Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 84

Search results for: communicable

84 Burden of Communicable and Non-Communicable Disease in India: A Regional Analysis

Authors: Ajit Kumar Yadav, Priyanka Yadav, F. Ram

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In present study is an effort to analyse the burden of diseases in the state. Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY) is estimated non-communicable diseases. Multi-rounds (52nd, 60th and 71st round) of the National Sample Surveys (NSSO), conducted in 1995-96, 2004 and 2014 respectively, and Million Deaths Study (MDS) of 2001-03, 2006 and 2013-14 datasets are used. Descriptive and multivariate analyses are carried out to identify the determinants of different types of self-reported morbidity and DALY. The prevalence was higher for population aged 60 and above, among females, illiterates, and rich across the time period and for all the selected morbidities. The results were found to be significant at P<0.001. The estimation of DALY revealed that, the burden of communicable diseases was higher during infancy, noticeably among males than females in 2002. However, females aged 1-5 years were more vulnerable to report communicable diseases than the corresponding males. The age distribution of DALY indicates that individuals aged below 5 years and above 60 year were more susceptible to ill health. The growing incidence of non-communicable diseases especially among the older generations put additional burden on the health system in the state. The state has to grapple with the unsettled preventable infectious diseases in one hand and growing non-communicable in other hand.

Keywords: disease burden, non-communicable, communicable, India and region

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83 Non-Communicable Diseases: Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Risk Factors among Secondary School Students in Sharjah, UAE

Authors: A. Al-Wandi, A. Al-Ali, R. Dali, Y. Al-Karaghouli

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Background: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) have become an alarming health problem across the globe. The risk of developing those diseases begins in childhood and develops gradually under the influence of risk factors including obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, cigarette smoking and decreased physical activity. Therefore, this study aims to determine the level of knowledge, attitudes, and practices of the risk factors of lifestyle induced chronic diseases (non-communicable diseases) among secondary school students in Sharjah city. Methods: Five hundred and ninety-one school children, from grades 10 to 12, formed the study sample, using the multistage stratified cluster sampling method. Four governmental schools were chosen, for each gender. Data was collected through a pretested, close-ended questionnaire consisting of five sections; demographics, physical activity, diet, smoking and sleeping patterns. Frequencies and descriptive statistics were used to analyze data through SPSS 23. Results: The data showed 64.6% of students had low knowledge of risk factors of non-communicable diseases. Concerning physical activity, 58.2 % were physically inactive and females being less active than males. More than 2/3 of students didn’t fulfill the recommended daily intake of fruits and vegetables (75.9%). 8% reported to be smokers with cigarettes being the most encountered tobacco product. Conclusion: Our study has demonstrated a low level of knowledge and practices yet, positive attitudes towards risk factors of chronic diseases. We recommend implementation of thorough awareness campaigns through public health education about the risk factors of non-communicable diseases.

Keywords: non-communicable diseases, physical activity, diet, knowledge, attitudes, practices, smoking

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82 The Effect of Geographical Differentials of Epidemiological Transition on Health-Seeking Behavior in India

Authors: Sumit Kumar Das, Laishram Ladusingh

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Aim: The aim of the study is to examine the differential of epidemiological transition across fifteen agro-climatic zones of India and its effect on health-seeking behavior. Data and Methods: Unit level data on consumption expenditure on health of India from three decadal rounds conducted by National Sample Survey Organization are used for the analysis. These three rounds are 52nd (1995-96), 60th (2004-05) and 71st (2014-15). The age-adjusted prevalence rate for communicable diseases and non-communicable diseases are estimated for fifteen agro-climatic zones of India for three time periods. Bivariate analysis is used to find out determinants of health-seeking behavior. Multilevel logistic regression is used to examine factors effecting on household health-seeking behavior. Result: The prevalence of communicable diseases is increasing in most of the zones of India. Every South Indian zones, Gujarat plains, and lower Gangetic plain are facing the severe attack of dual burden of diseases. Demand for medical advice has increased in southern zones, and east zones, reliance on private healthcare facilities are increasing in most of the zone. Demographic characteristics of the household head have a significant impact on health-seeking behavior. Conclusion: Proper program implementation is required considering the disease prevalence and differential in the pattern of health seeking behavior. Along with initiation and strengthening of programs for non-communicable, existing programs for communicable diseases need to monitor and supervised strictly.

Keywords: agro-climatic zone, epidemiological transition, health-seeking behavior, multilevel regression

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81 Analyzing the Connection between Productive Structure and Communicable Diseases: An Econometric Panel Study

Authors: Julio Silva, Lia Hasenclever, Gilson G. Silva Jr.

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The aim of this paper is to check possible convergence in health measures (aged-standard rate of morbidity and mortality) for communicable diseases between developed and developing countries, conditional to productive structures features. Understanding the interrelations between health patterns and economic development is particularly important in the context of low- and middle-income countries, where economic development comes along with deep social inequality. Developing countries with less diversified productive structures (measured through complexity index) but high heterogeneous inter-sectorial labor productivity (using as a proxy inter-sectorial coefficient of variation of labor productivity) has on average low health levels in communicable diseases compared to developed countries with high diversified productive structures and low labor market heterogeneity. Structural heterogeneity and productive diversification may have influence on health levels even considering per capita income. We set up a panel data for 139 countries from 1995 to 2015, joining several data about the countries, as economic development, health, and health system coverage, environmental and socioeconomic aspects. This information was obtained from World Bank, International Labour Organization, Atlas of Economic Complexity, United Nation (Development Report) and Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation Database. Econometric panel models evidence shows that the level of communicable diseases has a positive relationship with structural heterogeneity, even considering other factors as per capita income. On the other hand, the recent process of convergence in terms of communicable diseases have been motivated for other reasons not directly related to productive structure, as health system coverage and environmental aspects. These evidences suggest a joint dynamics between the unequal distribution of communicable diseases and countries' productive structure aspects. These set of evidence are quite important to public policy as meet the health aims in Millennium Development Goals. It also highlights the importance of the process of structural change as fundamental to shift the levels of health in terms of communicable diseases and can contribute to the debate between the relation of economic development and health patterns changes.

Keywords: economic development, inequality, population health, structural change

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80 The Lopsided Burden of Non-Communicable Diseases in India: Evidences from the Decade 2004-2014

Authors: Kajori Banerjee, Laxmi Kant Dwivedi

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India is a part of the ongoing globalization, contemporary convergence, industrialization and technical advancement that is taking place world-wide. Some of the manifestations of this evolution is rapid demographic, socio-economic, epidemiological and health transition. There has been a considerable increase in non-communicable diseases due to change in lifestyle. This study aims to assess the direction of burden of disease and compare the pressure of infectious diseases against cardio-vascular, endocrine, metabolic and nutritional diseases. The change in prevalence in a ten-year period (2004-2014) is further decomposed to determine the net contribution of various socio-economic and demographic covariates. The present study uses the recent 71st (2014) and 60th (2004) rounds of National Sample Survey. The pressure of infectious diseases against cardio-vascular (CVD), endocrine, metabolic and nutritional (EMN) diseases during 2004-2014 is calculated by Prevalence Rates (PR), Hospitalization Rates (HR) and Case Fatality Rates (CFR). The prevalence of non-communicable diseases are further used as a dependent variable in a logit regression to find the effect of various social, economic and demographic factors on the chances of suffering from the particular disease. Multivariate decomposition technique further assists in determining the net contribution of socio-economic and demographic covariates. This paper upholds evidences of stagnation of the burden of communicable diseases (CD) and rapid increase in the burden of non-communicable diseases (NCD) uniformly for all population sub-groups in India. CFR for CVD has increased drastically in 2004-2014. Logit regression indicates the chances of suffering from CVD and EMN is significantly higher among the urban residents, older ages, females, widowed/ divorced and separated individuals. Decomposition displays ample proof that improvement in quality of life markers like education, urbanization, longevity of life has positively contributed in increasing the NCD prevalence rate. In India’s current epidemiological phase, compression theory of morbidity is in action as a significant rise in the probability of contracting the NCDs over the time period among older ages is observed. Age is found to play a vital contributor in increasing the probability of having CVD and EMN over the study decade 2004-2014 in the nationally representative sample of National Sample Survey.

Keywords: cardio-vascular disease, case-fatality rate, communicable diseases, hospitalization rate, multivariate decomposition, non-communicable diseases, prevalence rate

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79 The Correlation between Education, Food Intake, Exercise, and Medication Obedience with the Average of Blood Sugar in Indonesia

Authors: Aisyah Rahmatul Laily

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Indonesia Ministry of Health is increasing their awareness on non communicable diseases. From the top ten causes of death, two of them are non communicable diseases. Diabetes Mellitus is one of the two non communicable diseases above that have the increasing number of patient from year to year. From that problem, this research is made to determine the correlation between education, food intake, exercise, and the medication obedience with the average of blood sugar. In this research, the researchers used observational and cross-sectional studies. The sample that used in this research were 50 patients in Puskesmas Gamping I Yogyakarta who have suffered from Diabetes Mellitus in long period. The researcher doing anamnesis by using questionnaire to collect the data, then analyzed it with Chi Square to determine the correlation between each variable. The dependent variable in this research is the average of blood sugar, whereas the independent variables are education, food intake, do exercise, and the obedience of medication. The result shows a relation between education and average blood sugar level (p=0.029), a relation between food intake and average blood sugar level (p=0.009), and a relation between exercise and average blood sugar level (p=0.023). There is also a relation between the medication obedience with the average of blood sugar (p=0,002). The conclusion is that the positive correlations exist between education and average blood sugar level, between food intake and average blood sugar level, and between medication obedience and average blood sugar level.

Keywords: average of blood sugar, education, exercise, food intake, medication obedience

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78 The Cost of Non-Communicable Diseases in the European Union: A Projection towards the Future

Authors: Desiree Vandenberghe, Johan Albrecht

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Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are responsible for the vast majority of deaths in the European Union (EU) and represent a large share of total health care spending. A future increase in this health and financial burden is likely to be driven by population ageing, lifestyle changes and technological advances in medicine. Without adequate prevention measures, this burden can severely threaten population health and economic development. To tackle this challenge, a correct assessment of the current burden of NCDs is required, as well as a projection of potential increases of this burden. The contribution of this paper is to offer perspective on the evolution of the NCD burden towards the future and to give an indication of the potential of prevention policy. A Non-Homogenous, Semi-Markov model for the EU was constructed, which allowed for a projection of the cost burden for the four main NCDs (cancer, cardiovascular disease, chronic respiratory disease and diabetes mellitus) towards 2030 and 2050. This simulation is done based on multiple baseline scenarios that vary in demand and supply factors such as health status, population structure, and technological advances. Finally, in order to assess the potential of preventive measures to curb the cost explosion of NCDs, a simulation is executed which includes increased efforts for preventive health care measures. According to the Markov model, by 2030 and 2050, total costs (direct and indirect costs) in the EU could increase by 30.1% and 44.1% respectively, compared to 2015 levels. An ambitious prevention policy framework for NCDs will be required if the EU wants to meet this challenge of rising costs. To conclude, significant cost increases due to Non-Communicable Diseases are likely to occur due to demographic and lifestyle changes. Nevertheless, an ambitious prevention program throughout the EU can aid in making this cost burden manageable for future generations.

Keywords: non-communicable diseases, preventive health care, health policy, Markov model, scenario analysis

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77 Nutritional Wellness at the Workplace

Authors: Siveshnee Devar

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Background: The rate of absenteeism and prevalence of NCDs in South Africa is extremely high. This is consistent with other educational institutions and workplaces around the globe. In most cases the absence of health and the presence of one or more non communicable diseases coupled with the lack of physical exercise is a major factor in absenteeism. Absenteeism at the workplace comes at a huge cost to the employer and the country as a whole. Aim: Findings from this study was to develop a suitable nutritional wellness program for the workplace. Methodology: A needs analysis in the form of 24-hour recall, food frequency, health and socio demographic questionnaires was undertaken to determine the need for a wellness program for the institution. Anthropometric indices such as BMI, waist circumference and blood pressure were also undertaken to determine the state of health of the staff. Results: This study has found that obesity, central obesity, hypertension as well as deficiencies in nutrients and minerals were prevalent in this group. Fruit and vegetable consumption was also below the WHO recommendation. This study showed a link between diet, physical activity and diseases of lifestyle. There were positive correlations between age and systolic blood pressure, waist circumference and systolic blood pressure, waist circumference and diastolic blood pressure and waist-to-height ratio and BMI. Conclusion: The results indicated the need for immediate intervention in the form of a wellness program. Nutrition education is important for both the workplace and out. Education and knowledge are important factors for lifestyle changes. The proposed intervention is aimed at improving presenteeism and decreasing the incidence of non- communicable diseases. Presenteeism and good health are important factors for quality education at all educational institutions.

Keywords: absenteeism, non-communicable diseases, nutrition, wellness

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76 Healthcare Professionals' Utilization of Physical Exercise as a Strategy to Prevent Non-Communicable Diseases in Ethiopian Public Sector Hospitals

Authors: Jeanne Grace, Melkamu D. Kassa

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Background: Despite the recognized benefits of physical exercise, including a reduction of health risk factor indicators, illness and deaths related to Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) like cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension, and cancer, the extent of its recognition and use as a prevention strategy by healthcare professionals working in Ethiopian referral hospitals is unknown. Objective: This study explored healthcare professionals’ use of physical exercise as a non-communicable disease prevention strategy in the Ethiopian public sector healthcare system. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a self-administered questionnaire was conducted after being piloted to ensure validity and reliability. For the study, 312 participants were selected from 13 purposively selected Ethiopian referral hospitals, these being 99 physicians who were purposively selected and 213 nurses who were proportionately and randomly selected. Results: The results indicated that three-quarters (78%) of healthcare professionals working in Ethiopian hospitals are not using physical exercise as a strategy to prevent NCDs. Increased specialization (AOR = 20.203, p < 0.001), longer service years (AOR = 0.041, p = 0.014), young age (AOR = 19.871, p < 0.001), and being male (AOR = 0.269, p < 0.001), were predictors of using physical exercise as a strategy for the prevention of NCDs. Conclusion: Healthcare professionals’ utilization of physical exercise as a strategy for NCDs prevention was inadequate in Ethiopia. Given the increasing burden of NCD disease in Ethiopia, training nurses, physicians and medical managers have to acknowledge the use of physical exercise as an NCD prevention strategy. The results of this study highlight the importance of formulating physical exercise intervention strategies for NCDs patients, and the need to incorporate training for healthcare professionals on the type, intensity, duration, and frequency of physical exercise to prevent NCDs in the Ethiopian healthcare system.

Keywords: exercise, medical managers, nurses, physicians

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75 Utilizing Street Medicine to Reduce Communicable Disease Prevalence in a Cost-Effective Way

Authors: Bailey Hall, Athena Hoppe, Tevyn Kagele, Anna Nichols, Breeanna Messner

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The Spokane Street Medicine (SSM) Program aims to deliver medical care to people experiencing homelessness in Spokane, Washington. Street medicine is designed to function in a non-traditional setting to help deliver healthcare to a largely underserved population. In this analysis, the SSM Program’s medical charts from street and shelter encounters in early 2021 were reviewed in order to identify illness and diseases in people experiencing homelessness in Spokane. More than half of the prescriptions written during these encounters were for either an antibacterial, an antibiotic, or an antifungal. Estimates of the cost to the local healthcare system are included. Initiating treatment for communicable diseases in people experiencing homelessness via street medicine efforts greatly reduces economic costs while improving health outcomes.

Keywords: ethical issues in public health, equity issues in public health, health economics, health disparities, healthcare costs, medical public health, public health ethics, street medicine

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74 Assessment of Impact of Physiological and Biochemical Risk Factors on Type 2 Diabetes

Authors: V. Mathad, S. Shivprasad, P. Shivsharannappa, M. K. Patil

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Introduction: Non-communicable diseases are emerging diseases in India. Government of India launched National Programme for Prevention and Control of Cardiovascular Diseases, Cancer and Stroke (NPCDCS) during the year 2008. The aim of the programme was to reduce the burden of non communicable diseases by health promotion and prompt treatment. Objective: The present study was intended to assess the impact of National Program for prevention and control of Cardiovascular Diseases, Diabetes, Cancer and Stroke Programme on biochemical and physiological factors influencing Type 2 diabetes in Kalaburagi District. Material and Method: NCD Clinic was established at District Hospital during April 2016. All the patients attending District Hospital Kalaburagi above the age of 30 years are screened for Non Communicable Diseases under NPCDCS Programme. A total sample of 7447 patients attending NCD Clinic situated at Kalaburagi district was assessed in this study. Pre structured and pretested schedule seeking information was obtained from all the patients by the counselor working under NPCDCS programme. All the Patients attending District Hospital were screened for Diabetes using Glucometer at NCD clinic. The suspected cases were further confirmed through Biochemical investigations like Fasting Blood glucose, HBA1c, Urine Glucose, Kidney Function test. SPSS 20 version was used for analysis of data. Chi square test, P values and odds ratio was used to study the association of factors. Results: A Total of 7447 patients attended NCD clinic during the year 2017-18 were analyzed, Diabetes was seen among 3028 individuals were as comorbidities along with Hypertension was seen among 757 individuals. The mean age of the population was 50 ± 2.84. 3440(46.2%) were males whereas Female constituted 4007(53.8%) of population. The incidence and prevalence of Diabetes being 8.6 and 12.8 respectively. Diabetes was more commonly seen during the age group of 40 to 69 years. Diabetes was significantly associated with Age group 40 to 69 years, obesity and female gender (p < 0.05). The risk of developing Hypertension and comorbidity conditions of hypertension and Diabetes was 1.224 and 1.305 times higher among males, whereas the risk of diabetes was 1.127 higher among females as compared to males. Conclusion: The screening for NCD has significantly increased after launching of NPCDCS programme. NCD was significantly associated with obesity, female gender, increased age as well as comorbid conditions like hypertension and tuberculosis.

Keywords: non-communicable diseases, NPCDCS programme, type 2 Diabetes, physiological factors

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73 Consumers’ Perceptions of Non-Communicable Diseases and Perceived Product Value Impacts on Healthy Food Purchasing Decisions

Authors: Khatesiree Sripoothon, Usanee Sengpanich, Rattana Sittioum

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The objective of this study is to examine the factors influencing consumer purchasing decisions about healthy food. This model consists of two latent variables: Consumer Perception relating to NCDs and Consumer Perceived Product Value. The study was conducted in the northern provinces of Thailand, which are popular with tourists and have received support from the government for health tourism. A survey was used as the data collection method, and the questionnaire was applied to 385 tourists. An accidental sampling method was used to identify the sample. The statistics of frequency, percentage, mean, and structural equation model were used to analyze the data obtained. Additionally, all factors had a significant positive influence on healthy food purchasing decisions (p<0.01) and were predictive of healthy food purchasing decisions at 46.20 (R2=0.462). Also, these findings seem to underline a supposition that consumer perceptions of NCDs and perceived product value are key variables that strengthens the competitive effects of a healthy-friendly business entrepreneur. Moreover, reduce the country's public health costs for treating patients with the disease of NCDs in Thailand.

Keywords: healthy food, perceived product value, perception of non-communicable diseases, purchasing decisions

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72 Emerging Issues of Non-Communicable Diseases among Older Persons in India

Authors: Dhananjay W. Bansod, Santosh Phad

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Non-Communicable Diseases (NCD) are major contributing factors to the disease burden in the world as well as in India. With a growing proportion of older persons in India gives rise to several challenges. With the advancement of age, elderly is exposed to various kinds of health problems more specifically NCDs. Therefore, an effort has been made to examine the prevalence of NCDs among older persons and its treatment-seeking behaviour, also it is tried to explore the association between the NCDs and its effect on the overall wellbeing of older persons. Data used from “Building Knowledge Base of Population Ageing Survey” conducted in 2011 in seven states of India. Six chronic diseases used (non-communicable diseases) namely Arthritis, Hypertension, Cataract, Diabetes, Asthma and Heart diseases to understand the issues related to NCDs. Also seen the effect of NCDs on the wellbeing of the elderly, the subjective well-being consists of nine questions from which SUBI score generated for mental health status, which ranges from 9 to 27. This Index indicates that lower the score better is the mental health status. Further, this index modified and generated three categories of Better (9-15), Average (16-20) and Worse (21-27). The reliability analysis is carried out with the coefficient (Cronbach’s alpha) of the scale was 0.8884. The result shows that Orthopedic / musculoskeletal ailments involving arthritis, rheumatism and osteoarthritis are the most common type of ailment followed by hypertension. Two-thirds of the elderly reported suffering from at least one chronic ailment. Most chronic illness conditions received some form of treatment and mainly depend on public health facilities. Financial insecurity is the primary obstruction in seeking treatment for most of the chronic ailments which typically require a longer duration of medication and repeated medical consultations, both having significant economic implications. According to SUBI index, only 15 per cent of the elderly are in Better mental health status, and one-third of the elderly are with the worse score. Elderly with the ailments like Cataract, Asthma and Arthritis have worse mental health. It depicts that the burden of disease is more among the elderly and it is directly affecting the overall wellbeing of older persons.

Keywords: NCD, well-being, older person, India

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71 Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Nutrition Related Non-Communicable Diseases in a Cohort of Males in the Central Province of Sri Lanka

Authors: N. W. I. A. Jayawardana, W. A. T. A. Jayalath, W. M. T. Madhujith, U. Ralapanawa, R. S. Jayasekera, S. A. S. B. Alagiyawanna, A. M. K. R. Bandara, N. S. Kalupahana

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There is mounting evidence to the effect that dietary and lifestyle changes affect the incidence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). This study was conducted to investigate the association of diet, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption and duration of sleep with overweight, obesity, hypertension and diabetes in a cohort of males from the Central Province of Sri Lanka. A total of 2694 individuals aged between 17 – 68 years (Mean = 31) were included in the study. Body Mass Index cutoff values for Asians were used to categorize the participants as normal, overweight and obese. The dietary data were collected using a food frequency questionnaire [FFQ] and data on the level of physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption and sleeping hours were obtained using a self-administered validated questionnaire. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, random blood glucose levels were measured to determine the incidence of hypertension and diabetes. Among the individuals, the prevalence of overweight and obesity were 34% and 16.4% respectively. Approximately 37% of the participants suffered from hypertension. Overweight and obesity were associated with older age men (P<0.0001), frequency of smoking (P=0.0434), alcohol consumption level (P=0.0287) and the quantity of lipid intake (P=0.0081). Consumption of fish (P=0.6983) and salty snacks (P=0.8327), sleeping hours (P=0.6847) and the level of physical activity were not significantly (P=0.3301) associated with the incidence of overweight and obesity. Based on the fitted model, only age was significantly associated with hypertension (P < 0.001). Further, age (P < 0.0001), sleeping hours (P=0.0953) and consumption of fatty foods (P=0.0930) were significantly associated with diabetes. Age was associated with higher odds of pre diabetes (OR:1.089;95% CI:1.053,1.127) and diabetes (OR:1.077;95% CI:1.055,1.1) whereas 7-8 hrs. of sleep per day was associated with lesser odds of diabetes (OR:0.403;95% CI:0.184,0.884). High prevalence of overweight, obesity and hypertension in working-age males is a threatening sign for this area. As this population ages in the future and urbanization continues, the prevalence of above risk factors will likely to escalate.

Keywords: age, males, non-communicable diseases, obesity

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70 Decreased Non-Communicable Disease by Surveillance, Control, Prevention Systems, and Community Engagement Process in Phayao, Thailand

Authors: Vichai Tienthavorn

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Background: Recently, the patients of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are increasing in Thailand; especially hypertension and diabetes. Hypertension and Diabetes patients were found to be of 3.7 million in 2008. The varieties of human behaviors have been extensively changed in health. Hence, Thai Government has a policy to reduce NCDs. Generally, primary care plays an important role in treatment using medical process. However, NCDs patients have not been decreased. Objectives: This study not only reduce the patient and mortality rate but also increase the quality of life, could apply in different areas and propose to be the national policy, effectively for a long term operation. Methods: Here we report that primary health care (PHC), which is a primary process to screening, rapidly seek the person's risk. The screening tool of the study was Vichai's 7 color balls model, the medical education tool to transfer knowledge from student health team to community through health volunteers, creating community engagement in terms of social participation. It was found that people in community were realized in their health and they can evaluate the level of risk using this model. Results: Projects implementation (2015) in Nong Lom Health Center in Phayao (target group 15-65 years, 2529); screening hypertension coveraged 99.01%, risk group (light green) was decreased to normal group (white) from 1806 to 1893, significant severe patient (red) was decreased to moderate (orange) from 10 to 5. Health Program in behaving change with best practice of 3Es (Eating, Exercise, Emotion) and 3Rs (Reducing tobacco, alcohol, obesity) were applied in risk group; and encourage strictly medication, investigation in severe patient (red). Conclusion: This is the first demonstration of knowledge transfer to community engagement by student, which is the sustainable education in PHC.

Keywords: non-communicable disease, surveillance control and prevention systems, community engagement, primary health care

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69 Assessing the Incapacity of Indonesian Aviators Medical Conditions in 2016 – 2017

Authors: Ferdi Afian, Inne Yuliawati

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Background: The change in causes of death from infectious diseases to non-communicable diseases also occurs in the aviation community in Indonesia. Non-communicable diseases are influenced by several internal risk factors, such as age, lifestyle changes and the presence of other diseases. These risk factors will increase the incidence of heart diseases resulting in the incapacity of Indonesian aviators which will disrupt flight safety. Method: The study was conducted by collecting secondary data. The retrieval of primary data was obtained from medical records at the Indonesian Aviation Health Center in 2016-2017. The subjects in this study were all cases of incapacity in Indonesian aviators medical conditions. Results: In this study, there were 15 cases of aviators in Indonesia who experienced incapacity of medical conditions related to heart and lung diseases in 2016-2017. Based on the secondary data contained in the flight medical records at the Aviation Health Center Aviation, it was found that several factors related to aviators incapacity causing its inability to carried out flight duties. Conclusion: Incapacity of Indonesian aviators medical conditions are most affected by the high value of Body Mass Index (86%) and less affected by high of Uric Acid in the blood (26%) and Hyperglycemia (26%).

Keywords: incapacity, aviators, flight, Indonesia

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68 Community Health Commodities Distribution of integrated HIV and Non-Communicable Disease Services during COVID-19 Pandemic – Eswatini Case Study

Authors: N. Dlamini, Mpumelelo G. Ndlela, Philisiwe Dlamini, Nicholus Kisyeri, Bhekizitha Sithole

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Accessing health services during the COVID-19 pandemic have exacerbated scarcity to routine medication. To ensure continuous accessibility to services, Eswatini launched Community Health Commodities Distribution (CHCD). Eligible Antiretroviral Therapy(ART) stable clients (VL<1,000) and patients on Non-Communicable Disease (NCD) medications were attended at community pick up points (PUP) based on distance between clients’ residence and the public health facility. Services provided includes ART and Pre-Exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) refills and NCD drug refills). The number of community PUP was 14% higher than health facility visits. Among all medications and commodities distributed between April and October 2020 at the PUP, 64% were HIV-related (HIV rapid test, HIVST, VL test, PrEP meds), and 36% were NCD related. The rapid roll out of CHCD during COVID-19 pandemic reduced the risk of COVID-19 transmission to clients as travel to health facilities was eliminated. It Additionally increased access to commodities during COVID-19-driven lockdown, decongested health facilities, integrated model of care, and increase service coverage. It was also noted that CHCD added different curative and HIV related services based on client specific needs and availability of the commodities.

Keywords: community health commodities distribution, pick up points, antiretroviral therapy, pre-exposure prophylaxis

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67 Orthostatic Hypotension among Patients Aged above 65 Years Admitted to Medical Wards in a Tertiary Care Hospital, Sri Lanka

Authors: G. R. Constantine, M.C.K. Thilakasiri, V.S. Mohottala, T.V. Soundaram, D.S. Rathnayake, E.G.H.E. De Silva, A.L.S. Mohamed, V.R. Weerasekara

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Orthostatic hypotension is prevalent in the elderly population, and it is an important risk factor contributing to falls in the elderly. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence of orthostatic hypotension in hospitalized elderly patients, changes in blood pressure during the hospital stay, morbidities associated with it and its association with falls in the elderly. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in the National Hospital of Sri Lanka (NHSL) in a sample of 120 patients of age 65 years or above who were admitted to the medical wards. The demographic, clinical data was obtained by an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Two validated questionnaires were used to assess symptoms and effects of orthostatic hypotension and risk factors associated with falls. Orthostatic hypotension on admission and after 3 days of hospital stay was measured by bed-side mercury sphygmomanometer. Prevalence of orthostatic hypotension among the study population was 63.3%(76 patients). But no significant change in the orthostatic hypotension noted after 3 days of hospital admission (SND 0.61, SE= 5.59, p=0.27). There was no significant association found between orthostatic hypotension and its symptoms (dizziness and vertigo, vision problems, malaise, fatigue, poor concentration, neck stiffness), impact on standing or walking and non-communicable diseases. Falls were experienced by 27.5 % (33 patients) of the study population and prevalence of patients with orthostatic hypotension who had experienced falls was 25.9% (28 patients). In conclusions, orthostatic hypotension is more prevalent among elderly patients, but It wasn’t associated with symptoms, and non-communicable diseases, or as a risk factor for falls in elderly.

Keywords: orthostatic hypotension, elderly falls, emergency geriatric, Sri Lanka

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66 Access of Refugees in Rural Areas to Regular Medication during COVID-19 Era: International Organization for Migration, Jordan Experience

Authors: Rasha Shoumar

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Background: Since the onset of the Syria crisis in 2011, Jordan has hosted many Syrian refugees, many of which are residing in urban and rural areas. Vulnerability of refugees has increased due to the COVID-19 pandemic, adding to their already existing challenge in access to medical services, rendering them vulnerable to the complications of untreated medical conditions and amplifying their risk for severe COVID-19 disease. To improve health outcomes and access to health care services in a COVID-19 context, IOM (The International Organization for Migration) provided health services including awareness raising, direct primary health care through mobile teams and referrals to secondary services were extended to the vulnerable populations of refugees. Method: 6 community health volunteers were trained and deployed to different governorates to provide COVID-19 and non-communicable disease awareness and collect data rated to non-communicable disease and access to medical health services. Primary health care services were extended to 7 governorates through a mobile medical team, providing medical management. The collected Data was reviewed and analyzed. Results: 2150 refugees in rural areas were reached out by community health volunteers, out of which 78 received their medications through the Ministry of Health, 121 received their medications through different non-governmental organizations, 665 patients couldn’t afford buying any medications, 1286 patients were occasionally buying their medications when they were able to afford it. 853 patients received medications and follow up through IOM mobile clinics, the most common conditions were hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, anemia, heart disease, thyroid disease, asthma, seizures, and psychiatric conditions. 709 of these patients had more than 3 of the comorbidities. Multiple cases were referred for secondary and tertiary lifesaving interventions. Conclusion: Non communicable diseases are highly prevalent among refugee population in Jordan, access to medical services have proven to be a challenge in rural areas especially during the COVID-19 era, many of the patients have multiple uncontrolled medical conditions placing them at risk for complications and risk for severe COVID-19 disease. Deployment of mobile clinics to rural areas plays an essential role in managing such medical conditions, thus improving the continuum of health care approach, physical and mental wellbeing of refugees and reducing the risk for severe COVID-19 disease among this group, taking us one step forward toward universal health access.

Keywords: COVID-19, refugees, mobile clinics, primary health care

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65 The Factors Associated with Health Status among Community Health Volunteers in Thailand

Authors: Lapatrada Numkham, Saowaluk Khakhong, Jeeraporn Kummabutr

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Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading cause of death in worldwide. Thailand also concerns and focuses on reduction a new case of these diseases. Community Health Volunteers (CHV) is important health personnel in primary health care and performs as a health leader in the community. If the health of CHV changes, it would impact on the performance to promote health of families and community. This cross-sectional study aimed to 1) describe the health status of community health volunteers and 2) examine the factors associated with health status among community health volunteers. The sample included 360 community health volunteers in a province in central Thailand during September-December 2014. Data were collected using questionnaires on health information, knowledge of health behaviors, and health behaviors. Body weight, height, waist circumference (WC), blood pressure (BP), and blood glucose (BS) (fingertip) were assessed. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and chi-square test. There were three hundred and sixty participants with 82.5% being women. The mean age was 54 + 8.9 years. Forty-seven percent of the participants had co-morbidities. Hypertension was the most common co-morbidity (26.7%). The results revealed that the health status of the volunteers included: no underlying disease, having risk of hypertension (HT) & diabetes mellitus (DM), and having HT&DM at 38.3%, 30.0%, and 31.7% respectively. The chi-square test revealed that the factors associated with health status among the volunteers were gender, age, WC and body mass index (BMI). The results suggested that community health nurses should; 1) implement interventions to decrease waist circumference and lose weight through education programs, especially females; 2) monitor people that have a risk of HT&DM and that have HT&DM by meeting and recording BP level, BS level, WC and BMI; and 3) collaborate with a district public health officer to initiate a campaign to raise awareness of the risks of chronic diseases among community health volunteers.

Keywords: community health volunteers, health status, risk of non-communicable disease, Thailand

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64 Social Ties and the Prevalence of Single Chronic Morbidity and Multimorbidity among the Elderly Population in Selected States of India

Authors: Sree Sanyal

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Research in ageing often highlights the age-related health dimension more than the psycho-social characteristics of the elderly, which also influences and challenges the health outcomes. Multimorbidity is defined as the person having more than one chronic non-communicable diseases and their prevalence increases with ageing. The study aims to evaluate the influence of social ties on self-reported prevalence of multimorbidity (selected chronic non-communicable diseases) among the selected states of elderly population in India. The data is accessed from Building Knowledge Base on Population Ageing in India (BKPAI), collected in 2011 covering the self-reported chronic non-communicable diseases like arthritis, heart disease, diabetes, lung disease with asthma, hypertension, cataract, depression, dementia, Alzheimer’s disease, and cancer. The data of the above diseases were taken together and categorized as: ‘no disease’, ‘one disease’ and ‘multimorbidity’. The predicted variables were demographic, socio-economic, residential types, and the variable of social ties includes social support, social engagement, perceived support, connectedness, and importance of the elderly. Predicted probability for multiple logistic regression was used to determine the background characteristics of the old in association with chronic morbidities showing multimorbidity. The finding suggests that 24.35% of the elderly are suffering from multimorbidity. Research shows that with reference to ‘no disease’, according to the socio-economic characteristics of the old, the female oldest old (80+) from others in caste and religion, widowed, never had any formal education, ever worked in their life, coming from the second wealth quintile standard, from rural Maharashtra are more prone with ‘one disease’. From the social ties background, the elderly who perceives they are important to the family, after getting older their decision-making status has been changed, prefer to stay with son and spouse only, satisfied with the communication from their children are more likely to have less single morbidity and the results are significant. Again, with respect to ‘no disease’, the female oldest old (80+), who are others in caste, Christian in religion, widowed, having less than 5 years of education completed, ever worked, from highest wealth quintile, residing in urban Kerala are more associated with multimorbidity. The elderly population who are more socially connected through family visits, public gatherings, gets support in decision making, who prefers to spend their later years with son and spouse only but stays alone shows lesser prevalence of multimorbidity. In conclusion, received and perceived social integration and support from associated neighborhood in the older days, knowing about their own needs in life facilitates better health and wellbeing of the elderly population in selected states of India.

Keywords: morbidity, multi-morbidity, prevalence, social ties

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63 Rescaling Global Health and International Relations: Globalization of Health in a Low Security Environment

Authors: F. Argurio, F. G. Vaccaro

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In a global environment defined by ever-increasing health issues, in spite of the progress made by modern medicine, this paper seeks to readdress the question of global health in an international relations perspective. The research hypothesis is: the lower the security environment, the higher the spread of communicable diseases. This question will be channeled by re-scaling the connotation of 'global' and 'international' dimension through the theoretical lens of glocalization, a theory by Bauman that starts its analysis from simple systems to get to the most complex ones. Glocalization theory will be operationalized by analyzing health in an armed-conflict context. In this respect, the independent variable 'low security environment' translates into the cases of Syria and Yemen, which provide a clear example of the all-encompassing nature of conflict on national health and the effects on regional development. In fact, Syria and Yemen have been affected by poliomyelitis and cholera outbreaks respectively. The dependent variable will be constructed on said communicable diseases which belong to the families of sanitation-related and vaccine-preventable diseases. The research will be both qualitative and quantitative, based on primary (interviews) and secondary (WHO and other NGO’s reports) sources. The methodology is based on the assessment of the vaccine coverage and case-analysis in time and space using epidemiological data. Moreover, local health facilities’ functioning and efficiency will be studied. The article posits that the intervention and cooperation of international organizations with the local authorities becomes crucial to provide the local populations with their primary health needs. In Yemen, the majority of fatal cholera cases were in the regions controlled by the Houthi rebels, not officially accredited by the International Community. Similarly, the polio outbreak in Syria primarily affected the areas not controlled by the Syrian Arab Republic forces, recognized as the leading interlocutor by the WHO. The jeopardized possibilities to access these countries have been pivotal to the determining the problem in controlling sanitation-related and vaccine preventable diseases. This represents a potential threat to global health.

Keywords: health in conflict-affected areas, cholera, polio, Yemen, Syria, glocalization

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62 Preparedness of Health System in Providing Continuous Health Care: A Case Study From Sri Lanka

Authors: Samantha Ramachandra, Avanthi Rupasinghe

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Demographic transition from lower to higher percentage of elderly population eventually coupled with epidemiological transition from communicable to non-communicable diseases (NCD). Higher percentage of NCD overload the health system as NCD survivors claims continuous health care. The demands are challenging to a resource constrained setting but reorganizing the system may find solutions. The study focused on the facilities available and their utilization at outpatient department (OPD) setting of the public hospitals of Sri Lanka for continuous medical care. This will help in identifying steps of reorganizing the system to provide better care with the maximum utilization of available facilities. The study was conducted as a situation analysis with secondary data at hospital planning units. Variable were identified according to the world health organization (WHO) recommendation on continuous health care for elders in “age-friendly primary health care toolkit”. Data were collected from secondary and tertiary care hospitals of Sri Lanka where most of the continuous care services are available. Out of 58 secondary and tertiary care hospitals, 16 were included in the study to represent each hospital categories. Average number of patient attending for episodic treatment at OPD and Clinical follow-up of chronic conditions shows vast disparity according to the category of the hospital ranging from 3750 – 800 per day at OPD and 1250 – 200 per clinic session. Average time spent per person at OPD session is low, range from 1.54 - 2.28 minutes, the time was increasing as the hospital category goes down. 93.7% hospitals had special arrangements for providing acute care on chronic conditions such as catheter, feeding tube and wound care. 25% hospitals had special clinics for elders, 81.2% hospitals had healthy lifestyle clinics (HLC), 75% hospitals had physical rehabilitation facilities and 68.8% hospitals had facilities for counselling. Elderly clinics and HLC were mostly available at lower grade hospitals where as rehabilitation and counselling facilities were mostly available at bigger hospitals. HLC are providing health education for both patients and their family members, refer patients for screening of complication but not provide medical examinations, investigations or treatments even though they operate in the hospital setting. Physical rehabilitation is basically offered for patients with rheumatological conditions but utilization of centers for injury rehabilitation and rehabilitation of survivors following major illness such as myocardial infarctions, stroke, cancer is not satisfactory (12.5%). Human Resource distribution within hospital shows vast disparity and there are 103 physiotherapists in the biggest hospital where only 36 physiotherapists available at the next level hospital. Counselling facilities also provided mainly for the patient with psychological conditions (100%) but they were not providing counselling for newly diagnosed patients with major illnesses (0%). According to results, most of the public-sector hospitals in Sri Lanka have basic facilities required in providing continuous care but the utilization of services need more focus. Hospital administration or the government need to have initial steps in proper utilization of them in improving continuous health care incorporating team approach of rehabilitation. The author wishes to acknowledge that this paper was made possible by the support and guidance given by the “Australia Awards Fellowships Program for Sri Lanka – 2017,” which was funded by the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, Australia, and co-hosted by Monash University, Australia and the Sri Lanka Institute of Development Administration.

Keywords: continuous care, outpatient department, non communicable diseases, rehabilitation

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61 Yoga as a Tool for Public Health

Authors: Divya Kanchibhotla

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Of all the major health threats to emerge, none has challenged the very foundation of public health so profoundly as the rise of non-communicable diseases (NCD). Encouraging a holistic health approach encompasses the community’s well-being. Competent public health grounded with holistic health approach can lay a better foundation in the modern world. Yoga has been increasingly explored as an adjunct therapy to major disorders. This study explores the efficacy of Yoga as a tool for public health. A survey was administered to 5500 adults, and 300 teens were selected from 25 states of India. The study explored the differences in health, happiness, and sustainable living between Yoga-practitioners and Non-yoga practitioners. The study also explored the practice and habits of yoga practitioners (frequency, place, reasons to practice) and Health, Happiness, and Sustainable Living. The subjects were grouped based on age, education, experience in yoga (years of practice), and occupational background. The study population comprised of 54% males and 46% females. Majority of the respondents (59%) were from 18 to 30 years age group. The study indicated that 96.4% of the total respondents have heard of Yoga. However, only 46.8% of the total study population practice yoga (YP) and the rest 53.2% were non-practitioners (NP). From a perspective of how Yoga and health, 72.7% yoga practitioners asserted a peaceful and happy life, 71.9% yoga practitioners felt satisfaction in life, and 70.2 % yoga practitioners had satisfactory health. 61.9% of yoga practitioners report being vegetarian, not eating junk food, and not drinking alcohol than 38.1% Non-Practitioners population. 47% of yoga practitioners found themselves to be more sensitive to the environment compared to only 40% of non-practitioners. India has been witnessing an unprecedented rise in the NCDs, accounting for 61% deaths. The importance of yoga as an adjunct therapy for various disorders and diseases is gaining momentum across the globe. There are various studies on yoga that have indicated benefits of yoga as a unique holistic approach towards lifestyle and a consistent, complementary solution that could be adopted for long-term viability for a well being. The comprehensive study is the first of its kind that takes a holistic look at the prevalence of Yoga for public health in India. Our study is unique and stands out as it is detailed in its outlook with extensive coverage of almost the whole country (surveying 25 out of 29 states) and contemplates on the benefits to an individual at the grass-root level – physical, mental and social outlook. The insights from the study will enable the health care systems and grassroots organizations to make the holistic practice of Yoga accessible to spread sustainable living for a healthy community.

Keywords: non-communicable disease (NCD), sustainable development goal (SDG 3), public health, healthy living

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60 Virucidal, Bactericidal and Fungicidal Efficiency of Dry Microfine Steam on Innate Surfaces

Authors: C. Recchia, M. Bourel, B. Recchia

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Microorganisms (viruses, bacteria, fungi) are responsible for most communicable diseases, threatening human health. For domestic use, chemical agents are often criticized because of their potential dangerousness, and natural solutions are needed. Application of the “dry microfine steam” (DMS) technology was tested on a selection of common pathogens (SARS-CoV-2, enterovirus EV-71, human coronavirus 229E, E. coli, S. aureus, C. albicans), on different innate surfaces, for 5 to 10 seconds. Quantification of the remaining pathogens was performed, and the reduction rates ranged from 99.8% (S. aureus on plastic) to over 99.999%. DMS showed high efficacy in the elimination of common microorganisms and could be seen as a natural alternative to chemical agents to improve domestic hygiene.

Keywords: steam, SARS-CoV-2, bactericidal, virucidal, fungicidal, sterilization

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59 Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Physical Activity among Adults in Alimosho Local Government Area

Authors: Elizabeth Adebomi Akinlotan, Olukemi Odukoya

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INTRODUCTION: Physical Activity is defined as activity that involves bodily movement which is done as a part of daily activity in the form of working, playing, active transportation such as walking and also as a form of recreational activity. Physical inactivity has been identified as the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality and morbidity causing an estimated 3.2 million deaths globally and 5.5% of total deaths and it remains a pressing public health issue. There is a shift in the major causes of death from communicable to non-communicable diseases in many developed countries and this is fast becoming the case in developing countries. Physical activity is an important determinant of health and has been associated with lower mortality rates as it reduces the risk of developing chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, stroke, cancer and osteoporosis. It improves musculoskeletal health, controls weight and reduces symptoms of depression. AIM: The aim is to study the knowledge, attitude and practices of physical activity among adults in Alimosho local government area. METHODOLOGY: This was a descriptive cross sectional survey designed to study the knowledge, attitude and practice of physical activity among adults in Alimosho Local Government Area. The study population were 250 adults aged 18-65 who were residents of the area of more than 6 months duration and had no chronic disease condition or physical disability. A multistage sampling method was used to select the respondents and data was collected using interviewer administered questionnaires. The data was analyzed with the use of EPI-info 2007 statistical software. Chi Square was thereafter used to test the association between selected variables. The level of statistical significance was set at 5% (p<0.05). RESULTS: In general, majority (61.6%) of the respondents had a good knowledge of what physical activity entails, 34.0% had fair knowledge and 4.4% had poor knowledge. There was a favorable attitude towards physical activity among the respondents with 82.4% having an overall positive attitude. Below a third of the respondents (26.4%) reported having a high physical activity (METS > 3001) while 40.0% had moderate (601-3000 METS) levels of activity and 33.6% were inactive (<600METS). There is statistical significance between the gender of the respondent and the levels of physical activity (p=0.0007); 75.2% males reached the minimum recommendations while 24.8% were inactive and 55.0% females reached the minimum recommendations while 45.0% were inactive. Results also showed that of 95 respondents who were satisfied with their levels of physical activity, 33.7% were insufficiently active while 66.3% were either minimally active or highly active and of 110 who were unsatisfied with their levels of physical activity, 72.0% were above the minimum recommendations while 38.0% were insufficiently active. CONCLUSION: In contrast to the high level of knowledge and favorable attitude towards physical activity, there was a lower level of practice of high or moderate physical activities. It is recommended that more awareness should be created on the recommended levels of physical activity especially for the vigorous intensity and moderate intensity physical activity.

Keywords: METS, physical activity, physical inactivity, public health

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58 Cardiac Rehabilitation Program and Health-Related Quality of Life; A Randomized Control Trial

Authors: Zia Ul Haq, Saleem Muhammad, Naeem Ullah, Abbas Shah, Abdullah Shah

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Pakistan being the developing country is facing double burden of communicable and non-communicable disease. The aspect of secondary prevention of ischemic heart disease in developing countries is the dire need for public health specialists, clinicians and policy makers. There is some evidence that psychotherapeutic measures, including psychotherapy, recreation, exercise and stress management training have positive impact on secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases but there are some contradictory findings as well. Cardiac rehabilitation program (CRP) has not yet fully implemented in Pakistan. Psychological, physical and specific health-related quality of life (HRQoL) outcomes needs assessment with respect to its practicality, effectiveness, and success. Objectives: To determine the effect of cardiac rehabilitation program (CRP) on the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) measures of post MI patients compared to the usual care. Hypothesis: Post MI patients who receive the interventions (CRP) will have better HRQoL as compared to those who receive the usual cares. Methods: The randomized control trial was conducted at a Cardiac Rehabilitation Unit of Lady Reading Hospital (LRH), Peshawar. LRH is the biggest hospital of the Province Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP). A total 206 participants who had recent first myocardial infarction were inducted in the study. Participants were randomly allocated into two group i.e. usual care group (UCG) and cardiac rehabilitation group (CRG) by permuted-block randomization (PBR) method. CRP was conducted in CRG in two phases. Three HRQoL outcomes i.e. general health questionnaire (GHQ), self-rated health (SRH) and MacNew quality of life after myocardial infarction (MacNew QLMI) were assessed at baseline and follow-up visits among both groups. Data were entered and analyzed by appropriate statistical test in STATA version 12. Results: A total of 195 participants were assessed at the follow-up period due to lost-to-follow-up. The mean age of the participants was 53.66 + 8.3 years. Males were dominant in both groups i.e. 150 (76.92%). Regarding educational status, majority of the participants were illiterate in both groups i.e. 128 (65.64%). Surprisingly, there were 139 (71.28%) who were non-smoker on the whole. The comorbid status was positive in 120 (61.54%) among all the patients. The SRH at follow-up among UCG and CRG was 4.06 (95% CI: 3.93, 4.19) and 2.36 (95% CI: 2.2, 2.52) respectively (p<0.001). GHQ at the follow-up of UCG and CRG was 20.91 (95% CI: 18.83, 21.97) and 7.43 (95% CI: 6.59, 8.27) respectively (p<0.001). The MacNew QLMI at follow-up of UCG and CRG was 3.82 (95% CI: 3.7, 3.94) and 5.62 (95% CI: 5.5, 5.74) respectively (p<0.001). All the HRQoL measures showed strongly significant improvement in the CRG at follow-up period. Conclusion: HRQOL improved in post MI patients after comprehensive CRP. Education of the patients and their supervision is needed when they are involved in their rehabilitation activities. It is concluded that establishing CRP in cardiac units, recruiting post-discharged MI patients and offering them CRP does not impose high costs and can result in significant improvement in HRQoL measures. Trial registration no: ACTRN12617000832370

Keywords: cardiovascular diseases, cardiac rehabilitation, health-related quality of life, HRQoL, myocardial infarction, quality of life, QoL, rehabilitation, randomized control trial

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57 Simulation of Communication and Sensing Device in Automobiles Using VHDL

Authors: Anirudh Bhaikhel

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The exclusive objective of this paper is to develop a device which can pass on the interpreted result of the sensed information to the interfaced communicable devices to avoid or minimise accidents. This device may also be used in case of emergencies like kidnapping, robberies, medical emergencies etc. The present era has seen a rapid metamorphosis in the automobile industry with increasing use of technology and speed. The increase in purchasing power of customers and price war of automobile companies has made an easy access to the automobile users. The use of automobiles has increased tremendously in last 4-5 years thus causing traffic congestions and thus making vehicles more prone to accidents. This device can be an effective measure to counteract cases of abduction. Risks of accidents can be decreased tremendously through the notifications received by these alerts. It will help to detect the upcoming emergencies. This paper includes the simulation of the communication and sensing device required in automobiles using VHDL.

Keywords: automobiles, communication, component, cyclic redundancy check (CRC), modulo-2 arithmetic, parity bits, receiver, sensors, transmitter, turns, VHDL (VHSIC hardware descriptive language)

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56 Prevalence and Risk Factors of Cardiovascular Diseases among Bangladeshi Adults: Findings from a Cross Sectional Study

Authors: Fouzia Khanam, Belal Hossain, Kaosar Afsana, Mahfuzar Rahman

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Aim: Although cardiovascular diseases (CVD) has already been recognized as a major cause of death in developed countries, its prevalence is rising in developing countries as well, and engendering a challenge for the health sector. Bangladesh has experienced an epidemiological transition from communicable to non-communicable diseases over the last few decades. So, the rising prevalence of CVD and its risk factors are imposing a major problem for the country. We aimed to examine the prevalence of CVDs and socioeconomic and lifestyle factors related to it from a population-based survey. Methods: The data used for this study were collected as a part of a large-scale cross-sectional study conducted to explore the overall health status of children, mothers and senior citizens of Bangladesh. Multistage cluster random sampling procedure was applied by considering unions as clusters and households as the primary sampling unit to select a total of 11,428 households for the base survey. Present analysis encompassed 12338 respondents of ≥ 35 years, selected from both rural areas and urban slums of the country. Socio-economic, demographic and lifestyle information were obtained through individual by a face-to-face interview which was noted in ODK platform. And height, weight, blood pressure and glycosuria were measured using standardized methods. Chi-square test, Univariate modified Poisson regression model, and multivariate modified Poisson regression model were done using STATA software (version 13.0) for analysis. Results: Overall, the prevalence of CVD was 4.51%, of which 1.78% had stroke and 3.17% suffered from heart diseases. Male had higher prevalence of stroke (2.20%) than their counterparts (1.37%). Notably, thirty percent of respondents had high blood pressure and 5% population had diabetes and more than half of the population was pre-hypertensive. Additionally, 20% were overweight, 77% were smoker or consumed smokeless tobacco and 28% of respondents were physically inactive. Eighty-two percent of respondents took extra salt while eating and 29% of respondents had deprived sleep. Furthermore, the prevalence of risk factor of CVD varied according to gender. Women had a higher prevalence of overweight, obesity and diabetes. Women were also less physically active compared to men and took more extra salt. Smoking was lower in women compared to men. Moreover, women slept less compared to their counterpart. After adjusting confounders in modified Poisson regression model, age, gender, occupation, wealth quintile, BMI, extra salt intake, daily sleep, tiredness, diabetes, and hypertension remained as risk factors for CVD. Conclusion: The prevalence of CVD is significant in Bangladesh, and there is an evidence of rising trend for its risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes especially in older population, women and high-income groups. Therefore, in this current epidemiological transition, immediate public health intervention is warranted to address the overwhelming CVD risk.

Keywords: cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, hypertension, stroke

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55 Prevalence and Risk Factors of Diabetes and Its Association with Com-Morbidities among South Indian Women

Authors: Balasaheb Bansode

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Diabetes is a very important component in non-communicable diseases. Diabetes ailment is a route of the multi-morbidities ailments. The South Indian states are almost completing the demographic transition in India. The study objectives present the prevalence of diabetes and its association with co-morbidities among the south Indian women. The study based on National Family Health Survey fourth round (NFHS) 4 conducted in 2015-16. The univariate, bivariate and multivariate analyses techniques have been used to find the association of risk factors and comorbidities with diabetics. The result reveals that the prevalence of diabetes is high among South Indian women. The study shows the women with diabetics have more chances to diagnose with hypertension and anemia comorbidities. The factors responsible for co-morbidities are changing the demographic situation, socioeconomic status, overweight and addict with substance use in South India. The awareness about diabetes prevention and management should be increased through health education, disease management programmes, trained peers and community health workers and community-based programmes.

Keywords: diabetes, risk factors, comorbidities, women

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