Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

Search results for: Gona Ayuba

6 Analysis of Technical Efficiency and Its Determinants among Cattle Fattening Enterprises in Kebbi State, Nigeria

Authors: Gona Ayuba, Isiaka Mohammed, Kotom Mohammed Baba, Mohammed Aabubakar Maikasuwa


The study examined the technical efficiency and its determinants of cattle fattening enterprises in Kebbi state, Nigeria. Data were collected from a sample of 160 fatteners between June 2010 and June 2011 using the multistage random sampling technique. Translog stochastic frontier production function was employed for the analysis. Results of the analysis show that technical efficiency indices varied from 0.74 to 0.98%, with a mean of 0.90%, indicating that there was no wide gap between the efficiency of best technical efficient fatteners and that of the average fattener. The result also showed that fattening experience and herd size influenced the level of technical efficiency at 1% levels. It is recommended that credit agencies should ensure that credit made available to the fatteners is monitored to ensure appropriate utilization.

Keywords: technical efficiency, determinants, cattle, fattening enterprises

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5 Assessment of Heavy Metal Bioaccumulation by Tissues of Ipomoea Batatas and Manihot Esculenta Irrigated with Water from Muhammad Ayuba Dam, Kazaure, Jigawa State, Nigeria

Authors: Sa’idu A. Abdullah, Jafar Lawan, A. U. Adamu, Fowotade, S. A., Hamisu Abdu


Scarcity of quality water in many communities compels inhabitants to use any available water resources for domestic, recreational, industrial and agricultural purposes. Global concern on the potential health hazards of anthropogenic inputs into our ecosystems imposes the need for constant monitoring of levels of pollutants in order to ensure compliance with internationally acceptable criteria. In this research, assessment of bioaccumulation of Cd, Co, Cu, Pb and Zn was carried out using tissues of Ipomoea batatas (sweet potato) and Manihot esculenta (cassava) irrigated with water from Muhammad Ayuba Dam in Kazaure, Jigawa State. The metal concentrations were determined using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (FAAS). The result of the analysis revealed the presence of the metals in varying concentrations. Cd and Co showed higher concentrations in the tubers of Manihot esculenta but all the other investigated metals were more concentrated in the leaves of the plant. Cd and Cu on the other hand showed higher concentration in the root of Ipomoea batatas while the remaining investigated metals were concentrated more in the leaves of the plant. The result of analysis of water samples from five sampling stations in the Dam showed the presence of the metals as follows: Cd, (0.063±0.02 mg/L), Co (0.086±0.03 mg/L), Cu (0.167±0.08 mg/L), Pb (0.22±0.01 mg/L) and Zn (0.047±0.01 mg/L) respectively. The results of bioaccumulation studies using the Bioaccumulation Factors (BAF) index indicated Ipomoea batatas to have higher bioaccumulation potential for Cd, Co and Cu while Pb and Zn were more accumulated in Manihot esculenta. The levels of the metals in both the water samples and plant tissues were all below the WHO permissible limit. This is indicative that the inhabitants of the community under investigation are not at any health risk.

Keywords: agriculture, bioaccumulation, heavy metal, plant tissues

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4 Effects of Sublethal Concentrations of Parkia biglobosa Pod on Weight Gain in the African Catfish, Clarias gariepinus Juveniles

Authors: M. I. Oshimagye, V. O. Ayuba, P. A. Annune


The effect of Sublethal Concentrations of Parkia biglobosa pod extract on the growth and survival of Clarias gariepinus juveniles (mean weight 32.73g ± 0.0) were investigated under laboratory conditions for 8 weeks using the static renewal and continuous aeration system. Statistical analysis showed that fish exposed to various concentrations had significantly lower (P<0.05) growth rate than the control groups. The reduction in growth was observed to be directly proportional to increase in concentration. However, at 50 mg/L no significant depression in weight was observed.

Keywords: Clarias gariepinus, Parkia biglobosa, pod, weight

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3 Teacher Professional Development: Preparing African Secondary School Teachers towards Enhancing Peaceful Coexistence in Multi-Ethnic Classroom Communities

Authors: Badamasi Tarda Ayuba


African countries contend with many developmental challenges particularly that of overcoming ethnic and religious conflicts. There is the recent wave of terrorism which is also ascribed to religious intolerance. It is a reality that most sub-Saharan African countries/communities consist of several distinct ethnic groups. In a typical classroom, within both rural and urban contexts, children from diverse ethnic and socio-cultural backgrounds converge to learn and grow together. This implies that education has the potentials for fostering inter-communal understanding such that young people could learn, grow together and assume leadership positions to work in pursuit of common goals of nation building. However, given the spate of inter communal clashes erupting too frequently in many parts of the continent and the dangerous trend of ethnicization of serious national affairs, it is doubtful if these objectives are being realized through education. Thus, this paper argued that the current developments indicate failure of the education system in the realization of the countries’ educational goals of creating united, peaceful and indivisible nations, thus far. Further, the failure occurred and would continue to persist unless teachers are purposefully prepared in terms of professional competencies and attitudes to entrench in their students the culture of peaceful coexistence through the various professional roles they play within the schools and communities. Therefore, the paper examined the changing context and challenging roles expected of sub-Saharan African teachers in engendering peaceful coexistence and the need to purposefully develop their capacity and mindset for the new roles. The paper then recommended programs to expose and re-educate teachers towards such roles.

Keywords: sub-Saharan Africa, teacher, professional development, peaceful coexistence, multi-ethnicity, communities

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2 Dual Carriage of Hepatitis B Surface and Envelope Antigen in Adults in the Poorest Region of Nigeria: 2000-2015

Authors: E. Isaac, I. Jalo, Y. Alkali, A. Ajani, A. Rasaki, Y. Jibrin, K. Mustapha, A. Ayuba, S. Charanchi, H. Danlami


Introduction: Hepatitis B infection continues to be a serious global health problem with about 2 billion people infected worldwide, many of these in sub-Saharan Africa. Nigeria is one of the countries with the highest incidence, with a prevalence of 10-15%. Methods: Records of Hepatitis B surface and envelope antigen test results in adults in Federal Teaching Hospital, Gombe between May 2000 and May 2015 were retrieved and analyzed. Findings: Adult out-patient consultations and in-patient admissions were 343,083 and 67,761 respectively, accounting for 87% of total. Hepatitis B surface antigenaemia was tested for in 23,888 adults and children. 88.9% (21240) were adults. Males constituted 56% (11902/21240) and females 44% (9211/21240). 5104 (24.0%) of tested individuals were 19-25years; 12,039 (56.7%) 26-45years; 21119 (9.0%) 46-55years; 2.8% (590/21240) and 766 (3.6%) >65years. Among adult males, 17% (2133/11902) was contributed by ages 19-25. 58% (7017/11902), 11.9% (1421/11902), 6.4% (765/11902) and 4.7% (563/11902) of males were 26-45 years old, 46-55 years old and 56-65 years and >65year old respectively. Adults aged 19-25years, 26-45 years, 46-55years, 56-65 and > 65years each constituted 32% (2966/9211); 54.4% (5009/9211); 7.4% (684/9211), 3.8% (350/9211) and 2.2% (201/9211) of females respectively. 16.2% (3431/21,240) demonstrated Hepatitis B surface antigenaemia. The sero-positivity rate was 16.9% (865//5104) between 19-25years, 21.2% (2559/12,039) among 26-45year old individuals. 17.9% (377/2111); 14.1% (83/590) and 7.3% (56/766) of 46-55year old, 56-65year old and >65year old individuals screened were seropositive. The highest sero-positivity rate was found in male young adults aged 19-25years 27.9% (398/1426) and lowest in elderly males 7.4% (28/377). HBe antigen testing rate among HbSAg seropositive individuals was 97.3% (3338/3431). Males constituted 59.7% (1992/3338) and females 40.3% (1345/3338). 25.3% (844/3338) were aged 19-25years; 61.1% (2039/3338) 26-45years; 10.2% (340/3338) 46-55years; 2.7% (90/3338) 56-65years and 0.7% >65years old. HB e antigenaemia was positive in 8.2% (275/3338) of those tested. 41% (113/275); 50.2% (138/275); 5.4% (15/275); 1.8% (5/275) and 1.1 (3/275) of HB e sero-positivity was among age groups 19-25, 26-45, 46-55, 56-65 and > 65year old individuals. Dual sero-positivity rate was highest 13% (113/844) in young adults 19-25years and lowest between 46-55years; 15/340 (4.4%). 4.2% (15/360); 13.5% (69/512); 6.7% (90/1348); 4.6% (10/214); 5% (2/40) and 6.7% (1/15) of males aged 19-25; 26-45; 46-55; 56-65; and >65years had HB e antigenaemia respectively. Among females - 27/293 (9.2%) aged 19-25; 26/500 (5.2%) 26-45; 2/84 (2.4%) 46-55; 1/12 (8.3%) 56-65 and 1/9(11.1%) >65years had dual antigenaemia. In women of childbearing age, 6.9% (53/793) had a dual carriage. Conclusion: Dual hepatitis B surface and envelope antigenaemia are highest in young adult males. This will have significant implications for the development of chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma.

Keywords: adult, Hepatitis B, Nigeria, dual carriage

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1 The in Vitro and in Vivo Antifungal Activity of Terminalia Mantaly on Aspergillus Species Using Drosophila melanogaster (UAS-Diptericin) As a Model

Authors: Ponchang Apollos Wuyep, Alice Njolke Mafe, Longchi Satkat Zacheaus, Dogun Ojochogu, Dabot Ayuba Yakubu


Fungi causes huge losses when infections occur both in plants and animals. Synthetic Antifungal drugs are mostly very expensive and highly cytotoxic when taken. This study was aimed at determining the in vitro and in vivo antifungal activities of the leaves and stem extracts of Terminalia mantaly (Umbrella tree)H. Perrier on Aspergillus species in a bid to identify potential sources of cheap starting materials for the synthesis of new drugs to address the growing antimicrobial resistance. T. mantaly leave and stem powdered plant was extracted by fractionation using the method of solvent partition co-efficient in their graded form in the order n-hexane, Ethyl acetate, methanol and distilled water and phytochemical screening of each fraction revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, Tannins, flavonoids, carbohydrates, steroids, anthraquinones, cardiac glycosides and terpenoids in varying degrees. The Agar well diffusion technique was used to screen for antifungal activity of the fractions on clinical isolates of Aspergillus species (Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus fumigatus). Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC50) of the most active extracts was determined by the broth dilution method. The fractions test indicated a high antifungal activity with zones of inhibition ranging from 6 to 26 mm and 8 to 30mm (leave fractions) and 10mm to 34mm and 14mm to36mm (stem fractions) on A. flavus and A. fumigatus respectively. All the fractions indicated antifungal activity in a dose response relationship at concentrations of 62.5mg/ml, 125mg/ml, 250mg/ml and 500mg/ml. Better antifungal efficacy was shown by the Ethyl acetate, Hexane and Methanol fractions in the in vitro as the most potent fraction with MIC ranging from 62.5 to 125mg/ml. There was no statistically significant difference (P>0.05) in the potency of the Eight fractions from leave and stem (Hexane, Ethyl acetate, methanol and distilled water, antifungal (fluconazole), which served as positive control and 10% DMSO(Dimethyl Sulfoxide)which served as negative control. In the in vivo investigations, the ingestion technique was used for the infectious studies Female Drosophilla melanogaster(UAS-Diptericin)normal flies(positive control),infected and not treated flies (negative control) and infected flies with A. fumigatus and placed on normal diet, diet containing fractions(MSM and HSM each at concentrations of 10mg/ml 20mg/ml, 30mg/ml, 40mg/ml, 50mg/ml, 60mg/ml, 70mg/ml, 80mg/ml, 90mg/ml and 100mg/ml), diet containing control drugs(fluconazole as positive control)and infected flies on normal diet(negative control), the flies were observed for fifteen(15) days. Then the total mortality of flies was recorded each day. The results of the study reveals that the flies were susceptible to infection with A. fumigatus and responded to treatment with more effectiveness at 50mg/ml, 60mg/ml and 70mg/ml for both the Methanol and Hexane stem fractions. Therefore, the Methanol and Hexane stem fractions of T. mantaly contain therapeutically useful compounds, justifying the traditional use of this plant for the treatment of fungal infections.

Keywords: Terminalia mantaly, Aspergillus fumigatus, cytotoxic, Drosophila melanogaster, antifungal

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