Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4996

Search results for: matrix minimization algorithm

4996 Quick Sequential Search Algorithm Used to Decode High-Frequency Matrices

Authors: Mohammed M. Siddeq, Mohammed H. Rasheed, Omar M. Salih, Marcos A. Rodrigues


This research proposes a data encoding and decoding method based on the Matrix Minimization algorithm. This algorithm is applied to high-frequency coefficients for compression/encoding. The algorithm starts by converting every three coefficients to a single value; this is accomplished based on three different keys. The decoding/decompression uses a search method called QSS (Quick Sequential Search) Decoding Algorithm presented in this research based on the sequential search to recover the exact coefficients. In the next step, the decoded data are saved in an auxiliary array. The basic idea behind the auxiliary array is to save all possible decoded coefficients; this is because another algorithm, such as conventional sequential search, could retrieve encoded/compressed data independently from the proposed algorithm. The experimental results showed that our proposed decoding algorithm retrieves original data faster than conventional sequential search algorithms.

Keywords: matrix minimization algorithm, decoding sequential search algorithm, image compression, DCT, DWT

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4995 An Improved Total Variation Regularization Method for Denoising Magnetocardiography

Authors: Yanping Liao, Congcong He, Ruigang Zhao


The application of magnetocardiography signals to detect cardiac electrical function is a new technology developed in recent years. The magnetocardiography signal is detected with Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUID) and has considerable advantages over electrocardiography (ECG). It is difficult to extract Magnetocardiography (MCG) signal which is buried in the noise, which is a critical issue to be resolved in cardiac monitoring system and MCG applications. In order to remove the severe background noise, the Total Variation (TV) regularization method is proposed to denoise MCG signal. The approach transforms the denoising problem into a minimization optimization problem and the Majorization-minimization algorithm is applied to iteratively solve the minimization problem. However, traditional TV regularization method tends to cause step effect and lacks constraint adaptability. In this paper, an improved TV regularization method for denoising MCG signal is proposed to improve the denoising precision. The improvement of this method is mainly divided into three parts. First, high-order TV is applied to reduce the step effect, and the corresponding second derivative matrix is used to substitute the first order. Then, the positions of the non-zero elements in the second order derivative matrix are determined based on the peak positions that are detected by the detection window. Finally, adaptive constraint parameters are defined to eliminate noises and preserve signal peak characteristics. Theoretical analysis and experimental results show that this algorithm can effectively improve the output signal-to-noise ratio and has superior performance.

Keywords: constraint parameters, derivative matrix, magnetocardiography, regular term, total variation

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4994 A Variant of a Double Structure-Preserving QR Algorithm for Symmetric and Hamiltonian Matrices

Authors: Ahmed Salam, Haithem Benkahla


Recently, an efficient backward-stable algorithm for computing eigenvalues and vectors of a symmetric and Hamiltonian matrix has been proposed. The method preserves the symmetric and Hamiltonian structures of the original matrix, during the whole process. In this paper, we revisit the method. We derive a way for implementing the reduction of the matrix to the appropriate condensed form. Then, we construct a novel version of the implicit QR-algorithm for computing the eigenvalues and vectors.

Keywords: block implicit QR algorithm, preservation of a double structure, QR algorithm, symmetric and Hamiltonian structures

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4993 An Improved Approach to Solve Two-Level Hierarchical Time Minimization Transportation Problem

Authors: Kalpana Dahiya


This paper discusses a two-level hierarchical time minimization transportation problem, which is an important class of transportation problems arising in industries. This problem has been studied by various researchers, and a number of polynomial time iterative algorithms are available to find its solution. All the existing algorithms, though efficient, have some shortcomings. The current study proposes an alternate solution algorithm for the problem that is more efficient in terms of computational time than the existing algorithms. The results justifying the underlying theory of the proposed algorithm are given. Further, a detailed comparison of the computational behaviour of all the algorithms for randomly generated instances of this problem of different sizes validates the efficiency of the proposed algorithm.

Keywords: global optimization, hierarchical optimization, transportation problem, concave minimization

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4992 Online Robust Model Predictive Control for Linear Fractional Transformation Systems Using Linear Matrix Inequalities

Authors: Peyman Sindareh Esfahani, Jeffery Kurt Pieper


In this paper, the problem of robust model predictive control (MPC) for discrete-time linear systems in linear fractional transformation form with structured uncertainty and norm-bounded disturbance is investigated. The problem of minimization of the cost function for MPC design is converted to minimization of the worst case of the cost function. Then, this problem is reduced to minimization of an upper bound of the cost function subject to a terminal inequality satisfying the l2-norm of the closed loop system. The characteristic of the linear fractional transformation system is taken into account, and by using some mathematical tools, the robust predictive controller design problem is turned into a linear matrix inequality minimization problem. Afterwards, a formulation which includes an integrator to improve the performance of the proposed robust model predictive controller in steady state condition is studied. The validity of the approaches is illustrated through a robust control benchmark problem.

Keywords: linear fractional transformation, linear matrix inequality, robust model predictive control, state feedback control

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4991 An ALM Matrix Completion Algorithm for Recovering Weather Monitoring Data

Authors: Yuqing Chen, Ying Xu, Renfa Li


The development of matrix completion theory provides new approaches for data gathering in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN). The existing matrix completion algorithms for WSN mainly consider how to reduce the sampling number without considering the real-time performance when recovering the data matrix. In order to guarantee the recovery accuracy and reduce the recovery time consumed simultaneously, we propose a new ALM algorithm to recover the weather monitoring data. A lot of experiments have been carried out to investigate the performance of the proposed ALM algorithm by using different parameter settings, different sampling rates and sampling models. In addition, we compare the proposed ALM algorithm with some existing algorithms in the literature. Experimental results show that the ALM algorithm can obtain better overall recovery accuracy with less computing time, which demonstrate that the ALM algorithm is an effective and efficient approach for recovering the real world weather monitoring data in WSN.

Keywords: wireless sensor network, matrix completion, singular value thresholding, augmented Lagrange multiplier

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4990 Proximal Method of Solving Split System of Minimization Problem

Authors: Anteneh Getachew Gebrie, Rabian Wangkeeree


The purpose of this paper is to introduce iterative algorithm solving split system of minimization problem given as a task of finding a common minimizer point of finite family of proper, lower semicontinuous convex functions and whose image under a bounded linear operator is also common minimizer point of another finite family of proper, lower semicontinuous convex functions. We obtain strong convergence of the sequence generated by our algorithm under some suitable conditions on the parameters. The iterative schemes are developed with a way of selecting the step sizes such that the information of operator norm is not necessary. Some applications and numerical experiment is given to analyse the efficiency of our algorithm.

Keywords: Hilbert Space, minimization problems, Moreau-Yosida approximate, split feasibility problem

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4989 Theory of the Optimum Signal Approximation Clarifying the Importance in the Recognition of Parallel World and Application to Secure Signal Communication with Feedback

Authors: Takuro Kida, Yuichi Kida


In this paper, it is shown a base of the new trend of algorithm mathematically that treats a historical reason of continuous discrimination in the world as well as its solution by introducing new concepts of parallel world that includes an invisible set of errors as its companion. With respect to a matrix operator-filter bank that the matrix operator-analysis-filter bank H and the matrix operator-sampling-filter bank S are given, firstly, we introduce the detail algorithm to derive the optimum matrix operator-synthesis-filter bank Z that minimizes all the worst-case measures of the matrix operator-error-signals E(ω) = F(ω) − Y(ω) between the matrix operator-input-signals F(ω) and the matrix operator-output-signals Y(ω) of the matrix operator-filter bank at the same time. Further, feedback is introduced to the above approximation theory, and it is indicated that introducing conversations with feedback do not superior automatically to the accumulation of existing knowledge of signal prediction. Secondly, the concept of category in the field of mathematics is applied to the above optimum signal approximation and is indicated that the category-based approximation theory is applied to the set-theoretic consideration of the recognition of humans. Based on this discussion, it is shown naturally why the narrow perception that tends to create isolation shows an apparent advantage in the short term and, often, why such narrow thinking becomes intimate with discriminatory action in a human group. Throughout these considerations, it is presented that, in order to abolish easy and intimate discriminatory behavior, it is important to create a parallel world of conception where we share the set of invisible error signals, including the words and the consciousness of both worlds.

Keywords: Matrix filterbank, optimum signal approximation, category theory, simultaneous minimization

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4988 A Mixing Matrix Estimation Algorithm for Speech Signals under the Under-Determined Blind Source Separation Model

Authors: Jing Wu, Wei Lv, Yibing Li, Yuanfan You


The separation of speech signals has become a research hotspot in the field of signal processing in recent years. It has many applications and influences in teleconferencing, hearing aids, speech recognition of machines and so on. The sounds received are usually noisy. The issue of identifying the sounds of interest and obtaining clear sounds in such an environment becomes a problem worth exploring, that is, the problem of blind source separation. This paper focuses on the under-determined blind source separation (UBSS). Sparse component analysis is generally used for the problem of under-determined blind source separation. The method is mainly divided into two parts. Firstly, the clustering algorithm is used to estimate the mixing matrix according to the observed signals. Then the signal is separated based on the known mixing matrix. In this paper, the problem of mixing matrix estimation is studied. This paper proposes an improved algorithm to estimate the mixing matrix for speech signals in the UBSS model. The traditional potential algorithm is not accurate for the mixing matrix estimation, especially for low signal-to noise ratio (SNR).In response to this problem, this paper considers the idea of an improved potential function method to estimate the mixing matrix. The algorithm not only avoids the inuence of insufficient prior information in traditional clustering algorithm, but also improves the estimation accuracy of mixing matrix. This paper takes the mixing of four speech signals into two channels as an example. The results of simulations show that the approach in this paper not only improves the accuracy of estimation, but also applies to any mixing matrix.

Keywords: DBSCAN, potential function, speech signal, the UBSS model

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4987 Forward Stable Computation of Roots of Real Polynomials with Only Real Distinct Roots

Authors: Nevena Jakovčević Stor, Ivan Slapničar


Any polynomial can be expressed as a characteristic polynomial of a complex symmetric arrowhead matrix. This expression is not unique. If the polynomial is real with only real distinct roots, the matrix can be chosen as real. By using accurate forward stable algorithm for computing eigen values of real symmetric arrowhead matrices we derive a forward stable algorithm for computation of roots of such polynomials in O(n^2 ) operations. The algorithm computes each root to almost full accuracy. In some cases, the algorithm invokes extended precision routines, but only in the non-iterative part. Our examples include numerically difficult problems, like the well-known Wilkinson’s polynomials. Our algorithm compares favorably to other method for polynomial root-finding, like MPSolve or Newton’s method.

Keywords: roots of polynomials, eigenvalue decomposition, arrowhead matrix, high relative accuracy

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4986 FPGA Implementation of Novel Triangular Systolic Array Based Architecture for Determining the Eigenvalues of Matrix

Authors: Soumitr Sanjay Dubey, Shubhajit Roy Chowdhury, Rahul Shrestha


In this paper, we have presented a novel approach of calculating eigenvalues of any matrix for the first time on Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) using Triangular Systolic Arra (TSA) architecture. Conventionally, additional computation unit is required in the architecture which is compliant to the algorithm for determining the eigenvalues and this in return enhances the delay and power consumption. However, recently reported works are only dedicated for symmetric matrices or some specific case of matrix. This works presents an architecture to calculate eigenvalues of any matrix based on QR algorithm which is fully implementable on FPGA. For the implementation of QR algorithm we have used TSA architecture, which is further utilising CORDIC (CO-ordinate Rotation DIgital Computer) algorithm, to calculate various trigonometric and arithmetic functions involved in the procedure. The proposed architecture gives an error in the range of 10−4. Power consumption by the design is 0.598W. It can work at the frequency of 900 MHz.

Keywords: coordinate rotation digital computer, three angle complex rotation, triangular systolic array, QR algorithm

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4985 Internet of Things: Route Search Optimization Applying Ant Colony Algorithm and Theory of Computer Science

Authors: Tushar Bhardwaj


Internet of Things (IoT) possesses a dynamic network where the network nodes (mobile devices) are added and removed constantly and randomly, hence the traffic distribution in the network is quite variable and irregular. The basic but very important part in any network is route searching. We have many conventional route searching algorithms like link-state, and distance vector algorithms but they are restricted to the static point to point network topology. In this paper we propose a model that uses the Ant Colony Algorithm for route searching. It is dynamic in nature and has positive feedback mechanism that conforms to the route searching. We have also embedded the concept of Non-Deterministic Finite Automata [NDFA] minimization to reduce the network to increase the performance. Results show that Ant Colony Algorithm gives the shortest path from the source to destination node and NDFA minimization reduces the broadcasting storm effectively.

Keywords: routing, ant colony algorithm, NDFA, IoT

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4984 Algorithms for Fast Computation of Pan Matrix Profiles of Time Series Under Unnormalized Euclidean Distances

Authors: Jing Zhang, Daniel Nikovski


We propose an approximation algorithm called LINKUMP to compute the Pan Matrix Profile (PMP) under the unnormalized l∞ distance (useful for value-based similarity search) using double-ended queue and linear interpolation. The algorithm has comparable time/space complexities as the state-of-the-art algorithm for typical PMP computation under the normalized l₂ distance (useful for shape-based similarity search). We validate its efficiency and effectiveness through extensive numerical experiments and a real-world anomaly detection application.

Keywords: pan matrix profile, unnormalized euclidean distance, double-ended queue, discord discovery, anomaly detection

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4983 A Priority Based Imbalanced Time Minimization Assignment Problem: An Iterative Approach

Authors: Ekta Jain, Kalpana Dahiya, Vanita Verma


This paper discusses a priority based imbalanced time minimization assignment problem dealing with the allocation of n jobs to m < n persons in which the project is carried out in two stages, viz. Stage-I and Stage-II. Stage-I consists of n1 ( < m) primary jobs and Stage-II consists of remaining (n-n1) secondary jobs which are commenced only after primary jobs are finished. Each job is to be allocated to exactly one person, and each person has to do at least one job. It is assumed that nature of the Stage-I jobs is such that one person can do exactly one primary job whereas a person can do more than one secondary job in Stage-II. In a particular stage, all persons start doing the jobs simultaneously, but if a person is doing more than one job, he does them one after the other in any order. The aim of the proposed study is to find the feasible assignment which minimizes the total time for the two stage execution of the project. For this, an iterative algorithm is proposed, which at each iteration, solves a constrained imbalanced time minimization assignment problem to generate a pair of Stage-I and Stage-II times. For solving this constrained problem, an algorithm is developed in the current paper. Later, alternate combinations based method to solve the priority based imbalanced problem is also discussed and a comparative study is carried out. Numerical illustrations are provided in support of the theory.

Keywords: assignment, imbalanced, priority, time minimization

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4982 Stochastic Programming and C-Somga: Animal Ration Formulation

Authors: Pratiksha Saxena, Dipti Singh, Neha Khanna


A self-organizing migrating genetic algorithm(C-SOMGA) is developed for animal diet formulation. This paper presents animal diet formulation using stochastic and genetic algorithm. Tri-objective models for cost minimization and shelf life maximization are developed. These objectives are achieved by combination of stochastic programming and C-SOMGA. Stochastic programming is used to introduce nutrient variability for animal diet. Self-organizing migrating genetic algorithm provides exact and quick solution and presents an innovative approach towards successful application of soft computing technique in the area of animal diet formulation.

Keywords: animal feed ration, feed formulation, linear programming, stochastic programming, self-migrating genetic algorithm, C-SOMGA technique, shelf life maximization, cost minimization, nutrient maximization

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4981 Loss Minimization by Distributed Generation Allocation in Radial Distribution System Using Crow Search Algorithm

Authors: M. Nageswara Rao, V. S. N. K. Chaitanya, K. Amarendranath


This paper presents an optimal allocation and sizing of Distributed Generation (DG) in Radial Distribution Network (RDN) for total power loss minimization and enhances the voltage profile of the system. The two main important part of this study first is to find optimal allocation and second is optimum size of DG. The locations of DGs are identified by Analytical expressions and crow search algorithm has been employed to determine the optimum size of DG. In this study, the DG has been placed on single and multiple allocations.CSA is a meta-heuristic algorithm inspired by the intelligent behavior of the crows. Crows stores their excess food in different locations and memorizes those locations to retrieve it when it is needed. They follow each other to do thievery to obtain better food source. This analysis is tested on IEEE 33 bus and IEEE 69 bus under MATLAB environment and the results are compared with existing methods.

Keywords: analytical expression, distributed generation, crow search algorithm, power loss, voltage profile

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4980 Analysis of Collision Avoidance System

Authors: N. Gayathri Devi, K. Batri


The advent of technology has increased the traffic hazards and the road accidents take place. Collision detection system in automobile aims at reducing or mitigating the severity of an accident. This project aims at avoiding Vehicle head on collision by means of collision detection algorithm. This collision detection algorithm predicts the collision and the avoidance or minimization have to be done within few seconds on confirmation. Under critical situation collision minimization is made possible by turning the vehicle to the desired turn radius so that collision impact can be reduced. In order to avoid the collision completely, the turning of the vehicle should be achieved at reduced speed in order to maintain the stability.

Keywords: collision avoidance system, time to collision, time to turn, turn radius

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4979 High Speed Image Rotation Algorithm

Authors: Hee-Choul Kwon, Hyungjin Cho, Heeyong Kwon


Image rotation is one of main pre-processing step in image processing or image pattern recognition. It is implemented with rotation matrix multiplication. However it requires lots of floating point arithmetic operations and trigonometric function calculations, so it takes long execution time. We propose a new high speed image rotation algorithm without two major time-consuming operations. We compare the proposed algorithm with the conventional rotation one with various size images. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is superior to the conventional rotation ones.

Keywords: high speed rotation operation, image processing, image rotation, pattern recognition, transformation matrix

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4978 Plasticity in Matrix Dominated Metal-Matrix Composite with One Active Slip Based Dislocation

Authors: Temesgen Takele Kasa


The main aim of this paper is to suggest one active slip based continuum dislocation approach to matrix dominated MMC plasticity analysis. The approach centered the free energy principles through the continuum behavior of dislocations combined with small strain continuum kinematics. The analytical derivation of this method includes the formulation of one active slip system, the thermodynamic approach of dislocations, determination of free energy, and evolution of dislocations. In addition zero and non-zero energy dissipation analysis of dislocation evolution is also formulated by using varational energy minimization method. In general, this work shows its capability to analyze the plasticity of matrix dominated MMC with inclusions. The proposed method is also found to be capable of handling plasticity of MMC.

Keywords: active slip, continuum dislocation, distortion, dominated, energy dissipation, matrix dominated, plasticity

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4977 Using of Particle Swarm Optimization for Loss Minimization of Vector-Controlled Induction Motors

Authors: V. Rashtchi, H. Bizhani, F. R. Tatari


This paper presents a new online loss minimization for an induction motor drive. Among the many loss minimization algorithms (LMAs) for an induction motor, a particle swarm optimization (PSO) has the advantages of fast response and high accuracy. However, the performance of the PSO and other optimization algorithms depend on the accuracy of the modeling of the motor drive and losses. In the development of the loss model, there is always a trade off between accuracy and complexity. This paper presents a new online optimization to determine an optimum flux level for the efficiency optimization of the vector-controlled induction motor drive. An induction motor (IM) model in d-q coordinates is referenced to the rotor magnetizing current. This transformation results in no leakage inductance on the rotor side, thus the decomposition into d-q components in the steady-state motor model can be utilized in deriving the motor loss model. The suggested algorithm is simple for implementation.

Keywords: induction machine, loss minimization, magnetizing current, particle swarm optimization

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4976 Hybrid Algorithm for Non-Negative Matrix Factorization Based on Symmetric Kullback-Leibler Divergence for Signal Dependent Noise: A Case Study

Authors: Ana Serafimovic, Karthik Devarajan


Non-negative matrix factorization approximates a high dimensional non-negative matrix V as the product of two non-negative matrices, W and H, and allows only additive linear combinations of data, enabling it to learn parts with representations in reality. It has been successfully applied in the analysis and interpretation of high dimensional data arising in neuroscience, computational biology, and natural language processing, to name a few. The objective of this paper is to assess a hybrid algorithm for non-negative matrix factorization with multiplicative updates. The method aims to minimize the symmetric version of Kullback-Leibler divergence known as intrinsic information and assumes that the noise is signal-dependent and that it originates from an arbitrary distribution from the exponential family. It is a generalization of currently available algorithms for Gaussian, Poisson, gamma and inverse Gaussian noise. We demonstrate the potential usefulness of the new generalized algorithm by comparing its performance to the baseline methods which also aim to minimize symmetric divergence measures.

Keywords: non-negative matrix factorization, dimension reduction, clustering, intrinsic information, symmetric information divergence, signal-dependent noise, exponential family, generalized Kullback-Leibler divergence, dual divergence

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4975 Multiple Images Stitching Based on Gradually Changing Matrix

Authors: Shangdong Zhu, Yunzhou Zhang, Jie Zhang, Hang Hu, Yazhou Zhang


Image stitching is a very important branch in the field of computer vision, especially for panoramic map. In order to eliminate shape distortion, a novel stitching method is proposed based on gradually changing matrix when images are horizontal. For images captured horizontally, this paper assumes that there is only translational operation in image stitching. By analyzing each parameter of the homography matrix, the global homography matrix is gradually transferred to translation matrix so as to eliminate the effects of scaling, rotation, etc. in the image transformation. This paper adopts matrix approximation to get the minimum value of the energy function so that the shape distortion at those regions corresponding to the homography can be minimized. The proposed method can avoid multiple horizontal images stitching failure caused by accumulated shape distortion. At the same time, it can be combined with As-Projective-As-Possible algorithm to ensure precise alignment of overlapping area.

Keywords: image stitching, gradually changing matrix, horizontal direction, matrix approximation, homography matrix

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4974 Satellite Image Classification Using Firefly Algorithm

Authors: Paramjit Kaur, Harish Kundra


In the recent years, swarm intelligence based firefly algorithm has become a great focus for the researchers to solve the real time optimization problems. Here, firefly algorithm is used for the application of satellite image classification. For experimentation, Alwar area is considered to multiple land features like vegetation, barren, hilly, residential and water surface. Alwar dataset is considered with seven band satellite images. Firefly Algorithm is based on the attraction of less bright fireflies towards more brightener one. For the evaluation of proposed concept accuracy assessment parameters are calculated using error matrix. With the help of Error matrix, parameters of Kappa Coefficient, Overall Accuracy and feature wise accuracy parameters of user’s accuracy & producer’s accuracy can be calculated. Overall results are compared with BBO, PSO, Hybrid FPAB/BBO, Hybrid ACO/SOFM and Hybrid ACO/BBO based on the kappa coefficient and overall accuracy parameters.

Keywords: image classification, firefly algorithm, satellite image classification, terrain classification

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4973 The Second Smallest Eigenvalue of Complete Tripartite Hypergraph

Authors: Alfi Y. Zakiyyah, Hanni Garminia, M. Salman, A. N. Irawati


In the terminology of the hypergraph, there is a relation with the terminology graph. In the theory of graph, the edges connected two vertices. In otherwise, in hypergraph, the edges can connect more than two vertices. There is representation matrix of a graph such as adjacency matrix, Laplacian matrix, and incidence matrix. The adjacency matrix is symmetry matrix so that all eigenvalues is real. This matrix is a nonnegative matrix. The all diagonal entry from adjacency matrix is zero so that the trace is zero. Another representation matrix of the graph is the Laplacian matrix. Laplacian matrix is symmetry matrix and semidefinite positive so that all eigenvalues are real and non-negative. According to the spectral study in the graph, some that result is generalized to hypergraph. A hypergraph can be represented by a matrix such as adjacency, incidence, and Laplacian matrix. Throughout for this term, we use Laplacian matrix to represent a complete tripartite hypergraph. The aim from this research is to determine second smallest eigenvalues from this matrix and find a relation this eigenvalue with the connectivity of that hypergraph.

Keywords: connectivity, graph, hypergraph, Laplacian matrix

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4972 The Design of a Mixed Matrix Model for Activity Levels Extraction and Sub Processes Classification of a Work Project (Case: Great Tehran Electrical Distribution Company)

Authors: Elham Allahmoradi, Bahman Allahmoradi, Ali Bonyadi Naeini


Complex systems have many aspects. A variety of methods have been developed to analyze these systems. The most efficient of these methods should not only be simple, but also provide useful and comprehensive information about many aspects of the system. Matrix methods are considered the most commonly methods used to analyze and design systems. Each matrix method can examine a particular aspect of the system. If these methods are combined, managers can access to more comprehensive and broader information about the system. This study was conducted in four steps. In the first step, a process model of a real project has been extracted through IDEF3. In the second step, activity levels have been attained by writing a process model in the form of a design structure matrix (DSM) and sorting it through triangulation algorithm (TA). In the third step, sub-processes have been obtained by writing the process model in the form of an interface structure matrix (ISM) and clustering it through cluster identification algorithm (CIA). In the fourth step, a mixed model has been developed to provide a unified picture of the project structure through the simultaneous presentation of activities and sub-processes. Finally, the paper is completed with a conclusion.

Keywords: integrated definition for process description capture (IDEF3) method, design structure matrix (DSM), interface structure matrix (ism), mixed matrix model, activity level, sub-process

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4971 Conditions on Expressing a Matrix as a Sum of α-Involutions

Authors: Ric Joseph R. Murillo, Edna N. Gueco, Dennis I. Merino


Let F be C or R, where C and R are the set of complex numbers and real numbers, respectively, and n be a natural number. An n-by-n matrix A over the field F is called an α-involutory matrix or an α-involution if there exists an α in the field such that the square of the matrix is equal to αI, where I is the n-by-n identity matrix. If α is a complex number or a nonnegative real number, then an n-by-n matrix A over the field F can be written as a sum of n-by-n α-involutory matrices over the field F if and only if the trace of that matrix is an integral multiple of the square root of α. Meanwhile, if α is a negative real number, then a 2n-by-2n matrix A over R can be written as a sum of 2n-by-2n α-involutory matrices over R if and only the trace of the matrix is zero. Some other properties of α-involutory matrices are also determined

Keywords: α-involutory Matrices, sum of α-involutory Matrices, Trace, Matrix Theory

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4970 A Quinary Coding and Matrix Structure Based Channel Hopping Algorithm for Blind Rendezvous in Cognitive Radio Networks

Authors: Qinglin Liu, Zhiyong Lin, Zongheng Wei, Jianfeng Wen, Congming Yi, Hai Liu


The multi-channel blind rendezvous problem in distributed cognitive radio networks (DCRNs) refers to how users in the network can hop to the same channel at the same time slot without any prior knowledge (i.e., each user is unaware of other users' information). The channel hopping (CH) technique is a typical solution to this blind rendezvous problem. In this paper, we propose a quinary coding and matrix structure-based CH algorithm called QCMS-CH. The QCMS-CH algorithm can guarantee the rendezvous of users using only one cognitive radio in the scenario of the asynchronous clock (i.e., arbitrary time drift between the users), heterogeneous channels (i.e., the available channel sets of users are distinct), and symmetric role (i.e., all users play a same role). The QCMS-CH algorithm first represents a randomly selected channel (denoted by R) as a fixed-length quaternary number. Then it encodes the quaternary number into a quinary bootstrapping sequence according to a carefully designed quaternary-quinary coding table with the prefix "R00". Finally, it builds a CH matrix column by column according to the bootstrapping sequence and six different types of elaborately generated subsequences. The user can access the CH matrix row by row and accordingly perform its channel, hoping to attempt rendezvous with other users. We prove the correctness of QCMS-CH and derive an upper bound on its Maximum Time-to-Rendezvous (MTTR). Simulation results show that the QCMS-CH algorithm outperforms the state-of-the-art in terms of the MTTR and the Expected Time-to-Rendezvous (ETTR).

Keywords: channel hopping, blind rendezvous, cognitive radio networks, quaternary-quinary coding

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4969 Analysis of ECGs Survey Data by Applying Clustering Algorithm

Authors: Irum Matloob, Shoab Ahmad Khan, Fahim Arif


As Indo-pak has been the victim of heart diseases since many decades. Many surveys showed that percentage of cardiac patients is increasing in Pakistan day by day, and special attention is needed to pay on this issue. The framework is proposed for performing detailed analysis of ECG survey data which is conducted for measuring the prevalence of heart diseases statistics in Pakistan. The ECG survey data is evaluated or filtered by using automated Minnesota codes and only those ECGs are used for further analysis which is fulfilling the standardized conditions mentioned in the Minnesota codes. Then feature selection is performed by applying proposed algorithm based on discernibility matrix, for selecting relevant features from the database. Clustering is performed for exposing natural clusters from the ECG survey data by applying spectral clustering algorithm using fuzzy c means algorithm. The hidden patterns and interesting relationships which have been exposed after this analysis are useful for further detailed analysis and for many other multiple purposes.

Keywords: arrhythmias, centroids, ECG, clustering, discernibility matrix

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4968 Image Rotation Using an Augmented 2-Step Shear Transform

Authors: Hee-Choul Kwon, Heeyong Kwon


Image rotation is one of main pre-processing steps for image processing or image pattern recognition. It is implemented with a rotation matrix multiplication. It requires a lot of floating point arithmetic operations and trigonometric calculations, so it takes a long time to execute. Therefore, there has been a need for a high speed image rotation algorithm without two major time-consuming operations. However, the rotated image has a drawback, i.e. distortions. We solved the problem using an augmented two-step shear transform. We compare the presented algorithm with the conventional rotation with images of various sizes. Experimental results show that the presented algorithm is superior to the conventional rotation one.

Keywords: high-speed rotation operation, image rotation, transform matrix, image processing, pattern recognition

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4967 An Improved Cuckoo Search Algorithm for Voltage Stability Enhancement in Power Transmission Networks

Authors: Reza Sirjani, Nobosse Tafem Bolan


Many optimization techniques available in the literature have been developed in order to solve the problem of voltage stability enhancement in power systems. However, there are a number of drawbacks in the use of previous techniques aimed at determining the optimal location and size of reactive compensators in a network. In this paper, an Improved Cuckoo Search algorithm is applied as an appropriate optimization algorithm to determine the optimum location and size of a Static Var Compensator (SVC) in a transmission network. The main objectives are voltage stability improvement and total cost minimization. The results of the presented technique are then compared with other available optimization techniques.

Keywords: cuckoo search algorithm, optimization, power system, var compensators, voltage stability

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