Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4875

Search results for: defected ground structures (DGS)

4875 Half Mode Substrate Integrated Wave Guide of Band Pass Filter Based to Defected Ground Structure Cells

Authors: Damou Mehdi, Nouri Keltoum, Feham Mohammed, Khazini Mohammed, Bouazza Tayb Habibi Chawki


The Half mode SIW filter is treated by two softwares (HFSS (High Frequency Structure Simulator) and CST (Computer Simulation Technology)). The filter HMSIW has a very simple structure and a very compact size. The simulated results by CST are presented and compared with the results simulated by a high-frequency structure simulator. Good agreement between the simulated CST and simulated results by HFSS is observed. By cascading two of them according to design requirement, a X-band bandpass filter is designed and simulated to meet compact size, low insertion loss, good return loss as well as second harmonic suppression. As an example, we designed the proposed HMSIW filter at X band by HFSS. The filter has a pass-band from 7.3 GHz to 9.8 GHz, and its relative operating fraction bandwidth is 29.5 %. There are one transmission zeros are located at 14.4 GHz.

Keywords: substrate integrated waveguide, filter, HMSIW, defected ground structures (DGS), simulation BPF

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4874 Design and Synthesis of Two Tunable Bandpass Filters Based on Varactors and Defected Ground Structure

Authors: M'Hamed Boulakroune, Mouloud Challal, Hassiba Louazene, Saida Fentiz


This paper presents a new ultra wideband (UWB) microstrip bandpass filter (BPF) at microwave frequencies. The first one is based on multiple-mode resonator (MMR) and rectangular-shaped defected ground structure (DGS). This filter, which is compact size of 25.2 x 3.8 mm2, provides in the pass band an insertion loss of 0.57 dB and a return loss greater than 12 dB. The second structure is a tunable bandpass filters using planar patch resonators based on diode varactor. This filter is formed by a triple mode circular patch resonator with two pairs of slots, in which the varactors are connected. Indeed, this filter is initially centered at 2.4 GHz, the center frequency of the tunable patch filter could be tuned up to 1.8 GHz simultaneously with the bandwidth, reaching high tuning ranges. Lossless simulations were compared to those considering the substrate dielectric, conductor losses, and the equivalent electrical circuit model of the tuning element in order to assess their effects. Within these variations, simulation results showed insertion loss better than 2 dB and return loss better than 10 dB over the passband. The proposed filters presents good performances and the simulation results are in satisfactory agreement with the experimentation ones reported elsewhere.

Keywords: defected ground structure, diode varactor, microstrip bandpass filter, multiple-mode resonator

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
4873 Development of Risk Management System for Urban Railroad Underground Structures and Surrounding Ground

Authors: Y. K. Park, B. K. Kim, J. W. Lee, S. J. Lee


To assess the risk of the underground structures and surrounding ground, we collect basic data by the engineering method of measurement, exploration and surveys and, derive the risk through proper analysis and each assessment for urban railroad underground structures and surrounding ground including station inflow. Basic data are obtained by the fiber-optic sensors, MEMS sensors, water quantity/quality sensors, tunnel scanner, ground penetrating radar, light weight deflectometer, and are evaluated if they are more than the proper value or not. Based on these data, we analyze the risk level of urban railroad underground structures and surrounding ground. And we develop the risk management system to manage efficiently these data and to support a convenient interface environment at input/output of data.

Keywords: urban railroad, underground structures, ground subsidence, station inflow, risk

Procedia PDF Downloads 270
4872 Effects of Various Wavelet Transforms in Dynamic Analysis of Structures

Authors: Seyed Sadegh Naseralavi, Sadegh Balaghi, Ehsan Khojastehfar


Time history dynamic analysis of structures is considered as an exact method while being computationally intensive. Filtration of earthquake strong ground motions applying wavelet transform is an approach towards reduction of computational efforts, particularly in optimization of structures against seismic effects. Wavelet transforms are categorized into continuum and discrete transforms. Since earthquake strong ground motion is a discrete function, the discrete wavelet transform is applied in the present paper. Wavelet transform reduces analysis time by filtration of non-effective frequencies of strong ground motion. Filtration process may be repeated several times while the approximation induces more errors. In this paper, strong ground motion of earthquake has been filtered once applying each wavelet. Strong ground motion of Northridge earthquake is filtered applying various wavelets and dynamic analysis of sampled shear and moment frames is implemented. The error, regarding application of each wavelet, is computed based on comparison of dynamic response of sampled structures with exact responses. Exact responses are computed by dynamic analysis of structures applying non-filtered strong ground motion.

Keywords: wavelet transform, computational error, computational duration, strong ground motion data

Procedia PDF Downloads 291
4871 On the Seismic Response of Collided Structures

Authors: George D. Hatzigeorgiou, Nikos G. Pnevmatikos


This study examines the inelastic behavior of adjacent planar reinforced concrete (R.C.) frames subjected to strong ground motions. The investigation focuses on the effects of vertical ground motion on the seismic pounding. The examined structures are modeled and analyzed by RUAUMOKO dynamic nonlinear analysis program using reliable hysteretic models for both structural members and contact elements. It is found that the vertical ground motion mildly affects the seismic response of adjacent buildings subjected to structural pounding and, for this reason, it can be ignored from the displacement and interstorey drifts assessment. However, the structural damage is moderately affected by the vertical component of earthquakes.

Keywords: nonlinear seismic behavior, reinforced concrete structures, structural pounding, vertical ground motions

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4870 Health Monitoring of Concrete Assets in Refinery

Authors: Girish M. Bhatia


Most of the important structures in refinery complex are RCC Structures for which in-depth structural monitoring and inspection is required for incessant service. Reinforced concrete structures can be under threat from a combination of insidious challenges due to environmental conditions, including temperature and humidity that lead to accelerated deterioration mechanisms like carbonation, as well as marine exposure, above and below ground structures can experience ingress from aggressive ground waters carrying chlorides and sulphates leading to unexpected deterioration that threaten the integrity of a vital structural asset. By application of health monitoring techniques like corrosion monitoring with help of sensor probes, visual inspection of high rise structures with help of drones, it is possible to establish an early warning at the onset of these destructive processes.

Keywords: concrete structures, corrosion sensors, drones, health monitoring

Procedia PDF Downloads 332
4869 Translational and Rotational Effect of Earthquake Ground Motion on a Bridge Substructure

Authors: Tauhidur Rahman, Gitartha Kalita


In this study a four span box girder bridge is considered and effect of the rotational and translational earthquake ground motion have been thoroughly investigated. This study is motivated by the fact that in many countries the translational and rotational components of earthquake ground motion, especially rocking, is not adequately considered in analysing the overall response of the structures subjected to earthquake ground excitations. Much consideration is given to only the horizontal components of the earthquake ground motion during the response analysis of structures. In the present research work, P waves, SV waves and Rayleigh wave excitations are considered for different angle of incidence. In the present paper, the four span bridge is model considering the effects of vertical and rocking components of P, SV and Rayleigh wave excitations. Ground responses namely displacement, velocity and acceleration of the substructures of the bridge have been considered for rotational and translational effects in addition to the horizontal ground motion due to earthquake and wind.

Keywords: ground motion, response, rotational effects, translational effects

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4868 Numerical Simulation and Laboratory Tests for Rebar Detection in Reinforced Concrete Structures using Ground Penetrating Radar

Authors: Maha Al-Soudani, Gilles Klysz, Jean-Paul Balayssac


The aim of this paper is to use Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) as a non-destructive testing (NDT) method to increase its accuracy in recognizing the geometric reinforced concrete structures and in particular, the position of steel bars. This definition will help the managers to assess the state of their structures on the one hand vis-a-vis security constraints and secondly to quantify the need for maintenance and repair. Several configurations of acquisition and processing of the simulated signal were tested to propose and develop an appropriate imaging algorithm in the propagation medium to locate accurately the rebar. A subsequent experimental validation was used by testing the imaging algorithm on real reinforced concrete structures. The results indicate that, this algorithm is capable of estimating the reinforcing steel bar position to within (0-1) mm.

Keywords: GPR, NDT, Reinforced concrete structures, Rebar location.

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4867 A Novel Dual Band-pass filter Based On Coupling of Composite Right/Left Hand CPW and (CSRRs) Uses Ferrite Components

Authors: Mohammed Berka, Khaled Merit


Recent works on microwave filters show that the constituent materials such filters are very important in the design and realization. Several solutions have been proposed to improve the qualities of filtering. In this paper, we propose a new dual band-pass filter based on the coupling of a composite (CRLH) coplanar waveguide with complementary split ring resonators (CSRRs). The (CRLH) CPW is composed of two resonators, each one has an interdigital capacitor (CID) and two short-circuited stubs parallel to top ground plane. On the lower ground plane, we use defected ground structure technology (DGS) to engrave two (CSRRs) offered with different shapes and dimensions. Between the top ground plane and the substrate, we place a ferrite layer to control the electromagnetic coupling between (CRLH) CPW and (CSRRs). The global filter that has coplanar access will have a dual band-pass behavior around the magnetic resonances of (CSRRs). Since there’s no scientific or experimental result in the literature for this kind of complicated structure, it was necessary to perform simulation using HFSS Ansoft designer.

Keywords: complementary split ring resonators, coplanar waveguide, ferrite, filter, stub.

Procedia PDF Downloads 337
4866 Effects of Near-Fault Ground Motions on Earthquake-Induced Pounding Response of RC Buildings

Authors: Mehmet Akköse


In ground motions recorded in recent major earthquakes such as 1994 Northridge earthquake in US, 1995 Kobe earthquake in Japan, 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake in Taiwan, and 1999 Kocaeli earthquake in Turkey, it is noticed that they have large velocity pulses. The ground motions with the velocity pulses recorded in the vicinity of an earthquake fault are quite different from the usual far-fault earthquake ground motions. The velocity pulse duration in the near-fault ground motions is larger than 1.0 sec. In addition, the ratio of the peak ground velocity (PGV) to the peak ground acceleration (PGA) of the near-fault ground motions is larger than 0.1 sec. The ground motions having these characteristics expose the structure to high input energy in the beginning of the earthquake and cause large structural responses. Therefore, structural response to near-fault ground motions has received much attention in recent years. Interactions between neighboring, inadequately separated buildings have been repeatedly observed during earthquakes. This phenomenon often referred to as earthquake-induced structural pounding, may result in substantial damage or even total destruction of colliding structures during strong ground motions. This study focuses on effects of near-fault ground motions on earthquake-induced pounding response of RC buildings. The program SAP2000 is employed in the response calculations. The results obtained from the pounding analyses for near-fault and far-fault ground motions are compared with each other.

Keywords: near-fault ground motion, pounding analysis, RC buildings, SAP2000

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
4865 Limit State Evaluation of Bridge According to Peak Ground Acceleration

Authors: Minho Kwon, Jeonghee Lim, Yeongseok Jeong, Jongyoon Moon, Donghoon Shin, Kiyoung Kim


In the past, the criteria and procedures for the design of concrete structures were mainly based on the stresses allowed for structural components. However, although the frequency of earthquakes has increased and the risk has increased recently, it has been difficult to determine the safety factor for earthquakes in the safety assessment of structures based on allowable stresses. Recently, limit state design method has been introduced for reinforced concrete structures, and limit state-based approach has been recognized as a more effective technique for seismic design. Therefore, in this study, the limit state of the bridge, which is a structure requiring higher stability against earthquakes, was evaluated. The finite element program LS-DYNA and twenty ground motion were used for time history analysis. The fracture caused by tensile and compression of the pier were set to the limit state. In the concrete tensile fracture, the limit state arrival rate was 100% at peak ground acceleration 0.4g. In the concrete compression fracture, the limit state arrival rate was 100% at peak ground acceleration 0.2g.

Keywords: allowable stress, limit state, safety factor, peak ground acceleration

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4864 Study on the Seismic Response of Slope under Pulse-Like Ground Motion

Authors: Peter Antwi Buah, Yingbin Zhang, Jianxian He, Chenlin Xiang, Delali Atsu Y. Bakah


Near-fault ground motions with velocity pulses are considered to cause significant damage to structures or slopes compared to ordinary ground motions without velocity pulses. The double pulsed pulse-like ground motion is as well known to be stronger than the single pulse. This study has numerically justified this perspective by studying the dynamic response of a homogeneous rock slope subjected to four pulse-like and two non-pulse-like ground motions using the Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua in 3 Dimensions (FLAC3D) software. Two of the pulse-like ground motions just have a single pulse. The results show that near-fault ground motions with velocity pulses can cause a higher dynamic response than regular ground motions. The amplification of the peak ground acceleration (PGA) in horizontal direction increases with the increase of the slope elevation. The seismic response of the slope under double pulse ground motion is stronger than that of the single pulse ground motion. The PGV amplification factor under the effect of the non-pulse-like records is also smaller than those under the pulse-like records. The velocity pulse strengthens the earthquake damage to the slope, which results in producing a more strong dynamic response.

Keywords: velocity pulses, dynamic response, PGV magnification effect, elevation effect, double pulse

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4863 Accurate Algorithm for Selecting Ground Motions Satisfying Code Criteria

Authors: S. J. Ha, S. J. Baik, T. O. Kim, S. W. Han


For computing the seismic responses of structures, current seismic design provisions permit response history analyses (RHA) that can be used without limitations in height, seismic design category, and building irregularity. In order to obtain accurate seismic responses using RHA, it is important to use adequate input ground motions. Current seismic design provisions provide criteria for selecting ground motions. In this study, the accurate and computationally efficient algorithm is proposed for accurately selecting ground motions that satisfy the requirements specified in current seismic design provisions. The accuracy of the proposed algorithm is verified using single-degree-of-freedom systems with various natural periods and yield strengths. This study shows that the mean seismic responses obtained from RHA with seven and ten ground motions selected using the proposed algorithm produce errors within 20% and 13%, respectively.

Keywords: algorithm, ground motion, response history analysis, selection

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4862 Thermal Properties of the Ground in Cyprus and Their Correlations and Effect on the Efficiency of Ground Heat Exchangers

Authors: G. A. Florides, E. Theofanous, I. Iosif-Stylianou, P. Christodoulides, S. Kalogirou, V. Messarites, Z. Zomeni, E. Tsiolakis, P. D. Pouloupatis, G. P. Panayiotou


Ground Coupled Heat Pumps (GCHPs) exploit effectively the heat capacity of the ground, with the use of Ground Heat Exchangers (GHE). Depending on the mode of operation of the GCHPs, GHEs dissipate or absorb heat from the ground. For sizing the GHE the thermal properties of the ground need to be known. This paper gives information about the density, thermal conductivity, specific heat and thermal diffusivity of various lithologies encountered in Cyprus with various relations between these properties being examined through comparison and modeling. The results show that the most important correlation is the one encountered between thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity with both properties showing similar response to the inlet and outlet flow temperature of vertical and horizontal heat exchangers.

Keywords: ground heat exchangers, ground thermal conductivity, ground thermal diffusivity, ground thermal properties

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4861 Studying Frame-Resistant Steel Structures under Near Field Ground Motion

Authors: S. A. Hashemi, A. Khoshraftar


This paper presents the influence of the vertical seismic component on the non-linear dynamics analysis of three different structures. The subject structures were analyzed and designed according to recent codes. This paper considers three types of buildings: 5-, 10-, and 15-story buildings. The non-linear dynamics analysis of the structures with assuming elastic-perfectly-plastic behavior was performed using Ram Perform-3D software; the horizontal component was taken into consideration with and without the incorporation of the corresponding vertical component. Dynamic responses obtained for the horizontal component acting alone were compared with those obtained from the simultaneous application of both seismic components. The results show that the effect of the vertical component of the ground motion may increase the axial load significantly in the interior columns and consequently, the stories. The plastic mechanisms would be changed. The P-Delta effect is expected to increase. The punching base plate shear of the columns should be considered. Moreover, the vertical component increases the input energy when the structures exhibit inelastic behavior and are taller.

Keywords: inelastic behavior, non-linear dynamic analysis, steel structure, vertical component

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
4860 Design and Performance Evaluation of Hybrid Corrugated-GFRP Infill Panels

Authors: Woo Young Jung, Sung Min Park, Ho Young Son, Viriyavudh Sim


This study presents a way to reduce earthquake damage and emergency rehabilitation of critical structures such as schools, high-tech factories, and hospitals due to strong ground motions associated with climate changes. Regarding recent trend, a strong earthquake causes serious damage to critical structures and then the critical structure might be influenced by sequence aftershocks (or tsunami) due to fault plane adjustments. Therefore, in order to improve seismic performance of critical structures, retrofitted or strengthening study of the structures under aftershocks sequence after emergency rehabilitation of the structures subjected to strong earthquakes is widely carried out. Consequently, this study used composite material for emergency rehabilitation of the structure rather than concrete and steel materials because of high strength and stiffness, lightweight, rapid manufacturing, and dynamic performance. Also, this study was to develop or improve the seismic performance or seismic retrofit of critical structures subjected to strong ground motions and earthquake aftershocks, by utilizing GFRP-Corrugated Infill Panels (GCIP).

Keywords: aftershock, composite material, GFRP, infill panel

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4859 A Case Study of the Ground Collapse Due to Excavation Using Non-Destructive Testing

Authors: Ki-Cheong Yoo, Yushik Han, Heejeung Sohn, Jinwoo Kim


A ground collapse can be caused by natural and artificial factors. Ground collapses that have occurred frequently in Korea were observed and classified into different types by the main contributing factor. In this study, ground collapse induced by groundwater level disturbance in an excavation site was analyzed. Also, ground loosening region around the excavation site was detected and analyzed using non-destructive testing, such as GPR (Ground Penetrating Radar) survey and Electrical Resistivity. The result of the surveys showed that the ground was loosened widely over the surrounding area of the excavation due to groundwater discharge.

Keywords: electrical resistivity, ground collapse, groundwater level, GPR (ground penetrating radar)

Procedia PDF Downloads 119
4858 A New Low Cost Seismic Response Controlling Structures with Semi Base Isolation Devices

Authors: M. Ezati Kooshki, A. Abbaszadeh Shahri


A number of devices used to control seismic structures have been developed during the past decades. One of the effective ways to reduce seismic forces transmitted to the buildings is through the base isolation systems, but the use of these devices is currently limited to large and expensive buildings. This study was an attempt to introduce an effective and low cost way to protect of structures against grand motions by a semi base isolation system. In this new way, structures were not completely decoupled of bases and the natural frequency of structures was changed due to earthquake by changing the horizontal stiffness; therefore, ground excitation energy was dissipated before entering the structures. For analyzing the dynamic behavior, the new method used finite element software (ABAQUS 6-10-1). This investigation introduced a new package of semi base isolation devices with a new material constitutive, but common in automobile industries, seeking to evaluate the effects of additional new devices on the seismic response when compared with structures without additional devises for different ground motions. The proposed semi base isolation devices were applied to a one story frame and the time history analysis was conducted on the record of Kobe earthquake (1995). The results showed that the efficiency reduced the floor acceleration and displacement, as well as velocity.

Keywords: semi base isolation system, finite element, natural frequency, horizontal stiffness

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4857 Application of GPR for Prospection in Two Archaeological Sites at Aswan Area, Egypt

Authors: Abbas Mohamed Abbas, Raafat El-Shafie Fat-Helbary, Karrar Omar El Fergawy, Ahmed Hamed Sayed


The exploration in archaeological area requires non-invasive methods, and hence the Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) technique is a proper candidate for this task. GPR investigation is widely applied for searching for hidden ancient targets. So, in this paper GPR technique has been used in archaeological investigation. The aim of this study was to obtain information about the subsurface and associated structures beneath two selected sites at the western bank of the River Nile at Aswan city. These sites have archaeological structures of different ages starting from 6thand 12th Dynasties to the Greco-Roman period. The first site is called Nag’ El Gulab, the study area was 30 x 16 m with separating distance 2m between each profile, while the second site is Nag’ El Qoba, the survey method was not in grid but in lines pattern with different lengths. All of these sites were surveyed by GPR model SIR-3000 with antenna 200 MHz. Beside the processing of each profile individually, the time-slice maps have been conducted Nag’ El Gulab site, to view the amplitude changes in a series of horizontal time slices within the ground. The obtained results show anomalies may interpret as presence of associated tombs structures. The probable tombs structures similar in their depth level to the opened tombs in the studied areas.

Keywords: ground penetrating radar, archeology, Nag’ El Gulab, Nag’ El Qoba

Procedia PDF Downloads 319
4856 Effect of Fill Material Density under Structures on Ground Motion Characteristics Due to Earthquake

Authors: Ahmed T. Farid, Khaled Z. Soliman


Due to limited areas and excessive cost of land for projects, backfilling process has become necessary. Also, backfilling will be done to overcome the un-leveling depths or raising levels of site construction, especially near the sea region. Therefore, backfilling soil materials used under the foundation of structures should be investigated regarding its effect on ground motion characteristics, especially at regions subjected to earthquakes. In this research, 60-meter thickness of sandy fill material was used above a fixed 240-meter of natural clayey soil underlying by rock formation to predict the modified ground motion characteristics effect at the foundation level. Comparison between the effect of using three different situations of fill material compaction on the recorded earthquake is studied, i.e. peak ground acceleration, time history, and spectra acceleration values. The three different densities of the compacted fill material used in the study were very loose, medium dense and very dense sand deposits, respectively. Shake computer program was used to perform this study. Strong earthquake records, with Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) of 0.35 g, were used in the analysis. It was found that, higher compaction of fill material thickness has a significant effect on eliminating the earthquake ground motion properties at surface layer of fill material, near foundation level. It is recommended to consider the fill material characteristics in the design of foundations subjected to seismic motions. Future studies should be analyzed for different fill and natural soil deposits for different seismic conditions.

Keywords: acceleration, backfill, earthquake, soil, PGA

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4855 A Ground Structure Method to Minimize the Total Installed Cost of Steel Frame Structures

Authors: Filippo Ranalli, Forest Flager, Martin Fischer


This paper presents a ground structure method to optimize the topology and discrete member sizing of steel frame structures in order to minimize total installed cost, including material, fabrication and erection components. The proposed method improves upon existing cost-based ground structure methods by incorporating constructability considerations well as satisfying both strength and serviceability constraints. The architecture for the method is a bi-level Multidisciplinary Feasible (MDF) architecture in which the discrete member sizing optimization is nested within the topology optimization process. For each structural topology generated, the sizing optimization process seek to find a set of discrete member sizes that result in the lowest total installed cost while satisfying strength (member utilization) and serviceability (node deflection and story drift) criteria. To accurately assess cost, the connection details for the structure are generated automatically using accurate site-specific cost information obtained directly from fabricators and erectors. Member continuity rules are also applied to each node in the structure to improve constructability. The proposed optimization method is benchmarked against conventional weight-based ground structure optimization methods resulting in an average cost savings of up to 30% with comparable computational efficiency.

Keywords: cost-based structural optimization, cost-based topology and sizing, optimization, steel frame ground structure optimization, multidisciplinary optimization of steel structures

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
4854 Ground Response Analyses in Budapest Based on Site Investigations and Laboratory Measurements

Authors: Zsolt Szilvágyi, Jakub Panuska, Orsolya Kegyes-Brassai, Ákos Wolf, Péter Tildy, Richard P. Ray


Near-surface loose sediments and local ground conditions in general have a major influence on seismic response of structures. It is a difficult task to model ground behavior in seismic soil-structure-foundation interaction problems, fully account for them in seismic design of structures, or even properly consider them in seismic hazard assessment. In this study, we focused on applying seismic soil investigation methods, used for determining soil stiffness and damping properties, to response analysis used in seismic design. A site in Budapest, Hungary was investigated using Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves, Seismic Cone Penetration Tests, Bender Elements, Resonant Column and Torsional Shear tests. Our aim was to compare the results of the different test methods and use the resulting soil properties for 1D ground response analysis. Often in practice, there are little-to no data available on dynamic soil properties and estimated parameters are used for design. Therefore, a comparison is made between results based on estimated parameters and those based on detailed investigations. Ground response results are also compared to Eurocode 8 design spectra.

Keywords: MASW, resonant column test, SCPT, site response analysis, torsional shear test

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4853 Ground Deformation Module for the New Laboratory Methods

Authors: O. Giorgishvili


For calculation of foundations one of the important characteristics is the module of deformation (E0). As we all know, the main goal of calculation of the foundations of buildings on deformation is to arrange the base settling and difference in settlings in such limits that do not cause origination of cracks and changes in design levels that will be dangerous to standard operation in the buildings and their individual structures. As is known from the literature and the practical application, the modulus of deformation is determined by two basic methods: laboratory method, soil test on compression (without the side widening) and soil test in field conditions. As we know, the deformation modulus of soil determined by field method is closer to the actual modulus deformation of soil, but the complexity of the tests to be carried out and the financial concerns did not allow determination of ground deformation modulus by field method. Therefore, we determine the ground modulus of deformation by compression method without side widening. Concerning this, we introduce a new way for determination of ground modulus of deformation by laboratory order that occurs by side widening and more accurately reflects the ground modulus of deformation and more accurately reflects the actual modulus of deformation and closer to the modulus of deformation determined by the field method. In this regard, we bring a new approach on the ground deformation detection laboratory module, which is done by widening sides. The tests and the results showed that the proposed method of ground deformation modulus is closer to the results that are obtained in the field, which reflects the foundation's work in real terms more accurately than the compression of the ground deformation module.

Keywords: build, deformation modulus, foundations, ground, laboratory research

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4852 Effects of Ground Motion Characteristics on Damage of RC Buildings: A Detailed Investiagation

Authors: Mohamed Elassaly


The damage status of RC buildings is greatly influenced by the characteristics of the imposed ground motion. Peak Ground Acceleration and frequency contents are considered the main two factors that affect ground motion characteristics; hence, affecting the seismic response of RC structures and consequently their damage state. A detailed investigation on the combined effects of these two factors on damage assessment of RC buildings, is carried out. Twenty one earthquake records are analyzed and arranged into three groups, according to their frequency contents. These records are used in an investigation to define the expected damage state that would be attained by RC buildings, if subjected to varying ground motion characteristics. The damage assessment is conducted through examining drift ratios and damage indices of the overall structure and the significant structural components of RC building. Base and story shear of RC building model, are also investigated, for cases when the model is subjected to the chosen twenty one earthquake records. Nonlinear dynamic analyses are performed on a 2-dimensional model of a 12-story R.C. building.

Keywords: damage, frequency content, ground motion, PGA, RC building, seismic

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4851 SIPINA Induction Graph Method for Seismic Risk Prediction

Authors: B. Selma


The aim of this study is to test the feasibility of SIPINA method to predict the harmfulness parameters controlling the seismic response. The approach developed takes into consideration both the focal depth and the peak ground acceleration. The parameter to determine is displacement. The data used for the learning of this method and analysis nonlinear seismic are described and applied to a class of models damaged to some typical structures of the existing urban infrastructure of Jassy, Romania. The results obtained indicate an influence of the focal depth and the peak ground acceleration on the displacement.

Keywords: SIPINA algorithm, seism, focal depth, peak ground acceleration, displacement

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
4850 Investigation on Correlation of Earthquake Intensity Parameters with Seismic Response of Reinforced Concrete Structures

Authors: Semra Sirin Kiris


Nonlinear dynamic analysis is permitted to be used for structures without any restrictions. The important issue is the selection of the design earthquake to conduct the analyses since quite different response may be obtained using ground motion records at the same general area even resulting from the same earthquake. In seismic design codes, the method requires scaling earthquake records based on site response spectrum to a specified hazard level. Many researches have indicated that this limitation about selection can cause a large scatter in response and other charecteristics of ground motion obtained in different manner may demonstrate better correlation with peak seismic response. For this reason influence of eleven different ground motion parameters on the peak displacement of reinforced concrete systems is examined in this paper. From conducting 7020 nonlinear time history analyses for single degree of freedom systems, the most effective earthquake parameters are given for the range of the initial periods and strength ratios of the structures. In this study, a hysteresis model for reinforced concrete called Q-hyst is used not taken into account strength and stiffness degradation. The post-yielding to elastic stiffness ratio is considered as 0.15. The range of initial period, T is from 0.1s to 0.9s with 0.1s time interval and three different strength ratios for structures are used. The magnitude of 260 earthquake records selected is higher than earthquake magnitude, M=6. The earthquake parameters related to the energy content, duration or peak values of ground motion records are PGA(Peak Ground Acceleration), PGV (Peak Ground Velocity), PGD (Peak Ground Displacement), MIV (Maximum Increamental Velocity), EPA(Effective Peak Acceleration), EPV (Effective Peak Velocity), teff (Effective Duration), A95 (Arias Intensity-based Parameter), SPGA (Significant Peak Ground Acceleration), ID (Damage Factor) and Sa (Spectral Response Spectrum).Observing the correlation coefficients between the ground motion parameters and the peak displacement of structures, different earthquake parameters play role in peak displacement demand related to the ranges formed by the different periods and the strength ratio of a reinforced concrete systems. The influence of the Sa tends to decrease for the high values of strength ratio and T=0.3s-0.6s. The ID and PGD is not evaluated as a measure of earthquake effect since high correlation with displacement demand is not observed. The influence of the A95 is high for T=0.1 but low related to the higher values of T and strength ratio. The correlation of PGA, EPA and SPGA shows the highest correlation for T=0.1s but their effectiveness decreases with high T. Considering all range of structural parameters, the MIV is the most effective parameter.

Keywords: earthquake parameters, earthquake resistant design, nonlinear analysis, reinforced concrete

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4849 Inverted Umbrella-type Chiral Non-coplanar Ferrimagnetic Structure in Co(NO₃)₂

Authors: O. Maximova, I. L. Danilovich, E. B. Deeva, K. Y. Bukhteev, A. A. Vorobyova, I. V. Morozov, O. S. Volkova, E. A. Zvereva, I. V. Solovyev, S. A. Nikolaev, D. Phuyal, M. Abdel-Hafiez, Y. C. Wang, J. Y. Lin, J. M. Chen, D. I. Gorbunov, K. Puzniak, B. Lake, A. N. Vasiliev


The low-dimensional magnetic systems tend to reveal exotic spin liquid ground states or form peculiar types of long-range order. Among systems of vivid interest are those characterized by the triangular motif in two dimensions. The realization of either ordered or disordered ground state in a triangular, honeycomb, or kagome lattices is are dictated by the competition of exchange interactions, also being sensitive to anisotropy and the spin value of magnetic ions. While the low-spin Heisenberg systems may arrive at a spin liquid long-range entangled quantum state with emergent gauge structures, the high-spin Ising systems may establish the rigid non-collinear structures. This study presents the case of chiral non-coplanar inverted umbrella-type ferrimagnet formed in cobalt nitrate Co(NO₃)₂ below T

Keywords: chiral magnetic structures, low dimensional magnetic systems, umbrella-type ferrimagnets, chiral non-coplanar magnetic structures

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4848 Influence of Free Field Vibrations Due to Vibratory Pile Driving

Authors: Shashank Mukkoti, Mainak Majumder, Srinivasan Venkatraman


Owing to the land scarcity in the modern-day, most of the construction activities are carried out closed to the existing buildings. Most of the high-rise buildings are constructed on pile foundations to transfer the design loads to a strong stratum below the ground surface. Due to the proximity of the new and existing structures, noise disturbances are prominent during the pile installation. Installation of vibratory piles is most suitable in urban areas. The ground vibrations developed due to the vibratory pile driving may cause many detrimental effects on the surrounding structures based on the proximity of the sources and nature of the structures. In the present study, an attempt has been made to study the severity of ground vibrations induced by vibratory pile driving. For this purpose, a three-dimensional finite element model has been developed in the ABAQUS/ Explicit finite element program. The couple finite/infinite element method has been employed for the capturing of propagating waves due to the pile installation. The geometry of the pile foundations, frequency of the pile driving, length of the pile has been considered for the parametric study. The results show that vibrations generated due to the vibratory pile installation are either very close or more than the thresholds tolerance limits set by different guidelines.

Keywords: FE model, pile driving, free field vibrations, wave propagation

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4847 A Case Study on Performance of Isolated Bridges under Near-Fault Ground Motion

Authors: Daniele Losanno, H. A. Hadad, Giorgio Serino


This paper presents a numerical investigation on the seismic performance of a benchmark bridge with different optimal isolation systems under near fault ground motion. Usually, very large displacements make seismic isolation an unfeasible solution due to boundary conditions, especially in case of existing bridges or high risk seismic regions. Hence, near-fault ground motions are most likely to affect either structures with long natural period range like isolated structures or structures sensitive to velocity content such as viscously damped structures. The work is aimed at analyzing the seismic performance of a three-span continuous bridge designed with different isolation systems having different levels of damping. The case study was analyzed in different configurations including: (a) simply supported, (b) isolated with lead rubber bearings (LRBs), (c) isolated with rubber isolators and 10% classical damping (HDLRBs), and (d) isolated with rubber isolators and 70% supplemental damping ratio. Case (d) represents an alternative control strategy that combines the effect of seismic isolation with additional supplemental damping trying to take advantages from both solutions. The bridge is modeled in SAP2000 and solved by time history direct-integration analyses under a set of six recorded near-fault ground motions. In addition to this, a set of analysis under Italian code provided seismic action is also conducted, in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the suggested optimal control strategies under far field seismic action. Results of the analysis demonstrated that an isolated bridge equipped with HDLRBs and a total equivalent damping ratio of 70% represents a very effective design solution for both mitigation of displacement demand at the isolation level and base shear reduction in the piers also in case of near fault ground motion.

Keywords: isolated bridges, near-fault motion, seismic response, supplemental damping, optimal design

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4846 Analytical Study of the Structural Response to Near-Field Earthquakes

Authors: Isidro Perez, Maryam Nazari


Numerous earthquakes, which have taken place across the world, led to catastrophic damage and collapse of structures (e.g., 1971 San Fernando; 1995 Kobe-Japan; and 2010 Chile earthquakes). Engineers are constantly studying methods to moderate the effect this phenomenon has on structures to further reduce damage, costs, and ultimately to provide life safety to occupants. However, there are regions where structures, cities, or water reservoirs are built near fault lines. When an earthquake occurs near the fault lines, they can be categorized as near-field earthquakes. In contrary, a far-field earthquake occurs when the region is further away from the seismic source. A near-field earthquake generally has a higher initial peak resulting in a larger seismic response, when compared to a far-field earthquake ground motion. These larger responses may result in serious consequences in terms of structural damage which can result in a high risk for the public’s safety. Unfortunately, the response of structures subjected to near-field records are not properly reflected in the current building design specifications. For example, in ASCE 7-10, the design response spectrum is mostly based on the far-field design-level earthquakes. This may result in the catastrophic damage of structures that are not properly designed for near-field earthquakes. This research investigates the knowledge that the effect of near-field earthquakes has on the response of structures. To fully examine this topic, a structure was designed following the current seismic building design specifications, e.g. ASCE 7-10 and ACI 318-14, being analytically modeled, utilizing the SAP2000 software. Next, utilizing the FEMA P695 report, several near-field and far-field earthquakes were selected, and the near-field earthquake records were scaled to represent the design-level ground motions. Upon doing this, the prototype structural model, created using SAP2000, was subjected to the scaled ground motions. A Linear Time History Analysis and Pushover analysis were conducted on SAP2000 for evaluation of the structural seismic responses. On average, the structure experienced an 8% and 1% increase in story drift and absolute acceleration, respectively, when subjected to the near-field earthquake ground motions. The pushover analysis was ran to find and aid in properly defining the hinge formation in the structure when conducting the nonlinear time history analysis. A near-field ground motion is characterized by a high-energy pulse, making it unique to other earthquake ground motions. Therefore, pulse extraction methods were used in this research to estimate the maximum response of structures subjected to near-field motions. The results will be utilized in the generation of a design spectrum for the estimation of design forces for buildings subjected to NF ground motions.

Keywords: near-field, pulse, pushover, time-history

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