Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 47

Search results for: acinetobacter Bauman Nii

47 Binding Studies and Structure Determination of the Recombinantly Produced Type-II 3-Dehydroquinate Dehydratase from Acinetobacter Baumannii

Authors: Naseer Iqbal, Mukesh Kumar, Pradeep Sharma, Satya Prakash Yadav, Punit Kaur, Sujata Sharma, T. P. Singh

Abstract:

Dehydroquinase (3-dehydroquinate dehydratase, DHQD, EC 4.2.1.10) is involved in shikimate pathway and catalyzes the conversion of dehydroquinate to dehydroshikimate. Shikimate pathway is important drug target as this pathway is absent in mammals. DHQD from Acinetobacter baumannii (AbDHQD) was cloned, expressed and purified to homogeneity. The binding studies showed that compounds quinic acid and citrazinic acid bound to AbDHQD at micromolar concentrations. AbDHQD was crystallized using 30% PEG-3350, 50mM tris-HCl, and 1.0M MgSO4 at PH 8.0. Crystals of AbDHQD were stabilized by transferring them into reservoir solution to which 25% glycerol was added for data collection at 100K. The X-ray intensity data were collected to 2.0Å resolution. The crystals belong to monoclinic space group P21 with cell dimensions, a = 82.3, b = 95.3, c = 132.3Å and β = 95.7°. The structure was solved with molecular replacement method and refined to Rcryst/Rfree factors of 0.200/0.232. The structures of 12 crystallographically independent molecules in the asymmetry unit were identical with r.m.s shifts for the C atoms ranging from 0.3 Å to 0.8 Å. They formed a dodecamer with four trimers arranged in a tetrahedral manner. The classical lid adopted an open conformation although a sulfate ion was observed in the substrate binding site. As a result of which, the compounds quinic acid and citrazinic acid did not bind to AbDHQD.

Keywords: acinetobacter Bauman Nii, dehydroquinate dehydratase, dodecamer, open conformation

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46 In Search of Bauman’s Moral Impulse in Shadow Factories of China

Authors: Akram Hatami, Naser Firoozi, Vesa Puhakka

Abstract:

Ethics and responsibility are rapidly becoming a distinguishing feature of organizations. In this paper, we analyze ethics and responsibility in shadow factories in China. We engage ourselves with Bauman’s moral impulse perspective because his idea can contextualize ethics and responsibility. Moral impulse is a feeling of a selfless, infinite and unconditional responsibility towards, and care for, Others. We analyze a case study from a secondary data source because, for such a critical phenomenon as business ethics in shadow factories, collecting primary data is difficult, since they are unregistered factories. We argue that there has not been enough attention given to the ethics and responsibility in shadow factories in China. Our main goal is to demonstrate that, considering the Other, more importantly the employees, in ethical decision-making is a simple instruction beyond the narrow version of ethics by ethical codes and rules.

Keywords: moral impulse, responsibility, shadow factories, Bauman’s moral impulse

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45 Screening, Selection and Optimization of Extracellular Methanol and Ethanol Tolerant Lipase from Acinetobacter sp. K5B4

Authors: Khaled M. Khleifat

Abstract:

An extracellular methanol and ethanol tolerant lipase producing bacterial strain K5b4 was isolated from soil samples contaminated with hydrocarbon residues. It was identified by using morphological and biochemical characteristics and 16srRNA technique as Acinetobacter species. The immobilized lipase from Acinetobacter sp. K5b4 retained more than 98% of its residual activity after incubation with pure methanol and ethanol for 24 hours. The highest hydrolytic activity of the immobilized enzyme was obtained in the presence of 75% (v/v) methanol in the assay solution. In contrary, the enzyme was able to maintain its original activity up to only 25% (v/v) ethanol whereas at elevated concentrations of 50 and 75% (v/v) the enzyme activity was reduced to 10 and 40%, respectively. Maximum lipase activity of 31.5 mU/mL was achieved after 48 hr cultivation when the optimized medium (pH 7.0) that composed of 1.0% (w/v) olive oil, 0.2% (w/v) glycerol, 0.15% (w/v) yeast extract, and 0.05% (w/v) NaCl was inoculated with 0.4% (v/v) seed culture and incubated at 30°C and 150 rpm agitation speed. However, the presence of CaCl2 in the growth media did not show any inhibitory or stimulatory effect on the enzyme production as it compared to the control experiment. Meanwhile, the other mineral salts MgCl2, MnCl2, KCl and CoCl2 were negatively affected the production of lipase enzyme. The inhibition of lipase production from Acinetobacter sp. K5b4 in presence of glucose suggesting that lipase gene expression is prone to catabolic repression.

Keywords: K5B4, methanol and ethanol, acinetobacter, morphological

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44 Application of Acinetobacter sp. KKU44 for Cellulase Production from Agricultural Waste

Authors: Surasak Siripornadulsil, Nutt Poomai, Wilailak Siripornadulsil

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Due to a high ethanol demand, the approach for effective ethanol production is important and has been developed rapidly worldwide. Several agricultural wastes are highly abundant in celluloses and the effective cellulose enzymes do exist widely among microorganisms. Accordingly, the cellulose degradation using microbial cellulose to produce a low-cost substrate for ethanol production has attracted more attention. In this study, the cellulose producing bacterial strain has been isolated from rich straw and identified by 16S rDNA sequence analysis as Acinetobacter sp. KKU44. This strain is able to grow and exhibit the cellulose activity. The optimal temperature for its growth and cellulose production is 37 °C. The optimal temperature of bacterial cellulose activity is 60 °C. The cellulose enzyme from Acinetobacter sp. KKU44 is heat-tolerant enzyme. The bacterial culture of 36 h. showed highest cellulose activity at 120 U/mL when grown in LB medium containing 2% (w/v). The capability of Acinetobacter sp. KKU44 to grow in cellulosic agricultural wastes as a sole carbon source and exhibiting the high cellulose activity at high temperature suggested that this strain could be potentially developed further as a cellulose degrading strain for a production of low-cost substrate used in ethanol production.

Keywords: cellulose enzyme, bagasse, rice straw, rice husk, acinetobacter sp. KKU44

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43 Investigation of Carbapenem-Resistant Genes in Acinetobacter spp. Isolated from Patients at Tertiary Health Care Center, Northeastern Thailand

Authors: S. J. Sirima, C. Thirawan, R.Puntharikorn, K. Ungsumalin, J. Kaemwich

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Acinetobacter spp. is a gram negative bacterium causing the high incidence of multi-drug resistance in patients admitted to an intensive care unit. A hundred isolates of Imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter spp. isolated from patients admitted at tertiary health care center, Northeastern region, Ubon Ratchathani, Thailand, were subjected to modified Hodge test and combined disc test in order to evaluate the production of carbapenemases. The results revealed that about 35% of isolates were found to be carbapenemases producers. In addition, multiplex polymerase chain reactions were performed to detect blaOXA-like genes. It showed that 92% of isolates possess blaOXA-51-like and blaOXA-23-like genes. However, blaOXA-58-like gene was detected in only 8 isolates. No detection of blaOXA-24-like gene was observed in all isolates. In conclusion, an ability to produce carbepenemases would be an important mechanism of multi-drug resistance among clinical isolates of Acinetobacter spp. at tertiary health care center, Northeastern region, Ubon Ratchathani, Thailand. Furthermore, it was likely that the class D carbapenemases genes, blaOXA-51-like and blaOXA-23-like, might contribute to imipenem-resistance exhibiting among isolates.

Keywords: Acinetobacter spp., blaOXA-like genes, carbapenemases, tertiary health care center

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42 Biodegradation of Malathion by Acinetobacter baumannii Strain AFA Isolated from Domestic Sewage in Egypt

Authors: Ahmed F. Azmy, Amal E. Saafan, Tamer M. Essam, Magdy A. Amin, Shaban H. Ahmed

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Bacterial strains capable of degradation of malathion from the domestic sewage were isolated by an enrichment culture technique. Three bacterial strains were screened and identified as Acinetobacter baumannii (AFA), Pseudomonas aeruginosae (PS1),andPseudomonas mendocina (PS2) based on morphological, biochemical identification and 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Acinetobacter baumannii AFA was the most efficient malathion degrading bacterium, so used for further biodegradation study. AFA was able to grow in mineral salt medium (MSM) supplemented with malathion (100 mg/l) as a sole carbon source, and within 14 days, 84% of the initial dose was degraded by the isolate measured by high performance liquid chromatography. Strain AFA could also degrade other organophosphorus compounds including diazenon, chlorpyrifos and fenitrothion. The effect of different culture conditions on the degradation of malathion like inoculum density, other carbon or nitrogen sources, temperature and shaking were examined. Degradation of malathion and bacterial cell growth were accelerated when culture media were supplemented with yeast extract, glucose and citrate. The optimum conditions for malathion degradation by strain AFA were; an inoculum density of 1.5x 1012CFU/ml at 30°C with shaking. A specific polymerase chain reaction primers were designed manually using multiple sequence alignment of the corresponding carboxylesterase enzymes of Acinetobacter species. Sequencing result of amplified PCR product and phylogenetic analysis showed low degree of homology with the other carboxylesterase enzymes of Acinetobacter strains, so we suggested that this enzyme is a novel esterase enzyme. Isolated bacterial strains may have potential role for use in bioremediation of malathion contaminated.

Keywords: Acinetobacter baumannii, biodegradation, malathion, organophosphate pesticides

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41 Bioremediation of Phenanthrene by Monocultures and Mixed Culture Bacteria Isolated from Contaminated Soil

Authors: A. Fazilah, I. Darah, I. Noraznawati

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Three different bacteria capable of degrading phenanthrene were isolated from hydrocarbon contaminated site. In this study, the phenanthrene-degrading activity by defined monoculture was determined and mixed culture was identified as Acinetobacter sp. P3d, Bacillus sp. P4a and Pseudomonas sp. P6. All bacteria were able to grow in a minimal salt medium saturated with phenanthrene as the sole source of carbon and energy. Phenanthrene degradation efficiencies by different combinations (consortia) of these bacteria were investigated and their phenanthrene degradation was evaluated by gas chromatography. Among the monocultures, Pseudomonas sp. P6 exhibited 58.71% activity compared to Acinetobacter sp. P3d and Bacillus sp. P4a which were 56.97% and 53.05%, respectively after 28 days of cultivation. All consortia showed high phenanthrene elimination which were 95.64, 79.37, 87.19, 79.21% for Consortia A, B, C and D, respectively. The results indicate that all of the bacteria isolated may effectively degrade target chemical and have a promising application in bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soil purposes.

Keywords: phenanthrene, consortia, acinetobacter sp. P3d, bacillus sp. P4a, pseudomonas sp. P6

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40 Epidemiological Profile of Hospital Acquired Infections Caused by Acinetobacter baumannii in Intensive Care Unit

Authors: A. Dali-Ali, F. Agag, H. Beldjilali, A. Oukebdane, K. Meddeber, R. Dali-Yahia, N. Midoun

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The ability of Acinetobacter baumannii to develop multiple resistances towards to the majority of antibiotics explains the therapeutic difficulties encountered in severe infections. Furthermore, its persistence in the humid or dry environment promotes cross-contamination in intensive care units. The aim of our study was to describe the epidemiological and bacterial resistance profiles of hospital-acquired infections caused by Acinetobacter baumannii in the intensive care unit of our teaching hospital. During the study period (June 3, 2012 to December 31, 2013), 305 patients having duration of hospitalization equal or more than 48 hours were included in the study. Among these, 36 had developed, at least, one health-care associated infection caused by Acinetobacter baumannii. The rate of infected patients was equal to 11.8% (36/305). The rate of cumulative incidence of hospital-acquired pneumonia was the highest (9.2%) followed by central venous catheter infection (1.3%). Analysis of the various antibiotic resistance profile shows that 93.8% of the strains were resistant to imipenem. The nosocomial infection control committee set up a special program not only to reduce the high rates of incidence of these infections but also to descrease the rate of imipenem resistance.

Keywords: Acinetobacer baumannii, epidemiological profile, hospital acquired infections, intensive care unit

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39 Identification and Antibiotic Resistance Rates of Acinetobacter baumannii Strains Isolated from the Respiratory Tract Samples, Obtained from the Different Intensive Care Units

Authors: Recep Kesli, Gulşah Asik, Cengiz Demir, Onur Turkyilmaz

Abstract:

Objective: Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) can cause health-care associated infections, such as bacteremia, urinary tract and wound infections, endocarditis, meningitis, and pneumonia, particularly in intensive care unit patients. In this study, we aimed to evaluate A. baumannii production in sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage and susceptibilities for antibiotics in a 24 months period. Methods: Between October 2013 and September 2015, Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from respiratory tract speciments were evaluated retrospectively. The strains were isolated from the different intensive care units patients. A. baumannii strains were identified by both the conventional methods and aoutomated identification system -VITEK 2 (bio-Merieux, Marcy l’etoile, France). Antibiotic resistance testing was performed by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method according to CLSI criteria. Results: All the ninety isolates included in the study were from respiratory tract specimens. While of all the isolated 90 Acinetobacter baumannii strains were found to be resistant (100%), against ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin and piperacillin/ tazobactam, resistance rates against other tested antibiotics found as follows; meropenem 77, 86%, imipenem 75, 83%, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-STX) 69, 76,6%, gentamicin 51, 56,6% and amikacin 48, 53,3%. Colistin was found as the most effective antibiotic against Acinetobacter baumannii, and there were not found any resistant (0%) strain against colistin. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the no resistance was found in Acinetobacter baumannii against to colistin. High rates of resistance to carbapenems (imipenem and meropenem) and other tested antibiotics (ceftiaxone, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacine, piperacilline-tazobactam, TMP-STX gentamicin and amikacin) also have remarkable resistance rates. There was a significant relationship between demographic features of patients such as age, undergoing mechanical ventilation, length of hospital stay with resistance rates. High resistance rates against antibiotics require implementation of the infection control program and rational use of antibiotics. In the present study, while there were not found colistin resistance, panresistance were found against to ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin and piperacillin/ tazobactam.

Keywords: acinetobacter baumannii, antibiotic resistance, multi drug resistance, intensive care unit

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38 Inhibitory Attributes of Saudi Honey Against Hospital Acquired Methicillin Resistant Staph. aureus (MRSA) and Acinetobacter baumannii

Authors: Al-Hindi Rashad, Alotibi Ibrahim

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The aim of this study was to examine the antibacterial activity of the peroxide components of some locally produced honeys: Toran, Zaitoon (Olive), Shaflah, Saha, Jizan, Rabea Aja, Fakhira, Sedr Aljanoob, Tenhat, Karath and Bareq against two of the drug resistant bacteria; i.e., methicillin resistant Staph. aureus (MRSA, ATCC 43330) and Acinetobacter baumannii. Measurement of the antibacterial activity of honey samples by using the agar well diffusion method was adopted as follows: by using turbidity standard McFaraland 0.5, suspensions of bacterial strains MRSA ATCC 43330 and Acinetobacter baumannii were prepared. By the spreading plate method, 100 µl of the suspension was inoculated onto Muller-Hinton agar medium. On the inoculated agar medium, five wells were made using a sterile cork borer (diameter 5 mm).100 µl of honey dilutions (10%, 30%, 50%, 70% and 100%) were used. The study indicated that the highly effective activity was in some local honey samples such as Toran honey against MRSA, and Shafalah honey against MRSA and Acinetobacter baumannii which showed bactericidal effects at concentrations 70 % to 100 % as well. The majority of local honey samples recorded bacteriostatic effects on MRSA and Acinetobacter baumannii at consternations 50 % and above. In conclusion this investigation indicated that in regard to the majority inhibitory effect on microorganisms, the existing of H2O2 in honey samples together with phenolic content greatly provide a strong antibacterial activities among different types of honey, because in some previous studies the H2O2 content of honey interacts with phenolic content and showed better inhibitory effect than in absent of H2O2.

Keywords: antibacterial activity, honey, hospital acquired, Saudi Arabia

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37 Carrot: A Possible Source of Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter Transmission

Authors: M. Dahiru, O. I. Enabulele

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The research wish to investigate the occurrence of multidrug- resistant Acinetobacter, in carrot and estimate the role of carrot in its transmission, in a rapidly growing urban population. Thus, 50 carrot samples were collected from Jakara wastewater irrigation farms and analyzed on MacConkey agar and screened by Microbact 24E (Oxoid) and susceptibility of isolates tested against 10 commonly used antibiotics. Acinetobacter baumannii and A. lwoffii were isolated in 22.00% and 16% of samples respectively. Resistance to ceporex and penicillin of 36.36% and 27.27% in A. baumannii, and sensitivity to ofloxacin, pefloxacin, gentimycin and co-trimoxazole, were observed. However, for A. lwoffii apart from 37.50% resistance to ceporex, it was also resistant to all other drugs tested. There was a similarity in the resistant shown by A. baumannii and A. lwoffii to fluoroquinolones drugs and β- lactame drugs families in addition to between sulfonamide and animoglycoside demonstrated by A. lwoffii. Interestingly, when resistant similarities to different antibiotics were compared for A. baumannii and A. lwoffii as a whole, significant correlation was observed at P < 0.05 to CPX to NA (46.2%), and SXT to AU (52.6%) respectively, and high multi drug resistance (MDR) of 27.27% and 62.50% by A. baumannii and A. lwoffii respectively and overall MDR of 42.11% in all isolates. The occurrence of multidrug-resistance pathogen in carrot is a serious challenge to public health care, especially in a rapidly growing urban population where subsistence agriculture contributes greatly to urban livelihood and source of vegetables.

Keywords: urban agriculture, public health, fluoroquinolone, sulfonamide, multidrug-resistance

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36 Characterization of β-Lactamases Resistance amongst Acinetobacter Baumannii Isolated from Clinical Samples, Egypt

Authors: Amal Saafan, Kareem Al Sofy, Sameh AbdelGhani, Magdy Amin

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Background: Acinetobacter spp. resistance towards β-lactam antibiotics is mediated mainly by different classes of β-lactamases production; detection of some genes responsible for production of β-lactamases is the objective of the study. Methods: One hundred fifty bacterial isolates were recovered from blood, sputum, and urine specimens from different hospitals in Egypt. Sixty-nine isolate were identified as Acinetobacter baumannii using traditional biochemical tests, CHROM agar, MicroScan and PCR amplification of blaoxa-51like gene. Acinetobacterbaumannii isolates were grouped into carbapenem resistant group (GP1), cefotaxime, ceftazidime and cefoxitin resistant group (GP2) and carbapenem and cephalosporin non-resistant group (GP3). Carbapenemase activity was screened using modified Hodge test (MHT) for GP1.Metallo-β-lactamases screening was performed for MHT positive isolates using double disk synergy test (DDST) and combined disk test (CDT). Amp C activity was screened using Amp C disk test with Tris-EDTA, DDST, and CDT for GP2. Finally, PCR amplification of blaoxa-51like, blaoxa-23like, blaIMP-like, blaVIM-like, and blaADC-like genes was performed for isolates that showed, at least, two positive results of three for both AmpC and carbapenemases phenotypic screening tests (obvious activity), in addition to GP3 (for comparison). Detection of blaoxa-51like and blaADC-like genes preceded by ISAba1 was also performed. Results: Antibiogram of 69 pure Acinetobacter baumannii isolates resulted in 57, 64, and 2 isolates enrolled into GP1, GP2, and GP3, respectively. Carbapenemase activity was shown by 49(85.9%) isolate using MHT. Metallo-β-lactamases screening revealed 32(65.3%) and 35(71.4%) using DDST and CDT, respectively.AmpC activity was shown by 43(67.2%) and 50 (78.1%) isolates using AmpC disk test with Tris-EDTA, and both DDST and CDT, respectively. Twenty-seven isolates showed obvious activity, all of them (100%) were harboring blaoxa-51like and blaADC-like genes, while blaoxa-23like, blaIMP-like andblaVIM-like genes were harbored by 23(85.2%), 9 (33.%) and no isolate respectively. Only 12 (44.4%) isolates harbored blaoxa-51like and blaADC-like genes preceded by ISAba1. GP3 isolates showed only positive blaoxa-51like and blaADC-like genes. Conclusion: It is not possible to correlate resistance with presence of blaoxa-51like and blaADC-like genes and presence of ISAba1 was immediate as transcriptional promoter. A blaoxa-23like gene played an important role in carbapenem resistance when compared with blaIMP-like and blaVIM-like gene.

Keywords: acinetobacter, beta-lactams, resistance, antimicrobial agents

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35 Rejuvenation of Aged Kraft-Cellulose Insulating Paper Used in Transformers

Authors: Y. Jeon, A. Bissessur, J. Lin, P. Ndungu

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Most transformers employ the usage of cellulose paper, which has been chemically modified through the Kraft process that acts as an effective insulator. Cellulose ageing and oil degradation are directly linked to fouling of the transformer and accumulation of large quantities of waste insulating paper. In addition to technical difficulties, this proves costly for power utilities to deal with. Currently there are no cost effective method for the rejuvenation of cellulose paper that has been documented nor proposed, since renewal of used insulating paper is implemented as the best option. This study proposes and contrasts different rejuvenation methods of accelerated aged cellulose insulating paper by chemical and bio-bleaching processes. Of the three bleaching methods investigated, two are, conventional chlorine-based sodium hypochlorite (m/v), and chlorine-free hydrogen peroxide (v/v), whilst the third is a bio-bleaching technique that uses a bacterium isolate, Acinetobacter strain V2. Through chemical bleaching, varying the strengths of the bleaching reagents at 0.3 %, 0.6 %, 0.9 %, 1.2 %, 1.5 % and 1.8 % over 4 hrs. were analyzed. Bio-bleaching implemented a bacterium isolate, Acinetobacter strain V2, to bleach the aged Kraft paper over 4 hrs. The determination of the amount of alpha cellulose, degree of polymerization and viscosity carried out on Kraft-cellulose insulating paper before and after bleaching. Overall the investigated techniques of chemical and bio-bleaching were successful and effective in treating degraded and accelerated aged Kraft-cellulose insulating paper, however, to varying extents. Optimum conditions for chemical bleaching were attained at bleaching strengths of 1.2 % (m/v) NaOCl and 1.5 % (v/v) H2O2 yielding alpha cellulose contents of 82.4 % and 80.7 % and degree of polymerizations of 613 and 616 respectively. Bio-bleaching using Acinetobacter strain V2 proved to be the superior technique with alpha cellulose levels of 89.0 % and a degree of polymerization of 620. Chemical bleaching techniques require careful and controlled clean-up treatments as it is chlorine and hydrogen peroxide based while bio-bleaching is an extremely eco-friendly technique.

Keywords: alpha cellulose, bio-bleaching, degree of polymerization, Kraft-cellulose insulating paper, transformer, viscosity

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34 Removal of Heavy Metals Pb, Zn and Cu from Sludge Waste of Paper Industries Using Biosurfactant

Authors: Nurul Hidayati

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Increasing public awareness of environmental pollution influences the search and development of technologies that help in clean up of organic and inorganic contaminants such as metals. Sludge waste of paper industries as toxic and hazardous material from specific source contains Pb, Zn, and Cu metal from waste soluble ink. An alternative and eco-friendly method of remediation technology is the use of biosurfactants and biosurfactant-producing microorganisms. Soil washing is among the methods available to remove heavy metal from sediments. The purpose of this research is to study effectiveness of biosurfactant with concentration = CMC for the removal of heavy metals, lead, zinc and copper in batch washing test under four different biosurfactant production by microbial origin. Pseudomonas putida T1(8), Bacillus subtilis 3K, Acinetobacter sp, and Actinobacillus sp was grown on mineral salt medium that had been already added with 2% concentration of molasses that it is a low cost application. The samples were kept in a shaker 120 rpm at room temperature for 3 days. Supernatants and sediments of sludge were separated by using a centrifuge and samples from supernatants were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The highest removal of Pb was up to 14,04% by Acinetobacter sp. Biosurfactant of Pseudomonas putida T1(8) have the highest removal for Zn and Cu up to 6,5% and 2,01% respectively. Biosurfactants have a role for removal process of the metals, including wetting, contact of biosurfactant to the surface of the sediments and detachment of the metals from the sediment. Biosurfactant has proven its ability as a washing agent in heavy metals removal from sediments, but more research is needed to optimize the process of removal heavy metals.

Keywords: biosurfactant, removal of heavy metals, sludge waste, paper industries

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33 Determining the Efficacy of Phenol, Sodium Hypochlorite and Ethanol for Inactivation of Carbapenem-Resistant Strain of Acinetobacter baumannii

Authors: Deepika Biswas

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Acinetobacter baumannii, a hospital-acquired pathogen, causes nosocomial infections including pneumonia, urinary tract infection, and secondary meningitis. Carbapenem is most effective antibiotics against it. Its increased resistance to carbapenems has been a rising global concern. Antibiotics such as carbapenem are unable to use on hospital setups to eradicate A. baumannii, hence different concentrations of disinfectants including phenol; sodium hypochlorite and ethanol are increasingly being used. The objective of the present study is to find an effective concentration of above disinfectants against carbapenem-resistant strain RS307 of A. baumannii. Growth kinetics of RS307 has been determined using UV-Vis spectrophotometer in the presence and absence of disinfectants in triplicate and its standard deviation has also been calculated which make the results more reliable. Differential growth curves were plotted, which showed the effective concentration among all the concentrations of phenol, sodium hypochlorite and ethanol. On disc diffusion assay, antimicrobial effect was observed by comparing all the concentrations of disinfectants to check its synergy with imipenem, most effective carbapenem. All the results collectively revealed that 0.5% phenol, 0.5% sodium hypochlorite, and 70% ethanol could preferably be used as disinfectant for hospital setup against the carbapenem-resistant strain of A. baumannii. SDS PAGE analysis showed differential expression in the protein profile of A. baumannii after treatment. The present study highlighted that few disinfectants even in low concentration had shown better antimicrobial activity hence may be recommended for regular use in the hospitals, which will be cost effective and less harmful.

Keywords: Acenatobacter bomunii, phenol, sodium hypoclirite, ethanol, carbapenem resistance, disinfectant

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32 The Locus of Action - Tinted Windows

Authors: Devleminck Steven, Debackere Boris

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This research is about the ways artists and scientists deal with (and endure) new meaning and comprehend and construct the world. The project reflects on the intense connection between comprehension and construction and their place of creation – the ‘locus of action’. It seeks to define a liquid form of understanding and analysis capable of approaching our complex liquid world as discussed by Zygmunt Bauman. The aim is to establish a multi-viewpoint theoretical approach based on the dynamic concept of the Flâneur as introduced by Baudelaire, replacing single viewpoint categorization. This is coupled with the concept of thickening as proposed by Clifford Geertz with its implication of interaction between multi-layers of meaning. Here walking and looking is introduced as a method or strategy, a model or map, providing a framework of understanding in conditions of hybridity and change.

Keywords: action, art, liquid, locus, negotiation, place, science

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31 “The Unbearable Lightness of Being” Book as an Interdisciplinary Study Basis for Students’ Learning Process about Love and Politics at Old Communist Czechoslovakia

Authors: Clarissa Valença Travassos da Silva

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In this article, it is intended to study the book “The unbearable Lightness of Being” by the Czech Republican writer Milan Kundera. The main objective is to be an interdisciplinary study basis for students in the world about love and politics at old communist Czechoslovakia. Love is presented by discussing the relationship between Tomas and Tereza and the discovery of true love. Furthermore, it is debated the Russian invasion in Czechoslovakia and the outcomes of it for the personages, all this related to the contradiction of lightness and heaviness in life. For the production of this didactic material, the researcher based her work on the original book, “The Unbearable Lightness of Being” by Kundera, Milan Kundera’s interviews, Friedrich Nietzche, Zygmunt Bauman and George Orwell, among Brazilian and international articles on the issue.

Keywords: lightness, heaviness, Russia, Czechoslovakia, love

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30 Comparison Study of 70% Ethanol Effect on Direct and Retrival Culture of Contaminated Umblical Cord Tissue for Expansion of Mesenchymal Stem Cells

Authors: Ganeshkumar, Ashika, Valavan, Ramesh, Thangam, Chirayu

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MSCs are found in much higher concentration in the Wharton’s jelly compared to the umbilical cord blood, which is a rich source of hematopoietic stem cells. Umbilical cord tissue is collected at the time of birth; it is processed and stored in liquid nitrogen for future therapeutical purpose. The source of contamination might be either from vaginal tract of mother or from hospital environment or from personal handling during cord tissue sample collection. If the sample were contaminated, decontamination procedure will be done with 70% ethanol (1 minute) in order to avoid sample rejection. Ethanol is effective against a wide range of bacteria, protozoa and fungi and has low toxicity to humans. Among the 1954 samples taken for the study, 24 samples were found to be contaminated with microorganism. The organisms isolated from the positive samples were found to be E. coli, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Pseudomonas aueroginosa, Enterococcus fecalis, Acinetobacter bowmani, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterobacter cloacae, and Proteus mirabilis. Among these organisms 70% ethanol successfully eliminated E. coli, Enterococcus fecalis, Acinetobacter bowmani, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Proteus mirabilis. 70% ethanol was unsuccessful in eliminating Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Pseudomonas aueroginosa, and Enterobacter cloacae. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Pseudomonas aueroginosa have the ability to form biofilm that make them resistant to alcohol. Biofilm act as protective layer for bacteria and which protects them from host defense and antibiotic wash. Finally it was found 70% ethanol wash saved 58.3% cord tissue samples from rejection and it is ineffective against 41% of the samples. The contamination rate can be reduced by maintaining proper aseptic techniques during sample collection and processing.

Keywords: umblical cord tissue, decontamination, 70% ethanol effectiveness, contamination

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29 Evaluation of Antibiotic Resistance and Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases Production Rates of Gram Negative Rods in a University Research and Practice Hospital, 2012-2015

Authors: Recep Kesli, Cengiz Demir, Onur Turkyilmaz, Hayriye Tokay

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Objective: Gram-negative rods are a large group of bacteria, and include many families, genera, and species. Most clinical isolates belong to the family Enterobacteriaceae. Resistance due to the production of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) is a difficulty in the handling of Enterobacteriaceae infections, but other mechanisms of resistance are also emerging, leading to multidrug resistance and threatening to create panresistant species. We aimed in this study to evaluate resistance rates of Gram-negative rods bacteria isolated from clinical specimens in Microbiology Laboratory, Afyon Kocatepe University, ANS Research and Practice Hospital, between October 2012 and September 2015. Methods: The Gram-negative rods strains were identified by conventional methods and VITEK 2 automated identification system (bio-Mérieux, Marcy l’etoile, France). Antibiotic resistance tests were performed by both the Kirby-Bauer disk-diffusion and automated Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (AST, bio-Mérieux, Marcy l’etoile, France) methods. Disk diffusion results were evaluated according to the standards of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Results: Of the totally isolated 1.701 Enterobacteriaceae strains 1434 (84,3%) were Klebsiella pneumoniae, 171 (10%) were Enterobacter spp., 96 (5.6%) were Proteus spp., and 639 Nonfermenting gram negatives, 477 (74.6%) were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 135 (21.1%) were Acinetobacter baumannii and 27 (4.3%) were Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. The ESBL positivity rate of the totally studied Enterobacteriaceae group were 30.4%. Antibiotic resistance rates for Klebsiella pneumoniae were as follows: amikacin 30.4%, gentamicin 40.1%, ampicillin-sulbactam 64.5%, cefepime 56.7%, cefoxitin 35.3%, ceftazidime 66.8%, ciprofloxacin 65.2%, ertapenem 22.8%, imipenem 20.5%, meropenem 20.5 %, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole 50.1%, and for 114 Enterobacter spp were detected as; amikacin 26.3%, gentamicin 31.5%, cefepime 26.3%, ceftazidime 61.4%, ciprofloxacin 8.7%, ertapenem 8.7%, imipenem 12.2%, meropenem 12.2%, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole 19.2 %. Resistance rates for Proteus spp. were: 24,3% meropenem, 26.2% imipenem, 20.2% amikacin 10.5% cefepim, 33.3% ciprofloxacin and levofloxacine, 31.6% ceftazidime, 20% ceftriaxone, 15.2% gentamicin, 26.6% amoxicillin-clavulanate, and 26.2% trimethoprim-sulfamethoxale. Resistance rates of P. aeruginosa was found as follows: Amikacin 32%, gentamicin 42 %, imipenem 43%, merpenem 43%, ciprofloxacin 50%, levofloxacin 52%, cefepim 38%, ceftazidim 63%, piperacillin/tacobactam 85%, for Acinetobacter baumannii; Amikacin 53.3%, gentamicin 56.6 %, imipenem 83%, merpenem 86%, ciprofloxacin 100%, ceftazidim 100%, piperacillin/tacobactam 85 %, colisitn 0 %, and for S. malthophilia; levofloxacin 66.6 % and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxozole 0 %. Conclusions: This study showed that resistance in Gram-negative rods was a serious clinical problem in our hospital and suggested the need to perform typification of the isolated bacteria with susceptibility testing regularly in the routine laboratory procedures. This application guided to empirical antibiotic treatment choices truly, as a consequence of the reality that each hospital shows different resistance profiles.

Keywords: antibiotic resistance, gram negative rods, ESBL, VITEK 2

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28 Epidemiological Profile of Healthcare Associated Infections in Intensive Care Unit

Authors: Abdessamad Dali-Ali, Houaria Beldjillali, Fouzia Agag, Asmaa Oukebdane, Ramzi Tidjani, Arslane Bettayeb, Khadidja Meddeber, Radia Dali-Yahia, Nori Midoun

Abstract:

Healthcare-associated infections are a real public health problem, especially in intensive care units. The aim of our study was to describe the epidemiological profile and to estimate the incidence of these infections at the intensive care unit of our teaching hospital. A prospective study was conducted, from June 2012 to December 2013. During this period, 305 patients having a duration of hospitalization equal or more than 48 hours were included in the study. In terms of the incidence of healthcare associated infections, nosocomial pneumonia occupied the first position with a cumulative incidence rate of 20.0%, followed by bacteremia (5.6%), central venous catheter infections (4%), and urinary tract infections (3%). In the case of isolated microorganisms, Gram-negative bacilli not enterobacteriaceae occupied the first place with 48.5%, followed by enterobacteria (32.1%). Acinetobacter baumannii was the most common germ (27.6%). Our study showed that the rate of health-care-associated infections was relatively high in the intensive care unit. A control program to reduce all infections is a priority for the Infection Control Associated Committee.

Keywords: epidemiological profile, healthcare associated infections, intensive care units, teaching hospital of Oran, Algeria

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27 Antibacterial Activity of the Essential Oil of Origanum glandulosum on Bacterial Strains of Hospital Origin Most Implicated in Nosocomial Infections

Authors: A. Lardjam, R. Mazid, S. Y. Boudghene, A. Izarouken, Y. Dali, N. Djebli, H. Toumi

Abstract:

Origanum glandulosum is an aromatic plant, common in Algeria and widely used by local people for its medicinal properties. The essential oil from this plant, which grows in the west of Algeria, was studied to evaluate and determine its antibacterial activity. The extraction of the essential oil was performed by water steam distillation; the yield obtained from the aerial parts (1.78 %) is interesting, its chromatographic profile revealed by TLC showed the presence of phenolic compounds thymol and carvacrol. The evaluation of the activity of the essential oil of Origanum glandulosum on bacterial strains of hospital origin, ATCC, MRB, and HRB, most implicated in nosocomial infections (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 43300, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Staphylococcus aureus resistant to meticillin, Enterococcus faecium, VA R and R TEC, Acinetobacter baumanii, IMP R and R CAZ, Klebsiella pneumonia carbapenemase-producing) by the method of aromatogramme and micro atmosphere, shows that the antibacterial potency of this oil is very high, expressed by significant inhibition diameters on all strains except Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and low MICs and is characterized by a bactericidal action.

Keywords: antibacterial activity, essential oil, HRB, MBR, nosocomial infections, origanum glandulosum

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26 Prevalence of Uropathogens in Diabetic Patients with Urinary Tract Infection and Antimicrobial Sensitivity Pattern at Bangladesh

Authors: Mohammad Saifuddin, Shahjada Selim

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Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) are prone to develop infection, especially urinary tract infection (UTI) in comparison with non-diabetics. Due to the emergence of multidrug resistant (MDR) uropathogenic strains, the choice of antimicrobial agent is sometimes difficult. This study is designed to reveal the distribution of uropathogens in Diabetic patients and corresponding sensitivity patterns and to correlate the microbiological results with various clinical parameters. A nine-month retrospective review of 100 urine culture reports of Diabetic patients from January 2015 to September 2015 from semiurbanmultispeciality hospital of Feni, Bangladesh were analyzed. Only Diabetic patients were included in this study who were clinically diagnosed as UTI patients with a corresponding urine culture showing a bacterial count of ˃105cfu/ml.Out of 100 patients with UTI, 39 (39%) were male, and 61 (61%) were female. Organisms grown in urine culture were Escherichia coli (64) followed by Klebsiella (11), Proteus (7), Staph Aureus (4), Pseudomonas (4), Acinetobacter (3), Sreptococcus(3), Enterococcus (2 ) and one each of Enterobacter and Fungi. Overall sensitivity pattern in decreasing order of various commonly used antibiotics was Meropenem (89%), Nitrofurantoin (86%), Amikacin (81%), Ceftriaxone (68%), Cefuroxime (61%), Cefixime (39%), Quinolones (28%), Amoxicillin (16%). The significance of the study lies in the determination of common pathogens in diabetic patients with UTI and the resistance pattern of antibiotics so that physicians and pharmacists get the proper information rationalizing the rational use of antibiotics.

Keywords: Bangladesh, Diabetes Mellitus, E. coli, urinary tract infection

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25 ESKAPE Pathogens and Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae from the Environments of Poultry Farms

Authors: Yuvaneswary Veloo, S. A. Syahidiah Thahir, Sakshaleni Rajendiran, Rafiza Shaharudin

Abstract:

ESKAPE comprises six nosocomial pathogens (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter spp.) that exhibit multidrug-resistance (MDR) and virulence. The persistent use of antibiotics in animal husbandry is giving rise to global public health concerns. This study aimed to determine the occurrence of MDR ESKAPE pathogens in poultry farms environments. A total of 131 ESKAPE bacterial isolates were retrieved from soil and effluent samples in 33 poultry farms. VITEK®2 system was used for bacterial identification and susceptibility testing of the isolates. The results showed all K. pneumoniae isolates (n=46) resistant to ampicillin, with 15% (7/46) multidrug-resistant (MDR). There were 8.7% (4/46) exhibiting resistance to penicillin, cephalosporins, and monobactam, labeled as Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL)-producing strains. This is followed by Enterobacter spp. (n=38), whereby all isolates were MDR and Enterococcus faecium (n=35) with 54.3% MDR. The high percentage of MDR-bacteria and presence of ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae indicated the presence of MDR genes in the environment, which posed an alarming threat to the effectiveness of the available antibiotic medicines to treat infectious diseases. Therefore, more comprehensive studies are vital to combat and prevent the spread and development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

Keywords: ESKAPE, multidrug-resistant, environment, poultry

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24 Microbial Contaminants in Drinking Water Collected from Different Regions of Kuwait

Authors: Abu Salim Mustafa

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Water plays a major role in maintaining life on earth, but it can also serve as a matrix for pathogenic organisms, posing substantial health threats to humans. Although, outbreaks of diseases attributable to drinking water may not be common in industrialized countries, they still occur and can lead to serious acute, chronic, or sometimes fatal health consequences. The analysis of drinking water samples from different regions of Kuwait was performed in this study for bacterial and viral contaminations. Drinking tap water samples were collected from 15 different locations of the six Kuwait governorates. All samples were analyzed by confocal microscopy for the presence of bacteria. The samples were cultured in vitro to detect cultivable organisms. DNA was isolated from the cultured organisms and the identity of the bacteria was determined by sequencing the bacterial 16S rRNA genes, followed by BLAST analysis in the database of NCBI, USA. RNA was extracted from water samples and analyzed by real-time PCR for the detection of viruses with potential health risks, i.e. Astrovirus, Enterovirus, Norovirus, Rotavirus, and Hepatitis A. Confocal microscopy showed the presence of bacteria in some water samples. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing of culture grown organisms, followed by BLAST analysis, identified the presence of several non-pathogenic bacterial species. However, one sample had Acinetobacter baumannii, which often causes opportunistic infections in immunocompromised people, but none of the studied viruses could be detected in the drinking water samples analyzed. The results indicate that drinking water samples analyzed from various locations in Kuwait are relatively safe for drinking and do not contain many harmful pathogens.

Keywords: drinking water, microbial contaminant, 16S rDNA, Kuwait

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23 Evaluation of DNA Microarray System in the Identification of Microorganisms Isolated from Blood

Authors: Merih Şimşek, Recep Keşli, Özgül Çetinkaya, Cengiz Demir, Adem Aslan

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Bacteremia is a clinical entity with high morbidity and mortality rates when immediate diagnose, or treatment cannot be achieved. Microorganisms which can cause sepsis or bacteremia are easily isolated from blood cultures. Fifty-five positive blood cultures were included in this study. Microorganisms in 55 blood cultures were isolated by conventional microbiological methods; afterwards, microorganisms were defined in terms of the phenotypic aspects by the Vitek-2 system. The same microorganisms in all blood culture samples were defined in terms of genotypic aspects again by Multiplex-PCR DNA Low-Density Microarray System. At the end of the identification process, the DNA microarray system’s success in identification was evaluated based on the Vitek-2 system. The Vitek-2 system and DNA Microarray system were able to identify the same microorganisms in 53 samples; on the other hand, different microorganisms were identified in the 2 blood cultures by DNA Microarray system. The microorganisms identified by Vitek-2 system were found to be identical to 96.4 % of microorganisms identified by DNA Microarrays system. In addition to bacteria identified by Vitek-2, the presence of a second bacterium has been detected in 5 blood cultures by the DNA Microarray system. It was identified 18 of 55 positive blood culture as E.coli strains with both Vitek 2 and DNA microarray systems. The same identification numbers were found 6 and 8 for Acinetobacter baumanii, 10 and 10 for K.pneumoniae, 5 and 5 for S.aureus, 7 and 11 for Enterococcus spp, 5 and 5 for P.aeruginosa, 2 and 2 for C.albicans respectively. According to these results, DNA Microarray system requires both a technical device and experienced staff support; besides, it requires more expensive kits than Vitek-2. However, this method should be used in conjunction with conventional microbiological methods. Thus, large microbiology laboratories will produce faster, more sensitive and more successful results in the identification of cultured microorganisms.

Keywords: microarray, Vitek-2, blood culture, bacteremia

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22 Rescaling Global Health and International Relations: Globalization of Health in a Low Security Environment

Authors: F. Argurio, F. G. Vaccaro

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In a global environment defined by ever-increasing health issues, in spite of the progress made by modern medicine, this paper seeks to readdress the question of global health in an international relations perspective. The research hypothesis is: the lower the security environment, the higher the spread of communicable diseases. This question will be channeled by re-scaling the connotation of 'global' and 'international' dimension through the theoretical lens of glocalization, a theory by Bauman that starts its analysis from simple systems to get to the most complex ones. Glocalization theory will be operationalized by analyzing health in an armed-conflict context. In this respect, the independent variable 'low security environment' translates into the cases of Syria and Yemen, which provide a clear example of the all-encompassing nature of conflict on national health and the effects on regional development. In fact, Syria and Yemen have been affected by poliomyelitis and cholera outbreaks respectively. The dependent variable will be constructed on said communicable diseases which belong to the families of sanitation-related and vaccine-preventable diseases. The research will be both qualitative and quantitative, based on primary (interviews) and secondary (WHO and other NGO’s reports) sources. The methodology is based on the assessment of the vaccine coverage and case-analysis in time and space using epidemiological data. Moreover, local health facilities’ functioning and efficiency will be studied. The article posits that the intervention and cooperation of international organizations with the local authorities becomes crucial to provide the local populations with their primary health needs. In Yemen, the majority of fatal cholera cases were in the regions controlled by the Houthi rebels, not officially accredited by the International Community. Similarly, the polio outbreak in Syria primarily affected the areas not controlled by the Syrian Arab Republic forces, recognized as the leading interlocutor by the WHO. The jeopardized possibilities to access these countries have been pivotal to the determining the problem in controlling sanitation-related and vaccine preventable diseases. This represents a potential threat to global health.

Keywords: health in conflict-affected areas, cholera, polio, Yemen, Syria, glocalization

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21 Phytochemical Constituents and Bioactive Properties of Glinus oppositifolius (L.) Aug. DC. against Bacterial Pathogens

Authors: Juliana Janet R. Martin-Puzon, Demetrio L. Valle, Windell L. Rivera

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This study aimed to determine the presence of bioactive phytochemical constituents and evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activities of Glinus oppositifolius or carpet weed, a plant valued for its use in traditional medicine and as a vegetable. The leaves, stems, and roots were extracted using chloroform, ethanol, and methanol. Phytochemical screening revealed that the entire G. oppositifolius plant, i.e. roots, stems, and leaves, is a rich source of alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, saponins, sterols, tannins, and triterpenes. The antibacterial activity of the leaf and stem extracts were evaluated through disc diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration, and bactericidal concentration assays against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE), extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing (ESβL+), carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), and metallo-β-lactamase-producing (MβL+) Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii. The leaf extracts revealed antibacterial activities, inhibiting the growth of non-resistant and multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains of the Gram-negative bacteria E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and A. baumanii. In conclusion, the various biological activities of G. oppositifolius, including its antibacterial activity, are due to the presence of diverse bioactive secondary metabolites. The presence of phytochemical compounds in G. oppositifolius is scientific evidence on its use for treatment of many ailments. Thus, the results demonstrate the great potential of the plant as a new, alternative source of antimicrobials and other components with therapeutic value.

Keywords: antibacterial, Glinus oppositifolius, multidrug-resistant, secondary metabolites

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20 Study on the Heavy Oil Degradation Performance and Kinetics of Immobilized Bacteria on Modified Zeolite

Authors: Xiao L Dai, Wen X Wei, Shuo Wang, Jia B Li, Yan Wei

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Heavy oil pollution generated from both natural and anthropogenic sources could cause significant damages to the ecological environment, due to the toxicity of some of its constituents. Nowadays, microbial remediation is becoming a promising technology to treat oil pollution owing to its low cost and prevention of secondary pollution; microorganisms are key players in the process. Compared to the free microorganisms, immobilized microorganisms possess several advantages, including high metabolic activity rates, strong resistance to toxic chemicals and natural competition with the indigenous microorganisms, and effective resistance to washing away (in open water system). Many immobilized microorganisms have been successfully used for bioremediation of heavy oil pollution. Considering the broad choices, low cost, simple process, large specific surface area and less impact on microbial activity, modified zeolite were selected as a bio-carrier for bacteria immobilization. Three strains of heavy oil-degrading bacteria Bacillus sp. DL-13, Brevibacillus sp. DL-1 and Acinetobacter sp. DL-34 were immobilized on the modified zeolite under mild conditions, and the bacterial load (bacteria /modified zeolite) was 1.12 mg/g, 1.11 mg/g, and 1.13 mg/g, respectively. SEM results showed that the bacteria mainly adsorbed on the surface or punctured in the void of modified zeolite. The heavy oil degradation efficiency of immobilized bacteria was 62.96%, higher than that of the free bacteria (59.83%). The heavy oil degradation process of immobilized bacteria accords with the first-order reaction equation, and the reaction rate constant is 0.1483 d⁻¹, which was significantly higher than the free bacteria (0.1123 d⁻¹), suggesting that the immobilized bacteria can rapidly start up the heavy oil degradation and has a high activity of heavy oil degradation. The results suggested that immobilized bacteria are promising technology for bioremediation of oil pollution.

Keywords: heavy oil pollution, microbial remediation, modified zeolite, immobilized bacteria

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19 Antimicrobial Activity of Biosynthesized Silver Nanoparticles Using Different Bacteria

Authors: Malalage Mudara Peiris

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Objectives of the study are: the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumannii and Staphylococcus aureus, characterization of silver nanoparticles and determination of antimicrobial activity against E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, MRSA, and C. Albicans. Methods: E. coli (ATCC 25922), A. baumanii (clinical strain), S. aureus (clinical strain) cultured in nutrient broth medium were used for biosynthesis of AgNPs. Culture conditions (AgNO3 concentration, pH, incubation time and temperature) were optimized. Characterization of synthesized NPs was done by UV-Visible spectroscopy. The antimicrobial activity of the synthesized NPs was studied using the good diffusion assay against E. coli, S. aureus, MRSA (Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus), P. aeruginosa and C. Albicans. Results: All the selected bacteria produced silver nanoparticles at alkaline pH above 0.3 g/L AgNO3 concentration. The optimum reaction temperature was 60oC. According to the UV-Visible spectroscopy, the maximum absorbance was found to be around 420 - 430 nm indicating the presence of AgNPs. According to the good diffusion results, AgNPs produced by S. aureus resulted in the larger zone of inhibition (ZOI) against the selected pathogens, while AgNPs produced by E. coli showed comparatively smaller ZOI. In general, biosynthesized AgNPs were highly effective against gram-negative bacteria compared to gram-positive bacterial and fungal species. Conclusions: Green AgNPs produced by each bacterium show antimicrobial activity against the selected pathogens. AgNPs produced by S. aureus are the most effective NPs among tested AgNPs, while AgNPs produced by E. coli are the least effective. Further characterization of NPs is required to study the physical properties of silver NPs.

Keywords: green nanotechnology, silver nanoparticles, bacteria, antimicrobial activity

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18 A Study on the Microbilogical Profile and Antibiotic Sensitivity Pattern of Bacterial Isolates Causing Urinary Tract Infection in Intensive Care Unit Patients in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Eastern India

Authors: Pampita Chakraborty, Sukumar Mukherjee

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The study was done to determine the microbiological profile and changing pattern of the pathogens causing UTI in the ICU patients. All the patients admitted to the ICU with urinary catheter insertion for more than 48hours were included in the study. Urine samples were collected in a sterile container with aseptic precaution using disposable syringe and was processed as per standards. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was done by Disc Diffusion method as per CLSI guidelines. A total of 100 urine samples were collected from ICU patients, out of which 30% showed significant bacterial growth and 7% showed growth of candida spp. Prevalence of UTI was more in female (73%) than male (27.%). Gram-negative bacilli 26(86.67%) were more common in our study followed by gram-positive cocci 4(13.33%). The most common uropathogens isolated were Escherichia coli 14 (46.67%), followed by Klebsiella spp 7(23.33%), Staphylococcus aureus 4(13.33%), Acinetobacter spp 3(10%), Enterococcus faecalis 1(3.33%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa 1(3.33%). Most of the Gram-negative bacilli were sensitive to amikacin (80%) and nitrofurantoin (80%), where as all gram-positive organisms were sensitive to Vancomycin. A large number ESBL producers were also observed in this study. The study finding showed that E.coli is the predominant pathogen and has increasing resistance pattern to the commonly used antibiotics. The study proposes that the adherence to antibiotic policy is the key ingredients for successful outcome in ICU patients and also emphasizes that repeated evaluation of microbial characteristics and continuous surveillance of resistant bacteria is required for selection of appropriate antibiotic therapy.

Keywords: antimicrobial sensitivity, intensive care unit, nosocomial infection, urinary tract infection

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