Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1029

Search results for: Lallan Singh Yadav

1029 Isotherm Study for Phenol Removal onto GAC

Authors: Lallan Singh Yadav, Bijay Kumar Mishra, Manoj Kumar Mahapatra, Arvind Kumar


Adsorption data for phenol removal onto granular activated carbon were fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The adsorption capacity of phenol was estimated to be 16.12 mg/g at initial pH=5.7. The thermodynamics of adsorption process has also been determined in the present work.

Keywords: adsorption, phenol, granular activated carbon, bioinformatics, biomedicine

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1028 Degree of Approximation by the (T.E^1) Means of Conjugate Fourier Series in the Hölder Metric

Authors: Kejal Khatri, Vishnu Narayan Mishra


We compute the degree of approximation of functions\tilde{f}\in H_w, a new Banach space using (T.E^1) summability means of conjugate Fourier series. In this paper, we extend the results of Singh and Mahajan which in turn generalizes the result of Lal and Yadav. Some corollaries have also been deduced from our main theorem and particular cases.

Keywords: conjugate Fourier series, degree of approximation, Hölder metric, matrix summability, product summability

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1027 Compensation of Bulk Charge Carriers in Bismuth Based Topological Insulators via Swift Heavy Ion Irradiation

Authors: Jyoti Yadav, Rini Singh, Anoop M.D, Nisha Yadav, N. Srinivasa Rao, Fouran Singh, Takayuki Ichikawa, Ankur Jain, Kamlendra Awasthi, Manoj Kumar


Nanocrystalline films exhibit defects and strain induced by its grain boundaries. Defects and strain affect the physical as well as topological insulating properties of the Bi2Te3 thin films by changing their electronic structure. In the present studies, the effect of Ni7+ ion irradiation on the physical and electrical properties of Bi2Te3 thin films was studied. The films were irradiated at five different fluences (5x1011, 1x1012, 3x1012, 5x1012, 1x1013 ions/cm2). Thin films synthesized using the e-beam technique possess a rhombohedral crystal structure with the R-3m space group. The average crystallite size, as determined by x-ray diffraction (XRD) peak broadening, was found to be 18.5 ± 5 (nm). It was also observed that irradiation increases the induced strain. Raman Spectra of the films demonstrate the splitting of A_1u^1 modes originating from the vibrations along the c-axis. This is by the variation in the lattice parameter ‘c,’ as observed through XRD. The atomic force microscopy study indicates the decrease in surface roughness up to the fluence of 3x1012 ions/cm2 and further increasing the fluence increases the roughness. The decrease in roughness may be due to the growth of smaller nano-crystallites on the surface of thin films due to irradiation-induced annealing. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies reveal the composition to be in close agreement to the nominal values i.e. Bi2Te3. The resistivity v/s temperature measurements revealed an increase in resistivity up to the fluence 3x1012 ions/cm2 and a decrease on further increasing the fluence. The variation in electrical resistivity is corroborated with the change in the carrier concentration as studied through low-temperature Hall measurements. A crossover from the n-type to p-type carriers was achieved in the irradiated films. Interestingly, tuning of the Fermi level by compensating the bulk carriers using ion-irradiation could be achieved.

Keywords: Annealing, Irradiation, Fermi level, Tuning

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1026 Morphological Processing of Punjabi Text for Sentiment Analysis of Farmer Suicides

Authors: Jaspreet Singh, Gurvinder Singh, Prabhsimran Singh, Rajinder Singh, Prithvipal Singh, Karanjeet Singh Kahlon, Ravinder Singh Sawhney


Morphological evaluation of Indian languages is one of the burgeoning fields in the area of Natural Language Processing (NLP). The evaluation of a language is an eminent task in the era of information retrieval and text mining. The extraction and classification of knowledge from text can be exploited for sentiment analysis and morphological evaluation. This study coalesce morphological evaluation and sentiment analysis for the task of classification of farmer suicide cases reported in Punjab state of India. The pre-processing of Punjabi text involves morphological evaluation and normalization of Punjabi word tokens followed by the training of proposed model using deep learning classification on Punjabi language text extracted from online Punjabi news reports. The class-wise accuracies of sentiment prediction for four negatively oriented classes of farmer suicide cases are 93.85%, 88.53%, 83.3%, and 95.45% respectively. The overall accuracy of sentiment classification obtained using proposed framework on 275 Punjabi text documents is found to be 90.29%.

Keywords: deep neural network, farmer suicides, morphological processing, punjabi text, sentiment analysis

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1025 Performance Comparison of Prim’s and Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm to Select Shortest Path in Case of Link Failure

Authors: Rimmy Yadav, Avtar Singh


—Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) is a promising modern approach to the unused combinatorial optimization. Here ACO is applied to finding the shortest during communication link failure. In this paper, the performances of the prim’s and ACO algorithm are made. By comparing the time complexity and program execution time as set of parameters, we demonstrate the pleasant performance of ACO in finding excellent solution to finding shortest path during communication link failure.

Keywords: ant colony optimization, link failure, prim’s algorithm, shortest path

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1024 Studies on Corrosion Resistant Composite Coating for Metallic Surfaces

Authors: Navneetinder Singh, Harprabhjot Singh, Harpreet Singh, Supreet Singh


Many materials are known to mankind that is widely used for synthesis of corrosion resistant hydrophobic coatings. In the current work, novel hydrophobic composite was synthesized by mixing polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and 20 weight% ceria particles followed by sintering. This composite had same hydrophobic behavior as PTFE. Moreover, composite showed better scratch resistance than virgin PTFE. Pits of plasma sprayed Ni₃Al coating were exploited to hold PTFE composite on the substrate as Superni-75 alloy surface through sintering process. Plasma sprayed surface showed good adhesion with the composite coating during scratch test. Potentiodynamic corrosion test showed 100 fold decreases in corrosion rate of coated sample this may be attributed to inert and hydrophobic nature of PTFE and ceria.

Keywords: polytetrafluoroethylene, PTFE, ceria, coating, corrosion

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1023 Effect of Low Temperature on Structure and RNA Binding of E.coli CspA: A Molecular Dynamics Based Study

Authors: Amit Chaudhary, B. S. Yadav, P. K. Maurya, A. M., S. Srivastava, S. Singh, A. Mani


Cold shock protein A (CspA) is major cold inducible protein present in Escherichia coli. The protein is involved in stabilizing secondary structure of RNA by working as chaperone during cold temperature. Two RNA binding motifs play key role in the stabilizing activity. This study aimed to investigate implications of low temperature on structure and RNA binding activity of E. coli CspA. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to compare the stability of the protein at 37°C and 10 °C. The protein was mutated at RNA binding motifs and docked with RNA to assess the stability of both complexes. Results suggest that CspA as well as CspA-RNA complex is more stable at low temperature. It was also confirmed that RNP1 and RNP2 play key role in RNA binding.

Keywords: CspA, homology modelling, mutation, molecular dynamics simulation

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1022 A Fuzzy Programming Approach for Solving Intuitionistic Fuzzy Linear Fractional Programming Problem

Authors: Sujeet Kumar Singh, Shiv Prasad Yadav


This paper develops an approach for solving intuitionistic fuzzy linear fractional programming (IFLFP) problem where the cost of the objective function, the resources, and the technological coefficients are triangular intuitionistic fuzzy numbers. Here, the IFLFP problem is transformed into an equivalent crisp multi-objective linear fractional programming (MOLFP) problem. By using fuzzy mathematical programming approach the transformed MOLFP problem is reduced into a single objective linear programming (LP) problem. The proposed procedure is illustrated through a numerical example.

Keywords: triangular intuitionistic fuzzy number, linear programming problem, multi objective linear programming problem, fuzzy mathematical programming, membership function

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1021 Influence of Post Weld Heat Treatment on Mechanical and Metallurgical Properties of TIG Welded Aluminium Alloy Joints

Authors: Gurmeet Singh Cheema, Navjotinder Singh, Gurjinder Singh, Amardeep Singh


Aluminium and its alloys play have excellent corrosion resistant properties, ease of fabrication and high specific strength to weight ratio. In this investigation an attempt has been made to study the effect of different post weld heat treatment methods on the mechanical and metallurgical properties of TIG welded joints of the commercial aluminium alloy. Three different methods of post weld heat treatments are, solution heat treatment, artificial aged and combination of solution heat treatment and artificial aging are given to TIG welded aluminium joints. Mechanical and metallurgical properties of as welded and post weld treated joints of the aluminium alloys was examined.

Keywords: aluminium alloys, TIG welding, post weld heat treatment

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1020 Performance Analysis of VoIP Coders for Different Modulations Under Pervasive Environment

Authors: Jasbinder Singh, Harjit Pal Singh, S. A. Khan


The work, in this paper, presents the comparison of encoded speech signals by different VoIP narrow-band and wide-band codecs for different modulation schemes. The simulation results indicate that codec has an impact on the speech quality and also effected by modulation schemes.

Keywords: VoIP, coders, modulations, BER, MOS

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1019 Development and Evaluation of Antimicrobial Herbal Mouthwash Including Methanolic Extracts of Beautea monosperma and Cordia obliqua

Authors: Reenu Yadav, S. K. Yadav


Herbal therapy has been used for daily oral health care to prevent, treat or cure oral conditions from halitosis to periodontal diseases. The importance of mouth and teeth cleanliness has been recognized from the earliest days of civilization to the 21st century. In the present study, leaves and seeds of Cordia obliqua and barks and twigs of Beautea monosperma, which is used traditionally for oral diseases was evaluated for its antimicrobial activity. The antimicrobial activity tests indicated that the methanolic extract exhibited stronger activities against the commonly encountered oral bacterial and fungal pathogens. The mouthwash formulation prepared and it is compared with marketed formulation HiOra. The results indicated that the herbal mouthwash could inhibit the growth of oral pathogens and may prevent plaque and other periodontal diseases caused by dental pathogens.

Keywords: herbal mouthwash, bio medicine, life sciences, herbal extracts

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1018 Structural, Magnetic and Electrical Properties of Gd3+ Doped CoFe2O4 Nanoparticles Synthesized by Sonochemical Method

Authors: Raghvendra Singh Yadav, Ivo Kuřitka


In this report, we studied the impact of Gd3+ substitution on structural, magnetic and electrical properties of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles synthesized by sonochemical method. X-ray diffraction pattern confirmed the formation of cubic spinel structure at low concentration of Gd3+ ions, however, GdFeO3 additional phase was observed at higher concentration of Gd3+ ions. Raman and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy study also confirmed cubic spinel structure of Gd3+ substituted CoFe2O4 nanoparticles. The field emission scanning electron microscopy study revealed that Gd3+ substituted CoFe2O4 nanoparticles were in the range of 5-20 nm. The magnetic properties of Gd3+ substituted CoFe2O4 nanoparticles were investigated by using vibrating sample magnetometer. The variation in saturation magnetization, coercivity and remanent magnetization with Gd3+ concentration in CoFe2O4 nanoparticles was observed. The variation of real and imaginary part of dielectric constant, tan δ, and AC conductivity were studied at room temperature.

Keywords: spinel ferrites, nanoparticles, sonochemical method, magnetic properties

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1017 Antimicrobial Action and Its Underlying Mechanism by Methanolic Seed Extract of Syzygium cumini on Bacillus subtilis

Authors: Alok Kumar Yadav, Saurabh Saraswat, Preeti Sirohi, Manjoo Rani, Sameer Srivastava, Manish Pratap Singh, Nand K. Singh


The development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria is increasing at an alarming rate, and this is considered as one of the most serious threats in the history of medicine, and an alternative solution should be derived so as to tackle this problem. In many countries, people use the medicinal plants for the treatment of various diseases as these are cheaper, easily available and least toxic. Syzygium cumini is used for the treatment of various kinds of diseases but their mechanism of action is not reported. The antimicrobial activity of Syzygium cumini was tested by the well diffusion assay and zone of inhibition was reported to be 20.06 mm as compared to control with MIC of 0.3 mg/ml. Genomic DNA fragmentation of Bacillus subtilis revealed apoptosis and FE-SEM indicate cell wall cracking on several intervals of time. Propidium iodide staining results showed that few bacterial cells were stained in the control and population of stained cells increase after exposing them for various period of time. Flow cytometric kinetic data analysis on the membrane permeabilization in bacterial cell showed the significant contribution of antimicrobial potential of the seed extract on antimicrobial-induced permeabilization. Two components of Syzygium cumini methanolic seed extract was found to be quite active against four enzymes like PDB ID- 1W5D, 4OX3, 3MFD and 5E2F which have a very crucial role in membrane synthesis in Bacillus subtilis by in silico analysis. Through in silico analysis, lupeol showed highest binding energy for macromolecule 1W5D and 4OX3 whereas stigmasterol showed the highest binding energy for macromolecule 3MFD and 5E2F respectively. It showed that methanolic seed extract of Syzygium cumini can be used for the inhibition of foodborne infections caused by Bacillus subtilis and also as an alternative of prevalent antibiotics.

Keywords: antibiotics, Bacillus subtilis, inhibition, Syzygium cumini

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1016 Stabilization of Displaced Periodic Orbit Using Feedback Linearization Control Scheme

Authors: Arun Kumar Yadav, Badam Singh Kushvah


In the present work, we investigated displaced periodic orbits in the linear order in the circular restricted three-body Sun-Jupiter system, where the third mass-less body utilizes solar electric sail. The electric solar sail is a new space propulsion concept which uses the solar wind momentum for producing thrust, and it is somewhat like to the more well-known solar radiation pressure sail which is often called simply the solar sail. Moreover, we implement the feedback linearization control scheme to perform the stabilization and trajectory tracking for the nonlinear system. Further, we derived periodic orbits analytically in linear order by introducing a first order approximation. These approximate analytic solutions are utilized in a numerical search to determine displaced periodic orbit in the full nonlinear model. We found the displaced periodic orbit for the defined non-linear model and stabilized the model.

Keywords: solar electric sail, circular restricted three-body problem (CRTBP), displaced orbit, feedback linearization control

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1015 Mind-Wandering and Attention: Evidence from Behavioral and Subjective Perspective

Authors: Riya Mishra, Trayambak Tiwari, Anju Lata Singh, I. L. Singh, Tara Singh


Decrement in vigilance task performance echoes impediment in effortful attention; here attention fluctuated in the realm of external and internal milieu of a person. To examine this fluctuation across time period, we employed two experiments of vigilance task with variation in thought probing rate, which was embedded in the task. The thought probe varies in terms of <2 minute per thought probe and <4 minute per thought probe during vigilance task. A 2x4 repeated measure factorial design was used. 15 individuals participated in this study with an age range of 20-26 years. It was found that thought probing rate has a negative trend with vigilance task performance whereas the subjective measures of mind-wandering have a positive relation with thought probe rate.

Keywords: criterion response, mental status, mind-wandering, thought probe, vigilance

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1014 Structural, Magnetic, Dielectric, and Electrical Properties of ZnFe2O4 Nanoparticles

Authors: Raghvendra Singh Yadav, Ivo Kuřitka, Jarmila Vilcakova, Pavel Urbanek, Michal Machovsky, Milan Masař, Martin Holek


ZnFe2O4 spinel ferrite nanoparticles were synthesized by sol-gel auto-combustion method. The synthesized spinel ferrite nanoparticles were annealed at different higher temperature to achieve different size nanoparticles. The as synthesized and annealed samples were characterized by powder X-ray Diffraction Spectroscopy, Raman Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, UV-Vis absorption Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy. The magnetic properties were studied by vibrating sample magnetometer. The variation in magnetic parameters was noticed with variation in grain size. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss with variation of frequency shows normal behaviour of spinel ferrite. The variation in conductivity with variation in grain size is noticed. Modulus and Impedance Spectroscopy shows the role of grain and grain boundary on the electrical resistance and capacitance of different grain sized spinel ferrite nanoparticles. Acknowledgment: This work was supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic – Program NPU I (LO1504).

Keywords: spinel ferrite, nanoparticles, magnetic properties, dielectric properties

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1013 Characterisation and in vitro Corrosion Resistance of Plasma Sprayed Hydroxyapatite and Hydroxyapatite: Silicon Oxide Coatings on 316L SS

Authors: Gurpreet Singh, Hazoor Singh, Buta Singh Sidhu


In the current investigation plasma spray technique was used for depositing hydroxyapatite (HA) and HA – silicon oxide (SiO2) coatings on 316L SS substrate. In HA-SiO2 coating, 20 wt% SiO2 was mixed with HA. The feedstock and coatings were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analyses. The corrosion resistance of the uncoated, HA coated and HA + 20 wt% SiO2 coated 316L SS was investigated by electrochemical corrosion testing in simulated human body fluid (Ringer’s solution). The influence of SiO2 (20 wt%) on corrosion resistance was determined. After the corrosion testing, the samples were analyzed by XRD and SEM/EDX analyses. The addition of SiO2 reduces the crystallinity of the coating. The corrosion resistance of the 316L SS was found to increase after the deposition of the HA + 20 wt% SiO2 and HA coatings.

Keywords: HA, SiO2, corrosion, Ringer’s solution, 316L SS

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1012 Reduction of Wear via Hardfacing of Rotavator Blades

Authors: Gurjinder Singh Randhawa, Jonny Garg, Sukhraj Singh, Gurmeet Singh Cheema


A major problem related to the use of rotavator is wear of rotavator blades due to abrasion by soil hard particles, as it seriously affects tillage quality and agricultural production economy. The objective of this study was to increase the wear resistance by covering the rotavator blades with two different hard facing electrodes. These blades are generally produced from low carbon or low alloy steel. During the field work i.e. preparing land for the cultivation these blades are subjected to severe wear conditions. Comparative wear tests on a regular rotavator blade and two kinds of hardfacing with electrodes were conducted in the field. These two different hardfacing electrodes, which are designated HARD ALLOY-400 and HARD ALLOY-650, were used for hardfacing. The wear rate in the field tests was found to be significantly different statistically. When the cost is taken into consideration; HARD ALLOY-650 and HARD ALLOY-400 have been found to be the best hardfacing electrodes.

Keywords: hardfacing, rotavator blades, hard alloy-400, abrasive wear

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1011 Effect of Ultrasonic Vibration on the Dilution, Mechanical, and Metallurgical Properties in Cladding of 308 on Mild Steel

Authors: Sandeep Singh Sandhu, Karanvir Singh Ghuman, Parminder Singh Saini


The aim of the present investigation was to study the effect of ultrasonic vibration on the cladding of the AISI 308 on the mild steel plates using the shielded metal arc welding (SMAW). Ultrasonic vibrations were applied to molten austenitic stainless steel during the welding process. Due to acoustically induced cavitations and streaming there is a complete mixture of the clad metal and the base metal. It was revealed that cladding of AISI 308 over mild steel along with ultrasonic vibrations result in uniform and finer grain structures. The effect of the vibration on the dilution, mechanical properties and metallographic studies were also studied. It was found that the welding done using the ultrasonic vibration has the less dilution and CVN value for the vibrated sample was also high.

Keywords: surfacing, ultrasonic vibrations, mechanical properties, shielded metal arc welding

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1010 Impact of Gd³⁺ Substitution on Structural, Optical and Magnetic Properties of ZnFe₂O₄ Nanoparticles

Authors: Raghvendra Singh Yadav, Ivo Kuřitka, Jarmila Vilcakova, Pavel Urbanek, Michal Machovsky, David Skoda


In this report, the impact of Gd³⁺ substitution in ZnFe₂O₄ spinel ferrite nanoparticles on structural, optical and magnetic properties was investigated. ZnFe₂₋ₓGdₓO₄ (x=0.00, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20) nanoparticles were synthesized by honey-mediated sol-gel combustion method. X-ray diffraction, Raman Spectroscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy confirmed the formation of cubic spinel ferrite crystal structure. The morphology and elemental analysis were studied using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, respectively. UV-Visible reflectance spectroscopy revealed band gap variation with concentration of Gd³⁺ substitution in ZnFe₂O₄ nanoparticles. Magnetic property was studied using vibrating sample magnetometer at room temperature. The synthesized spinel ferrite nanoparticles showed ferromagnetic behaviour. The evaluated magnetic parameters such as saturation magnetization, coercivity and remanence showed variation with Gd³⁺ substitution in spinel ferrite nanoparticles. This work was supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic – Program NPU I (LO1504).

Keywords: sol-gel combustion method, nanoparticles, magnetic property, optical property

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1009 Gasification of Groundnut Shell in an Air Bubbling Fluidized Bed Gasifier

Authors: Dharminer Singh, Sanjeev Yadav, Pravakar Mohanty


In this work, gasification of groundnut shell was carried out in an air bubbling fluidized bed gasifier. Atmospheric air used as gasification agent in the gasifier. The groundnut shell used for gasification was in powder form and the locally available river sand was used as bed material. Conventional charcoal was used for heating sand bed. Two cyclones were used for proper segregation of char particles and for proper cleaning and cooling the product gas. Experiments were performed on different equivalence ratio (ER) 0.3 - 0.33 by varying feeding rate 36 - 32.8 kg/h of biomass and by keeping the air flow rate constant at bed temperature between 700 °C – 800 °C. Performance of gasifier was evaluated on the basis of different parameters such as cold gas efficiency, carbon conversion efficiency (CCE), Tar and Suspended particles matter (SPM) generation, gas yield, and Higher heating value (HHV) of gas. The optimal ER value for gasification of groundnut shell (GNS) powder in an air bubbling fluidized bed gasifier was found to be 0.31. Cold gas efficiency and CCE value at optimal ER was found to be 63.7 %, and 91 %, respectively. Concentration of Tar and SPM, HHV of gas, and gas yield at optimal ER was found to be 11.88 g/Nm3, 2.38 MJ/Nm3, and 2.01m3/kg, respectively. In the product gas, concentrations of CO, CO2, CH4 and H2 were found to be 12.94%, 13.5%, 5.74% and 13.77%, respectively. At ER 0.31, it was observed that bed temperature of gasifier was in steady state for long time at 714 °C with 5 – 10 °C fluctuation.

Keywords: air bubbling fluidized bed gasifier, groundnut shell powder, equivalence ratio (ER), cold gas efficiency, carbon conversion efficiency (CCE), high heating value (HHV)

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1008 Burden of Communicable and Non-Communicable Disease in India: A Regional Analysis

Authors: Ajit Kumar Yadav, Priyanka Yadav, F. Ram


In present study is an effort to analyse the burden of diseases in the state. Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY) is estimated non-communicable diseases. Multi-rounds (52nd, 60th and 71st round) of the National Sample Surveys (NSSO), conducted in 1995-96, 2004 and 2014 respectively, and Million Deaths Study (MDS) of 2001-03, 2006 and 2013-14 datasets are used. Descriptive and multivariate analyses are carried out to identify the determinants of different types of self-reported morbidity and DALY. The prevalence was higher for population aged 60 and above, among females, illiterates, and rich across the time period and for all the selected morbidities. The results were found to be significant at P<0.001. The estimation of DALY revealed that, the burden of communicable diseases was higher during infancy, noticeably among males than females in 2002. However, females aged 1-5 years were more vulnerable to report communicable diseases than the corresponding males. The age distribution of DALY indicates that individuals aged below 5 years and above 60 year were more susceptible to ill health. The growing incidence of non-communicable diseases especially among the older generations put additional burden on the health system in the state. The state has to grapple with the unsettled preventable infectious diseases in one hand and growing non-communicable in other hand.

Keywords: disease burden, non-communicable, communicable, India and region

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1007 Influence of La³⁺ on Structural, Magnetic, Optical and Dielectric Properties in CoFe₂O₄ Nanoparticles Synthesized by Starch-Assisted Sol-Gel Combustion Method

Authors: Raghvendra Singh Yadav, Ivo Kuřitka, Jarmila Vilcakova, Pavel Urbánek, Michal Machovsky, Milan Masař, Martin Holek


Herein, we reported the influence of La³⁺ substitution on structural, magnetic and dielectric properties of CoFe₂O₄ nanoparticles synthesized by starch-assisted sol-gel combustion method. X-ray diffraction pattern confirmed the formation of cubic spinel structure of La³⁺ ions doped CoFe₂O₄ nanoparticles. Raman and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy study also confirmed cubic spinel structure of La³⁺ substituted CoFe₂O₄ nanoparticles. The field emission scanning electron microscopy study revealed that La³⁺ substituted CoFe2O4 nanoparticles were in the range of 10-40 nm. The magnetic properties of La³⁺ substituted CoFe₂O₄ nanoparticles were investigated by using vibrating sample magnetometer. The variation in saturation magnetization, coercivity and remanent magnetization with La³⁺ concentration in CoFe2O4 nanoparticles was observed. The variation of real and imaginary part of dielectric constant, tan δ, and AC conductivity were studied with change of concentration of La³⁺ ions in CoFe₂O₄ nanoparticles. The variation in optical properties was studied via UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. Acknowledgment: This work was supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic – Program NPU I (LO1504).

Keywords: starch, sol-gel combustion method, nanoparticles, magnetic properties, dielectric properties

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1006 Exploring Relationship between Attention and Consciousness

Authors: Aarushi Agarwal, Tara Singh, Anju Lata Singh, Trayambak Tiwari, Indramani Lal Singh


The existing interdependent relationship between attention and consciousness has been put to debate since long. To testify the nature, dual-task paradigm has been used to simultaneously manipulate awareness and attention. With central discrimination task which is attentional demanding, participants also perform simple discrimination task in the periphery in near absence of attention. Individual-based analysis of performance accuracy in single and dual condition showed and above chance level performance i.e. more than 80%. In order to widen the understanding of extent of discrimination carried in near absence of attention, natural image and its geometric equivalent shape were presented in the periphery; synthetic objects accounted to lower level of performance than natural objects in dual condition. The gaze plot and heatmap indicate that peripheral performance do not necessarily involve saccade every time, verifying the discrimination in the periphery was in near absence of attention. Thus our studies show an interdependent nature of attention and awareness.

Keywords: attention, awareness, dual task paradigm, natural and geometric images

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1005 Structural, Magnetic, Dielectric and Electrical Properties of Gd3+ Doped Cobalt Ferrite Nanoparticles

Authors: Raghvendra Singh Yadav, Ivo Kuřitka, Jarmila Vilcakova, Jaromir Havlica, Lukas Kalina, Pavel Urbánek, Michal Machovsky, Milan Masař, Martin Holek


In this work, CoFe₂₋ₓGdₓO₄ (x=0.00, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20) spinel ferrite nanoparticles are synthesized by sonochemical method. The structural properties and cation distribution are investigated using X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Raman Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The morphology and elemental analysis are screened using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, respectively. The particle size measured by FE-SEM and XRD analysis confirm the formation of nanoparticles in the range of 7-10 nm. The electrical properties show that the Gd³⁺ doped cobalt ferrite (CoFe₂₋ₓGdₓO₄; x= 0.20) exhibit enhanced dielectric constant (277 at 100 Hz) and ac conductivity (20.17 x 10⁻⁹ S/cm at 100 Hz). The complex impedance measurement study reveals that as Gd³⁺ doping concentration increases, the impedance Z’ and Z’ ’ decreases. The influence of Gd³⁺ doping in cobalt ferrite nanoparticles on the magnetic property is examined by using vibrating sample magnetometer. Magnetic property measurement reveal that the coercivity decreases with Gd³⁺ substitution from 234.32 Oe (x=0.00) to 12.60 Oe (x=0.05) and further increases from 12.60 Oe (x=0.05) to 68.62 Oe (x=0.20). The saturation magnetization decreases with Gd³⁺ substitution from 40.19 emu/g (x=0.00) to 21.58 emu/g (x=0.20). This decrease follows the three-sublattice model suggested by Yafet-Kittel (Y-K). The Y-K angle increases with the increase of Gd³⁺ doping in cobalt ferrite nanoparticles.

Keywords: sonochemical method, nanoparticles, magnetic property, dielectric property, electrical property

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1004 Investigation on Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in Candidate Genes and Their Association with Occurrence of Mycobacterium avium Subspecies Paratuberculosis Infection in Cattle

Authors: Ran Vir Singh, Anuj Chauhan, Subhodh Kumar, Rajesh Rathore, Satish Kumar, B Gopi, Sushil Kumar, Tarun Kumar, Ramji Yadav, Donna Phangchopi, Shoor Vir Singh


Paratuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is a chronic granulomatous enteritis affecting ruminants. It is responsible for significant economic losses in livestock industry worldwide. This organism is also of public health concern due to an unconfirmed link to Crohn’s disease. Susceptibility to paratuberculosis has been suggested to have genetic component with low to moderate heritability. Number of SNPs in various candidates genes have been observed to be affecting the susceptibility toward paratuberculosis. The objective of this study was to explore the association of various SNPs in the candidate genes and QTL region with MAP. A total of 117 SNPs from SLC11A1, IFNG, CARD15, TLR2, TLR4, CLEC7A, CD209, SP110, ANKARA2, PGLYRP1 and one QTL were selected for study. A total of 1222 cattle from various organized herds, gauhsalas and farmer herds were screened for MAP infection by Johnin intradermal skin test, AGID, serum ELISA, fecal microscopy, fecal culture and IS900 blood PCR. Based on the results of these tests, a case and control population of 200 and 183 respectively was established for study. A total of 117 SNPs from 10 candidate genes and one QTL were selected and validated/tested in our case and control population by PCR-RFLP technique. Data was analyzed using SAS 9.3 software. Statistical analysis revealed that, 107 out of 117 SNPs were not significantly associated with occurrence of MAP. Only SNP rs55617172 of TLR2, rs8193046 and rs8193060 of TLR4, rs110353594 and rs41654445 of CLEC7A, rs208814257of CD209, rs41933863 of ANKRA2, two loci {SLC11A1(53C/G)} and {IFNG (185 G/r) } and SNP rs41945014 in QTL region was significantly associated with MAP. Six SNP from 10 significant SNPs viz., rs110353594 and rs41654445 from CLEC7A, rs8193046 and rs8193060 from TLR4, rs109453173 from SLC11A1 rs208814257 from CD209 were validated in new case and control population. Out of these only one SNP rs8193046 of TLR4 gene was found significantly associated with occurrence of MAP in cattle. ODD ratio indicates that animals with AG genotype were more susceptible to MAP and this finding is in accordance with the earlier report. Hence it reaffirms that AG genotype can serve as a reliable genetic marker for indentifying more susceptible cattle in future selection against MAP infection in cattle.

Keywords: SNP, candidate genes, paratuberculosis, cattle

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1003 Binding Studies and Structure Determination of the Recombinantly Produced Type-II 3-Dehydroquinate Dehydratase from Acinetobacter Baumannii

Authors: Naseer Iqbal, Mukesh Kumar, Pradeep Sharma, Satya Prakash Yadav, Punit Kaur, Sujata Sharma, T. P. Singh


Dehydroquinase (3-dehydroquinate dehydratase, DHQD, EC is involved in shikimate pathway and catalyzes the conversion of dehydroquinate to dehydroshikimate. Shikimate pathway is important drug target as this pathway is absent in mammals. DHQD from Acinetobacter baumannii (AbDHQD) was cloned, expressed and purified to homogeneity. The binding studies showed that compounds quinic acid and citrazinic acid bound to AbDHQD at micromolar concentrations. AbDHQD was crystallized using 30% PEG-3350, 50mM tris-HCl, and 1.0M MgSO4 at PH 8.0. Crystals of AbDHQD were stabilized by transferring them into reservoir solution to which 25% glycerol was added for data collection at 100K. The X-ray intensity data were collected to 2.0Å resolution. The crystals belong to monoclinic space group P21 with cell dimensions, a = 82.3, b = 95.3, c = 132.3Å and β = 95.7°. The structure was solved with molecular replacement method and refined to Rcryst/Rfree factors of 0.200/0.232. The structures of 12 crystallographically independent molecules in the asymmetry unit were identical with r.m.s shifts for the C atoms ranging from 0.3 Å to 0.8 Å. They formed a dodecamer with four trimers arranged in a tetrahedral manner. The classical lid adopted an open conformation although a sulfate ion was observed in the substrate binding site. As a result of which, the compounds quinic acid and citrazinic acid did not bind to AbDHQD.

Keywords: acinetobacter Bauman Nii, dehydroquinate dehydratase, dodecamer, open conformation

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1002 Structural and Magnetic Properties of CoFe2O4:Nd3+/Dy3+/Pr3+/Gd3+ Nanoparticles Synthesized by Starch-Assisted Sol-Gel Auto-Combustion Method and Annealing Effect

Authors: Raghvendra Singh Yadav, Ivo Kuřitka, Jaromir Havlica, Zuzana Kozakova, Jiri Masilko, Lukas Kalina, Miroslava Hajdúchová, Vojtěch Enev, Jaromir Wasserbauer


In this work, we investigated the structural and magnetic properties of CoFe2O4:Nd3+/Dy3+/Pr3+/Gd3+ nanoparticles synthesized by starch-assisted sol-gel combustion method. X-ray diffraction pattern confirmed the formation of cubic spinel structure of rare-earth ions (Nd3+, Dy3+, Pr3+, Gd3+) doped CoFe2O4 spinel ferrite nanoparticles. Raman and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy study also confirmed cubic spinel structure of rare-earth ions (Nd3+, Dy3+, Pr3+, Gd3+) substituted CoFe2O4 nanoparticles. The field emission scanning electron microscopy study revealed the effect of annealing temperature on size of rare-earth ions (Nd3+, Dy3+, Pr3+, Gd3+) substituted CoFe2O4 nanoparticles and particles were in the range of 10-100 nm. The magnetic properties of rare-earth ions (Nd3+, Dy3+, Pr3+, Gd3+) substituted CoFe2O4 nanoparticles were investigated by using vibrating sample magnetometer. The variation in saturation magnetization, coercivity and remanent magnetization with annealing temperature/ particle size of rare-earth ions (Nd3+, Dy3+, Pr3+, Gd3+) substituted CoFe2O4 nanoparticles was observed. Acknowledgment: This work was supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic – Program NPU I (LO1504).

Keywords: starch, sol-gel combustion method, rare-earth ions, spinel ferrite nanoparticles, magnetic properties

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1001 Error Analysis of Wavelet-Based Image Steganograhy Scheme

Authors: Geeta Kasana, Kulbir Singh, Satvinder Singh


In this paper, a steganographic scheme for digital images using Integer Wavelet Transform (IWT) is proposed. The cover image is decomposed into wavelet sub bands using IWT. Each of the subband is divided into blocks of equal size and secret data is embedded into the largest and smallest pixel values of each block of the subband. Visual quality of stego images is acceptable as PSNR between cover image and stego is above 40 dB, imperceptibility is maintained. Experimental results show better tradeoff between capacity and visual perceptivity compared to the existing algorithms. Maximum possible error analysis is evaluated for each of the wavelet subbands of an image.

Keywords: DWT, IWT, MSE, PSNR

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1000 Investigation of Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Friction Stir Welded Dissimilar Aluminium Alloys

Authors: Gurpreet Singh, Hazoor Singh, Kulbir Singh Sandhu


Friction Stir Welding Process emerged as promising solid-state welding and eliminates various welding defects like cracks and porosity in joining of dissimilar aluminum alloys. In the present research, Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is carried out on dissimilar aluminum alloys 2000 series and 6000 series this combination of alloys are highly used in automobile and aerospace industry due to their good strength to weight ratio, mechanical, and corrosion properties. The joints characterized by applying various destructive and non-destructive tests. Three critical welding parameters were considered i.e. Tool Rotation speed, Transverse speed, and Tool Geometry. The effective range of tool rotation speed from 1200-1800 rpm and transverse speed from 60-240 mm/min and tool geometry was studied. The two-different difficult to weld alloys were successfully welded. All the samples showed different microstructure with different set of welding parameters. It has been revealed with microstructure scans that grain refinement plays a crucial role in mechanical properties.

Keywords: aluminum alloys, friction stir welding, mechanical properties, microstructure

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