Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1370

Search results for: Satish Kumar

1370 Effect of Non-Newtonian Behavior of Oil Phase on Oil-Water Stratified Flow in a Horizontal Channel

Authors: Satish Kumar Dewangan, Santosh Kumar Senapati


The present work focuses on the investigation of the effect of non-Newtonian behavior on the oil-water stratified flow in a horizontal channel using ANSYS Fluent. Coupled level set and volume of fluid (CLSVOF) has been used to capture the evolving interface assuming unsteady, coaxial flow with constant fluid properties. The diametric variation of oil volume fraction, mixture velocity, total pressure and pressure gradient has been studied. Non-Newtonian behavior of oil has been represented by the power law model in order to investigate the effect of flow behavior index. Stratified flow pattern tends to assume dispersed flow pattern with the change in the behavior of oil to non-Newtonian. The pressure gradient is found to be very much sensitive to the flow behavior index. The findings could be useful in designing the transportation pipe line in petroleum industries.

Keywords: oil-water stratified flow, horizontal channel, CLSVOF, non–Newtonian behaviour.

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1369 Brinkman Flow Past an Impervious Spheroid under Stokesian Assumption

Authors: D. Satish Kumar, T. K. V. Iyengar


In this paper, we study the Brinkman flow, under Stokesian assumption, past an impervious prolate spheroid and obtain the expressions for the velocity and pressure fields in terms of Legendre functions, Associated Legendre functions, prolate radial and angular spheroidal wave functions. We further obtain an expression for the drag experienced by the spheroid and numerically study its variation with respect to the flow parameters and display the results through graphs.

Keywords: prolate spheoid, porous medium, stokesian assumption, brinkman model, velocity, pressure, drag

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1368 Rheological Evaluation of Various Indigenous Gums

Authors: Yogita Weikey, Shobha Lata Sinha, Satish Kumar Dewangan


In the present investigation, rheology of the three different natural gums has been evaluated experimentally using MCR 102 rheometer. Various samples based on the variation of the concentration of the solid gum powder have been prepared. Their non-Newtonian behavior has been observed by the consistency plots and viscosity variation plots with respect to different solid concentration. The viscosity-shear rate curves of gums are similar and the behavior is shear thinning. Gums are showing pseudoplastic behavior. The value of k and n are calculated by using various models. Results show that the Herschel–Bulkley rheological model is reliable to describe the relationship of shear stress as a function of shear rate. R² values are also calculated to support the choice of gum selection.

Keywords: bentonite, Indian gum, non-Newtonian model, rheology

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1367 Isotherm Study for Phenol Removal onto GAC

Authors: Lallan Singh Yadav, Bijay Kumar Mishra, Manoj Kumar Mahapatra, Arvind Kumar


Adsorption data for phenol removal onto granular activated carbon were fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The adsorption capacity of phenol was estimated to be 16.12 mg/g at initial pH=5.7. The thermodynamics of adsorption process has also been determined in the present work.

Keywords: adsorption, phenol, granular activated carbon, bioinformatics, biomedicine

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1366 Monitoring Land Productivity Dynamics of Gombe State, Nigeria

Authors: Ishiyaku Abdulkadir, Satish Kumar J


Land Productivity is a measure of the greenness of above-ground biomass in health and potential gain and is not related to agricultural productivity. Monitoring land productivity dynamics is essential to identify, especially when and where the trend is characterized degraded for mitigation measures. This research aims to monitor the land productivity trend of Gombe State between 2001 and 2015. QGIS was used to compute NDVI from AVHRR/MODIS datasets in a cloud-based method. The result appears that land area with improving productivity account for with 4.31%, stable productivity traced to 4,195.6 with 23.40%, stable but stressed productivity represent account for 0.10%, early sign of decline productivity occupied with 29%, declining productivity account for, represent 39.2%, water bodies occupied traced to 4% of the state’s area.

Keywords: above-ground biomass, dynamics, land productivity, man-environment relationship

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1365 Rheological and Computational Analysis of Crude Oil Transportation

Authors: Praveen Kumar, Satish Kumar, Jashanpreet Singh


Transportation of unrefined crude oil from the production unit to a refinery or large storage area by a pipeline is difficult due to the different properties of crude in various areas. Thus, the design of a crude oil pipeline is a very complex and time consuming process, when considering all the various parameters. There were three very important parameters that play a significant role in the transportation and processing pipeline design; these are: viscosity profile, temperature profile and the velocity profile of waxy crude oil through the crude oil pipeline. Knowledge of the Rheological computational technique is required for better understanding the flow behavior and predicting the flow profile in a crude oil pipeline. From these profile parameters, the material and the emulsion that is best suited for crude oil transportation can be predicted. Rheological computational fluid dynamic technique is a fast method used for designing flow profile in a crude oil pipeline with the help of computational fluid dynamics and rheological modeling. With this technique, the effect of fluid properties including shear rate range with temperature variation, degree of viscosity, elastic modulus and viscous modulus was evaluated under different conditions in a transport pipeline. In this paper, two crude oil samples was used, as well as a prepared emulsion with natural and synthetic additives, at different concentrations ranging from 1,000 ppm to 3,000 ppm. The rheological properties was then evaluated at a temperature range of 25 to 60 °C and which additive was best suited for transportation of crude oil is determined. Commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been used to generate the flow, velocity and viscosity profile of the emulsions for flow behavior analysis in crude oil transportation pipeline. This rheological CFD design can be further applied in developing designs of pipeline in the future.

Keywords: surfactant, natural, crude oil, rheology, CFD, viscosity

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1364 Minimization of Switching Losses in Cascaded Multilevel Inverters Using Efficient Sequential Switching Hybrid-Modulation Techniques

Authors: P. Satish Kumar, K. Ramakrishna, Ch. Lokeshwar Reddy, G. Sridhar


This paper presents two different sequential switching hybrid-modulation strategies and implemented for cascaded multilevel inverters. Hybrid modulation strategies represent the combinations of Fundamental-Frequency Pulse Width Modulation (FFPWM) and Multilevel Sinusoidal-Modulation (MSPWM) strategies, and are designed for performance of the well-known Alternative Phase Opposition Disposition (APOD), Phase Shifted Carrier (PSC). The main characteristics of these modulations are the reduction of switching losses with good harmonic performance, balanced power loss dissipation among the devices with in a cell, and among the series-connected cells. The feasibility of these modulations is verified through spectral analysis, power loss analysis and simulation.

Keywords: cascaded multilevel inverters, hybrid modulation, power loss analysis, pulse width modulation

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1363 Investigation on Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in Candidate Genes and Their Association with Occurrence of Mycobacterium avium Subspecies Paratuberculosis Infection in Cattle

Authors: Ran Vir Singh, Anuj Chauhan, Subhodh Kumar, Rajesh Rathore, Satish Kumar, B Gopi, Sushil Kumar, Tarun Kumar, Ramji Yadav, Donna Phangchopi, Shoor Vir Singh


Paratuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is a chronic granulomatous enteritis affecting ruminants. It is responsible for significant economic losses in livestock industry worldwide. This organism is also of public health concern due to an unconfirmed link to Crohn’s disease. Susceptibility to paratuberculosis has been suggested to have genetic component with low to moderate heritability. Number of SNPs in various candidates genes have been observed to be affecting the susceptibility toward paratuberculosis. The objective of this study was to explore the association of various SNPs in the candidate genes and QTL region with MAP. A total of 117 SNPs from SLC11A1, IFNG, CARD15, TLR2, TLR4, CLEC7A, CD209, SP110, ANKARA2, PGLYRP1 and one QTL were selected for study. A total of 1222 cattle from various organized herds, gauhsalas and farmer herds were screened for MAP infection by Johnin intradermal skin test, AGID, serum ELISA, fecal microscopy, fecal culture and IS900 blood PCR. Based on the results of these tests, a case and control population of 200 and 183 respectively was established for study. A total of 117 SNPs from 10 candidate genes and one QTL were selected and validated/tested in our case and control population by PCR-RFLP technique. Data was analyzed using SAS 9.3 software. Statistical analysis revealed that, 107 out of 117 SNPs were not significantly associated with occurrence of MAP. Only SNP rs55617172 of TLR2, rs8193046 and rs8193060 of TLR4, rs110353594 and rs41654445 of CLEC7A, rs208814257of CD209, rs41933863 of ANKRA2, two loci {SLC11A1(53C/G)} and {IFNG (185 G/r) } and SNP rs41945014 in QTL region was significantly associated with MAP. Six SNP from 10 significant SNPs viz., rs110353594 and rs41654445 from CLEC7A, rs8193046 and rs8193060 from TLR4, rs109453173 from SLC11A1 rs208814257 from CD209 were validated in new case and control population. Out of these only one SNP rs8193046 of TLR4 gene was found significantly associated with occurrence of MAP in cattle. ODD ratio indicates that animals with AG genotype were more susceptible to MAP and this finding is in accordance with the earlier report. Hence it reaffirms that AG genotype can serve as a reliable genetic marker for indentifying more susceptible cattle in future selection against MAP infection in cattle.

Keywords: SNP, candidate genes, paratuberculosis, cattle

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1362 A Multilevel-Synthesis Approach with Reduced Number of Switches for 99-Level Inverter

Authors: P. Satish Kumar, V. Ramu, K. Ramakrishna


In this paper, an efficient multilevel wave form synthesis technique is proposed and applied to a 99-level inverter. The basic principle of the proposed scheme is that the continuous output voltage levels can be synthesized by the addition or subtraction of the instantaneous voltages generated from different voltage levels. This synthesis technique can be realized by an array of switching devices composing full-bridge inverter modules and proper mixing of each bi-directional switch modules. The most different aspect, compared to the conventional approach, in the synthesis of the multilevel output waveform is the utilization of a combination of bidirectional switches and full bridge inverter modules with reduced number of components. A 99-level inverter consists of three full-bridge modules and six bi-directional switch modules. The validity of the proposed scheme is verified by the simulation.

Keywords: cascaded connection, multilevel inverter, synthesis, total harmonic distortion

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1361 NiO-CeO2 Nano-Catalyst for the Removal of Priority Organic Pollutants from Wastewater through Catalytic Wet Air Oxidation at Mild Conditions

Authors: Anushree, Chhaya Sharma, Satish Kumar


Catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) is normally carried out at elevated temperature and pressure. This work investigates the potential of NiO-CeO2 nano-catalyst in CWAO of paper industry wastewater under milder operating conditions of 90 °C and 1 atm. The NiO-CeO2 nano-catalysts were synthesized by a simple co-precipitation method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), before and after use, in order to study any crystallographic change during experiment. The extent of metal-leaching from the catalyst was determined using the inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The catalytic activity of nano-catalysts was studied in terms of total organic carbon (TOC), adsorbable organic halides (AOX) and chlorophenolics (CHPs) removal. Interestingly, mixed oxide catalysts exhibited higher activity than the corresponding single-metal oxides. The maximum removal efficiency was achieved with Ce40Ni60 catalyst. The results indicate that the CWAO process is efficient in removing the priority organic pollutants from wastewater, as it exhibited up to 59% TOC, 55% AOX, and 54 % CHPs removal.

Keywords: catalysis, nano-materials, NiO-CeO2, paper mill, wastewater, wet air oxidation

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1360 Fractional Order Differentiator Using Chebyshev Polynomials

Authors: Koushlendra Kumar Singh, Manish Kumar Bajpai, Rajesh Kumar Pandey


A discrete time fractional orderdifferentiator has been modeled for estimating the fractional order derivatives of contaminated signal. The proposed approach is based on Chebyshev’s polynomials. We use the Riemann-Liouville fractional order derivative definition for designing the fractional order SG differentiator. In first step we calculate the window weight corresponding to the required fractional order. Then signal is convoluted with this calculated window’s weight for finding the fractional order derivatives of signals. Several signals are considered for evaluating the accuracy of the proposed method.

Keywords: fractional order derivative, chebyshev polynomials, signals, S-G differentiator

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1359 Application of Decline Curve Analysis to Depleted Wells in a Cluster and then Predicting the Performance of Currently Flowing Wells

Authors: Satish Kumar Pappu


The most common questions which are frequently asked in oil and gas industry are how much is the current production rate from a particular well and what is the approximate predicted life of that well. These questions can be answered through forecasting of important realistic data like flowing tubing hole pressures FTHP, Production decline curves which are used predict the future performance of a well in a reservoir. With the advent of directional drilling, cluster well drilling has gained much importance and in-fact has even revolutionized the whole world of oil and gas industry. An oil or gas reservoir can generally be described as a collection of several overlying, producing and potentially producing sands in to which a number of wells are drilled depending upon the in-place volume and several other important factors both technical and economical in nature, in some sands only one well is drilled and in some, more than one. The aim of this study is to derive important information from the data collected over a period of time at regular intervals on a depleted well in a reservoir sand and apply this information to predict the performance of other wells in that reservoir sand. The depleted wells are the most common observations when an oil or gas field is being visited, w the application of this study more realistic in nature.

Keywords: decline curve analysis, estimation of future gas reserves, reservoir sands, reservoir risk profile

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1358 Performance Comparison of Reactive, Proactive and Hybrid Routing Protocols in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

Authors: Kumar Manoj, Ramesh Kumar, Kumari Arti, Kumar Prashant


Routing protocols have a central role in any mobile ad hoc network (MANET). There are many routing protocols that exhibit different performance levels in different scenarios. In this paper we compare AODV, DSDV, DSR and ZRP routing protocol in mobile ad hoc networks to determine the best operational conditions for each protocol. We analyses these routing protocols by extensive simulations in OPNET simulator and show that how pause time and the number of nodes affect their performance. In this study, performance is measured in terms of control traffic received, control traffic sent, data traffic received, data traffic sent, throughput, retransmission attempts.


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1357 Recent Advances in Pulse Width Modulation Techniques and Multilevel Inverters

Authors: Satish Kumar Peddapelli


This paper presents advances in pulse width modulation techniques which refers to a method of carrying information on train of pulses and the information be encoded in the width of pulses. Pulse Width Modulation is used to control the inverter output voltage. This is done by exercising the control within the inverter itself by adjusting the ON and OFF periods of inverter. By fixing the DC input voltage we get AC output voltage. In variable speed AC motors the AC output voltage from a constant DC voltage is obtained by using inverter. Recent developments in power electronics and semiconductor technology have lead improvements in power electronic systems. Hence, different circuit configurations namely multilevel inverters have become popular and considerable interest by researcher are given on them. A fast Space-Vector Pulse Width Modulation (SVPWM) method for five-level inverter is also discussed. In this method, the space vector diagram of the five-level inverter is decomposed into six space vector diagrams of three-level inverters. In turn, each of these six space vector diagrams of three-level inverter is decomposed into six space vector diagrams of two-level inverters. After decomposition, all the remaining necessary procedures for the three-level SVPWM are done like conventional two-level inverter. The proposed method reduces the algorithm complexity and the execution time. It can be applied to the multilevel inverters above the five-level also. The experimental setup for three-level diode-clamped inverter is developed using TMS320LF2407 DSP controller and the experimental results are analysed.

Keywords: five-level inverter, space vector pulse wide modulation, diode clamped inverter, electrical engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 283
1356 Finite Element Analysis of Cold Formed Steel Screwed Connections

Authors: Jikhil Joseph, S. R. Satish Kumar


Steel Structures are commonly used for rapid erections and multistory constructions due to its inherent advantages. However, the high accuracy required in detailing and heavier sections, make it difficult to erect in place and transport. Cold Formed steel which are specially made by reducing carbon and other alloys are used nowadays to make thin-walled structures. Various types of connections are being reported as well as practiced for the thin-walled members such as bolting, riveting, welding and other mechanical connections. Commonly self-drilling screw connections are used for cold-formed purlin sheeting connection. In this paper an attempt is made to develop a moment resting frame which can be rapidly and remotely constructed with thin walled sections and self-drilling screws. Semi-rigid Moment connections are developed with Rectangular thin-walled tubes and the screws. The Finite Element Analysis programme ABAQUS is used for modelling the screwed connections. The various modelling procedures for simulating the connection behavior such as tie-constraint model, oriented spring model and solid interaction modelling are compared and are critically reviewed. From the experimental validations the solid-interaction modelling identified to be the most accurate one and are used for predicting the connection behaviors. From the finite element analysis, hysteresis curves and the modes of failure were identified. Parametric studies were done on the connection model to optimize the connection configurations to get desired connection characteristics.

Keywords: buckling, cold formed steel, finite element analysis, screwed connections

Procedia PDF Downloads 91
1355 Braiding Channel Pattern Due to Variation of Discharge

Authors: Satish Kumar, Spandan Sahu, Sarjati Sahoo, K. K. Khatua


An experimental investigation has been carried out in a tilting flume of 2 m wide, 13 m long, and 0.3 m deep to study the effect of flow on the formation of braided channel pattern. Sediment flow is recirculated through the flume, which passes from the headgate to the sediment/water collecting tank through the tailgate. Further, without altering the geometry of the sand bed channel, the discharge is varied to study the effect of the formation of the braided pattern with time. Then the flow rate is varied to study the effect of flow on the formation of the braided pattern. Sediment transport rate is highly variable and was found to be a nonlinear function of flow rate, aspect ratio, longitudinal slope, and time. Total braided intensity (BIT) for each discharge case is found to be more than the active braided intensity (BIA). Both the parameters first increase and then decrease as the time progresses following a similar pattern for all the observed discharge cases. When the flow is increased, the movement of sediment also increases since the active braided intensity is found to adjust quickly. The measurement of velocity and boundary shear helps to study the erosion and sedimentation processes in the channel and formation of small meandering channels and then the braided channel for different discharge conditions of a sediment river. Due to regime properties of rivers, both total braided Intensity and active braided intensity become stable for a given channel and flow conditions. In the present case, the trend of the ratio of BIA to BIT is found to be asymptotic against the time with a value of 0.4. After the particular time elapses off the flow, new small channels are also found to be formed with changes in the sinuosity of the active channels, thus forming the braided network. This is due to the continuous erosion and sedimentation processes occurring for the flow process for the flow and sediment conditions.

Keywords: active braided intensity, bed load, sediment transport, shear stress, total braided intensity

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1354 Investigation of Delivery of Triple Play Service in GE-PON Fiber to the Home Network

Authors: Anurag Sharma, Dinesh Kumar, Rahul Malhotra, Manoj Kumar


Fiber based access networks can deliver performance that can support the increasing demands for high speed connections. One of the new technologies that have emerged in recent years is Passive Optical Networks. This paper is targeted to show the simultaneous delivery of triple play service (data, voice and video). The comparative investigation and suitability of various data rates is presented. It is demonstrated that as we increase the data rate, number of users to be accommodated decreases due to increase in bit error rate.


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1353 A Problem in Microstretch Thermoelastic Diffusive Medium

Authors: Devinder Singh, Arvind Kumar, Rajneesh Kumar


The general solution of the equations for a homogeneous isotropic microstretch thermo elastic medium with mass diffusion for two dimensional problems is obtained due to normal and tangential forces. The integral transform technique is used to obtain the components of displacements, microrotation, stress and mass concentration, temperature change and mass concentration. A particular case of interest is deduced from the present investigation.

Keywords: normal force, tangential force, microstretch, thermoelastic, the integral transform technique, deforming force, microstress force, boundary value problem

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1352 Non-Linear Static Analysis of Screwed Moment Connections in Cold-Formed Steel Frames

Authors: Jikhil Joseph, Satish Kumar S R.


Cold-formed steel frames are preferable for framed constructions due to its low seismic weights and results into low seismic forces, but on the contrary, significant lateral deflections are expected under seismic/wind loading. The various factors affecting the lateral stiffness of steel frames are the stiffness of connections, beams and columns. So, by increasing the stiffness of beam, column and making the connections rigid will enhance the lateral stiffness. The present study focused on Structural elements made of rectangular hollow sections and fastened with screwed in-plane moment connections for the building frames. The self-drilling screws can be easily drilled on either side of the connection area with the help of gusset plates. The strength of screwed connections can be made 1.2 times the connecting elements. However, achieving high stiffness in connections is also a challenging job. Hence in addition to beam and column stiffness’s the connection stiffness are also going to be a governing parameter in the lateral deflections of the frames. SAP 2000 Non-linear static analysis has been planned to study the seismic behavior of steel frames. The SAP model will be consisting of nonlinear spring model for the connection to account the semi-rigid connections and the nonlinear hinges will be assigned for beam and column sections according to FEMA 273 guidelines. The reliable spring and hinge parameters will be assigned based on an experimental and analytical database. The non-linear static analysis is mainly focused on the identification of various hinge formations and the estimation of lateral deflection and these will contribute as an inputs for the direct displacement-based Seismic design. The research output from this study are the modelling techniques and suitable design guidelines for the performance-based seismic design of cold-formed steel frames.

Keywords: buckling, cold formed steel, nonlinear static analysis, screwed connections

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1351 Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of Tolyloxy Derived Oxadiazoles

Authors: Shivkanya Fuloria, Neeraj Kumar Fuloria, Sokinder Kumar


m-Cresol and oxadiazoles are the potent antimicrobial moieties. 2-(m-Tolyloxy)acetohydrazide (1) on cyclization with aromatic acids yielded 2-(aryl)-5-(m-tolyloxymethyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole (1A-E). The structures of newer oxadiazoles were confirmed by elemental and spectral analysis. The newer compounds were evaluated for their antimicrobial potential. The compound 1E containing strong electron withdrawing group showed maximum antimicrobial potential. Other compounds also displayed antimicrobial potential to certain extent. The SAR of newer oxadiazoles indicated that substitution of strong electronegative group in the tolyloxy derived oxadiazoles enhanced their antimicrobial potential.

Keywords: antibacterial, cresol, hydrazide, oxadiazoles

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1350 Edge Detection in Low Contrast Images

Authors: Koushlendra Kumar Singh, Manish Kumar Bajpai, Rajesh K. Pandey


The edges of low contrast images are not clearly distinguishable to the human eye. It is difficult to find the edges and boundaries in it. The present work encompasses a new approach for low contrast images. The Chebyshev polynomial based fractional order filter has been used for filtering operation on an image. The preprocessing has been performed by this filter on the input image. Laplacian of Gaussian method has been applied on preprocessed image for edge detection. The algorithm has been tested on two test images.

Keywords: low contrast image, fractional order differentiator, Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) method, chebyshev polynomial

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1349 An Overview of Heating and Cooling Techniques Used in Green Buildings

Authors: Umesh Kumar Soni, Suresh Kumar Soni, S. R. Awasthi


Worldwide biggest difficulties are climate change, future availability of fossil fuels, and economical feasibility of renewable energy. They force us to use to a greater extent renewable energy and develop suitable hybrid renewable systems. Building heating/cooling consumes significant amount of energy. It can be conserved by use of proper heating/cooling techniques. This paper reviews and critically analyzes various active, passive and hybrid heating/cooling techniques used in green buildings.

Keywords: natural ventilation, energy conservation, hybrid ventilation techniques, climate change

Procedia PDF Downloads 372
1348 Anisotropic Approach for Discontinuity Preserving in Optical Flow Estimation

Authors: Pushpendra Kumar, Sanjeev Kumar, R. Balasubramanian


Estimation of optical flow from a sequence of images using variational methods is one of the most successful approach. Discontinuity between different motions is one of the challenging problem in flow estimation. In this paper, we design a new anisotropic diffusion operator, which is able to provide smooth flow over a region and efficiently preserve discontinuity in optical flow. This operator is designed on the basis of intensity differences of the pixels and isotropic operator using exponential function. The combination of these are used to control the propagation of flow. Experimental results on the different datasets verify the robustness and accuracy of the algorithm and also validate the effect of anisotropic operator in the discontinuity preserving.

Keywords: optical flow, variational methods, computer vision, anisotropic operator

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1347 Industry Openness, Human Capital and Wage Inequality: Evidence from Chinese Manufacturing Firms

Authors: Qiong Huang, Satish Chand


This paper uses a primary data from 670 Chinese manufacturing firms, together with the newly introduced regressionbased inequality decomposition method, to study the effect of openness on wage inequality. We find that openness leads to a positive industry wage premium, but its contribution to firm-level wage inequality is relatively small, only 4.69%. The major contributor to wage inequality is human capital, which could explain 14.3% of wage inequality across sample firms.  

Keywords: openness, human capital, wage inequality, decomposition, China

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1346 Assessment of ATC with Shunt FACTS Devices

Authors: Ashwani Kumar, Jitender Kumar


In this paper, an optimal power flow based approach has been applied for multi-transactions deregulated environment for ATC determination with SVC and STATCOM. The main contribution of the paper is (i) OPF based approach for evaluation of ATC with multi-transactions, (ii) ATC enhancement with FACTS devices viz. SVC and STATCOM for intact and line contingency cases, (iii) impact of ZIP load on ATC determination and comparison of ATC obtained with SVC and STATCOM. The results have been determined for intact and line contingency cases taking simultaneous as well as single transaction cases for IEEE 24 bus RTS.

Keywords: available transfer capability, FACTS devices, line contingency, multi-transactions, ZIP load model

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1345 Design of Saddle Support for Horizontal Pressure Vessel

Authors: Vinod Kumar, Navin Kumar, Surjit Angra, Prince Sharma


This paper presents the design analysis of saddle support of a horizontal pressure vessel. Since saddle have the vital role to support the pressure vessel and to maintain its stability, it should be designed in such a way that it can afford the vessel load and internal pressure of the vessel due to liquid contained in the vessel. A model of horizontal pressure vessel and saddle support is created in Ansys. Stresses are calculated using mathematical approach and Ansys software. The analysis reveals the zone of high localized stress at the junction part of the pressure vessel and saddle support due to operating conditions. The results obtained by both the methods are compared with allowable stress value for safe designing.

Keywords: ANSYS, pressure vessel, saddle, support

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1344 Challenges in Multi-Cloud Storage Systems for Mobile Devices

Authors: Rajeev Kumar Bedi, Jaswinder Singh, Sunil Kumar Gupta


The demand for cloud storage is increasing because users want continuous access their data. Cloud Storage revolutionized the way how users access their data. A lot of cloud storage service providers are available as DropBox, G Drive, and providing limited free storage and for extra storage; users have to pay money, which will act as a burden on users. To avoid the issue of limited free storage, the concept of Multi Cloud Storage introduced. In this paper, we will discuss the limitations of existing Multi Cloud Storage systems for mobile devices.

Keywords: cloud storage, data privacy, data security, multi cloud storage, mobile devices

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1343 Rashba Spin Orbit Interaction Effect on Multiphoton Optical Transitions in a Quantum Dot for Bioimaging

Authors: Pradip Kumar Jha, Manoj Kumar


We demonstrate in this work the effect of Rashba spin orbit interaction on multiphoton optical transitions of a quantum dot in the presence of THz laser field and external static magnetic field. This combination is solved by accurate non-perturbative Floquet theory. Investigations are made for the optical response of intraband transition between the various states of the conduction band with spin flipping. Enhancement and power broadening observed for excited states probabilities with increase of external fields are directly linked to the emission spectra of QD and will be useful for making future bioimaging devices.

Keywords: bioimaging, multiphoton processes, spin orbit interaction, quantum dot

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1342 Design of Lead-Lag Based Internal Model Controller for Binary Distillation Column

Authors: Rakesh Kumar Mishra, Tarun Kumar Dan


Lead-Lag based Internal Model Control method is proposed based on Internal Model Control (IMC) strategy. In this paper, we have designed the Lead-Lag based Internal Model Control for binary distillation column for SISO process (considering only bottom product). The transfer function has been taken from Wood and Berry model. We have find the composition control and disturbance rejection using Lead-Lag based IMC and comparing with the response of simple Internal Model Controller.

Keywords: SISO, lead-lag, internal model control, wood and berry, distillation column

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1341 Potentially Inappropriate Prescribing in Elderly Population

Authors: Ajit Kumar Sah, Rajesh Kumar Jha, Phoolgen Sah, Dev Kumar Shah


Older individuals often suffer from multiple systemic diseases and are particularly more vulnerable to potentially inappropriate medicine prescribing. Inappropriate medication can cause serious medical problem for the elderly. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of potentially inappropriate medicine (PIM) prescribing in older Nepalese patients in a medicine outpatient department. Beers’ criteria are the most widely used tools to assess PIM to elderly patients. Prospective observational analysis of drugs prescribed in medicine out-patient department (OPD) of a hospital of Bharatpur, Chitwan, Nepal during November 2011 to October 2012 to 869 older adults aged 65 years and above. The use of potentially inappropriate medications (PIM) in elderly patients was analyzed using Beers Criteria updated to 2013. In the 869 patients included the average number of drugs prescribed per prescription was 5.56. The most commonly used drugs were atenolol (24.3%), amlodipine (23.16%), paracetamol (17.6%), salbutamol (15.72%) and vitamin B complex (13.26%). The total number of medications prescribed was 4833. At least one instance of PIM was experienced by approximately 26.3% of patients when evaluated using the Beers criteria. Potentially inappropriate medications are highly prevalent among older patients attending medical OPD and are associated with a number of medications prescribed. Further research is warranted to study the impact of PIMs towards health-related outcomes in these elderly.

Keywords: Beers criteria, elderly, polypharmacy, potentially inappropriate medicines

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