Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1922

Search results for: molecular docking

1922 Molecular Docking Assessment of Pesticides Binding to Bacterial Chitinases

Authors: Diana Larisa Vladoiu, Vasile Ostafe, Adriana Isvoran


Molecular docking calculations reveal that pesticides provide favorable interactions with the bacterial chitinases. Pesticides interact with both hydrophilic and aromatic residues involved in the active site of the enzymes, their positions partially overlapping the substrate and the inhibitors locations. Molecular docking outcomes, in correlation with experimental literature data, suggest that the pesticides may be degraded or having an inhibitor effect on the activity of these enzymes, depending of the application dose and rate.

Keywords: chitinases, inhibition, molecular docking, pesticides

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1921 Microbiological Activity and Molecular Docking Study of Selected Steroid Derivatives of Biomedical Importance

Authors: Milica Karadzic, Lidija Jevric, Sanja Podunavac-Kuzmanovic, Strahinja Kovacevic, Sinisa Markov, Aleksandar Okljesa, Andrea Nikolic, Marija Sakac, Katarina Penov Gasi


This study considered the microbiological activity determination and molecular docking study for selected steroid derivatives of biomedical importance. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined for steroid derivatives against Staphylococcus aureus using macrodilution method. Some of the investigated steroid derivatives express bacteriostatic effect against Staphylococcus aureus. Molecular docking approaches are the most widely used techniques for predicting the binding mode of a ligand. Molecular docking study was done for steroid derivatives for androgen receptor negative prostate cancer cell line (PC-3) toward Human Cytochrome P450 CYP17A1. The molecules that had the smallest experimental IC50 values confirmed their ability to dock into active place using suitable molecular docking procedure. The binding disposition of those molecules was thoroughly investigated. Microbiological analysis and molecular docking study were conducted with aim to additionally characterize selected steroid derivatives for future investigation regarding their biological activity and to estimate the binding-affinities of investigated derivatives. This article is based upon work from COST Action (TD1305), supported by COST (European Cooperation and Science and Technology).

Keywords: binding affinity, minimal inhibitory concentration, molecular docking, pc-3 cell line, staphylococcus aureus, steroids

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1920 Synthesis and Molecular Docking of Isonicotinohydrazide Derivatives as Anti-Tuberculosis Candidates

Authors: Ruswanto Ruswanto, Richa Mardianingrum, Tita Nofianti, Nur Rahayuningsih


Tuberculosis (TB) is a chronic disease as a result of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It can affect all age groups, and hence, is a global health problem that causes the death of millions of people every year. One of the drugs used in tuberculosis treatment is isonicotinohydrazide. In this study, N'-benzoylisonicotinohydrazide derivative compounds (a-l) were prepared using acylation reactions between isonicotinohydrazide and benzoyl chloride derivatives, through the reflux method. Molecular docking studies suggested that all of the compounds had better interaction with Mycobacterium tuberculosis enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (InhA) than isonicotinohydrazide. It can be concluded that N'-benzoylisonicotinohydrazide derivatives (a-l) could be used as anti-tuberculosis candidates. From the docking results revealed that all of the compounds interact well with InhA, with compound g (N'-(3-nitrobenzoyl)isonicotinohydrazide) exhibiting the best interaction.

Keywords: anti-tuberculosis , docking, InhA, N'-benzoylisonicotinohydrazide, synthesis

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1919 Molecular Docking and Synthesis of Nitrogen-Containing Bisphosphonates

Authors: S. Ghalem, M. Mesmoudi, I. Daoudand, H. Allali


The nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates (N-BPs) are well established as the treatments of choice for disorders of excessive bone resorption, myeloma and bone metastases, and osteoporosis. They inhibit farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (FFPS), a key enzyme in the mevalonate pathway, resulting in inhibition of the prenylation of small GTP-binding proteins in osteoclasts and disruption of their cytoskeleton, adhesion/spreading, and invasion of cancer cells. A very few examples for synthesis of α-amino bisphosphonates based on several amino acids are known from the literature. In the present work, esters of aminoacid react with ketophsophonate (or their analog acid or acyl) to afford the desired products, α-iminophosphonates. The reaction of imine with dimethyl phosphate in the presence of catalytic amount of I2 give ester of α-aminobisphosphonate as sole product in good yield. Finally, we used computational docking methods to predict how several α-aminobisphosphonates bind to FPPS and how R and X influence. Pamidronate, β-aminobisphosphonate already marketed, was used as reference. These results are of interest since they represent a new and simple way to sythesize α-aminobisphosphonates with a free COOH group increased by R2 functionalisable and opening up the possibility of using the molecular docking to facilitate the design of other, novel FFPS inhibitors.

Keywords: drug research, cancer, α-amino bisphosphonates, molecular docking

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1918 Structure-Based Virtual Screening to Identify CLDN4 Inhibitors

Authors: Jayanthi Sivaraman


Claudins are the important components of the tight junctions that play a key role in paracellular permeability. Among various members of Claudin family, Claudin 4 (CLDN4) is found to be overexpressed in ovarian, pancreatic carcinomas and other epithelial malignancies. Therefore, in this study, an attempt has been made to identify potent inhibitors for CLDN4 from the ZINC database using virtual screening, molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations. A well refined molecular model of CLDN4 was built using Prime of Schrodinger v10.2(Template- PDB ID: 4P79). Approximately, 6 million compounds from ZINC database are subjected to high-throughput virtual screening (HTVS) against the active site of CLDN4. Molecular docking using GLIDE predicted ARG31, ASN142, ASP146 and ARG158 as critically important residues. Furthermore, three compounds from ZINC database (ZINC96331839, ZINC36533519 and ZINC75819394) showed highly promising ADME properties and binding affinity with stable conformation. The therapeutic efficiency of these lead compounds is evaluated and confirmed by in-vitro and in-vivo studies which leads to the development of novel anti-cancer drugs.

Keywords: ADME property, inhibitors, molecular docking, virtual screening

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1917 QSAR, Docking and E-pharmacophore Approach on Novel Series of HDAC Inhibitors with Thiophene Linker as Anticancer Agents

Authors: Harish Rajak, Preeti Patel


HDAC inhibitors can reactivate gene expression and inhibit the growth and survival of cancer cells. The 3D-QSAR and Pharmacophore modeling studies were performed to identify important pharmacophoric features and correlate 3D-chemical structure with biological activity. The pharmacophore hypotheses were developed using e-pharmacophore script and phase module. Pharmacophore hypothesis represents the 3D arrangement of molecular features necessary for activity. A series of 55 compounds with well-assigned HDAC inhibitory activity was used for 3D-QSAR model development. Best 3D-QSAR model, which is a five PLS factor model with good statistics and predictive ability, acquired Q2 (0.7293), R2 (0.9811) and standard deviation (0.0952). Molecular docking were performed using Histone Deacetylase protein (PDB ID: 1t69) and prepared series of hydroxamic acid based HDAC inhibitors. Docking study of compound 43 show significant binding interactions Ser 276 and oxygen atom of dioxine cap region, Gly 151 and amino group and Asp 267 with carboxyl group of CONHOH, which are essential for anticancer activity. On docking, most of the compounds exhibited better glide score values between -8 to -10.5. We have established structure activity correlation using docking, energetic based pharmacophore modelling, pharmacophore and atom based 3D QSAR model. The results of these studies were further used for the design and testing of new HDAC analogs.

Keywords: Docking, e-pharmacophore, HDACIs, QSAR, Suberoylanilidehydroxamic acid.

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1916 Docking and Dynamic Molecular Study of Isoniazid Derivatives as Anti-Tuberculosis Drug Candidate

Authors: Richa Mardianingrum, Srie R. N. Endah


In this research, we have designed four isoniazid derivatives i.e., isonicotinohydrazide (1-isonicotinoyl semicarbazide, 1-thiosemi isonicotinoyl carbazide, N '-(1,3-dimethyl-1 h-pyrazole-5-carbonyl) isonicotino hydrazide, and N '-(1,2,3- 4-thiadiazole-carbonyl) isonicotinohydrazide. The docking and molecular dynamic have performed to them in order to study its interaction with Mycobacterium tuberculosis Enoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Reductase (InhA). Based on this research, all of the compounds were predicted to have a stable interaction with Mycobacterium tuberculosis Enoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Reductase (INHA) receptor, so they could be used as an anti-tuberculosis drug candidate.

Keywords: anti-tuberculosis, docking, Inhibin alpha subunit, InhA, inhibition, synthesis, isonicotinohydrazide

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1915 Exploring 1,2,4-Triazine-3(2H)-One Derivatives as Anticancer Agents for Breast Cancer: A QSAR, Molecular Docking, ADMET, and Molecular Dynamics

Authors: Said Belaaouad


This study aimed to explore the quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) of 1,2,4-Triazine-3(2H)-one derivative as a potential anticancer agent against breast cancer. The electronic descriptors were obtained using the Density Functional Theory (DFT) method, and a multiple linear regression techniques was employed to construct the QSAR model. The model exhibited favorable statistical parameters, including R2=0.849, R2adj=0.656, MSE=0.056, R2test=0.710, and Q2cv=0.542, indicating its reliability. Among the descriptors analyzed, absolute electronegativity (χ), total energy (TE), number of hydrogen bond donors (NHD), water solubility (LogS), and shape coefficient (I) were identified as influential factors. Furthermore, leveraging the validated QSAR model, new derivatives of 1,2,4-Triazine-3(2H)-one were designed, and their activity and pharmacokinetic properties were estimated. Subsequently, molecular docking (MD) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were employed to assess the binding affinity of the designed molecules. The Tubulin colchicine binding site, which plays a crucial role in cancer treatment, was chosen as the target protein. Through the simulation trajectory spanning 100 ns, the binding affinity was calculated using the MMPBSA script. As a result, fourteen novel Tubulin-colchicine inhibitors with promising pharmacokinetic characteristics were identified. Overall, this study provides valuable insights into the QSAR of 1,2,4-Triazine-3(2H)-one derivative as potential anticancer agent, along with the design of new compounds and their assessment through molecular docking and dynamics simulations targeting the Tubulin-colchicine binding site.

Keywords: QSAR, molecular docking, ADMET, 1, 2, 4-triazin-3(2H)-ones, breast cancer, anticancer, molecular dynamic simulations, MMPBSA calculation

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1914 Binding Studies of Complexes of Anticancer Drugs with DNA and Enzymes Involved in DNA Replication Using Molecular Docking and Cell Culture Techniques

Authors: Fouzia Perveen, Rumana Qureshi


The presently studied twelve anticancer drugs are the cytotoxic agents which inhibit the replication of DNA and activity of enzymes involved in DNA replication namely topoisomerase-II, polymerase and helicase and have shown remarkable anticancer activity in clinical trials. In this study, we performed molecular docking studies of twelve antitumor drugs against DNA and DNA enzymes in the presence and absence of ascorbic acid (AA) and developed the quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model for anticancer activity screening. A number of electronic and steric descriptors were calculated using MOE software package. QSAR was established showing a correlation of binding strength with various physicochemical descriptors. Out of these twelve, eight cytotoxic drugs were tested on Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer cell lines (H-157 and H-1299) in the absence and presence of ascorbic acid and experimental IC50 values were calculated. From the docking studies, binding constants were calculated indicating the strength of drug-DNA and drug-enzyme complex formation and it was correlated to the IC50 values (both experimental and theoretical). These results can offer useful references for directing the molecular design of DNA enzyme inhibitor with improved anticancer activity.

Keywords: ascorbic acid, binding constant, cytotoxic agents, cell culture, DNA, DNA enzymes, molecular docking

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1913 In Silico Study of Antiviral Drugs Against Three Important Proteins of Sars-Cov-2 Using Molecular Docking Method

Authors: Alireza Jalalvand, Maryam Saleh, Somayeh Behjat Khatouni, Zahra Bahri Najafi, Foroozan Fatahinia, Narges Ismailzadeh, Behrokh Farahmand


Object: In the last two decades, the recent outbreak of Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) imposed a global pandemic in the world. Despite the increasing prevalence of the disease, there are no effective drugs to treat it. A suitable and rapid way to afford an effective drug and treat the global pandemic is a computational drug study. This study used molecular docking methods to examine the potential inhibition of over 50 antiviral drugs against three fundamental proteins of SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: Through a literature review, three important proteins (a key protease, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), and spike) were selected as drug targets. Three-dimensional (3D) structures of protease, spike, and RdRP proteins were obtained from the Protein Data Bank. Protein had minimal energy. Over 50 antiviral drugs were considered candidates for protein inhibition and their 3D structures were obtained from drug banks. The Autodock 4.2 software was used to define the molecular docking settings and run the algorithm. RESULTS: Five drugs, including indinavir, lopinavir, saquinavir, nelfinavir, and remdesivir, exhibited the highest inhibitory potency against all three proteins based on the binding energies and drug binding positions deduced from docking and hydrogen-bonding analysis. Conclusions: According to the results, among the drugs mentioned, saquinavir and lopinavir showed the highest inhibitory potency against all three proteins compared to other drugs. It may enter laboratory phase studies as a dual-drug treatment to inhibit SARS-CoV-2.

Keywords: covid-19, drug repositioning, molecular docking, lopinavir, saquinavir

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1912 2-Thioimidazole Analogues: Synthesis, in silico Studies and in vitro Anticancer and Antiprotozoal Evaluation

Authors: Drashti G. Daraji, Rosa E. Moo-Puc, Hitesh D. Patel


Substituted 2-Thioimidazole analogues have been synthesized and confirmed by advanced spectroscopic techniques. Among them, ten compounds have been selected and evaluated for their in vitro anti-cancer activity at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) for testing against a panel of 60 different human tumor cell lines derived from nine neoplastic cancer types. Furthermore, synthesized compounds were tested for their in vitro antiprotozoal activity, and none of them exhibited significant potency against antiprotozoans. It was observed that the tested all compounds seem effective on the UACC-62 melanoma cancer cell line as compared to other cancer cell lines and also exhibited the least potent in the Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer cell line in one-dose screening. In silico studies of these derivatives were carried out by molecular docking techniques and Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion (ADME) using Schrödinger software to find potent B-Raf kinase inhibitor (PDB ID: 3OG7). All the compounds have been performed for docking study; Compound D4 has a good docking score for melanoma cancer as compared with other.

Keywords: anticancer activity, cancer cell line, 2-thio imidazole, one-dose assay, molecular docking

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1911 An Inverse Docking Approach for Identifying New Potential Anticancer Targets

Authors: Soujanya Pasumarthi


Inverse docking is a relatively new technique that has been used to identify potential receptor targets of small molecules. Our docking software package MDock is well suited for such an application as it is both computationally efficient, yet simultaneously shows adequate results in binding affinity predictions and enrichment tests. As a validation study, we present the first stage results of an inverse-docking study which seeks to identify potential direct targets of PRIMA-1. PRIMA-1 is well known for its ability to restore mutant p53's tumor suppressor function, leading to apoptosis in several types of cancer cells. For this reason, we believe that potential direct targets of PRIMA-1 identified in silico should be experimentally screened for their ability to inhibitcancer cell growth. The highest-ranked human protein of our PRIMA-1 docking results is oxidosqualene cyclase (OSC), which is part of the cholesterol synthetic pathway. The results of two followup experiments which treat OSC as a possible anti-cancer target are promising. We show that both PRIMA-1 and Ro 48-8071, a known potent OSC inhibitor, significantly reduce theviability of BT-474 breast cancer cells relative to normal mammary cells. In addition, like PRIMA-1, we find that Ro 48-8071 results in increased binding of mutant p53 to DNA in BT- 474cells (which highly express p53). For the first time, Ro 48-8071 is shown as a potent agent in killing human breast cancer cells. The potential of OSC as a new target for developing anticancer therapies is worth further investigation.

Keywords: inverse docking, in silico screening, protein-ligand interactions, molecular docking

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1910 Synthesis, Inhibitory Activity, and Molecular Modelling of 2-Hydroxy-3-Oxo-3-Phenylpropionate Derivatives as HIV-1-Integrase Inhibitors

Authors: O. J. Jesumoroti, Faridoon, R. Klein, K. A. Iobb, D. Mnkadhla, H. C. Hoppe, P. T. Kaye


The 1, 3-aryl diketo acids (DKA) based agents represent an important class of HIV integrase (IN) strand transfer inhibitors. In other to study the chelating role of the divalent metal ion in the inhibition of IN strand transfer, we designed and synthesized a series of 2-hydroxy-3-oxo-3-phenyl propionate derivatives with the notion that such compounds could interact with the divalent ion in the active site of IN. The synthetic sequence to the desired compounds involves the concept of Doebner knoevenagel condensation, Fischer esterification and ketohydroxylation using neuclophilic re-oxidant; compounds were characterized by their IR, IHNMR, 13CNMR, HRMS spectroscopic data and melting point determination. Also, molecular docking was employed in this study and it was revealed that there is interaction with the active site of the enzyme. However, there is disparity in the corresponding anti-HIV activity determined by the experimental bioassay. These compounds lack potency at low micromolar concentration when compared to the results of the docking studies. Nevertheless, the results of the study suggest modification of the aryl ring with one or two hydroxyl groups to improve the inhibitory activity.

Keywords: anti-HIV-1 integrase, ketohydroxylation, molecular docking, propionate derivatives

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1909 Synthesis, Characterization, and Biological Evaluation of 1,3,4-Mercaptooxadiazole Ether Derivatives Analogs as Antioxidant, Cytotoxic, and Molecular Docking Studies

Authors: Desta Gebretekle Shiferaw, Balakrishna Kalluraya


Oxadiazoles and their derivatives with thioether functionalities represent a new and exciting class of physiologically active heterocyclic compounds. Several molecules with these moieties play a vital role in pharmaceuticals because of their diverse biological activities. This paper describes a new class of 1,3,4- oxadiazole-2-thioethers with acetophenone, coumarin, and N-phenyl acetamide residues (S-alkylation), with the hope that the addition of various biologically active molecules will have a synergistic effect on anticancer activity. The structure of the synthesized title compounds was determined by the combined methods of IR, proton-NMR, carbon-13-NMR, and mass spectrometry. Further, all the newly prepared molecules were assessed against their antioxidant activity. Furthermore, four compounds were assessed for their molecular docking interactions and cytotoxicity activity. The synthesized derivatives have shown moderate antioxidant activity compared to the standard BHA. The IC50 of the tilted molecules (11b, 11c, 13b, and 14b) observed for in vitro anti-cancer activities were 11.20, 15.73, 59.61, and 27.66 g/ml at 72-hour treatment time against the A549 cell lines, respectively. The tested compounds' biological evaluation showed that 11b is the most effective molecule in the series.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, cytotoxicity activity, molecular docking, 1, 3, 4-Oxadiazole-2 thioether derivatives

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1908 In-Silico Investigation of Phytochemicals from Ocimum Sanctum as Plausible Antiviral Agent in COVID-19

Authors: Dileep Kumar, Janhavi Ramchandra Rao Kumar, Rao


COVID-19 has ravaged the globe, and it is spreading its Spectre day by day. In the absence of established drugs, this disease has created havoc. Some of the infected persons are symptomatic or asymptomatic. The respiratory system, cardiac system, digestive system, etc. in human beings are affected by this virus. In our present investigation, we have undertaken a study of the Indian Ayurvedic herb, Ocimum sanctum against SARS-CoV-2 using molecular docking and dynamics studies. The docking analysis was performed on the Glide module of Schrödinger suite on two different proteins from SARS-CoV-2 viz. NSP15 Endoribonuclease and spike receptor-binding domain. MM-GBSA based binding free energy calculations also suggest the most favorable binding affinities of carvacrol, β elemene, and β caryophyllene with binding energies of −61.61, 58.23, and −54.19 Kcal/mol respectively with spike receptor-binding domain and NSP15 Endoribonuclease. It rekindles our hope for the design and development of new drug candidates for the treatment of COVID19.

Keywords: molecular docking, COVID-19, ocimum sanctum, binding energy

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1907 Synthesis, Molecular Docking, and Cytotoxic Activity of Novel Triazolopyridazine Derivatives

Authors: Azza T. Tahera, Eman M. Ahmeda, Nadia A. Khalila, Yassin M. Nissanb


New 3-(pyridin-4-yl)-[1,2,4] triazolo [4,3-b] pyridazine derivatives 2a-i, 4a,b and 6a,b were designed, synthesized and evaluated as cytotoxic agents. All compounds were investigated for their in vitro cytotoxicity at a single dose 10-5M concentration towards 60 cancer cell lines according to USA NCI protocol. The preliminary screening results showed that the majority of tested compounds exhibited remarkable activity against SR (leukemia) cell panel. Molecular docking for all synthesized compounds was performed on the active site of c-Met kinase. The most active compounds, 2f and 4a were further evaluated at a seven dose level screening and their IC50 as a c-Met kinase inhibitors were determined in vitro.

Keywords: triazolopyridazines, pyridazines, cytotoxic activity, cell panel

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1906 Docking, Pharmacophore Modeling and 3d QSAR Studies on Some Novel HDAC Inhibitors with Heterocyclic Linker

Authors: Harish Rajak, Preeti Patel


The application of histone deacetylase inhibitors is a well-known strategy in prevention of cancer which shows acceptable preclinical antitumor activity due to its ability of growth inhibition and apoptosis induction of cancer cell. Molecular docking were performed using Histone Deacetylase protein (PDB ID:1t69) and prepared series of hydroxamic acid based HDACIs. On the basis of docking study, it was predicted that compound 1 has significant binding interaction with HDAC protein and three hydrogen bond interactions takes place, which are essential for antitumor activity. On docking, most of the compounds exhibited better glide score values between -8 to -10 which is close to the glide score value of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid. The pharmacophore hypotheses were developed using e-pharmacophore script and phase module. The 3D-QSAR models provided a good correlation between predicted and actual anticancer activity. Best QSAR model showed Q2 (0.7974), R2 (0.9200) and standard deviation (0.2308). QSAR visualization maps suggest that hydrogen bond acceptor groups at carbonyl group of cap region and hydrophobic groups at ortho, meta, para position of R9 were favorable for HDAC inhibitory activity. We established structure activity correlation using docking, pharmacophore modeling and atom based 3D QSAR model for hydroxamic acid based HDACIs.

Keywords: HDACIs, QSAR, e-pharmacophore, docking, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid

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1905 Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship and Insilco Docking of Substituted 1,3,4-Oxadiazole Derivatives as Potential Glucosamine-6-Phosphate Synthase Inhibitors

Authors: Suman Bala, Sunil Kamboj, Vipin Saini


Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) analysis has been developed to relate antifungal activity of novel substituted 1,3,4-oxadiazole against Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger using computer assisted multiple regression analysis. The study has shown the better relationship between antifungal activities with respect to various descriptors established by multiple regression analysis. The analysis has shown statistically significant correlation with R2 values 0.932 and 0.782 against Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger respectively. These derivatives were further subjected to molecular docking studies to investigate the interactions between the target compounds and amino acid residues present in the active site of glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase. All the synthesized compounds have better docking score as compared to standard fluconazole. Our results could be used for the further design as well as development of optimal and potential antifungal agents.

Keywords: 1, 3, 4-oxadiazole, QSAR, multiple linear regression, docking, glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase

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1904 Synthesis, Molecular-Docking, and Biological Evaluation of Thiazolopyrimidine Carboxylates as Potential Antidiabetic and Antibacterial Agents

Authors: Iram Batool, Aamer Saeed, Irfan Zia Qureshi, Ayesha Razzaq, Saima Kalsoom


Heterocyclic compounds analogues and their derivatives have attracted strong interest in medicinal chemistry due to their biological and pharmacological properties. A series of new thiazolopyrimidine carboxylates were conveniently synthesized by one-pot three-component reaction of ethyl acetoacetate, 2-aminothiazole and benzaldehyde substituted with electron-donating and electron-withdrawing groups in order to find some more potent antidiabetic and antibacterial drugs. The structures of synthesized compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR spectroscopy. An in vitro antidiabetic effect was evaluated in adult male BALB/c mice and antibacterial activities were tested against Micrococcus luteus, Salmonella typhimurium, Bacillus subtilis, Bordetella bronchiseptica and Escherichia coli. Some of the tested compounds proved to possess good to excellent activities more than the reference drugs. An in silico molecular docking was also performed on synthesized compounds. The current study is expected to provide useful insights into the design of antidiabetic and antibacterial drugs and understanding the mechanism by which such drugs interact with RNA and diabetes target and exert their biochemical action.

Keywords: antidiabetic, antibacterial, MOE docking, thiazolopyrimidine

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1903 Cholinesterase Inhibitory Indole Alkaloids from the Bark of Rauvolfia reflexa

Authors: Mehran Fadaeinasab, Alireza Basiri, Yalda Kia, Hamed Karimian, Hapipah Mohd Ali, Vikneswaran Murugaiyah


Two new, rauvolfine C and 3- methyl-10,11-dimethoxyl-6- methoxycarbonyl- β- carboline, along with five known indole alkaloids, macusine B, vinorine, undulifoline, isoresrpiline and rescinnamine were isolated from the bark of Rauvolfia reflexa. All the compounds showed good to moderate cholinesterase inhibitory activity with IC50 values in the range of 8.06 to 73.23 πM, except rauvolfine C that was inactive against acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Rescinnamine, a dual inhibitor was found to be the most potent inhibitor among the isolated alkaloids against both AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). Molecular docking revealed that rescinnamine interacted differently on AChE and BChE, by means of hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonding.

Keywords: Rauvolfia reflexa, indole alkaloids, acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, molecular docking

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1902 Scheduling of Cross-Docking Center: An Auction-Based Algorithm

Authors: Eldho Paul, Brijesh Paul


This work proposes an auction mechanism based solution methodology for the optimum scheduling of trucks in a cross-docking centre. The cross-docking centre is an important element of lean supply chain. It reduces the amount of storage and transportation costs in the distribution system compared to an ordinary warehouse. Better scheduling of trucks in a cross-docking center is the best way to reduce storage and transportation costs. Auction mechanism is commonly used for allocation of limited resources in different real-life applications. Here, we try to schedule inbound trucks by integrating auction mechanism with the functioning of a cross-docking centre. A mathematical model is developed for the optimal scheduling of inbound trucks based on the auction methodology. The determination of exact solution for problems involving large number of trucks was found to be computationally difficult, and hence a genetic algorithm based heuristic methodology is proposed in this work. A comparative study of exact and heuristic solutions is done using five classes of data sets. It is observed from the study that the auction-based mechanism is capable of providing good solutions to scheduling problem in cross-docking centres.

Keywords: auction mechanism, cross-docking centre, genetic algorithm, scheduling of trucks

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1901 Molecular Interactions Driving RNA Binding to hnRNPA1 Implicated in Neurodegeneration

Authors: Sakina Fatima, Joseph-Patrick W. E. Clarke, Patricia A. Thibault, Subha Kalyaanamoorthy, Michael Levin, Aravindhan Ganesan


Heteronuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNPA1 or A1) is associated with the pathology of different diseases, including neurological disorders and cancers. In particular, the aggregation and dysfunction of A1 have been identified as a critical driver for neurodegeneration (NDG) in Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Structurally, A1 includes a low-complexity domain (LCD) and two RNA-recognition motifs (RRMs), and their interdomain coordination may play a crucial role in A1 aggregation. Previous studies propose that RNA-inhibitors or nucleoside analogs that bind to RRMs can potentially prevent A1 self-association. Therefore, molecular-level understanding of the structures, dynamics, and nucleotide interactions with A1 RRMs can be useful for developing therapeutics for NDG in MS. In this work, a combination of computational modelling and biochemical experiments were employed to analyze a set of RNA-A1 RRM complexes. Initially, the atomistic models of RNA-RRM complexes were constructed by modifying known crystal structures (e.g., PDBs: 4YOE and 5MPG), and through molecular docking calculations. The complexes were optimized using molecular dynamics simulations (200-400 ns), and their binding free energies were computed. The binding affinities of the selected complexes were validated using a thermal shift assay. Further, the most important molecular interactions that contributed to the overall stability of the RNA-A1 RRM complexes were deduced. The results highlight that adenine and guanine are the most suitable nucleotides for high-affinity binding with A1. These insights will be useful in the rational design of nucleotide-analogs for targeting A1 RRMs.

Keywords: hnRNPA1, molecular docking, molecular dynamics, RNA-binding proteins

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1900 Computational Analysis of Potential Inhibitors Selected Based on Structural Similarity for the Src SH2 Domain

Authors: W. P. Hu, J. V. Kumar, Jeffrey J. P. Tsai


The inhibition of SH2 domain regulated protein-protein interactions is an attractive target for developing an effective chemotherapeutic approach in the treatment of disease. Molecular simulation is a useful tool for developing new drugs and for studying molecular recognition. In this study, we searched potential drug compounds for the inhibition of SH2 domain by performing structural similarity search in PubChem Compound Database. A total of 37 compounds were screened from the database, and then we used the LibDock docking program to evaluate the inhibition effect. The best three compounds (AP22408, CID 71463546 and CID 9917321) were chosen for MD simulations after the LibDock docking. Our results show that the compound CID 9917321 can produce a more stable protein-ligand complex compared to other two currently known inhibitors of Src SH2 domain. The compound CID 9917321 may be useful for the inhibition of SH2 domain based on these computational results. Subsequently experiments are needed to verify the effect of compound CID 9917321 on the SH2 domain in the future studies.

Keywords: nonpeptide inhibitor, Src SH2 domain, LibDock, molecular dynamics simulation

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1899 Molecular Basis for Amyloid Inhibition by L-Dopa: Implication towards Systemic Amyloidosis

Authors: Rizwan H. Khan, Saima Nusrat


Despite the fact that amyloid associated neurodegenerative diseases and non-neuropathic systemic amyloidosis have allured the research endeavors, as no curative drugs have been proclaimed up till now except for symptomatic cure. Therapeutic compounds which can diminish or disaggregate such toxic oligomers and fibrillar species have been examined and more are on its way. In the present study, we had reported an extensive biophysical, microscopic and computational study, revealing that L-3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-Dopa) possess undeniable potency to inhibit heat induced human lysozyme (HL) amyloid fibrillation and also retain the fibril disaggregating potential. L-Dopa interferes in the amyloid fibrillogenesis process by interacting hydrophobically and also by forming hydrogen bonds with the amino acid residues found in amyloid fibril forming prone region of HL as elucidated by molecular docking results. L-Dopa also disaggregates the mature amyloid fibrils into some unorganised species. Thus, L-Dopa and related compounds can work as a promising inhibitor for the therapeutic advancement prospective against systemic amyloidosis.

Keywords: amyloids, disaggregation, human lysozyme, molecular docking

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1898 Network Pharmacological Evaluation of Holy Basil Bioactive Phytochemicals for Identifying Novel Potential Inhibitors Against Neurodegenerative Disorder

Authors: Bhuvanesh Baniya


Alzheimer disease is illnesses that are responsible for neuronal cell death and resulting in lifelong cognitive problems. Due to their unclear mechanism, there are no effective drugs available for the treatment. For a long time, herbal drugs have been used as a role model in the field of the drug discovery process. Holy basil in the Indian medicinal system (Ayurveda) is used for several neuronal disorders like insomnia and memory loss for decades. This study aims to identify active components of holy basil as potential inhibitors for the treatment of Alzheimer disease. To fulfill this objective, the Network pharmacology approach, gene ontology, pharmacokinetics analysis, molecular docking, and molecular dynamics simulation (MDS) studies were performed. A total of 7 active components in holy basil, 12 predicted neurodegenerative targets of holy basil, and 8063 Alzheimer-related targets were identified from different databases. The network analysis showed that the top ten targets APP, EGFR, MAPK1, ESR1, HSPA4, PRKCD, MAPK3, ABL1, JUN, and GSK3B were found as significant target related to Alzheimer disease. On the basis of gene ontology and topology analysis results, APP was found as a significant target related to Alzheimer’s disease pathways. Further, the molecular docking results to found that various compounds showed the best binding affinities. Further, MDS top results suggested could be used as potential inhibitors against APP protein and could be useful for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease.

Keywords: holy basil, network pharmacology, neurodegeneration, active phytochemicals, molecular docking and simulation

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1897 Molecular Design and Synthesis of Heterocycles Based Anticancer Agents

Authors: Amna J. Ghith, Khaled Abu Zid, Khairia Youssef, Nasser Saad


Backgrounds: The multikinase and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor inhibitors interrupt the pathway by which angiogenesis becomes established and promulgated, resulting in the inadequate nourishment of metastatic disease. VEGFR-2 has been the principal target of anti-angiogenic therapies. We disclose the new thieno pyrimidines as inhibitors of VEGFR-2 designed by a molecular modeling approach with increased synergistic activity and decreased side effects. Purpose: 2-substituted thieno pyrimidines are designed and synthesized with anticipated anticancer activity based on its in silico molecular docking study that supports the initial pharmacophoric hypothesis with a same binding mode of interaction at the ATP-binding site of VEGFR-2 (PDB 2QU5) with high docking score. Methods: A series of compounds were designed using discovery studio 4.1/CDOCKER with a rational that mimic the pharmacophoric features present in the reported active compounds that targeted VEGFR-2. An in silico ADMET study was also performed to validate the bioavailability of the newly designed compounds. Results: The Compounds to be synthesized showed interaction energy comparable to or within the range of the benzimidazole inhibitor ligand when docked with VEGFR-2. ADMET study showed comparable results most of the compounds showed absorption within (95-99) zone varying according to different substitutions attached to thieno pyrimidine ring system. Conclusions: A series of 2-subsituted thienopyrimidines are to be synthesized with anticipated anticancer activity and according to docking study structure requirement for the design of VEGFR-2 inhibitors which can act as powerful anticancer agents.

Keywords: docking, discovery studio 4.1/CDOCKER, heterocycles based anticancer agents, 2-subsituted thienopyrimidines

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1896 Molecular Insights into the 5α-Reductase Inhibitors: Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship, Pre-Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion and Docking Studies

Authors: Richa Dhingra, Monika, Manav Malhotra, Tilak Raj Bhardwaj, Neelima Dhingra


5-Alpha-reductases (5AR), a membrane bound, NADPH dependent enzyme and convert male hormone testosterone (T) into more potent androgen dihydrotestosterone (DHT). DHT is the required for the development and function of male sex organs, but its overproduction has been found to be associated with physiological conditions like Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH). Thus the inhibition of 5ARs could be a key target for the treatment of BPH. In present study, 2D and 3D Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) pharmacophore models have been generated for 5AR based on known inhibitory concentration (IC₅₀) values with extensive validations. The four featured 2D pharmacophore based PLS model correlated the topological interactions (–OH group connected with one single bond) (SsOHE-index); semi-empirical (Quadrupole2) and physicochemical descriptors (Mol. wt, Bromines Count, Chlorines Count) with 5AR inhibitory activity, and has the highest correlation coefficient (r² = 0.98, q² =0.84; F = 57.87, pred r² = 0.88). Internal and external validation was carried out using test and proposed set of compounds. The contribution plot of electrostatic field effects and steric interactions generated by 3D-QSAR showed interesting results in terms of internal and external predictability. The well validated 2D Partial Least Squares (PLS) and 3D k-nearest neighbour (kNN) models were used to search novel 5AR inhibitors with different chemical scaffold. To gain more insights into the molecular mechanism of action of these steroidal derivatives, molecular docking and in silico absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) studies were also performed. Studies have revealed the hydrophobic and hydrogen bonding of the ligand with residues Alanine (ALA) 63A, Threonine (THR) 60A, and Arginine (ARG) 456A of 4AT0 protein at the hinge region. The results of QSAR, molecular docking, in silico ADME studies provide guideline and mechanistic scope for the identification of more potent 5-Alpha-reductase inhibitors (5ARI).

Keywords: 5α-reductase inhibitor, benign prostatic hyperplasia, ligands, molecular docking, QSAR

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1895 Computer-Aided Drug Repurposing for Mycobacterium Tuberculosis by Targeting Tryptophanyl-tRNA Synthetase

Authors: Neslihan Demirci, Serdar Durdağı


Mycobacterium tuberculosis is still a worldwide disease-causing agent that, according to WHO, led to the death of 1.5 million people from tuberculosis (TB) in 2020. The bacteria reside in macrophages located specifically in the lung. There is a known quadruple drug therapy regimen for TB consisting of isoniazid (INH), rifampin (RIF), pyrazinamide (PZA), and ethambutol (EMB). Over the past 60 years, there have been great contributions to treatment options, such as recently approved delamanid (OPC67683) and bedaquiline (TMC207/R207910), targeting mycolic acid and ATP synthesis, respectively. Also, there are natural compounds that can block the tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (TrpRS) enzyme, chuangxinmycin, and indolmycin. Yet, already the drug resistance is reported for those agents. In this study, the newly released TrpRS enzyme structure is investigated for potential inhibitor drugs from already synthesized molecules to help the treatment of resistant cases and to propose an alternative drug for the quadruple drug therapy of tuberculosis. Maestro, Schrodinger is used for docking and molecular dynamic simulations. In-house library containing ~8000 compounds among FDA-approved indole-containing compounds, a total of 57 obtained from the ChemBL were used for both ATP and tryptophan binding pocket docking. Best of indole-containing 57 compounds were subjected to hit expansion and compared later with virtual screening workflow (VSW) results. After docking, VSW was done. Glide-XP docking algorithm was chosen. When compared, VSW alone performed better than the hit expansion module. Best scored compounds were kept for ten ns molecular dynamic simulations by Desmond. Further, 100 ns molecular dynamic simulation was performed for elected molecules according to Z-score. The top three MMGBSA-scored compounds were subjected to steered molecular dynamic (SMD) simulations by Gromacs. While SMD simulations are still being conducted, ponesimod (for multiple sclerosis), vilanterol (β₂ adrenoreceptor agonist), and silodosin (for benign prostatic hyperplasia) were found to have a significant affinity for tuberculosis TrpRS, which is the propulsive force for the urge to expand the research with in vitro studies. Interestingly, top-scored ponesimod has been reported to have a side effect that makes the patient prone to upper respiratory tract infections.

Keywords: drug repurposing, molecular dynamics, tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase, tuberculosis

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1894 Searching for Novel Scaffolds of Triazole Non-Nucleoside Inhibitors of HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase

Authors: Tomasz Frączek, Agata Paneth, Rafał Kamiński, Agnieszka Krakowiak, Piotr Paneth


Azoles are a promising class of the new generation of HIV-1 nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs). From thousands of reported compounds, many possess the same basic structure of an aryl substituted azole ring linked by a thioglycolamide chain with another aromatic ring. To find novel extensions for this primary scaffold, we explored the 5-position substitution of triazole NNRTIs using molecular docking followed by synthesis of selected compounds. We discovered that heterocyclic substituents in 5-position of the triazole ring are detrimental to the inhibitory activity of compounds with 4-membered thioglycolamide linker. This substitution seems to be viable only for compounds with a shorter 2-membered linker such as in derivatives of 4‐benzyl‐3‐(benzyl-sulfanyl)‐5‐(thiophen‐2‐yl)‐4H‐1,2,4‐triazole reported earlier. A new scaffold of 2‐[(4‐benzyl‐5‐methyl‐4H‐1,2,4‐triazol‐3‐yl)sulfanyl]‐N‐phenylacetamide has been identified in this study.

Keywords: docking, molecular modeling, drug design, novel scaffolds

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1893 Investigating Anti-Tumourigenic and Anti-Angiogenic Effects of Resveratrol in Breast Carcinogenesis Using in-Silico Algorithms

Authors: Asma Zaib, Saeed Khan, Ayaz Ahmed Noonari, Sehrish Bint-e-Mohsin


Breast cancer is the most common cancer among females worldwide and is estimated that more than 450,000 deaths are reported each year. It accounts for about 14% of all female cancer deaths. Angiogenesis plays an essential role in Breast cancer development, invasion, and metastasis. Breast cancer predominantly begins in luminal epithelial cells lining the normal breast ducts. Breast carcinoma likely requires coordinated efforts of both increased proliferation and increased motility to progress to metastatic stages.Resveratrol: a natural stilbenoid, has anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects that inhibits proliferation of variety of human cancer cell lines, including breast, prostate, stomach, colon, pancreatic, and thyroid cancers.The objective of this study is:To investigate anti-neoangiogenesis effects of Resveratrol in breast cancer and to analyze inhibitory effects of resveratrol on aromatase, Erα, HER2/neu, and VEGFR.Docking is the computational determination of binding affinity between molecule (protein structure and ligand).We performed molecular docking using Swiss-Dock and to determine docking effects of (1) Resveratrol with Aromatase, (2) Resveratrol with ERα (3) Resveratrol with HER2/neu and (4) Resveratrol with VEGFR2.Docking results of resveratrol determined inhibitory effects on aromatase with binding energy of -7.28 kcal/mol which shows anticancerous effects on estrogen dependent breast tumors. Resveratrol also show inhibitory effects on ERα and HER2/new with binging energy -8.02, and -6.74 respectively; which revealed anti-cytoproliferative effects upon breast cancer. On the other hand resveratrol v/s VEGFR showed potential inhibitory effects on neo-angiogenesis with binding energy -7.68 kcal/mol, angiogenesis is the important phenomenon that promote tumor development and metastasis. Resveratrol is an anti-breast cancer agent conformed by in silico studies, it has been identified that resveratrol can inhibit breast cancer cells proliferation by acting as competitive inhibitor of aromatase, ERα and HER2 neo, while neo-angiogemesis is restricted by binding to VEGFR which authenticates the anti-carcinogenic effects of resveratrol against breast cancer.

Keywords: angiogenesis, anti-cytoproliferative, molecular docking, resveratrol

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