Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15777

Search results for: high heating value (HHV)

15777 High-Frequency Half Bridge Inverter Applied to Induction Heating

Authors: Amira Zouaoui, Hamed Belloumi, Ferid Kourda

Abstract:

This paper presents the analysis and design of a DC–AC resonant converter applied to induction heating. The proposed topology based on the series-parallel half-bridge resonant inverter is described. It can operate with Zero-Voltage Switching (ZVS). At the resonant frequency, the secondary current is amplified over the heating coil with small switching angle, which keeps the reactive power low and permits heating with small current through the resonant inductor and the transformer. The operation and control principle of the proposed high frequency inverter is described and verified through simulated and experimental results.

Keywords: induction heating, inverter, high frequency, resonant

Procedia PDF Downloads 344
15776 Fabrication of Cesium Iodide Columns by Rapid Heating Method

Authors: Chien-Wan Hun, Shao-Fu Chang, Chien-Chon Chen, Ker-Jer Huang

Abstract:

This study presents how to use a high-efficiency process for producing cesium iodide (CsI) crystal columns by rapid heating method. In the past, the heating rate of the resistance wire heating furnace was relatively slow and excessive iodine and CsI vapors were therefore generated during heating. Because much iodine and CsI vapors are produced during heating process, the composition of CsI crystal columns is not correct. In order to enhance the heating rate, making CsI material in the heating process can quickly reach the melting point temperature. This study replaced the traditional type of external resistance heating furnace with halogen-type quartz heater, and then, CsI material can quickly reach the melting point. Eventually, CsI melt can solidify in the anodic aluminum template forming CsI crystal columns.

Keywords: cesium iodide, high efficiency, vapor, rapid heating, crystal column

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
15775 Synthesis and Characterization of CaZrTi2O7 from Tartrate Precursor Employing Microwave Heating Technique

Authors: B. M. Patil, S. R. Dharwadkar

Abstract:

Zirconolite (CaZrTi2O7) is one of the three major phases in the synthetic ceramic 'SYNROC' which is used for immobilization of high-level nuclear waste and also acts as photocatalytic and photophysical properties. In the present work the nanocrystalline CaZrTi2O7 was synthesized from Calcium Zirconyl Titanate tartrate precursor (CZTT) employing two different heating techniques such as Conventional heating (Muffle furnace) and Microwave heating (Microwave Oven). Thermal decomposition of the CZTT precursors in air yielded nanocrystalline CaZrTi2O7 powder as the end product. The products obtained by annealing the CZTT precursor using both heating method were characterized using simultaneous TG-DTA, FTIR, XRD, SEM, TEM, NTA and thermodilatometric study. The physical characteristics such as crystallinity, morphology and particle size of the product obtained by heating the CZTT precursor at the different temperatures in a Muffle furnace and Microwave oven were found to be significantly different. The microwave heating technique considerably lowered the synthesis temperature of CaZrTi2O7. The influence of microwave heating was more pronounced as compared to Muffle furnace heating. The details of the synthesis of CaZrTi2O7 from CZTT precursor are discussed.

Keywords: CZTT, CaZrTi2O7, microwave, SYNROC, zirconolite

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
15774 The Fuzzy Logic Modeling of Performance Driver Seat’s Localised Cooling and Heating in Standard Car Air Conditioning System

Authors: Ali Ates, Sadık Ata, Kevser Dincer

Abstract:

In this study, performance of the driver seat‘s localized cooling and heating in a standard car air conditioning system was experimentally investigated and modeled with Rule-Based Mamdani-Type Fuzzy (RBMTF) modeling technique. Climate function at automobile is an important variable for thermal comfort. In the experimental study localized heating and cooling performances have been examined with the aid of a mechanism established to a vehicle. The equipment’s used in the experimental setup/mechanism have been provided and assembled. During the measurement, the status of the performance level has been determined. Input parameters revolutions per minute and time; output parameters car seat cooling temperature, car back cooling temperature, car seat heating temperature, car back heating temperature were described by RBMTF if-the rules. Numerical parameters of input and output variables were fuzzificated as linguistic variables: Very Very Low (L1), Very Low (L2), Low (L3), Negative Medium (L4), Medium (L5), High (L7), Very High (L8) and Very Very High (L9) linguistic classes. The comparison between experimental data and RBMTF is done by using statistical methods like absolute fraction of variance (R2). The actual values and RBMTF results indicated that RBMTF could be successfully used in standard car air conditioning system.

Keywords: air conditioning system, cooling-heating, RMBTF modelling, car seat

Procedia PDF Downloads 257
15773 Normal Spectral Emissivity of Roughened Aluminum Alloy AL 6061 Surfaces at High Temperature

Authors: Sumeet Kumar, C. V. Krishnamurthy, Krishnan Balasubramaniam

Abstract:

Normal spectral emissivity of Al 6061 alloys with different surface finishes was experimentally measured at 833°K. Four different samples were prepared by polishing the surfaces of the alloy by 80, 220, 600 grit sizes of SiC abrasive papers and diamond paste. The samples were heated in air for 6 h at 833°K, and the emissivity was measured during the process from pyrometers operating at wavelengths of 3.9, 5.14 and 7.8 μm. The results indicated that the emissivity was increasing with heating time and the rate of increase was rapid during the initial stage of heating in comparison with the later stage. This appears to be because of the parabolic rate law followed by the process of oxidation. Further, it is found that the increase in emissivity with heating time was higher for rough surfaces than that for polished surfaces. Both the results were analyzed at all the three wavelengths, and qualitatively similar results were obtained for all of them. In this way emissivity of the alloy can be increased by roughening the surfaces and heating it at high temperature until the surfaces are oxidized.

Keywords: aluminum alloy, high temperature, normal spectral emissivity, surface roughness

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
15772 Solar System with Plate Heat Exchanger

Authors: Christer Frennfelt

Abstract:

Solar heating is the most environmentally friendly way to heat water. Brazed Plate Heat Exchangers (BPHEs) are a key component in many solar heating applications for harvesting solar energy into accumulator tanks, producing hot tap water, and heating pools. The combination of high capacity in a compact format, efficient heat transfer, and fast response makes the BPHE the ideal heat exchanger for solar thermal systems. Solar heating is common as a standalone heat source, and as an add-on heat source for boilers, heat pumps, or district heating systems. An accumulator provides the possibility to store heat, which enables combination of different heat sources to a larger extent. In turn this works as protection to reduced access to energy or increased energy prices. For example heat from solar panels is preferably stored during the day for use at night.

Keywords: district heating and cooling, thermal storage, brazed plate heat exchanger, solar domestic hot water and combisystems

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
15771 Induction Heating Process Design Using Comsol® Multiphysics Software Version 4.2a

Authors: K. Djellabi, M. E. H. Latreche

Abstract:

Induction heating computer simulation is a powerful tool for process design and optimization, induction coil design, equipment selection, as well as education and business presentations. The authors share their vast experience in the practical use of computer simulation for different induction heating and heat treating processes. In this paper deals with mathematical modeling and numerical simulation of induction heating furnaces with axisymmetric geometries. For the numerical solution, we propose finite element methods combined with boundary (FEM) for the electromagnetic model using COMSOL® Multiphysics Software. Some numerical results for an industrial furnace are shown with high frequency.

Keywords: numerical methods, induction furnaces, induction heating, finite element method, Comsol multiphysics software

Procedia PDF Downloads 301
15770 Simulation Model of Induction Heating in COMSOL Multiphysics

Authors: K. Djellabi, M. E. H. Latreche

Abstract:

The induction heating phenomenon depends on various factors, making the problem highly nonlinear. The mathematical analysis of this problem in most cases is very difficult and it is reduced to simple cases. Another knowledge of induction heating systems is generated in production environments, but these trial-error procedures are long and expensive. The numerical models of induction heating problem are another approach to reduce abovementioned drawbacks. This paper deals with the simulation model of induction heating problem. The simulation model of induction heating system in COMSOL Multiphysics is created. In this work we present results of numerical simulations of induction heating process in pieces of cylindrical shapes, in an inductor with four coils. The modeling of the inducting heating process was made with the software COMSOL Multiphysics Version 4.2a, for the study we present the temperature charts.

Keywords: induction heating, electromagnetic field, inductor, numerical simulation, finite element

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
15769 CDM-Based Controller Design for High-Frequency Induction Heating System with LLC Tank

Authors: M. Helaimi, R. Taleb, D. Benyoucef, B. Belmadani

Abstract:

This paper presents the design of a polynomial controller with coefficient diagram method (CDM). This controller is used to control the output power of high frequency resonant inverter with LLC tank. One of the most important problems associated with the proposed inverter is achieving ZVS operating during the induction heating process. To overcome this problem, asymmetrical voltage cancellation (AVC) control technique is proposed. The phased look loop (PLL) is used to track the natural frequency of the system. The small signal model of the system with the proposed control is obtained using extending describing function method (EDM). The validity of the proposed control is verified by simulation results.

Keywords: induction heating, AVC control, CDM, PLL, resonant inverter

Procedia PDF Downloads 542
15768 Simulation Study on Comparison of Thermal Comfort during Heating with All-Air System and Radiant Floor System

Authors: Shiyun Liu

Abstract:

Radiant heating systems work fundamentally differently from air systems by taking advantage of both radiant and convective heat transfer to remove space heating load. There are rare studies on differences of heating systems between all-air system and radiant floor system. This paper uses the method of simulation based on state-space to calculate the indoor temperature and wall temperature of each system and shows how the dynamic heat transfer in rooms conditioned by a radiant system is different from an air system. Then this paper analyses the changes of indoor temperature of these two systems, finding out the differences between all-air heating system and radiant floor heating system to help the designer choose a more suitable heating system.

Keywords: radiant floor, all-air system, thermal comfort, simulation, heating system

Procedia PDF Downloads 30
15767 Evaluation of Heating/Cooling Potential of a Passive Building

Authors: M. Jamil Ahmad

Abstract:

In this paper, the heating/cooling potential of a passive building (mosque) of Prof. K. A. Nizami center for Quranic studies at AMU Aligarh, has been evaluated on the basis of energy balance under quasi-steady state condition by incorporating the effect of ventilation. The study has been carried out for composite climate of Aligarh. The performance of the above mentioned building has been presented in this study. It is observed that the premises of the mosque are cooler than the outside ambient temperature by an average of 2°C and 4°C during the month of March and April respectively. Provision of excellent ventilation, high amount of thermal mass, high ceilings and circulation of cool natural air helps in maintaining an optimal thermal comfort temperature in the passive building.

Keywords: heating/cooling potential, passive building, ambient temperatures

Procedia PDF Downloads 288
15766 Heating Behavior of Ni-Embedded Thermoplastic Polyurethane Adhesive Film by Induction Heating

Authors: DuckHwan Bae, YongSung Kwon, Min Young Shon, SanTaek Oh, GuNi Kim

Abstract:

The heating behavior of nanometer and micrometer sized Nickel particle-imbedded thermoplastic polyurethane adhesive (TPU) under induction heating is examined in present study. The effects of particle size and content, TPU film thickness on heating behaviors were examined. The correlation between heating behavior and magnetic properties of Nickel particles were also studied. From the results, heat generation increased with increase of Nickel content and film thickness. However, in terms of particle sizes, heat generation of Nickel-imbedded TPU film were in order of 70nm>1µm>20 µm>70 µm and this results can explain by increasing ration of eddy heating to hysteresis heating with increase of particle size.

Keywords: induction heating, thermoplastic polyurethane, nickel, composite, hysteresis loss, eddy current loss, curie temperature

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
15765 Impact of Iron Doping on Induction Heating during Spark Plasma Sintering

Authors: Hua Tan, David Salamon

Abstract:

In this study, γ-Al2O3 powders doped with various amounts of iron were sintered via SPS process. Two heating modes – auto and manual mode were applied to observe the role of electrical induction on heating. Temperature, electric current, and pulse pattern were experimented with grade iron γ-Al2O3 powders. Phase transformation of γ to α -Al2O3 serves as a direct indicator of internal temperature, independently on measured outside temperature. That pulsing in SPS is also able to induce internal heating due to its strong electromagnetic field when dopants are conductive metals (e.g., iron) is proofed during SPS. Density and microstructure were investigated to explain the mechanism of induction heating. In addition, the role of electric pulsing and strong electromagnetic field on internal heating (induction heating) were compared and discussed. Internal heating by iron doping within electrically nonconductive samples is able to decrease sintering temperature and save energy, furthermore it is one explanation for unique features of this material fabrication technology.

Keywords: spark plasma sintering, induction heating, alumina, microstructure

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
15764 Technical Analysis of Combined Solar Water Heating Systems for Cold Climate Regions

Authors: Hossein Lotfizadeh, André McDonald, Amit Kumar

Abstract:

Renewable energy resources, which can supplement space and water heating for residential buildings, can have a noticeable impact on natural gas consumption and air pollution. This study considers a technical analysis of a combined solar water heating system with evacuated tube solar collectors for different solar coverage, ranging from 20% to 100% of the total roof area of a typical residential building located in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. The alternative heating systems were conventional (non-condensing) and condensing tankless water heaters and condensing boilers that were coupled to solar water heating systems. The performance of the alternative heating systems was compared to a traditional heating system, consisting of a conventional boiler, applied to houses of various gross floor areas. A comparison among the annual natural gas consumption, carbon dioxide (CO2) mitigation, and emissions for the various house sizes indicated that the combined solar heating system can reduce the natural gas consumption and CO2 emissions, and increase CO2 mitigation for all the systems that were studied. The results suggest that solar water heating systems are potentially beneficial for residential heating system applications in terms of energy savings and CO2 mitigation.

Keywords: CO2 emissions, CO2 mitigation, natural gas consumption, solar water heating system

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
15763 Thermal Comfort Characteristics in an Enclosure with a Radiant Ceiling Heating and Floor Air Heating System

Authors: Seung-Ho Yoo, Jong-Ryeul Sohn

Abstract:

An environmental friendly or efficient heating & cooling systems attract a great attention, due to the energy or environmental problems. Especially the heat balance of human body is about 50% influenced by radiation exchange in built environment. Therefore, a thermal comfort characteristics in a radiant built environment need to be accessed through the development of an efficient evaluation method. Almost of Korean housings use traditionally the radiant floor heating system. A radiant cooling system attracts also many attention nowadays in the viewpoint of energy conservation and comfort. Thermal comfort characteristics in an enclosure with a radiant heating and cooling system are investigated by experiment, thermal sensation vote analysis and mean radiant temperature simulation. Asymmetric radiation between radiant heating ceiling and air heating system in 9 points of room is compared with each other.

Keywords: radiant heating and cooling ceiling, asymmetric radiation, thermal comfort, thermal sensation vote

Procedia PDF Downloads 392
15762 The Influence of High Temperatures on HVFA Concrete Columns by NDT Methods

Authors: D. Jagath Kumari, K. Srinivasa Rao

Abstract:

Quality assurance of the structures subjected to high temperatures is now enforcing measure for the Structural Engineers. The existing relations between strength and nondestructive measurements have been established under normal conditions are not suitable to concretes that have been exposed to high temperatures. The scope of the work is to investigate the influence of high temperatures of short durations on the residual properties of reinforced HVFA concrete columns that affect the strength by non-destructive tests (NDT). Fly ash concrete is increasingly used in the design of normal strength, high strength and high performance concretes. In this paper, the authors revealed the influence of high temperatures on HVFA concrete columns. These columns are heated from 100oC to 800oC with increments of 100oC and allowed to cool to room temperature by two methods one is air cooling method and the other immediate water quenching method. All the specimens were tested identically, before heating and after heating for compressive strength and material integrity by rebound hammer and ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) meter respectively. HVFA concrete retained more residual strength by water quenching method than air-cooling method.

Keywords: HVFA concrete, NDT methods, residual strength, non-destructive tests

Procedia PDF Downloads 346
15761 Modeling Drying and Pyrolysis of Moist Wood Particles at Slow Heating Rates

Authors: Avdhesh K. Sharma

Abstract:

Formulation for drying and pyrolysis process in packed beds at slow heating rates is presented. Drying of biomass particles bed is described by mass diffusion equation and local moisture-vapour-equilibrium relations. In gasifiers, volatilization rate during pyrolysis of biomass is modeled by using apparent kinetic rate expression, while product compositions at slow heating rates is modeled using empirical fitted mass ratios (i.e., CO/CO2, ME/CO2, H2O/CO2) in terms of pyrolysis temperature. The drying module is validated fairly with available chemical kinetics scheme and found that the testing zone in gasifier bed constituted of relatively smaller particles having high airflow with high isothermal temperature expedite the drying process. Further, volatile releases more quickly within the shorter zone height at high temperatures (isothermal). Both, moisture loss and volatile release profiles are found to be sensitive to temperature, although the influence of initial moisture content on volatile release profile is not so sensitive.

Keywords: modeling downdraft gasifier, drying, pyrolysis, moist woody biomass

Procedia PDF Downloads 26
15760 Electromagnetic Interference Shielding Effectiveness of a Corrugated Rectangular Waveguide for a Microwave Conveyor-Belt Drier

Authors: Sang-Hyeon Bae, Sung-Yeon Kim, Min-Gyo Jeong, Ji-Hong Kim, Wang-Sang Lee

Abstract:

Traditional heating methods such as electric ovens or steam heating are slow and not very efficient. For continuously heating the objects, a microwave conveyor-belt drier is widely used in the industrial microwave heating systems. However, there is a problem in which electromagnetic wave leaks toward outside of the heating cavity through the insertion opening. To achieve the prevention of the leakage of microwaves and improved heating characteristics, the corrugated rectangular waveguide at the entrance and exit openings of a microwave conveyor-belt drier is proposed and its electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding effectiveness is analyzed and verified. The corrugated waveguides in the proposed microwave heating system achieve at least 20 dB shielding effectiveness while ensuring a sufficient height of the openings.

Keywords: corrugated, electromagnetic wave, microwave conveyor-belt drier, rectangular waveguide, shielding effectiveness

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
15759 Physicochemical Characterization of Waste from Vegetal Extracts Industry for Use as Briquettes

Authors: Maíra O. Palm, Cintia Marangoni, Ozair Souza, Noeli Sellin

Abstract:

Wastes from a vegetal extracts industry (cocoa, oak, Guarana and mate) were characterized by particle size, proximate and ultimate analysis, lignocellulosic fractions, high heating value, thermal analysis (Thermogravimetric analysis – TGA, and Differential thermal analysis - DTA) and energy density to evaluate their potential as biomass in the form of briquettes for power generation. All wastes presented adequate particle sizes to briquettes production. The wastes showed high moisture content, requiring previous drying for use as briquettes. Cocoa and oak wastes had the highest volatile matter contents with maximum mass loss at 310 ºC and 450 ºC, respectively. The solvents used in the aroma extraction process influenced in the moisture content of the wastes, which was higher for mate due to water has been used as solvent. All wastes showed an insignificant loss mass after 565 °C, hence resulting in low ash content. High carbon and hydrogen contents and low sulfur and nitrogen contents were observed ensuring a low generation of sulfur and nitrous oxides. Mate and cocoa exhibited the highest carbon and lignin content, and high heating value. The dried wastes had high heating value, from 17.1 MJ/kg to 20.8 MJ/kg. The results indicate the energy potential of wastes for use as fuel in power generation.

Keywords: agro-industrial waste, biomass, briquettes, combustion

Procedia PDF Downloads 104
15758 Production and Evaluation of Mango Pulp by Using Ohmic Heating Process

Authors: Sobhy M. Mohsen, Mohamed M. El-Nikeety, Tarek G. Mohamed, Michael Murkovic

Abstract:

The present work aimed to study the use of ohmic heating in the processing of mango pulp comparing to conventional method. Mango pulp was processed by using ohmic heating under the studied suitable conditions. Physical, chemical and microbiological properties of mango pulp were studied. The results showed that processing of mango pulp by using either ohmic heating or conventional method caused a decrease in the contents of TSS, total carbohydrates, total acidity, total sugars (reducing and non-reducing sugar) and an increase in phenol content, ascorbic acid and carotenoids compared to the conventional process. The increase in electric conductivity of mango pulp during ohmic heating was due to the addition of some electrolytes (salts) to increase the ions and enhance the process. The results also indicate that mango pulp processed by ohmic heating contained more phenols, carbohydrates and vitamin C and less HMF compared to that produced by conventional one. Total pectin and its fractions had slightly reduced by ohmic heating compared to conventional method. Enzymatic activities showed a reduction in poly phenoloxidase (PPO) and polygalacturonase (PG) activity in mango pulp processed by conventional method. However, ohmic heating completely inhibited PPO and PG activities.

Keywords: ohmic heating, mango pulp, phenolic, sarotenoids

Procedia PDF Downloads 334
15757 Slow Pyrolysis of Bio-Wastes: Environmental, Exergetic, and Energetic (3E) Assessment

Authors: Daniela Zalazar-GarciA, Erick Torres, GermaN Mazza

Abstract:

Slow pyrolysis of a pellet of pistachio waste was studied using a lab-scale stainless-steel reactor. Experiments were conducted at different heating rates (5, 10, and 15 K/min). A 3-E (environmental, exergetic, and energetic) analysis for the processing of 20 kg/h of bio-waste was carried out. Experimental results showed that biochar and gas yields decreased with an increase in the heating rate (43 to 36 % and 28 to 24 %, respectively), while the bio-oil yield increased (29 to 40 %). Finally, from the 3-E analysis and the experimental results, it can be suggested that an increase in the heating rate resulted in a higher pyrolysis exergetic efficiency (70 %) due to an increase of the bio-oil yield with high-energy content.

Keywords: 3E assessment, bio-waste pellet, life cycle assessment, slow pyrolysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 32
15756 A Platform to Analyze Controllers for Solar Hot Water Systems

Authors: Aziz Ahmad, Guillermo Ramirez-Prado

Abstract:

Governments around the world encourage the use of solar water heating in residential houses due to the low maintenance requirements and efficiency of the solar collector water heating systems. The aim of this work is to study a domestic solar water heating system in a residential building to develop a model of the entire solar water heating system including flat-plate solar collector and storage tank. The proposed model is adaptable to any households and location. The model can be used to test different types of controllers and can provide efficiency as well as economic analysis. The proposed model is based on the heat and mass transfer equations along with assumptions applied in the model which can be modified for a variety of different solar water heating systems and sizes. Simulation results of the model were compared with the actual system which shows similar trends.

Keywords: solar thermal systems, solar water heating, solar collector model, hot water tank model, solar controllers

Procedia PDF Downloads 45
15755 Parametric Study of a Solar-Heating-And-Cooling System with Hybrid Photovoltaic/Thermal Collectors in North China

Authors: Ruobing Liang, Jili Zhang, Chao Zhou

Abstract:

A solar-heating-and-cooling (SHC) system, consisting of a hybrid photovoltaic/ thermal collector array, a hot water storage tank, and an absorption chiller unit is designed and modeled to satisfy thermal loads (space heating, domestic hot water, and space cooling). The system is applied for Dalian, China, a location with cold climate conditions, where cooling demand is moderate, while space heating demand is slightly high. The study investigates the potential of a solar system installed and operated onsite in a detached single-family household to satisfy all necessary thermal loads. The hot water storage tank is also connected to an auxiliary heater (electric boiler) to supplement solar heating, when needed. The main purpose of the study is to model the overall system and contact a parametric study that will determine the optimum economic system performance in terms of design parameters. The system is compared, through a cost analysis, to an electric heat pump (EHP) system. This paper will give the optimum system combination of solar collector area and volumetric capacity of the hot water storage tank, respectively.

Keywords: absorption chiller, solar PVT collector, solar heating and cooling, solar air-conditioning, parametric study, cost analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 309
15754 Optimization of Floor Heating System in the Incompressible Turbulent Flow Using Constructal Theory

Authors: Karim Farahmandfar, Hamidolah Izadi, Mohammadreza Rezaei, Amin Ardali, Ebrahim Goshtasbi Rad, Khosro Jafarpoor

Abstract:

Statistics illustrates that the higher amount of annual energy consumption is related to surmounting the demand in buildings. Therefore, it is vital to economize the energy consumption and also find the solution with regard to this issue. One of the systems for the sake of heating the building is floor heating. As a matter of fact, floor heating performance is based on convection and radiation. Actually, in addition to creating a favorable heating condition, this method leads to energy saving. It is the goal of this article to outline the constructal theory and introduce the optimization method in branch networks for floor heating. There are several steps in order to gain this purpose. First of all, the pressure drop through the two points of the network is calculated. This pressure drop is as a function of pipes diameter and other parameters. After that, the amount of heat transfer is determined. Consequently, as a result of the combination of these two functions, the final function will be determined. It is necessary to mention that flow is laminar.

Keywords: constructal theory, optimization, floor heating system, turbulent flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
15753 CFD Analysis of Solar Floor Radiant Heating System with ‎PCM

Authors: Mohammad Nazififard, Reihane Faghihi

Abstract:

This paper is aimed at understanding convective heat transfer of enclosed phase change material (PCM) in the solar and low-temperature hot water radiant floor heating geometry. In order to obtain the best performance of PCM, a radiant heating structure of the energy storage floor is designed which places heat pipes in the enclosed phase change material (PCM) layer, without concrete in it. The governing equations are numerically solved. The PCM thermal storage time is considered in relation to the floor surface temperature under different hot water temperatures. Moreover the PCM thermal storage time is numerically estimated under different supply water temperatures and flow rate. Results show the PCM floor heating system has a potential of making use of the daytime solar energy for heating at night efficiently.

Keywords: solar floor, heating system, phase change material, computational fluid dynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 120
15752 Reactive Sputter Deposition of Titanium Nitride on Silicon Using a Magnetized Sheet Plasma Source

Authors: Janella Salamania, Marcedon Fernandez, Matthew Villanueva Henry Ramos

Abstract:

Titanium nitrite (TiN) a popular functional and decorative coating because of its golden yellow color, high hardness and superior wear resistance. It is also being studied as a diffusion barrier in integrated circuits due to its known chemical stability and low resistivity. While there have been numerous deposition methods done for TiN, most required the heating of substrates at high temperatures. In this work, TiN films are deposited on silicon (111) and (100) substrates without substrate heating using a patented magnetized sheet plasma source. Films were successfully deposited without substrate heating at various target bias, while maintaining a constant 25% N2 to Ar ratio, and deposition of time of 30 minutes. The resulting films exhibited a golden yellow color which is characteristic of TiN. X-ray diffraction patterns show the formation of TiN predominantly oriented in the (111) direction regardless of substrate used. EDX data also confirms the 1:1 stoichiometry of titanium an nitrogen. Ellipsometry measurements estimate the thickness to range from 28 nm to 33 nm. SEM images were also taken to observe the morphology of the film.

Keywords: coatings, nitrides, coatings, reactive magnetron sputtering, thin films

Procedia PDF Downloads 230
15751 Device for Reversible Hydrogen Isotope Storage with Aluminum Oxide Ceramic Case

Authors: Igor P. Maximkin, Arkady A. Yukhimchuk, Victor V. Baluev, Igor L. Malkov, Rafael K. Musyaev, Damir T. Sitdikov, Alexey V. Buchirin, Vasily V. Tikhonov

Abstract:

Minimization of tritium diffusion leakage when developing devices handling tritium-containing media is key problems whose solution will at least allow essential enhancement of radiation safety and minimization of diffusion losses of expensive tritium. One of the ways to solve this problem is to use Al₂O₃ high-strength non-porous ceramics as a structural material of the bed body. This alumina ceramics offers high strength characteristics, but its main advantages are low hydrogen permeability (as against the used structural material) and high dielectric properties. The latter enables direct induction heating of an hydride-forming metal without essential heating of the pressure and containment vessel. The use of alumina ceramics and induction heating allows: - essential reduction of tritium extraction time; - several orders reduction of tritium diffusion leakage; - more complete extraction of tritium from metal hydrides due to its higher heating up to melting in the event of final disposal of the device. The paper presents computational and experimental results for the tritium bed designed to absorb 6 liters of tritium. Titanium was used as hydrogen isotope sorbent. Results of hydrogen realize kinetic from hydride-forming metal, strength and cyclic service life tests are reported. Recommendations are also provided for the practical use of the given bed type.

Keywords: aluminum oxide ceramic, hydrogen pressure, hydrogen isotope storage, titanium hydride

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
15750 Effect of Heating Rate on Microstructural Developments in Cold Heading Quality Steel Used for Automotive Applications

Authors: Shahid Hussain Abro, F. Mufadi, A. Boodi

Abstract:

Microstructural study and phase transformation in steels is a basic and important step during the design of structural steel. There are huge efforts and study has been done so far on phase transformations, due to so many steel grades available commercially the phase development in steel has different consequences. In the present work an effort has been made to study the effect of heating rate on microstructural features of cold heading quality steel. The SEM, optical microscopy, and heat treatment techniques have been applied to observe the microstructural features in the experimental steel. It was observed that heating rate has the strong influence on phase transformation of CHQ steel under investigation. Heating rate increases the austenite formation kinetics with respect to holding time, and this austenite has been transformed to martensite upon cooling. Heating rate also plays a vital role on nucleation sites of austenite formation in the experimental steel.

Keywords: CHQ steel, austenite formation, heating rate, nucleation

Procedia PDF Downloads 290
15749 Feature Evaluation and Applications of Various Advanced Conductors with High Conductivity and Low Flash in Overhead Lines

Authors: Atefeh Pourshafie, Homayoun Bakhtiari

Abstract:

In power transmission lines, electricity conductors are main tools to carry electric power. Thus, other devices such as shield wires, insulators, towers, foundations etc. should be designed in a way that the conductors be able to successfully do their task which is appropriate power delivery to the customers. Non-stop increase of energy demand has led to saturated capacity of transmission lines which, in turn, causing line flash to exceed acceptable limits in some points. An approach which may be used to solve this issue is replacement of current conductors with new ones having the capability of withstanding higher heating such that reduced flash would be observed when heating increases. These novel conductors are able to transfer higher currents and operate in higher heating conditions while line flash will remain within standard limits. In this paper, we will attempt to introduce three types of advanced overhead conductors and analyze the replacement of current conductors by new ones technically and economically in transmission lines. In this regard, progressive conductors of transmission lines are introduced such as ACC (Aluminum Conductor Composite Core), AAAC-UHC (Ultra High Conductivity, All Aluminum Alloy Conductors), and G(Z)TACSR-Gap Type.

Keywords: ACC, AAAC-UHC, gap type, transmission lines

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
15748 Solar Heating System to Promote the Disinfection

Authors: Elmo Thiago Lins Cöuras Ford, Valentina Alessandra Carvalho do Vale

Abstract:

It presents a heating system using low cost alternative solar collectors to promote the disinfection of water in low income communities that take water contaminated by bacteria. The system consists of two solar collectors, with total area of 4 m² and was built using PET bottles and cans of beer and soft drinks. Each collector is made up of 8 PVC tubes, connected in series and work in continuous flow. It will determine the flux the most appropriate to generate the temperature to promote the disinfection. Will be presented results of the efficiency and thermal loss of system and results of analysis of water after undergoing the process of heating.

Keywords: disinfection of water, solar heating system, poor communities, PVC

Procedia PDF Downloads 340