering many variables which influence road user’s safety. In iRAP, roads have been partitioned into five-star ratings from 1 star (the most reduced level) to 5 star (the most noteworthy level). These levels are calculated from risk factors which represent the effect of the geometric and traffic conditions on rod safety. The result of iRAP philosophy are the countermeasures that can be utilized to enhance safety levels and lessen fatalities numbers. These countermeasures can be utilized independently as a single treatment or in combination with other countermeasures for a section or an entire road. There is a general understanding that the efficiency of a countermeasure is liable to reduction when it is used in combination with various countermeasures. That is, crash diminishment estimations of single countermeasures cannot be summed easily. In the iRAP model, the fatalities estimations are calculated using a specific methodology. However, this methodology suffers overestimations. Therefore, this study has developed a calibration method to estimate fatalities numbers more accurately.

Keywords: crash risk factors, international road assessment program, low-income countries, road safety

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1678 Research on Evaluation Method of Urban Road Section Traffic Safety Status Based on Video Information

Authors: Qiang Zhang, Xiaojian Hu

Abstract:

Aiming at the problem of the existing real-time evaluation methods for traffic safety status, a video information-based urban road section traffic safety status evaluation method was established, and the rapid detection method of traffic flow parameters based on video information is analyzed. The concept of the speed dispersion of the road section that affects the traffic safety state of the urban road section is proposed, and the method of evaluating the traffic safety state of the urban road section based on the speed dispersion of the road section is established. Experiments show that the proposed method can reasonably evaluate the safety status of urban roads in real-time, and the evaluation results can provide a corresponding basis for the traffic management department to formulate an effective urban road section traffic safety improvement plan.

Keywords: intelligent transportation system, road traffic safety, video information, vehicle speed dispersion

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1677 Development of K-Factor for Road Geometric Design: A Case Study of North Coast Road in Java

Authors: Edwin Hidayat, Redi Yulianto, Disi Hanafiah

Abstract:

On the one hand, parameters which are used for determining the number of lane on the new road construction are average annual average daily traffic (AADT) and peak hour factor (K-factor). On the other hand, the value of K-factor listed in the guidelines and manual for road planning in Indonesia is a value of adoption or adaptation from foreign guidelines or manuals. Thus, the value is less suitable for Indonesian condition due to differences in road conditions, vehicle type, and driving behavior. The purpose of this study is to provide an example on how to determine k-factor values at a road segment with particular conditions in north coast road, West Java. The methodology is started with collecting traffic volume data for 24 hours over 365 days using PLATO (Automated Traffic Counter) with the approach of video image processing. Then, the traffic volume data is divided into per hour and analyzed by comparing the peak traffic volume in the 30th hour (or other) with the AADT in the same year. The analysis has resulted that for the 30th peak hour the K-factor is 0.97. This value can be used for planning road geometry or evaluating the road capacity performance for the 4/2D interurban road.

Keywords: road geometry, K-factor, annual average daily traffic, north coast road

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1676 Effect of a Traffic Psychology Workshop on Enhancing Positive Attitudes towards Road Safety Awareness among Youths

Authors: C. Ah Gang Getrude, Iqbal Hashmi Shazia, Mohd Nawi Nurul Hudani

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This study examined the effectiveness of a Traffic Psychology Workshop in enhancing positive attitudes towards road safety awareness among youths. We predicted that youths’ attitudes towards road safety would be more positive after they participated in the one-day workshop. We examined their attitudes towards road safety awareness before and after they attended a one-day workshop. There were 21 participants who completed the pre and post-studies (9 males & 12 females, mean age 22.86, SD=2.03). A Wilcoxon signed-ranks test showed that the mean for post-test ranks for students’ attitudes towards road safety awareness was higher than the mean pre-test ranks, z =-3.16, p = .00. The study showed that the Traffic Psychology Module which focuses on the three elements: i) personality & emotion; Sensation, perception and visual; and mental workload could have positive effects on youths’ attitudes towards road safety awareness. We believe that the Traffic Psychology Module could be used as a guide by relevant authorities, such as the Sabah Road Safety Department, in implementing road safety awareness workshops and programs for the public, particularly road-users.

Keywords: attitude, road safety, traffic psychology, youth

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1675 The Development of Traffic Devices Using Natural Rubber in Thailand

Authors: Weeradej Cheewapattananuwong, Keeree Srivichian, Godchamon Somchai, Wasin Phusanong, Nontawat Yoddamnern

Abstract:

Natural rubber used for traffic devices in Thailand has been developed and researched for several years. When compared with Dry Rubber Content (DRC), the quality of Rib Smoked Sheet (RSS) is better. However, the cost of admixtures, especially CaCO₃ and sulphur, is higher than the cost of RSS itself. In this research, Flexible Guideposts and Rubber Fender Barriers (RFB) are taken into consideration. In case of flexible guideposts, the materials used are both RSS and DRC60%, but for RFB, only RSS is used due to the controlled performance tests. The objective of flexible guideposts and RFB is to decrease a number of accidents, fatal rates, and serious injuries. Functions of both devices are to save road users and vehicles as well as to absorb impact forces from vehicles so as to decrease of serious road accidents. This leads to the mitigation methods to remedy the injury of motorists, form severity to moderate one. The solution is to find the best practice of traffic devices using natural rubber under the engineering concepts. In addition, the performances of materials, such as tensile strength and durability, are calculated for the modulus of elasticity and properties. In the laboratory, the simulation of crashes, finite element of materials, LRFD, and concrete technology methods are taken into account. After calculation, the trials' compositions of materials are mixed and tested in the laboratory. The tensile test, compressive test, and weathering or durability test are followed and based on ASTM. Furthermore, the Cycle-Repetition Test of Flexible Guideposts will be taken into consideration. The final decision is to fabricate all materials and have a real test section in the field. In RFB test, there will be 13 crash tests, 7 Pickup Truck tests, and 6 Motorcycle Tests. The test of vehicular crashes happens for the first time in Thailand, applying the trial and error methods; for example, the road crash test under the standard of NCHRP-TL3 (100 kph) is changed to the MASH 2016. This is owing to the fact that MASH 2016 is better than NCHRP in terms of speed, types, and weight of vehicles and the angle of crash. In the processes of MASH, Test Level 6 (TL-6), which is composed of 2,270 kg Pickup Truck, 100 kph, and 25 degree of crash-angle is selected. The final test for real crash will be done, and the whole system will be evaluated again in Korea. The researchers hope that the number of road accidents will decrease, and Thailand will be no more in the top tenth ranking of road accidents in the world.

Keywords: LRFD, load and resistance factor design, ASTM, american society for testing and materials, NCHRP, national cooperation highway research program, MASH, manual for assessing safety hardware

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1674 Data Challenges Facing Implementation of Road Safety Management Systems in Egypt

Authors: A. Anis, W. Bekheet, A. El Hakim

Abstract:

Implementing a Road Safety Management System (SMS) in a crowded developing country such as Egypt is a necessity. Beginning a sustainable SMS requires a comprehensive reliable data system for all information pertinent to road crashes. In this paper, a survey for the available data in Egypt and validating it for using in an SMS in Egypt. The research provides some missing data, and refer to the unavailable data in Egypt, looking forward to the contribution of the scientific society, the authorities, and the public in solving the problem of missing or unreliable crash data. The required data for implementing an SMS in Egypt are divided into three categories; the first is available data such as fatality and injury rates and it is proven in this research that it may be inconsistent and unreliable, the second category of data is not available, but it may be estimated, an example of estimating vehicle cost is available in this research, the third is not available and can be measured case by case such as the functional and geometric properties of a facility. Some inquiries are provided in this research for the scientific society, such as how to improve the links among stakeholders of road safety in order to obtain a consistent, non-biased, and reliable data system.

Keywords: road safety management system, road crash, road fatality, road injury

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1673 Injury Characteristics and Outcome of Road Traffic Accident among Victims at Adult Emergency Department of Tikur Anbesa Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Authors: Mohammed Seid, Aklilu Azazh, Fikre Enquselassie, Engida Yisma

Abstract:

Background: Road traffic injuries are the eighth leading cause of death globally, and the leading cause of death for young people. More than a million people die each year on the world’s roads, and the risk of dying as a result of a road traffic injury is highest in the Africa. Methods: A prospective hospital-based study was undertaken to assess injury characteristics and outcome of road traffic accident among victims at Adult Emergency Department of Tikur Anbesa specialized hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A structured pre-tested questionnaire was used to gather the required data. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Results: A total of 230 road traffic accident victims were studied. The majority of the study subjects were men 165 (71.7%) and the male/female ratio was 2.6:1. The victims’ ages ranged from 14 to 80 years with the mean and standard deviations of 32.15 and ± 14.38 years respectively. Daily laborers (95 (41.3%)) and students (28 (12.2%)) were the majority of road traffic accident victims. Long-distance travelling Minibus (16.5%) was responsible for the majority of road traffic crash followed by followed by Taxi (14.8%) and pedestrians (62.6%) accounted for the majority of road traffic accident. Head (50.4%) and musculoskeletal (extremities) (47.0%) were the most common body region injured. Fractures (78.0%) and open wounds (56.5%) were the most common type of injuries sustained. Treatment of fracture was the most common procedure performed in 57.7 % of the victims. The overall length of hospital stay (LOS) ranged from 1 day to 61 days with mean (± standard deviation) of 7.12 ± 10.5 days and the mortality rate was 7.4 %. A significant higher proportion of victims aged 14-55 years were had less likelihood of death compared to those victims aged more than 55 years of age [Adjusted OR = 0.1 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.82)]. Conclusions: This study showed diverse injury characteristics and high morbidity and mortality among the victims attending Adult Emergency Department of Tikur Anbesa specialized hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The findings reflect that road traffic accident is a major public health problem. Urgent road traffic accident preventive measures and prompt treatment of the victims are warranted in order to reduce morbidity and mortality among the victims.

Keywords: road traffic accident, injury characteristics, outcome, Tikur Anbesa specialized hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

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1672 Form of Distribution of Traffic Accident and Environment Factors of Road Affecting of Traffic Accident in Dusit District, Only Area Responsible of Samsen Police Station

Authors: Musthaya Patchanee

Abstract:

This research aimed to study form of traffic distribution and environmental factors of road that affect traffic accidents in Dusit District, only areas responsible of Samsen Police Station. Data used in this analysis is the secondary data of traffic accident case from year 2011. Observed area units are 15 traffic lines that are under responsible of Samsen Police Station. Technique and method used are the Cartographic Method, the Correlation Analysis, and the Multiple Regression Analysis. The results of form of traffic accidents show that, the Samsen Road area had most traffic accidents (24.29%), second was Rachvithi Road (18.10%), third was Sukhothai Road (15.71%), fourth was Rachasrima Road (12.38%), and fifth was Amnuaysongkram Road (7.62%). The result from Dusit District, only areas responsible of Samsen police station, has suggested that the scale of accidents have high positive correlation with statistic significant at level 0.05 and the frequency of travel (r=0.857). Traffic intersection point (r=0.763)and traffic control equipments (r=0.713) are relevant factors respectively. By using the Multiple Regression Analysis, travel frequency is the only one that has considerable influences on traffic accidents in Dusit district only Samsen Police Station area. Also, a factor in frequency of travel can explain the change in traffic accidents scale to 73.40 (R2 = 0.734). By using the Multiple regression summation from analysis was Y ̂=-7.977+0.044X6.

Keywords: form of traffic distribution, environmental factors of road, traffic accidents, Dusit district

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1671 Evaluation of External Costs of Traffic Accident in Slovak Republic

Authors: Anna Dolinayova, Jozef Danis, Juraj Camaj

Abstract:

The report deals with comparison of traffic accidents in Slovak republic in road and rail transport since year 2009 until 2014, with evaluation of external costs and consequently with the possibilities of their internalization. The results of road traffic accidents analysis are realized in line with after-effects they have caused; in line with main cause, place of origin (within or out of town) and in accordance to age of people they were killed or hard, eventually easy injured in traffic accidents. Evaluation of individual after-effects is carried in terms of probability of traffic accidents occurrence.

Keywords: external costs, traffic accident, rail transport, road transport

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1670 Performances of Two-Segment Crash Box with Holes under Oblique Load

Authors: Moch Agus Choiron

Abstract:

Crash box design has been developed to obtain optimum energy absorption. In this study, two-segment crash box design with holes is investigated under oblique load. The deformation behavior and crash energy absorption are observed. The analysis was performed using finite element method. The crash test components were impactor, crash box, and fixed rigid base. Impactor and the fixed base material are modelled as a rigid, and crash box material as bilinear isotropic hardening. The models consist of 2 and 4 holes laid within ¼, ½ and ¾ from first segment length. 100 mm aluminum crash box and frontal crash velocity of 16 km/jam were selected. Based on simulation results, it can be concluded that 2 holes located at ¾ has the largest crash energy absorption. This behavior associated with deformation pattern, which produces higher number of folding than other models.

Keywords: crash Box, two-segments, holes configuration, oblique load, deformation pattern

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1669 Evaluating the Influence of Road Markings Retroreflectivity on Road Safety in Low Visibility Conditions

Authors: Darko Babic, Maja Modric, Dario Babic, Mario Fiolic

Abstract:

For road markings as a part of traffic control plan, it is considered to have a positive impact on road safety. Their importance is particularly evident in low visibility conditions when the field of vision and the driver's visual acuity are significantly reduced. The aim of this article is to analyze how road marking retroreflectivity affects the frequency of traffic accidents in low visibility conditions. For this purpose, 10,417.4 km single carriageway roads were analysed across Croatia in the period from 2012 to 2016. The research included accidents that may be significantly affected by marking retroreflectivity: head-on collisions, running off the road, hitting a stationary object on the road and hitting a stationary roadside object. The results have shown that the retroreflectivity level is negatively correlated to the total number of accidents and the number of casualties and injuries, which ultimately means that the risk of traffic accidents and deaths and/or injuries of participants will be lower with the increase of road markings retroreflectivity. These results may assist in defining minimum values of retroreflectivity that the markings must meet at any time as well as the suitable technologies and materials for their implementation.

Keywords: retroreflectivity, road markings, traffic accidents, traffic safety

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1668 Influence of Travel Time Reliability on Elderly Drivers Crash Severity

Authors: Ren Moses, Emmanuel Kidando, Eren Ozguven, Yassir Abdelrazig

Abstract:

Although older drivers (defined as those of age 65 and above) are less involved with speeding, alcohol use as well as night driving, they are more vulnerable to severe crashes. The major contributing factors for severe crashes include frailty and medical complications. Several studies have evaluated the contributing factors on severity of crashes. However, few studies have established the impact of travel time reliability (TTR) on road safety. In particular, the impact of TTR on senior adults who face several challenges including hearing difficulties, decreasing of the processing skills and cognitive problems in driving is not well established. Therefore, this study focuses on determining possible impacts of TTR on the traffic safety with focus on elderly drivers. Historical travel speed data from freeway links in the study area were used to calculate travel time and the associated TTR metrics that is, planning time index, the buffer index, the standard deviation of the travel time and the probability of congestion. Four-year information on crashes occurring on these freeway links was acquired. The binary logit model estimated using the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling technique was used to evaluate variables that could be influencing elderly crash severity. Preliminary results of the analysis suggest that TTR is statistically significant in affecting the severity of a crash involving an elderly driver. The result suggests that one unit increase in the probability of congestion reduces the likelihood of the elderly severe crash by nearly 22%. These findings will enhance the understanding of TTR and its impact on the elderly crash severity.

Keywords: highway safety, travel time reliability, elderly drivers, traffic modeling

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1667 Assessment of Vehicular Accidents and Possible Mitigation Measures: A Case of Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India

Authors: K. Omkar, D. Nayan

Abstract:

Rapid urbanization is one of the consequences of rapid population explosion, which has also led to massive increase in number of motorized vehicles essential for carrying out all activities needed for sustaining urban livelihood. With this increased use of motorized vehicles over the time there has also been an increase in number of accidents. Study of road network and geometric features are essential to tackle problems of road accidents in any district or town. The increase in road accidents is one of the burning issues in the present society. Records show that there is one death at every 3.7 minutes because of road accident. It has been found from the research that, accidents occur due to, mistakes of the driver (86%) followed by bad street condition (5%), mistake of pedestrian (4%), as well as technical and maintenance defects (1%). Here, case study of Ahmedabad, Gujarat is taken up where first road safety level is assessed considering various parameters. The study confined to accident characteristics of all types of vehicles. For deeper analysis, road safety index for various stretches in Ahmedabad was found out. Crash rate for same stretches was found out. Based on various parameters priority was decided so that which stretch should be look out first to minimize road accidents on that stretch and which stretch should look out last. The major findings of the study are that accident severity of Ahmedabad has increased, but accident fatality risk has decreased; thus there is need to undertake some traffic engineering measures or make some traffic rules that are strictly followed by traffic. From the above study and literature studied it is found that Ahmedabad is suffering from similar problem of accidents and injuries and deaths caused by them, after properly investigating the issue short-term and long-term solutions to minimize road accidents have been presented in this paper.

Keywords: accident severity index, accident fatality rate, accident fatality risk, accident risk, road safety index

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1666 Road Traffic Noise Mapping for Riyadh City Using GIS and Lima

Authors: Khalid A. Alsaif, Mosaad A. Foda

Abstract:

The primary objective of this study is to develop the first round of road traffic noise maps for Riyadh City using Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and software LimA 7810 predictor. The road traffic data were measured or estimated as accurate as possible in order to obtain reliable noise maps. Meanwhile, the attributes of the roads and buildings are automatically exported from GIS. The simulation results at some chosen locations are validated by actual field measurements, which are obtained by a system that consists of a sound level meter, a GPS receiver and a database to manage the measured data. The results show that the average error between the predicted and measured noise levels is below 3.0 dB.

Keywords: noise pollution, road traffic noise, LimA predictor, GIS

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1665 Microsimulation of Potential Crashes as a Road Safety Indicator

Authors: Vittorio Astarita, Giuseppe Guido, Vincenzo Pasquale Giofre, Alessandro Vitale

Abstract:

Traffic microsimulation has been used extensively to evaluate consequences of different traffic planning and control policies in terms of travel time delays, queues, pollutant emissions, and every other common measured performance while at the same time traffic safety has not been considered in common traffic microsimulation packages as a measure of performance for different traffic scenarios. Vehicle conflict techniques that were introduced at intersections in the early traffic researches carried out at the General Motor laboratory in the USA and in the Swedish traffic conflict manual have been applied to vehicles trajectories simulated in microscopic traffic simulators. The concept is that microsimulation can be used as a base for calculating the number of conflicts that will define the safety level of a traffic scenario. This allows engineers to identify unsafe road traffic maneuvers and helps in finding the right countermeasures that can improve safety. Unfortunately, most commonly used indicators do not consider conflicts between single vehicles and roadside obstacles and barriers. A great number of vehicle crashes take place with roadside objects or obstacles. Only some recent proposed indicators have been trying to address this issue. This paper introduces a new procedure based on the simulation of potential crash events for the evaluation of safety levels in microsimulation traffic scenarios, which takes into account also potential crashes with roadside objects and barriers. The procedure can be used to define new conflict indicators. The proposed simulation procedure generates with the random perturbation of vehicle trajectories a set of potential crashes which can be evaluated accurately in terms of DeltaV, the energy of the impact, and/or expected number of injuries or casualties. The procedure can also be applied to real trajectories giving birth to new surrogate safety performance indicators, which can be considered as “simulation-based”. The methodology and a specific safety performance indicator are described and applied to a simulated test traffic scenario. Results indicate that the procedure is able to evaluate safety levels both at the intersection level and in the presence of roadside obstacles. The procedure produces results that are expressed in the same unity of measure for both vehicle to vehicle and vehicle to roadside object conflicts. The total energy for a square meter of all generated crash can be used and is shown on the map, for the test network, after the application of a threshold to evidence the most dangerous points. Without any detailed calibration of the microsimulation model and without any calibration of the parameters of the procedure (standard values have been used), it is possible to identify dangerous points. A preliminary sensitivity analysis has shown that results are not dependent on the different energy thresholds and different parameters of the procedure. This paper introduces a specific new procedure and the implementation in the form of a software package that is able to assess road safety, also considering potential conflicts with roadside objects. Some of the principles that are at the base of this specific model are discussed. The procedure can be applied on common microsimulation packages once vehicle trajectories and the positions of roadside barriers and obstacles are known. The procedure has many calibration parameters and research efforts will have to be devoted to make confrontations with real crash data in order to obtain the best parameters that have the potential of giving an accurate evaluation of the risk of any traffic scenario.

Keywords: road safety, traffic, traffic safety, traffic simulation

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