Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 72

Search results for: Penicillium expansum

72 Improvement of Antibacterial Activity for Ceftazidime by Partially Purified Tannase from Penicillium expansum

Authors: Sahira N. Muslim, Alaa N. Mohammed, Saba Saadoon Khazaal, Batool Kadham Salman, Israa M. S. AL-Kadmy, Sraa N. Muslim, Ahmed S. Dwaish, Sawsan Mohammed Kareem, Sarah N. Aziz, Ruaa A. Jasim


Tannase has wide applications in food, beverage, brewing, cosmetics and chemical industries and one of the major applications of tannase is the production of gallic acid. Gallic acid is used for manufacturing of trimethoprim. In the present study, a local fungal strain of Penicillium expansum A4 isolated from spoilt apple samples gave the highest production level of tannase. Tannase was partially purified with a recovery yield of 92.52% and 6.32 fold of purification by precipitation using ammonium sulfate at 50% saturation. Tannase led to increased antimicrobial activity of ceftazidime against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and S. aureus and had a synergism effect at low concentrations of ceftazidime, and thus, tannase may be a useful adjuvant agent for the treatment of many bacterial infections in combination with ceftazidime.

Keywords: ceftazidime, Penicillium expansum, tannase, antimicrobial activity

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71 Biological Control of Blue Mold Disease of Grapes by Pichia anomala Supplemented by Chitosan and Its Possible Control Mechanism

Authors: Esa Abiso Godana, Qiya Yang, Kaili Wang, Zhang Hongyin, Xiaoyun Zhang, Lina Zhao


Blue mold decay caused by Penicillium expansum is among the recent identified diseases of grapes (Vitis vinifera). The increasing concern about use of chemical substance and pesticide in postharvest fruit push the trends of research toward biocontrol strategies which are more sustainable and ecofriendly. In this study, we determined the biocontrol efficacy of Pichia anomala alone and supplemented with 1% chitosan in the grapefruit against blue mold disease caused by P. expansum. The result showed that 1% chitosan better enhances the biocontrol efficacy P. anomala. Chitosan (1% w/v) also improved the number of population of P. anomala in grape wounds, surface and on nutrient yeast dextrose broth (NYDB). P. anomala supplemented with 1% w/v chitosan significantly reduced the disease incidence, lesion diameter and natural decay of grapefruits without affecting the fruit quality as compared to the control. The scanned electron microscope (SEM) concisely illustrates how the high number of yeast cells on the wounds reduced the growth of P. expansum. P. anomala alone or P. anomala supplemented with 1% w/v chitosan are presented as a potential biocontrol alternative against the postharvest blue mold of grapefruit.

Keywords: biocontrol, Pichia anomala, chitosan, Penicillium expansum, grape

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70 Antagonist Study of Fungi Isolated from the Burned Forests of Region of Mila, Algeria

Authors: Abdelaziz Wided, Khiat Nawel, Khiat Inssaf


The present study was initiated to: Determine burned forest-inhabiting fungi in Zouagha, Terri Beinène, Mila and study the antagonistic activity of Trichoderma sp against Fusarium sp, Penicillium sp, Rhizoctonia sp, Alternaria sp. 18 fungal strains were isolated from Soil samples taken from the forest Zouagha (Burned) in the region Mila representing 6 genera: Trichoderma sp et Fusarium sp, Penicillium sp, Rhizoctonia sp, Alternaria sp, Rhizopus sp. The tests of dual culture method on culture medium (PDA) against Trichoderma sp et Fusarium sp, Penicillium sp, Rhizoctonia sp, Alternaria sp revealed that: Trichoderma sp could reduce l mycelium grouth of Fusarium sp23.13%, Penicillium sp33.13%, Rhizoctoniasp33.75 %and Alternaria sp 38.31% in comparaison with the witness after 6 days at room temperature. The strains of Fusarium sp ,Penicillium sp, Rhizoctonia sp et Alternaria sp showed differences sensibility to the antagoniste.

Keywords: isolation, identification, molds, burned soil of zouagha, antagonism, trichoderma sp

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69 Optimization of Media for Enhanced Fermentative Production of Mycophenolic Acid by Penicillium brevicompactum

Authors: Shraddha Digole, Swarali Hingse, Uday Annapure


Mycophenolic acid (MPA) is an immunosuppressant; produced by Penicillium Sp. Box-Behnken statistical experimental design was employed to optimize the condition of Penicillium brevicompactum NRRL 2011 for mycophenolic acid (MPA) production. Initially optimization of various physicochemical parameters and media components was carried out using one factor at a time approach and significant factors were screened by Taguchi L-16 orthogonal array design. Taguchi design indicated that glucose, KH2PO4 and MgSO4 had significant effect on MPA production. These variables were selected for further optimization studies using Box-Behnken design. Optimised fermentation condition, glucose (60 g/L), glycine (28 g/L), L-leucine (1.5g/L), KH2PO4 (3g/L), MgSO4.7H2O (1.5g/L), increased the production of MPA from 170 mg/L to 1032.54 mg/L. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed a high value of coefficient of determination R2 (0.9965), indicating a good agreement between experimental and predicted values and proves validity of the statistical model.

Keywords: Box-Behnken design, fermentation, mycophenolic acid, Penicillium brevicompactum

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68 Measurements of Chitin by Ochratoxigenic Fungi and Its Relationship to Ochratoxin a Production

Authors: Jamal Elzwai, Kofi Aidoo, Alan Candlish


Production of OTA was detected after 24hr by Aspergillus ochraceus isolate whereas at 36hr for A. carbonarius isolate and Penicillium verrucosum IMI 285522 and 60hr for A. ochraceus CBS 588.68. Highest OTA level was produced by A. carbonarius isolate followed by A. ochraceus CBS 588.68, Penicillium verrucosum IMI 285522 and finally A. ochraceus isolate. Glucosamine content of barley sample before fermentation was found to be negligible and remained almost constant during the incubation time. Glucosamine content started to increase at 12 hours after incubation with A. ochraceus isolate, A. carbonarius isolate and A. ochraceus CBS 588.68, and after 12 hours with P. verrucosum IMI 285522. Highest glucosamine content, as a result of increase in fungal biomass, was produced by A. ochraceus CBS 588.68 followed by A. ochraceus isolate, A. carbonarius isolate, and finally by P. verrucosum IMI 285522. It appears that there is a correlation between OTA synthesis and glucosamine content with A. ochraceus isolate, A. carbonarius isolate and A. ochraceus CBS 588.68 but not with P. verrucosum IMI 285522.

Keywords: chitin, barley, Ochratoxin A, Aspergiluus ochraceus, A. carbonarius, Penicillium verrucosum

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67 Improved Production, Purification and Characterization of Invertase from Penicillium lilacinum by Shaken Flask Technique of Submerged Fermentation

Authors: Kashif Ahmed


Recent years researchers have been motivated towards extensive exploring of living organism, which could be utilized effectively in intense industrial conditions. The present study shows enhanced production, purification and characterization of industrial enzyme, invertase (Beta-D-fructofuranosidase) from Penicillium lilacinum. Various agricultural based by-products (cotton stalk, sunflower waste, rice husk, molasses and date syrup) were used as energy source. The highest amount of enzyme (13.05 Units/mL) was produced when the strain was cultured on growth medium containing date syrup as energy source. Yeast extract was used as nitrogen source after 96 h of incubation at incubation temperature of 40º C. Initial pH of medium was 8.0, inoculum size 6x10⁶ conidia and 200 rev/min agitation rate. The enzyme was also purified (7 folds than crude) and characterized. Molecular mass of purified enzyme (65 kDa) was determined by 10 % SDS-PAGE. Lineweaver-Burk Plot was used to determine Kinetic constants (Vmax 178.6 U/mL/min and Km 2.76 mM). Temperature and pH optima were 55º C and 5.5 respectively. MnCl₂ (52.9 %), MgSO₄ (48.9 %), BaCl₂ (24.6 %), MgCl₂ (9.6 %), CoCl₂ (5.7 %) and NaCl (4.2 %) enhanced the relative activity of enzyme and HgCl₂ (-92.8 %), CuSO₄ (-80.2 %) and CuCl₂ (-76.6 %) were proved inhibitors. The strain was showing enzyme activity even at extreme conditions of temperature (up to 60º C) and pH (up to 9), so it can be used in industries.

Keywords: invertase, Penicillium lilacinum, submerged fermentation, industrial enzyme

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66 Enhancement of Rice Straw Composting Using UV Induced Mutants of Penicillium Strain

Authors: T. N. M. El Sebai, A. A. Khattab, Wafaa M. Abd-El Rahim, H. Moawad


Fungal mutant strains have produced cellulase and xylanase enzymes, and have induced high hydrolysis with enhanced of rice straw. The mutants were obtained by exposing Penicillium strain to UV-light treatments. Screening and selection after treatment with UV-light were carried out using cellulolytic and xylanolytic clear zones method to select the hypercellulolytic and hyperxylanolytic mutants. These mutants were evaluated for their cellulase and xylanase enzyme production as well as their abilities for biodegradation of rice straw. The mutant 12 UV/1 produced 306.21% and 209.91% cellulase and xylanase, respectively, as compared with the original wild type strain. This mutant showed high capacity of rice straw degradation. The effectiveness of tested mutant strain and that of wild strain was compared in relation to enhancing the composting process of rice straw and animal manures mixture. The results obtained showed that the compost product of inoculated mixture with mutant strain (12 UV/1) was the best compared to the wild strain and un-inoculated mixture. Analysis of the composted materials showed that the characteristics of the produced compost were close to those of the high quality standard compost. The results obtained in the present work suggest that the combination between rice straw and animal manure could be used for enhancing the composting process of rice straw and particularly when applied with fungal decomposer accelerating the composting process.

Keywords: rice straw, composting, UV mutants, Penicillium

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65 Isolation and Molecular Identification of Two Fungal Strains Capable of Degrading hydrocarbon Contaminants on Saudi Arabian Environment

Authors: Amr A. EL Hanafy, Yasir Anwar, Saleh A. Mohamed, Saleh Mohamed Saleh Al-Garni, Jamal S. M. Sabir , Osama A. H. Abu Zinadah, Mohamed Morsi Ahmed


In the vicinity of the red sea about 15 fungi species were isolated from oil contaminated sites. On the basis of aptitude to degrade the crude oil and DCPIP assay, two fungal isolates were selected amongst 15 oil degrading strains. Analysis of ITS-1, ITS-2 and amplicon pyrosequencing studies of fungal diversity revealed that these strains belong to Penicillium and Aspergillus species. Two strains that proved to be the most efficient in degrading crude oil was Aspergillus niger (54 %) and Penicillium commune (48 %) Subsequent to two weeks of cultivation in BHS medium the degradation rate were recorded by using spectrophotometer and GC-MS. Hence, it is cleared that these fungal strains has the capability of degradation and can be utilized for cleaning the Saudi Arabian environment.

Keywords: fungal strains, hydrocarbon contaminants, molecular identification, biodegradation, GC-MS

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64 Nematicidal Activity of the Cell Extract from Penicillium Sp EU0013 and Its Metabolite Profile Using High Performance Liquid Chromatograpy

Authors: Zafar Iqbal, Sana Irshad Khan


Organic extract from newly isolated plant growth promoting fungus (PGPF) Penicillium sp EU0013 was subjected to bioassays including anti fungal (disc diffusion) cytotoxicity (brine shrimp lethality), herbicidal (Lemna minor) and nematicidal activities. Metabolite profile of the extract was also assessed using HPLC analysis with the aim to identify bioactive natural products in the extract as new drug candidate(s). The extract showed anti fungal potential against tested fungal pathogens. Growth of the Wilt pathogen Fusarium oxyosproum was inhibited up to 63% when compared to negative reference. Activity against brine shrimps was weak and mortality up to 10% was observed at concentration of 200 µg. mL-1. The extract exhibited no toxicity against Lemna minor frond at 200 µg. mL-1. Nematicidal activity was observed very potent against root knot nematode and LC50 value was calculated as 52.5 ug. mL-1 using probit analysis. Methodically assessment of metabolites profile by HPLC showed the presence of kojic acid (Rt 1.4 min) and aflatoxin B1 (Rt 5.9 min) in the mycellial extract as compared with standards. The major unidentified metabolite was eluted at Rt 8.6 along with other minor peaks. The observed high toxicity against root knot nematode was attributed to the unidentified compounds that make fungal extract worthy of further exploration for isolation and structural characterization studies for development of future commercial nematicidal compound(s).

Keywords: penicillium, nematicidal activity, metabolites, HPLC

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63 Cloning and Expression a Gene of β-Glucosidase from Penicillium echinulatum in Pichia pastoris

Authors: Amanda Gregorim Fernandes, Lorena Cardoso Cintra, Rosalia Santos Amorim Jesuino, Fabricia Paula De Faria, Marcio José Poças Fonseca


Bioethanol is one of the most promising biofuels and able to replace fossil fuels and reduce its different environmental impacts and can be generated from various agroindustrial waste. The Brazil is in first place in bioethanol production to be the largest producer of sugarcane. The bagasse sugarcane (SCB) has lignocellulose which is composed of three major components: cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Cellulose is a homopolymer of glucose units connected by glycosidic linkages. Among all species of Penicillium, Penicillium echinulatum has been the focus of attention because they produce high quantities of cellulase and the mutant strain 9A02S1 produces higher enzyme levels compared to the wild. Among the cellulases, the cellobiohydrolases enzymes are the main components of the cellulolytic system of fungi, and are also responsible for most of the potential hydrolytic in enzyme cocktails for the industrial processing of plant biomass and several cellobiohydrolases Penicillium had higher specific activity against cellulose compared to CBH I from Trichoderma reesei. This fact makes it an interesting pattern for higher yields in the enzymatic hydrolysis, and also they are important enzymes in the hydrolysis of crystalline regions of cellulose. Therefore, finding new and more active enzymes become necessary. Meanwhile, β-glycosidases act on soluble substrates and are highly dependent on cellobiohydrolases and endoglucanases action to provide the substrate in the hydrolysis of the biomass, but the cellobiohydrolases and endoglucanases are highly dependent β-glucosidases to maintain efficient hydrolysis. Thus, there is a need to understand the structure-function relationships that govern the catalytic activity of cellulolytic enzymes to elucidate its mechanism of action and optimize its potential as industrial biocatalysts. To evaluate the enzyme β-glucosidase of Penicillium echinulatum (PeBGL1) the gene was synthesized from the assembly sequence from a library in induction conditions and then the PeBGL1 gene was cloned in the vector pPICZαA and transformed into P. pastoris GS115. After processing, the producers of PeBGL1 were analyzed for enzyme activity and protein profile where a band of approximately 100 kDa was viewed. It was also carried out the zymogram. In partial characterization it was determined optimum temperature of 50°C and optimum pH of 6,5. In addition, to increase the secreted recombinant PeBGL1 production by Pichia pastoris, three parameters of P. pastoris culture medium were analysed: methanol, nitrogen source concentrations and the inoculum size. A 23 factorial design was effective in achieving the optimum condition. Altogether, these results point to the potential application of this P. echinulatum β-glucosidase in hydrolysis of cellulose for the production of bioethanol.

Keywords: bioethanol, biotechnology, beta-glucosidase, penicillium echinulatum

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62 Influence of Culturing Conditions on Biomass Yield, Total Lipid and Fatty Acid Composition of Some Filamentous Fungi

Authors: Alla V. Goncharova, Tatyana A. Karpenyuk, Yana S. Tsurkan, Rosa U. Beisembaeva, Togzhan D. Mukasheva, Ludmila V. Ignatova, Ramza Z. Berzhanova


In this work the effect of culturing conditions of filamentous fungi Penicillium raistrickii, Penicillium anatolicum, Fusarium sp. on biomass yield, the content of total lipids and fatty acids was studied. It has been established that in time the process of lipids accumulation correlated with biomass growth of cultures, reaching maximum values in stationary growth phase. Biomass yield and accumulation of general lipids was increased by adding zinc to the culture medium. The more intensive accumulation of biomass and general lipids was observed at temperature 18°C. Lowering the temperature of culturing has changed the ratio of saturated: Unsaturated fatty acids in the direction of increasing the latter.

Keywords: biomass, culturing conditions, fungi, fatty acids (FA), growth dynamics, lipids

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61 Efficiency for Enzyme Production of Fungi Isolated from the Stomach of Buffalo

Authors: Suphalucksana, Wichai, Sangsoponjit Settasit, Soytong Kasem


A study on the efficiency for enzyme production of fungi isolated from stomach of buffalo was conducted. The fungi were collected from 4 parts of stomach as rumen, reticulum, omasum and abomasums. The objective to study the efficiency of fungi from stomach of buffalo had effected to produced enzyme and to selected fungi for their ability to produced enzyme cellulase, hemicellulase and ligninase. Results shown that the fungi isolated from rumen were: Eupenicillium sp. (B-RU-01-1), Eupenicillium sp. (B-RU-02-3G), Rhyzopus stolonifer (B-RU-01-4) and Trichoderma sp. (B-RU-01-2). From the reticulum, Aspergillus glaucus (B-RET-02-3), Aspergillus orchraceus (B-RET-02-2) and Penicillium sp. (B-RET-02-4) were found. In the omasum Aspergillus fumigatus (B-OMA-01-1G), Eurotium sp. (B-OMA-01-4) and Rhizopus stolonifer (B-OMA-02-3) were isolated and in the abomasums Aspergillus flavas (B-ABO-02-3), Aspergillus fumigatus (B-ABO-02-1), Aspergillus niger (B-ABO-01-3G), Aspergillius terreus (B-ABO-02-4) and Mucor sp. (B-ABO-02-4G). Results of enzyme analysis revealed that cellulase was produced by isolated: Eupenicillium sp. (B-RU-02-3G), Eupenicillium sp. (B-RU-01-1), Penicillium sp. (B-RET-02-4), Aspergillius glaucus (B-RET-02-3), Aspergillus ochraceus (B-RET-02-2), Aspergillius fumigatus (B-OMA-01-1G), Eurotium sp. (B-OMA-01-4), Aspergillius flavus (B-ABO-02-3), Aspergillius fumigatus (B-ABO-02-1), Aspergillius niger (B-ABO-01-3G), Aspergillius terreus (B-ABO-02-4). Hemicellulase was produced Eupenicillium sp. (B-RU-02-3G), Eupenicillium sp. (B-RU-01-1), Rhizopus stolonifer (B-RU-01-4), Trichoderma sp. (B-RU-01-2), Aspergillius glaucus (B-RET-02-3), Aspergillus ochraceus (B-RET-02-2), Penicillium sp. (B-RET-02-4), Aspergillius fumigatus (B-OMA-01-1G), Eurotium sp. (B-OMA -01-4), Aspergillius flavus (B-ABO-02-3), Aspergillius fumigatus (B-ABO-02-1) Aspergillius niger (B-ABO-01-3G), Aspergillius terreus (B-ABO-02-4), Mucor sp. (B-ABO-02-4G). For the enzyme ligninase, two isolates were found to produced this enzyme namely : Trichoderma sp. (B-RU-01-2) and Mucor sp. (B-ABO-02-4G).

Keywords: enzyme production from fungi, enzyme production, fungi, agricultural technology

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60 The Effect of the Spinacia oleracea Extract on the Control of the Green Mold 'Penilillium digitatum' at the Post Harvested Citrus

Authors: Asma Chbani, Douaa Salim, Josephine Al Alam, Pascale De Caro


Penicillium digitatum, the causal agent of citrus green mold, is responsible for 90% of post-harvest losses. Chemical fungicides remain the most used products for protection against this pathogen but are also responsible for damage to human health and the environment. The aim of this study is to evaluate the ability of Spinacia oleracea extract to serve as biological control agents, an alternative to harmful synthetic fungicides, against orange decay for storing fruit caused by P. digitatum. In this study, we studied the implication of a crude extract of a green plant, Spinacia oleracea, in the protection of oranges against P. digitatum. Thus, in vivo antifungal tests as well as adhesion test were done. For in vivo antifungal test, oranges were pulverized with the prepared crude extracts at different concentrations ranged from 25 g L⁻¹ to 200 g L⁻¹, contaminated by the fungus and then observed during 8 weeks for their macroscopic changes at 24°C. For adhesion test, the adhesion index is defined as the number of Penicillium digitatum spores fixed per orange cell. An index greater than 25 is the indicator of a strong adhesion, whereas for an index less than 10, the adhesion is low. Ten orange cells were examined in triplicate for each extract, and the averages of adherent cells were calculated. Obtained results showed an inhibitory activity of the Penicillium development with the aqueous extract of dry Spinacia oleracea with a concentration of 50 g L⁻¹ considered as the minimal protective concentration. The prepared extracts showed a greater inhibition of the development of P. digitatum up to 10 weeks, even greater than the fungicide control Nystatin. Adhesion test’s results showed that the adhesion of P. digitatum spores to the epidermal cells of oranges in the presence of the crude spinach leaves extract is weak; the mean of the obtained adhesion index was estimated to 2.7. However, a high adhesion was observed with water used a negative control. In conclusion, all these results confirm that the use of this green plant highly rich in chlorophyll having several phytotherapeutic activities, could be employed as a great treatment for protection of oranges against mold and also as an alternative for chemical fungicides.

Keywords: Penicillium digitatum, Spinacia oleracea, oranges, biological control, postharvest diseases

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59 Amylase Activities of Mould Isolated from Spoilt Ogi and Eko: Two (2) Fermented Maize Products

Authors: Gafar Bamigbade, Adebunkola Omemu


“Ogi” is a fermented cereal gruel prepared from maize (Zea mays), millet (Pennisetum typhoideum) or guinea corn (Sorghum bicolour). It could be boiled to give a thicker consistency wrapped in leaf allowed to cool and set to a gel known as “eko”. The objective of this study is to determine the amylase activities of mould associated with the spoilage of Ogi and eko. Moulds were isolated from spoilt Ogi and eko samples using standard microbiological procedures. The isolate was then screened for amylase production using starch agar medium. Positive isolates were used for amylase production by solid state fermentation (SFF) using rice bran as the medium. An alpha-amylase and glucoamylase activity of the crude enzyme was determined using the DNS method. The mean mold Population ranged from 1.15 X 105cfu/g for raw Ogi to 6.25 X 105cfu/g for Eko (wrapped in Leaves). Twenty-seven (27) moulds isolated from the sample include A. niger, A. flavus, A. fumigatus, Rhizopus species and Penicillium species. Aspergillus flavus had the highest percentage (51.9%) of incidence while Penicillium species had the least (3.7%). Out of the 27 isolates screened, 19 were found to be amylase positive by showing a clear zone around their colony after flooding with iodine solution. Diameter of clear zone ranged from 3.00mm (Aspergillus niger, C4) to 22.00mm (Aspergillus flavus, A1). Aspergillus niger isolated from spoilt Eko wrapped in leaf has the highest percentage alpha-amylase activity (30.8%) and Aspergillus flavus isolated from spoilt raw ogi has the lowest activity (11.4%). Aspergillus niger isolated from spoilt Eko wrapped in nylon produces the highest glucoamylase activity (240U/ml) while penicillium specie isolated from spoilt cooked ogi has the lowest activity (100U/ml). This study shows that moulds associated with spoilage of ogi and eko can produce amylase.

Keywords: glucoamylase, alpha amylase, ogi, eko

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58 Fungal Cellulase/Xylanase Complex and Their Industrial Applications

Authors: L. Kutateldze, T. Urushadze, R. Khvedelidze, N. Zakariashvili, I. Khokhashvili, T. Sadunishvili


Microbial cellulase/xylanase have shown their potential application in various industries including pulp and paper, textile, laundry, biofuel production, food and feed industry, brewing, and agriculture. Extremophilic micromycetes and their enzymes that are resistant to critical values of temperature and pH, and retaining enzyme activity for a long time are of great industrial interest. Among strains of microscopic fungi from the collection of S. Durmishidze Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, strains isolated from different ecological niches of Southern Caucasus-active producers of cellulase/xylanase have been selected by means of screening under deep cultivation conditions. Extremophilic micromycetes and their enzymes that are resistant to critical values of temperature and pH, and retaining enzyme activity for a long time are of great industrial interest. Among strains of microscopic fungi from the collection of S. Durmishidze Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, strains isolated from different ecological niches of Southern Caucasus-active producers of cellulase/xylanase have been selected by means of screening under deep cultivation conditions. Representatives of the genera Aspergillus, Penicillium and Trichoderma are outstanding by relatively high activities of these enzymes. Among the producers were revealed thermophilic strains, representatives of the genus Aspergillus-Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus versicolor, Aspergillus wentii, also strains of Sporotrichum pulverulentum and Chaetomium thermophile. As a result of optimization of cultivation media and conditions, activities of enzymes produced by the strains have been increased by 4 -189 %. Two strains, active producers of cellulase/xylanase – Penicillium canescence E2 (mesophile) and Aspergillus versicolor Z17 (thermophile) were chosen for further studies. Cellulase/xylanase enzyme preparations from two different genera of microscopic fungi Penicillium canescence E2 and Aspergillus versicolor Z 17 were obtained with activities 220 U/g /1200 U/g and 125 U/g /940 U/g, correspondingly. Main technical characteristics were as follows: the highest enzyme activities were obtained for mesophilic strain Penicillium canescence E2 at 45-500C, while almost the same enzyme activities were fixed for the thermophilic strain Aspergillus versicolor Z 17 at temperature 60-65°C, exceeding the temperature optimum of the mesophile by 150C. Optimum pH of action of the studied cellulase/xylanases from mesophileic and thermophilic strains were similar and equaled to 4.5-5.0 It has been shown that cellulase/xylanase technical preparations from selected strains of Penicillium canescence E2 and Aspergillus versicolor Z17 hydrolyzed cellulose of untreated wheat straw to reducible sugars by 46-52%, and to glucose by 22-27%. However the thermophilic enzyme preparations from the thermophilic A.versicolor strains conducted the process at 600C higher by 100C as compared to mesophlic analogue. Rate of hydrolyses of the pretreated substrate by the same enzyme preparations to reducible sugars and glucose conducted at optimum for their action 60 and 500C was 52-61% and 29-33%, correspondingly. Thus, maximum yield of glucose and reducible sugars form untreated and pretreated wheat straw was achieved at higher temperature (600C) by enzyme preparations from thermophilic strain, which gives advantage for their industrial application.

Keywords: cellulase/xylanase, cellulose hydrolysis, microscopic fungi, thermophilic strain

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57 Microorganisms in Fresh and Stored Bee Pollen Originated from Slovakia

Authors: Vladimíra Kňazovická, Mária Dovičičová, Miroslava Kačániová, Margita Čanigová


The aim of the study was to test the storage of bee pollen at room temperature and in cold store, and to describe microorganisms originated from it. Fresh bee pollen originating in West Slovakia was collected in May 2010. It was tested for presence of particular microbial groups using dilution plating method, and divided into two parts with different storage (in cold store and at room temperature). Microbial analyses of pollen were repeated after one year of storage. Several bacterial strains were isolated and tested using Gram staining, for catalase and fructose-6-phosphate-phosphoketolase presence, and by rapid ID 32A (BioMérieux, France). Micromycetes were identified at genus level. Fresh pollen contained coliform bacteria, which were not detected after one year of storage in both ways. Total plate count (TPC) of aerobes and anaerobes and of yeasts in fresh bee pollen exceeded 5.00 log CFU/g. TPC of aerobes and anaerobes decreased below 2.00 log CFU/g after one year of storage in both ways. Count of yeasts decreased to 2.32 log CFU/g (at room temperature) and to 3.66 log CFU/g (in cold store). Microscopic filamentous fungi decreased from 3.41 log CFU/g (fresh bee pollen) to 1.13 log CFU/g (at room temperature) and to 1.89 log CFU/g (in cold store). In fresh bee pollen, 12 genera of micromycetes were identified in the following order according to their relative density: Penicillium > Mucor > Absidia > Cladosporium, Fusarium > Alternaria > Eurotium > Aspergillus, Rhizopus > Emericella > Arthrinium and Mycelium sterilium. After one year at room temperature, only three genera were detected in bee pollen (Penicillium > Aspergillus, Mucor) and after one year in cold store, seven genera were detected (Mucor > Penicillium, Emericella > Aspergillus, Absidia > Arthrinium, Eurotium). From the plates designated for anaerobes, eight colonies originating in fresh bee pollen were isolated. Among them, a single yeast isolate occurred. Other isolates were G+ bacteria, with a total of five rod shaped. In three out of these five, catalase was absent and fructose-6-phosphate-phosphoketolase was present. Bacterial isolates originating in fresh pollen belonged probably to genus Bifidobacterium or relative genera, but their identity was not confirmed unequivocally. In general, cold conditions are suitable for maintaining the natural properties of foodstuffs for a longer time. Slight decrease of microscopic fungal number and diversity was recorded in cold temperatures compared with storage at room temperature.

Keywords: bacteria, bee product, microscopic fungi, biosystems engineering

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56 Effects of Storage Methods on Proximate Compositions of African Yam Bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) Seeds

Authors: Iyabode A. Kehinde, Temitope A. Oyedele, Clement G. Afolabi


One of the limitations of African yam bean (AYB) (Sphenostylis sternocarpa) is poor storage ability due to the adverse effect of seed-borne fungi. This study was conducted to examine the effects of storage methods on the nutritive composition of AYB seeds stored in three types of storage materials viz; Jute bags, Polypropylene bags, and Plastic Bowls. Freshly harvested seeds of AYB seeds were stored in all the storage materials for 6 months using 2 × 3 factorial (2 AYB cultivars and 3 storage methods) in 3 replicates. The proximate analysis of the stored AYB seeds was carried out at 3 and 6 months after storage using standard methods. The temperature and relative humidity of the storeroom was recorded monthly with Kestrel pocket weather tracker 4000. Seeds stored in jute bags gave the best values for crude protein (24.87%), ash (5.69%) and fat content (6.64%) but recorded least values for crude fibre (2.55%), carbohydrate (50.86%) and moisture content (12.68%) at the 6th month of storage. The temperature of the storeroom decreased from 32.9ºC - 28.3ºC, while the relative humidity increased from 78% - 86%. Decreased incidence of field fungi namely: Rhizopus oryzae, Aspergillus flavus, Geotricum candidum, Aspergillus fumigatus and Mucor meihei was accompanied by the increase in storage fungi viz: Apergillus niger, Mucor hiemalis, Penicillium espansum and Penicillium atrovenetum with prolonged storage. The study showed that of the three storage materials jute bag was more effective at preserving AYB seeds.

Keywords: storage methods, proximate composition, African Yam Bean, fungi

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55 Fungal Diversity and Bioprospecting of Termite-Associated Fungi from Nothern-Western Ghats of India

Authors: Gajanan V. Mane, Rashmi More, Mahesh S. Sonawane, Tushar Lodha, Rohit Sharma


The diversity of fungi isolated from two different termite species viz., Odontoterms assmuthi and O. abesus was investigated by dilution- plate method, combined with morphological characteristics and sequencing of internal transcribed spacer region. In total, ninety-six fungi were isolated and purified, out of which 69 isolates were obtained from O. assmuthi belonging to 18 genera and 31 species, whereas 27 isolates were obtained from O. abesus belonging to 15 genera and 17 species. The fungal strains were screened for laccase, amylase, cellulase and pectinase enzymes production. Twenty-seven strains were positive for laccase, 59 strains were positive for amylase, 71 strains were positive for cellulase and 72 strains were positive for pectinase enzymes. The antimicrobial activities of the isolated fungi were tested by the dual plate culture method against standard pathogens. Bioactive secondary metabolites were identified by HPLC and LCMS. Four isolates viz., Penicillium goetzii MG 57, Epicoccum sp. MG 39, Penicillium tanzanicum MG 30, Aspergillus polyporicola MG 54, showed positive antimicrobial activity against standard pathogens, Streptococcus pneumonia MCC 2425, Staphylococcus aureus MCC 2408, Pseudomonas aeruginosa MCC 2080, Escherichia coli MCC 2412, Enterococcus faecalis MCC 2409, Klebsiella pneumonia MCC 2451, Micrococcus luteus MCC 2155 and Candida albicans MCC 1151. In conclusion, the study showed that the insect gut harbor fungal diversity, which is futuristic with biotechnological potential and could be a good source of enzymes and antibiotics.

Keywords: termites, fungi, its, enzyme, antimicrobial activity

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54 Biosorption of Nickel by Penicillium simplicissimum SAU203 Isolated from Indian Metalliferous Mining Overburden

Authors: Suchhanda Ghosh, A. K. Paul


Nickel, an industrially important metal is not mined in India, due to the lack of its primary mining resources. But, the chromite deposits occurring in the Sukinda and Baula-Nuasahi region of Odhisa, India, is reported to contain around 0.99% of nickel entrapped in the goethite matrix of the lateritic iron rich ore. Weathering of the dumped chromite mining overburden often leads to the contamination of the ground as well as the surface water with toxic nickel. Microbes inherent to this metal contaminated environment are reported to be capable of removal as well as detoxification of various metals including nickel. Nickel resistant fungal isolates obtained in pure form from the metal rich overburden were evaluated for their potential to biosorb nickel by using their dried biomass. Penicillium simplicissimum SAU203 was the best nickel biosorbant among the 20 fungi tested and was capable to sorbing 16.85 mg Ni/g biomass from a solution containing 50 mg/l of Ni. The identity of the isolate was confirmed using 18S rRNA gene analysis. The sorption capacity of the isolate was further standardized following Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models and the results reflected energy efficient sorption. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy studies of the nickel loaded and control biomass in a comparative basis revealed the involvement of hydroxyl, amine and carboxylic groups in Ni binding. The sorption process was also optimized for several standard parameters like initial metal ion concentration, initial sorbet concentration, incubation temperature and pH, presence of additional cations and pre-treatment of the biomass by different chemicals. Optimisation leads to significant improvements in the process of nickel biosorption on to the fungal biomass. P. simplicissimum SAU203 could sorb 54.73 mg Ni/g biomass with an initial Ni concentration of 200 mg/l in solution and 21.8 mg Ni/g biomass with an initial biomass concentration of 1g/l solution. Optimum temperature and pH for biosorption was recorded to be 30°C and pH 6.5 respectively. Presence of Zn and Fe ions improved the sorption of Ni(II), whereas, cobalt had a negative impact. Pre-treatment of biomass with various chemical and physical agents has affected the proficiency of Ni sorption by P. simplicissimum SAU203 biomass, autoclaving as well as treatment of biomass with 0.5 M sulfuric acid and acetic acid reduced the sorption as compared to the untreated biomass, whereas, NaOH and Na₂CO₃ and Twin 80 (0.5 M) treated biomass resulted in augmented metal sorption. Hence, on the basis of the present study, it can be concluded that P. simplicissimum SAU203 has the potential for the removal as well as detoxification of nickel from contaminated environments in general and particularly from the chromite mining areas of Odhisa, India.

Keywords: nickel, fungal biosorption, Penicillium simplicissimum SAU203, Indian chromite mines, mining overburden

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53 Characterization of the Microorganisms Associated with Pleurotus ostractus and Pleurotus tuber-Regium Spent Mushroom Substrate

Authors: Samuel E. Okere, Anthony E. Ataga


Introduction: The microbial ecology of Pleurotus osteratus and Pleurotus tuber–regium spent mushroom substrate (SMS) were characterized to determine other ways of its utilization. Materials and Methods: The microbiological properties of the spent mushroom substrate were determined using standard methods. This study was carried out at the Microbiology Laboratory University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. Results: Quantitative microbiological analysis revealed that Pleurotus osteratus spent mushroom substrate (POSMS) contained 7.9x10⁵ and 1.2 x10³ cfu/g of total heterotrophic bacteria and total fungi count respectively while Pleurotus tuber-regium spent mushroom substrate (PTSMS) contained 1.38x10⁶ and 9.0 x10² cfu/g of total heterotrophic bacteria count and total fungi count respectively. The fungi species encountered from Pleurotus tuber-regium spent mushroom substrate (PTSMS) include Aspergillus and Cladosporum species, while Aspergillus and Penicillium species were encountered from Pleurotus osteratus spent mushroom substrate (POSMS). However, the bacteria species encountered from Pleurotus tuber-regium spent mushroom substrate include Bacillus, Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, Actinobacter, and Pseudomonas species while Bacillus, Actinobacteria, Aeromonas, Lactobacillus and Aerococcus species were encountered from Pleurotus osteratus spent mushroom substrate (POSMS). Conclusion: Therefore based on the findings from this study, it can be concluded that spent mushroom substrate contain microorganisms that can be utilized both in bioremediation of oil-polluted soils as they contain important hydrocarbon utilizing microorganisms such as Penicillium, Aspergillus and Bacillus species and also as sources of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) such as Pseudomonas and Bacillus species which can induce resistance on plants. However, further studies are recommended, especially to molecularly characterize these microorganisms.

Keywords: characterization, microorganisms, mushroom, spent substrate

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52 A Laser Instrument Rapid-E+ for Real-Time Measurements of Airborne Bioaerosols Such as Bacteria, Fungi, and Pollen

Authors: Minghui Zhang, Sirine Fkaier, Sabri Fernana, Svetlana Kiseleva, Denis Kiselev


The real-time identification of bacteria and fungi is difficult because they emit much weaker signals than pollen. In 2020, Plair developed Rapid-E+, which extends abilities of Rapid-E to detect smaller bioaerosols such as bacteria and fungal spores with diameters down to 0.3 µm, while keeping the similar or even better capability for measurements of large bioaerosols like pollen. Rapid-E+ enables simultaneous measurements of (1) time-resolved, polarization and angle dependent Mie scattering patterns, (2) fluorescence spectra resolved in 16 channels, and (3) fluorescence lifetime of individual particles. Moreover, (4) it provides 2D Mie scattering images which give the full information on particle morphology. The parameters of every single bioaerosol aspired into the instrument are subsequently analysed by machine learning. Firstly, pure species of microbes, e.g., Bacillus subtilis (a species of bacteria), and Penicillium chrysogenum (a species of fungal spores), were aerosolized in a bioaerosol chamber for Rapid-E+ training. Afterwards, we tested microbes under different concentrations. We used several steps of data analysis to classify and identify microbes. All single particles were analysed by the parameters of light scattering and fluorescence in the following steps. (1) They were treated with a smart filter block to get rid of non-microbes. (2) By classification algorithm, we verified the filtered particles were microbes based on the calibration data. (3) The probability threshold (defined by the user) step provides the probability of being microbes ranging from 0 to 100%. We demonstrate how Rapid-E+ identified simultaneously microbes based on the results of Bacillus subtilis (bacteria) and Penicillium chrysogenum (fungal spores). By using machine learning, Rapid-E+ achieved identification precision of 99% against the background. The further classification suggests the precision of 87% and 89% for Bacillus subtilis and Penicillium chrysogenum, respectively. The developed algorithm was subsequently used to evaluate the performance of microbe classification and quantification in real-time. The bacteria and fungi were aerosolized again in the chamber with different concentrations. Rapid-E+ can classify different types of microbes and then quantify them in real-time. Rapid-E+ enables classifying different types of microbes and quantifying them in real-time. Rapid-E+ can identify pollen down to species with similar or even better performance than the previous version (Rapid-E). Therefore, Rapid-E+ is an all-in-one instrument which classifies and quantifies not only pollen, but also bacteria and fungi. Based on the machine learning platform, the user can further develop proprietary algorithms for specific microbes (e.g., virus aerosols) and other aerosols (e.g., combustion-related particles that contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons).

Keywords: bioaerosols, laser-induced fluorescence, Mie-scattering, microorganisms

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51 Assessment of Bioaerosol and Microbial Volatile Organic Compounds in Different Sections of Library

Authors: Himanshu Lal, Bipasha Ghosh, Arun Srivastava


A pilot study of indoor air quality in terms of bioaerosol (fungus and bacteria) and few selective microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs) was carried out in different indoor sections of a library for two seasons, namely monsoon and post monsoon. Bioaerosol sampling was carried out using Anderson six stage viable sampler at a flow rate of 28.3 L/min while MVOCs were collected on activated charcoal tubes ORBOTM 90 Carboxen 564.Collected MVOCs were desorbed using carbon disulphide (CS2) and analysed by GC-FID. Microscopic identification for fungus was only carried out. Surface dust was collected by sterilised buds and cultured to identify fungal contaminants. Unlike bacterial size distribution, fungal bioaerosol concentration was found to be highest in the fourth stage in different sections of the library. In post monsoon season both fungal bioaerosol (710 to 3292cfu/m3) and bacterial bioaerosol (298 to 1475cfu/m3) were fund at much greater concentration than in monsoon. In monsoon season unlike post monsoon, I/O ratio for both the bioaerosol fractions was more than one. Rain washout could be the reason of lower outdoor concentration in monsoon season. On the contrary most of the MVOCs namely 1-hexene, 1-pentanol and 1-octen-3-ol were found in the monsoon season instead of post monsoon season with the highest being 1-hexene with 7.09µg/m3 concentration. Among the six identified fungal bioaerosol Aspergillus, Cladosporium and Penicillium were found in maximum concentration while Aspergillus niger, Curvuleria lunata, Cladosporium cladosporioides and Penicillium sp., was indentified in surface dust samples. According to regression analysis apart from environmental factors other factors also played an important role. Thus apart from outdoor infiltration and human sources, accumulated surface dust mostly on organic materials like books, wooden furniture and racks can be attributed to being one of the major sources of both fungal bioaerosols as well as MVOCs found in the library.

Keywords: bacteria, Fungi, indoor air, MVOCs

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50 Improving the Digestibility of Agro-Industrial Co-Products by Treatment with Isolated Fungi in the Meknes-Morocco Region

Authors: Mohamed Benaddou, Mohammed Diouri


country, such as Morocco, generates a high quantity of agricultural and food industry residues. A large portion of these residues is disposed of by burning or landfilling. The valorization of this waste biomass as feed is an interesting alternative because it is therefore considered among the best sources of cheap carbohydrates. However, its nutritional yield without any pre-treatment is very low because lignin protects cellulose, the carbohydrate used as a source of energy by ruminants. Fungal treatment is an environmentally friendly, easy and inexpensive method. This study investigated the treatment of wheat straw (WS), cedar sawdust (CS) and olive pomace (OP) with fungi selected according to the source of Carbon for improving its digestibility. Two were selected in a culture medium in which cellulose was the only source of Carbon: Cosmospora Viridescens (C.vir) and Penicillium crustosum (P.crus), two were selected in a culture medium in which lignin is the only source of Carbon: Fusarium oxysporum (F.oxy) and Fusarium sp. (F. Sp), and two in a culture medium where cellulose and lignin are the two sources of Carbon at the same time: Fusarium solani (F. solani) and Penicillium chrysogenum (P.chryso). P.chryso degraded more CS cellulose. It is very important to notice that the delignification by F. Solani reached 70% after 12 weeks of treatment of wheat straw. Ligninase enzymatic was detected in F.solani, F.sp, F.oxysporum, which made it possible to delignify the treated substrates. Delignification by C.vir is negligible in all three substrates after 12 weeks of treatment. P.crus and P.chryso degraded the lignin very slightly in WC (it did not exceed 12% after 12 weeks of treatment) but in OP this delignification is slight reaching 25% and 13% for P.chryso and P.crus successively. P.chryso allowed 30% degradation of lignin from 4 weeks of treatment. The degradation of the lignin was able to reach the maximum within 8 weeks of treatment for most of the fungi except F. solani who continued the treatment after this period. Digestibility variation (IVTD.variation) is highly very significant from fungus to fungi, duration to time, substrate to substrate and its interactions (P <0.001). indeed, all the fungi increased digestibility after 12 weeks of treatment with a difference in the degree of this increase. F.solani and F.oxy increased digestibility more than the others. this digestibility exceeded 50% in CS and O.P but did not exceed 20% for WS after treatment with F.oxy. IVTD.Var was not exceeded 20% in W.S.cedar treated with P.chryso but reached 45% after 8 weeks of treatment in W.straw.

Keywords: lignin, cellulose, digestibility, fungi, treatment, lignocellulosic biomass

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49 Enhancing Inhibition on Phytopathogens by Complex Using Biogas Slurry

Authors: Fang-Bo Yu, Li-Bo Guan, Sheng-Dao Shan


Biogas slurry was mixed with six commercial fungicides and screening against 11 phytopathogens was carried out. Results showed that inhibition of biogas slurry was different for the test strains and no significant difference between treatments of Didymella bryoniae, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, Aspergillus niger, Rhizoctonia cerealis, F. graminearum and Septoria tritici was observed. However, significant differences were found among Penicillium sp., Botrytis cinerea, Alternaria sonali, F. oxysporum F. sp. melonis and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. The approach described here presents a promising alternative to current manipulation although some issues still need further examination. This study could contribute to the development of sustainable agriculture and better utilization of biogas slurry.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, biogas slurry, phytopathogen, sustainable agriculture

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48 Single Cell Oil of Oleaginous Fungi from Lebanese Habitats as a Potential Feed Stock for Biodiesel

Authors: M. El-haj, Z. Olama, H. Holail


Single cell oils (SCOs) accumulated by oleaginous fungi have emerged as a potential alternative feedstock for biodiesel production. Five fungal strains were isolated from the Lebanese environment namely Fusarium oxysporum, Mucor hiemalis, Penicillium citrinum, Aspergillus tamari, and Aspergillus niger that have been selected among 39 oleaginous strains for their potential ability to accumulate lipids (lipid content was more than 40% on dry weight basis). Wide variations were recorded in the environmental factors that lead to maximum lipid production by fungi under test and were cultivated under submerged fermentation on medium containing glucose as a carbon source. The maximum lipid production was attained within 6-8 days, at pH range 6-7, 24 to 48 hours age of seed culture, 4 to 6.107 spores/ml inoculum level and 100 ml culture volume. Eleven culture conditions were examined for their significance on lipid production using Plackett-Burman factorial design. Reducing sugars and nitrogen source were the most significant factors affecting lipid production process. Maximum lipid yield was noticed with 15.62, 14.48, 12.75, 13.68 and 20.41g/l for Fusarium oxysporum, Mucor hiemalis, Penicillium citrinum, Aspergillus tamari, and Aspergillus niger respectively. A verification experiment was carried out to examine model validation and revealed more than 94% validity. The profile of extracted lipids from each fungal isolate was studied using thin layer chromatography (TLC) indicating the presence of monoacylglycerols, diaacylglycerols, free fatty acids, triacylglycerols and sterol esters. The fatty acids profiles were also determined by gas-chromatography coupled with flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Data revealed the presence of significant amount of oleic acid (29-36%), palmitic acid (18-24%), linoleic acid (26.8-35%), and low amount of other fatty acids in the extracted fungal oils which indicate that the fatty acid profiles were quite similar to that of conventional vegetable oil. The cost of lipid production could be further reduced with acid-pretreated lignocellulotic corncob waste, whey and date molasses to be utilized as the raw material for the oleaginous fungi. The results showed that the microbial lipid from the studied fungi was a potential alternative resource for biodiesel production.

Keywords: agro-industrial waste products, biodiesel, fatty acid, single cell oil, Lebanese environment, oleaginous fungi

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47 Cellulolytic and Xylanolytic Enzymes from Mycelial Fungi

Authors: T. Sadunishvili, L. Kutateladze, T. Urushadze, R. Khvedelidze, N. Zakariashvili, M. Jobava, G. Kvesitadze


Multiple repeated soil-climatic zones in Georgia determines the diversity of microorganisms. Hundreds of microscopic fungi of different genera have been isolated from different ecological niches, including some extreme environments. Biosynthetic ability of microscopic fungi has been studied. Trichoderma ressei, representative of the Ascomycetes secrete cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes that act in synergy to hydrolyze polysaccharide polymers to glucose, xylose and arabinose, which can be fermented to biofuels. The other mesophilic strains producing cellulases are Allesheria terrestris, Chaetomium thermophile, Fusarium oxysporium, Piptoporus betulinus, Penicillium echinulatum, P. purpurogenum, Aspergillus niger, A. wentii, A. versicolor, A. fumigatus etc. In the majority of the cases the cellulases produced by strains of genus Aspergillus usually have high β-glucosidase activity and average endoglucanases levels (with some exceptions), whereas strains representing Trichoderma have high endo enzyme and low β-glucosidase, and hence has limited efficiency in cellulose hydrolysis. Six producers of stable cellulases and xylanases from mesophilic and thermophilic fungi have been selected. By optimization of submerged cultivation conditions, high activities of cellulases and xylanases were obtained. For enzymes purification, their sedimentation by organic solvents such as ethyl alcohol, acetone, isopropanol and by ammonium sulphate in different ratios have been carried out. Best results were obtained with precipitation by ethyl alcohol (1:3.5) and ammonium sulphate. The yields of enzyme according to cellulase activities were 80-85% in both cases. Cellulase activity of enzyme preparation obtained from the strain Trichoderma viride X 33 is 126 U/g, from the strain Penicillium canescence D 85–185U/g and from the strain Sporotrichum pulverulentum T 5-0 110 U/g. Cellulase activity of enzyme preparation obtained from the strain Aspergillus sp. Av10 is 120 U/g, xylanase activity of enzyme preparation obtained from the strain Aspergillus niger A 7-5–1155U/g and from the strain Aspergillus niger Aj 38-1250 U/g. Optimum pH and temperature of operation and thermostability, of the enzyme preparations, were established. The efficiency of hydrolyses of different agricultural residues by the microscopic fungi cellulases has been studied. The glucose yield from the residues as a result of enzymatic hydrolysis is highly determined by the ratio of enzyme to substrate, pH, temperature, and duration of the process. Hydrolysis efficiency was significantly increased as a result of different pretreatment of the residues by different methods. Acknowledgement: The Study was supported by the ISTC project G-2117, funded by Korea.

Keywords: cellulase, xylanase, microscopic fungi, enzymatic hydrolysis

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46 A Visualization Classification Method for Identifying the Decayed Citrus Fruit Infected by Fungi Based on Hyperspectral Imaging

Authors: Jiangbo Li, Wenqian Huang


Early detection of fungal infection in citrus fruit is one of the major problems in the postharvest commercialization process. The automatic and nondestructive detection of infected fruits is still a challenge for the citrus industry. At present, the visual inspection of rotten citrus fruits is commonly performed by workers through the ultraviolet induction fluorescence technology or manual sorting in citrus packinghouses to remove fruit subject with fungal infection. However, the former entails a number of problems because exposing people to this kind of lighting is potentially hazardous to human health, and the latter is very inefficient. Orange is used as a research object. This study would focus on this problem and proposed an effective method based on Vis-NIR hyperspectral imaging in the wavelength range of 400-1000 nm with a spectroscopic resolution of 2.8 nm. In this work, three normalization approaches are applied prior to analysis to reduce the effect of sample curvature on spectral profiles, and it is found that mean normalization was the most effective pretreatment for decreasing spectral variability due to curvature. Then, principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to a dataset composing of average spectra from decayed and normal tissue to reduce the dimensionality of data and observe the ability of Vis-NIR hyper-spectra to discriminate data from two classes. In this case, it was observed that normal and decayed spectra were separable along the resultant first principal component (PC1) axis. Subsequently, five wavelengths (band) centered at 577, 702, 751, 808, and 923 nm were selected as the characteristic wavelengths by analyzing the loadings of PC1. A multispectral combination image was generated based on five selected characteristic wavelength images. Based on the obtained multispectral combination image, the intensity slicing pseudocolor image processing method is used to generate a 2-D visual classification image that would enhance the contrast between normal and decayed tissue. Finally, an image segmentation algorithm for detection of decayed fruit was developed based on the pseudocolor image coupled with a simple thresholding method. For the investigated 238 independent set samples including infected fruits infected by Penicillium digitatum and normal fruits, the total success rate is 100% and 97.5%, respectively, and, the proposed algorithm also used to identify the orange infected by penicillium italicum with a 100% identification accuracy, indicating that the proposed multispectral algorithm here is an effective method and it is potential to be applied in citrus industry.

Keywords: citrus fruit, early rotten, fungal infection, hyperspectral imaging

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45 Comparative Analysis of Biodegradation on Polythene and Plastics Buried in Fadama Soil Amended With Organic and Inorganic Fertilizer

Authors: Baba John, Abdullahi Mohammed


The aim of this research is to compare the analysis of biodegradation on polythene and plastics buried in fadama soil amended with Organic and Inorganic fertilizer. Physico- chemical properties of the samples were determined. Bacteria and Fungi implicated in the biodegradation were identified and enumerated. Physico- chemical properties before the analysis indicated pH range of the samples from 4.28 – 5.80 , While the percentage Organic carbon and Organic matter was highest in cow dung samples with 3.89% and 6.69% respectively. The total Nitrogen percentage was recorded to be highest in Chicken dropping (0.68), while the availability of Phosphorus (P), Sodium (Na), Pottasium (K), and Magnessium (mg) was recorded to be highest in F – soil (Control), with values to be 37ppm, 1.63 Cmolkg-1, 0.35 Cmolkg-1 and 1.18 Cmolkg-1 respectively, except for calcium which was recorded to be highest in Cow dung (5.80 Cmolkg-1). However, physico – chemical properties of the samples after analysis indicated pH range of 4.6 – 5.80, Percentage Organic carbon and Organic matter was highest in Fadama soil mixed with fertilizer, having 0.7% and 1.2% respectively. Total Percentage Nitrogen content was found to be highest (0.56) in Fadama soil mixed with poultry dropping. Availability of Sodium (Na), Pottasium (K), and Calcium (Ca) was recorded to be highest in Fadama Soil mixed with Cow dung with values to be 0.64 Cmolkg-1, 2.07 Cmolkg-1 and 3.36 Cmolkg-1 respectively. The percentage weight loss of polythene and plastic bags after nine months in fadama soil mixed with poultry dropping was 11.9% for polythene and 6.0% for plastics. Weight loss in fadama soil mixed with cow dung was 18.1% for polythene and 4.7% for plastics. Weight loss of polythene and plastic in fadama soil mixed with fertilizer (NPK) was 7.4% for polythene and 3.3% for plastics. While, the percentage weight loss of polythene and plastics after nine months of burial in fadama soil (control) was 3.5% and 0.0% respectively. The bacteria species isolated from Fadama soil, organic and inorganic fertilizers before amendments include: S. aureus, Micrococcus sp, Streptococcus. pyogenes, Psuedomonas aeruginosa Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus. The fungi species include: Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium sp, Mucor sp Penicillium sp and Candida sp. The bacteria species isolated and characterized after nine months of seeding include: S. aureus, Micrococcus sp, S. pyogenes, P. aeruginosa and B. subtilis. The fungi species are: A. niger A. flavus, A. fumigatus, Mucor sp, Penicillium sp and Fusarium sp. The result of this study indicated that plastic materials can be degraded in the fadama soil irrespective of whether the soil is amended or not. The Period of composting also has a significant impact on the rate at which polythene and plastics are degraded.

Keywords: Fadama, fertilizer, plastic and polythene, biodegradation

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44 Production of Bacillus Lipopeptides for Biocontrol of Postharvest Crops

Authors: Vivek Rangarajan, Kim G. Klarke


With overpopulation threatening the world’s ability to feed itself, food production and protection has become a major issue, especially in developing countries. Almost one-third of the food produced for human consumption, around 1.3 billion tonnes, is either wasted or lost annually. Postharvest decay in particular constitutes a major cause of crop loss with about 20% of fruits and vegetables produced lost during postharvest storage, mainly due to fungal disease. Some of the major phytopathogenic fungi affecting postharvest fruit crops in South Africa include Aspergillus, Botrytis, Penicillium, Alternaria and Sclerotinia spp. To date control of fungal phytopathogens has primarily been dependent on synthetic chemical fungicides, but these chemicals pose a significant threat to the environment, mainly due to their xenobiotic properties and tendency to generate resistance in the phytopathogens. Here, an environmentally benign alternative approach to control postharvest fungal phytopathogens in perishable fruit crops has been presented, namely the application of a bio-fungicide in the form of lipopeptide molecules. Lipopeptides are biosurfactants produced by Bacillus spp. which have been established as green, nontoxic and biodegradable molecules with antimicrobial properties. However, since the Bacillus are capable of producing a large number of lipopeptide homologues with differing efficacies against distinct target organisms, the lipopeptide production conditions and strategy are critical to produce the maximum lipopeptide concentration with homologue ratios to specification for optimum bio-fungicide efficacy. Process conditions, and their impact on Bacillus lipopeptide production, were evaluated in fully instrumented laboratory scale bioreactors under well-regulated controlled and defined environments. Factors such as the oxygen availability and trace element and nitrate concentrations had profound influences on lipopeptide yield, productivity and selectivity. Lipopeptide yield and homologue selectivity were enhanced in cultures where the oxygen in the sparge gas was increased from 21 to 30 mole%. The addition of trace elements, particularly Fe2+, increased the total concentration of lipopeptides and a nitrate concentration equivalent to 8 g/L ammonium nitrate resulted in optimum lipopeptide yield and homologue selectivity. Efficacy studies of the culture supernatant containing the crude lipopeptide mixture were conducted using phytopathogens isolated from fruit in the field, identified using genetic sequencing. The supernatant exhibited antifungal activity against all the test-isolates, namely Lewia, Botrytis, Penicillium, Alternaria and Sclerotinia spp., even in this crude form. Thus the lipopeptide product efficacy has been confirmed to control the main diseases, even in the basic crude form. Future studies will be directed towards purification of the lipopeptide product and enhancement of efficacy.

Keywords: antifungal efficacy, biocontrol, lipopeptide production, perishable crops

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43 Test of Biological Control against Brachytrupes Megacephalus Lefèbre, 1827 (Orthoptera, Gryllinae) by Using Entomopathogenic Fungi

Authors: W. Lakhdari, B. Doumendji-Mitich, A. Dahliz, S. Doumendji, Y. Bouchikh, R. M'lik, H. Hammi, A. Soud


This work was done in order to fight against Brachytrupes megacephalus, a major pest in the Algerian oasis and promote one aspect of biological control against it. He wears a hand on the isolation and identification of indigenous fungi on imagos of this insect harvested in the station of INRAA Touggourt and secondly, the study of the pathogenicity of these strains fungal on this orthoptère adults. The results obtained showed the presence of six different species of entomopathogenic fungi, it is: Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium sp, Beauveria bassiana, Penicillium sp, Metharizium anisopliae and Aspergillus Niger. The pathogenicity test using fungi Beauveria bassiana strains and Metharizium anisopliae. On adult of B. megacephalus highlights the effectiveness of these strains of predatory adults, with a mortality rate approaching 100% after 11 days.

Keywords: biological control, brachytrupes megacephalus, entomopathogenic fungi, Southeastern Algeria

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