Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5426

Search results for: cold gas efficiency

5426 Optimum Design of Heat Exchanger in Diesel Engine Cold EGR for Pollutants Reduction

Authors: Nasser Ghassembaglou, Armin Rahmatfam, Faramarz Ranjbar


Using of cold EGR method with variable venturi and turbocharger has a very significant affection on the reduction of NOX and grime simultaneously. EGR cooler is one of the most important parts in the cold EGR circuit. In this paper optimum design of cooler for working in different percents of EGR and for determining of optimum temperature of exhausted gases, growth of efficiency, reduction of weight, reduction of dimension and expenditures, and reduction of sediment and optimum performance by using gas oil which has significant amounts of brimstone are investigated and optimized.

Keywords: cold EGR, NOX, cooler, gas oil

Procedia PDF Downloads 348
5425 Gasification of Groundnut Shell in an Air Bubbling Fluidized Bed Gasifier

Authors: Dharminer Singh, Sanjeev Yadav, Pravakar Mohanty


In this work, gasification of groundnut shell was carried out in an air bubbling fluidized bed gasifier. Atmospheric air used as gasification agent in the gasifier. The groundnut shell used for gasification was in powder form and the locally available river sand was used as bed material. Conventional charcoal was used for heating sand bed. Two cyclones were used for proper segregation of char particles and for proper cleaning and cooling the product gas. Experiments were performed on different equivalence ratio (ER) 0.3 - 0.33 by varying feeding rate 36 - 32.8 kg/h of biomass and by keeping the air flow rate constant at bed temperature between 700 °C – 800 °C. Performance of gasifier was evaluated on the basis of different parameters such as cold gas efficiency, carbon conversion efficiency (CCE), Tar and Suspended particles matter (SPM) generation, gas yield, and Higher heating value (HHV) of gas. The optimal ER value for gasification of groundnut shell (GNS) powder in an air bubbling fluidized bed gasifier was found to be 0.31. Cold gas efficiency and CCE value at optimal ER was found to be 63.7 %, and 91 %, respectively. Concentration of Tar and SPM, HHV of gas, and gas yield at optimal ER was found to be 11.88 g/Nm3, 2.38 MJ/Nm3, and 2.01m3/kg, respectively. In the product gas, concentrations of CO, CO2, CH4 and H2 were found to be 12.94%, 13.5%, 5.74% and 13.77%, respectively. At ER 0.31, it was observed that bed temperature of gasifier was in steady state for long time at 714 °C with 5 – 10 °C fluctuation.

Keywords: air bubbling fluidized bed gasifier, groundnut shell powder, equivalence ratio (ER), cold gas efficiency, carbon conversion efficiency (CCE), high heating value (HHV)

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5424 Cold Spray Fabrication of Coating for Highly Corrosive Environment

Authors: Harminder Singh


Cold spray is a novel and emerging technology for the fabrication of coating. In this study, coating is successfully developed by this process on superalloy surface. The selected coating composition is already proved as corrosion resistant. The microstructure of the newly developed coating is examined by various characterization techniques, for testing its suitability for high temperature corrosive conditions of waste incinerator. The energy producing waste incinerators are still running at low efficiency, mainly due to their chlorine based highly corrosive conditions. The characterization results show that the developed cold sprayed coating structure is suitable for its further testing in highly aggressive conditions.

Keywords: coating, cold spray, corrosion, microstructure

Procedia PDF Downloads 262
5423 Power Efficiency Characteristics of Magnetohydrodynamic Thermodynamic Gas Cycle

Authors: Mahmoud Huleihil


In this study, the performance of a thermodynamic gas cycle of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generation is considered and presented in terms of power efficiency curves. The dissipation mechanisms considered include: fluid friction modeled by means of the isentropic efficiency of the compressor, heat transfer leakage directly from the hot reservoir to the cold heat reservoir, and constant velocity of the MHD generator. The study demonstrates that power and efficiency vanish at the extremes of both slow and fast operating conditions. These points are demonstrated on power efficiency curves and the locus of efficiency at maximum power and the locus of maximum efficiency. Qualitatively, the considered loss mechanisms have a similar effect on the efficiency at maximum power operation and on maximum efficiency operation, thus these efficiencies are reduced, even for small values of the loss mechanisms.

Keywords: magnetohydrodynamic generator, electrical efficiency, maximum power, maximum efficiency, heat engine

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
5422 Comparison Physicochemical Properties of Hexane Extracted Aniseed Oil from Cold Press Extraction Residue and Cold Press Aniseed Oil

Authors: Derya Ören, Şeyma Akalın


Cold pres technique is a traditional method to obtain oil. The cold-pressing procedure, involves neither heat nor chemical treatments, so cold press technique has low oil yield and cold pressed herbal material residue still contains some oil. In this study, the oil that is remained in the cold pressed aniseed extracted with hegzan and analysed to determine physicochemical properties and quality parameters. It is found that the aniseed after cold press process contains % 10 oil. Other analysis parametres free fatty acid (FFA) is 2,1 mgKOH/g, peroxide value is 7,6 meq02/kg. Cold pressed aniseed oil values are determined for fatty acid (FFA) value as 2,1 mgKOH/g, peroxide value 4,5 meq02/kg respectively. Also fatty acid composition is analysed, it is found that both of these oil have same fatty acid composition. The main fatty acids are; oleic, linoleic, and palmitic acids.

Keywords: aniseed oil, cold press, extraction, residue

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
5421 Cold Spray Coating and Its Application for High Temperature

Authors: T. S. Sidhu


Amongst the existing coatings methods, the cold spray is new upcoming process to deposit coatings. As from the name itself, the cold spray coating takes place at very low temperature as compare to other thermal spray coatings. In all other thermal spray coating process the partial melting of the coating powder particles takes place before deposition, but cold spray process takes place in solid state. In cold spray process, the bonding of coating power with substrate is not metallurgical as in other thermal spray processes. Due to supersonic speed and less temperature of spray particles, solid state, dense, and oxide free coatings are produced. Due to these characteristics, the cold spray coatings have been used to protect the materials against hot corrosion. In the present study, the cold spray process, cold spray fundaments, its types, and its applications for high temperatures are discussed in the light of presently available literature. In addition, the assessment of cold spray with the competitive technologies has been conferred with available literature.

Keywords: cold spray coating, hot corrosion, thermal spray coating, high-temperature materials

Procedia PDF Downloads 100
5420 Hot Face of Cold War: 007 James Bond

Authors: Günevi Uslu Evren


Propaganda is one of the most effective methods for changing individual and mass opinions. Propaganda tries to get the message across to people or masses to effect rather than to provide objective information. There are many types of propaganda. Especially, political propaganda is a very powerful method that is used by states during in both war and peace. The aim of this method is to create a reaction against them by showing within the framework of internal and external enemies. Propaganda can be practiced by many different methods. Especially during the Cold War Era, the US and USSR have tried to create an ideological effect by using the mass media intensively. Cinema, which is located at the beginning of these methods, is the most powerful weapon to influence the masses. In this study, the historical process of the Cold War is examined. Especially, these propagandas that had been used by United States and The Soviet Union were investigated. The purposes of propaganda and construction methods were presented. Cold War events and relations between the US and the USSR during the Cold War will be discussed. Outlooks of two countries to each other during the Cold War, propaganda techniques used defectively during Cold War and how to use the cinema as a propaganda tool will be examined. The film "From Russia with Love, James Bond 007" that was filmed in Cold War were examined to explain how cinema was used as a propaganda tool in this context.

Keywords: cinema, cold war, James Bond, propaganda

Procedia PDF Downloads 341
5419 Effects of ECCS on the Cold-Leg Fluid Temperature during SGTR Accidents

Authors: Tadashi Watanabe


The LSTF experiment simulating the SGTR accident at the Mihama Unit-2 reactor is analyzed using the RELAP5/MOD3.3 code. In the accident and thus in the experiment, the ECC water was injected not only into the cold legs but into the upper plenum. Overall transients during the experiment such as pressures and fluid temperatures are simulated well by the code. The cold-leg fluid temperatures are shown to decrease if the upper plenum injection system is connected to the cold leg. It is found that the cold-leg fluid temperatures also decrease if the upper-plenum injection is not used and the cold-leg injection alone is actuated.


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5418 The Physics of Cold Spray Technology

Authors: Ionel Botef


Studies show that, for qualitative coatings, the knowledge of cold spray technology must focus on a variety of interdisciplinary fields and a framework for problem solving. The integrated disciplines include, but are not limited to, engineering, material sciences, and physics. Due to its importance, the purpose of this paper is to summarize the state of the art of this technology alongside its theoretical and experimental studies, and explore the role and impact of physics upon cold spraying technology.

Keywords: surface engineering, cold spray, physics, modelling

Procedia PDF Downloads 420
5417 Evaluation of Possible Application of Cold Energy in Liquefied Natural Gas Complexes

Authors: А. I. Dovgyalo, S. O. Nekrasova, D. V. Sarmin, A. A. Shimanov, D. A. Uglanov


Usually liquefied natural gas (LNG) gasification is performed due to atmospheric heat. In order to produce a liquefied gas a sufficient amount of energy is to be consumed (about 1 kW∙h for 1 kg of LNG). This study offers a number of solutions, allowing using a cold energy of LNG. In this paper it is evaluated the application turbines installed behind the evaporator in LNG complex due to its work additional energy can be obtained and then converted into electricity. At the LNG consumption of G=1000kg/h the expansion work capacity of about 10 kW can be reached. Herewith-open Rankine cycle is realized, where a low capacity cryo-pump (about 500W) performs its normal function, providing the cycle pressure. Additionally discussed an application of Stirling engine within the LNG complex also gives a possibility to realize cold energy. Considering the fact, that efficiency coefficient of Stirling engine reaches 50 %, LNG consumption of G=1000 kg/h may result in getting a capacity of about 142 kW of such a thermal machine. The capacity of the pump, required to compensate pressure losses when LNG passes through the hydraulic channel, will make 500 W. Apart from the above-mentioned converters, it can be proposed to use thermoelectric generating packages (TGP), which are widely used now. At present, the modern thermoelectric generator line provides availability of electric capacity with coefficient of efficiency up to 15%. In the proposed complex, it is suggested to install the thermoelectric generator on the evaporator surface is such a way, that the cold end is contacted with the evaporator’s surface, and the hot one – with the atmosphere. At the LNG consumption of G=1000 kgг/h and specified coefficient of efficiency the capacity of the heat flow Qh will make about 32 kW. The derivable net electric power will be P=4,2 kW, and the number of packages will amount to about 104 pieces. The carried out calculations demonstrate the research perceptiveness in this field of propulsion plant development, as well as allow realizing the energy saving potential with the use of liquefied natural gas and other cryogenics technologies.

Keywords: cold energy, gasification, liquefied natural gas, electricity

Procedia PDF Downloads 203
5416 Measurement of Reverse Flow Generated at Cold Exit of Vortex Tube

Authors: Mohd Hazwan bin Yusof, Hiroshi Katanoda


In order to clarify the structure of the cold flow discharged from the vortex tube (VT), the pressure of the cold flow was measured, and a simple flow visualization technique using a 0.75 mm-diameter needle and an oily paint is made to study the reverse flow at the cold exit. It is clear that a negative pressure and positive pressure region exist at a certain pressure and cold fraction area, and that a reverse flow is observed in the negative pressure region.

Keywords: flow visualization, pressure measurement, reverse flow, vortex tube

Procedia PDF Downloads 347
5415 RFID Logistic Management with Cold Chain Monitoring: Cold Store Case Study

Authors: Mira Trebar


Logistics processes of perishable food in the supply chain include the distribution activities and the real time temperature monitoring to fulfil the cold chain requirements. The paper presents the use of RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) technology as an identification tool of receiving and shipping activities in the cold store. At the same time, the use of RFID data loggers with temperature sensors is presented to observe and store the temperatures for the purpose of analyzing the processes and having the history data available for traceability purposes and efficient recall management.

Keywords: logistics, warehouse, RFID device, cold chain

Procedia PDF Downloads 432
5414 Residual Life Estimation of K-out-of-N Cold Standby System

Authors: Qian Zhao, Shi-Qi Liu, Bo Guo, Zhi-Jun Cheng, Xiao-Yue Wu


Cold standby redundancy is considered to be an effective mechanism for improving system reliability and is widely used in industrial engineering. However, because of the complexity of the reliability structure, there is little literature studying on the residual life of cold standby system consisting of complex components. In this paper, a simulation method is presented to predict the residual life of k-out-of-n cold standby system. In practical cases, failure information of a system is either unknown, partly unknown or completely known. Our proposed method is designed to deal with the three scenarios, respectively. Differences between the procedures are analyzed. Finally, numerical examples are used to validate the proposed simulation method.

Keywords: cold standby system, k-out-of-n, residual life, simulation sampling

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
5413 A Novel Cold Asphalt Concrete Mixture for Heavily Trafficked Binder Course

Authors: Anmar Dulaimi, Hassan Al Nageim, Felicite Ruddock, Linda Seton


Cold bituminous asphalt mixture (CBEM) provide a sustainable, cost effective and energy efficiency alternative to traditional hot mixtures. However, these mixtures have a comparatively low initial strength and as it is considered as evolutionary materials, mainly in the early life where the initial cohesion is low and builds up slowly. On the other hand, asphalt concrete is, by far, the most common mixtures in use as binder course and base in road pavement in the UK having a continuous grade offer a good aggregate interlock results in this material having very good load-spreading properties as well as a high resistance to permanent deformation. This study aims at developing a novel fast curing cold asphalt concrete binder course mixtures by using Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) as a replacement to conventional mineral filler (0%-100%) while new by-product material (LJMU-A2) was used as a supplementary cementitious material. With this purpose, cold asphalt concrete binder course mixtures with cationic emulsions were studied by means of stiffness modulus whereas water sensitivity was approved by assessing the stiffness modulus ratio before and after sample conditioning. The results indicate that a substantial enhancement in the stiffness modulus and a considerable improvement of water sensitivity resistance by adding of LJMU-A2 to the cold asphalt mixtures as a supplementary cementitious material. Moreover, the addition of LJMU-A2 to those mixtures leads to stiffness modulus after 2- day curing comparable to those obtained with Portland cement after 7-day curing.

Keywords: cold mix asphalt, binder course, cement, stiffness modulus, water sensitivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 201
5412 Cascaded Transcritical/Supercritical CO2 Cycles and Organic Rankine Cycles to Recover Low-Temperature Waste Heat and LNG Cold Energy Simultaneously

Authors: Haoshui Yu, Donghoi Kim, Truls Gundersen


Low-temperature waste heat is abundant in the process industries, and large amounts of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) cold energy are discarded without being recovered properly in LNG terminals. Power generation is an effective way to utilize low-temperature waste heat and LNG cold energy simultaneously. Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs) and CO2 power cycles are promising technologies to convert low-temperature waste heat and LNG cold energy into electricity. If waste heat and LNG cold energy are utilized simultaneously in one system, the performance may outperform separate systems utilizing low-temperature waste heat and LNG cold energy, respectively. Low-temperature waste heat acts as the heat source and LNG regasification acts as the heat sink in the combined system. Due to the large temperature difference between the heat source and the heat sink, cascaded power cycle configurations are proposed in this paper. Cascaded power cycles can improve the energy efficiency of the system considerably. The cycle operating at a higher temperature to recover waste heat is called top cycle and the cycle operating at a lower temperature to utilize LNG cold energy is called bottom cycle in this study. The top cycle condensation heat is used as the heat source in the bottom cycle. The top cycle can be an ORC, transcritical CO2 (tCO2) cycle or supercritical CO2 (sCO2) cycle, while the bottom cycle only can be an ORC due to the low-temperature range of the bottom cycle. However, the thermodynamic path of the tCO2 cycle and sCO2 cycle are different from that of an ORC. The tCO2 cycle and the sCO2 cycle perform better than an ORC for sensible waste heat recovery due to a better temperature match with the waste heat source. Different combinations of the tCO2 cycle, sCO2 cycle and ORC are compared to screen the best configurations of the cascaded power cycles. The influence of the working fluid and the operating conditions are also investigated in this study. Each configuration is modeled and optimized in Aspen HYSYS. The results show that cascaded tCO2/ORC performs better compared with cascaded ORC/ORC and cascaded sCO2/ORC for the case study.

Keywords: LNG cold energy, low-temperature waste heat, organic Rankine cycle, supercritical CO₂ cycle, transcritical CO₂ cycle

Procedia PDF Downloads 85
5411 Performance of an Absorption Refrigerator Using a Solar Thermal Collector

Authors: Abir Hmida, Nihel Chekir, Ammar Ben Brahim


In the present paper, we investigate the feasibility of a thermal solar driven cold room in Gabes, southern region of Tunisia. The cold room of 109 m3 is refrigerated using an ammonia absorption machine. It is destined to preserve dates during the hot months of the year. A detailed study of the cold room leads previously to the estimation of the cooling load of the proposed storage room in the operating conditions of the region. The next step consists of the estimation of the required heat in the generator of the absorption machine to ensure the desired cold temperature. A thermodynamic analysis was accomplished and complete description of the system is determined. We propose, here, to provide the needed heat thermally from the sun by using vacuum tube collectors. We found that at least 21m² of solar collectors are necessary to accomplish the work of the solar cold room.

Keywords: absorption, ammonia, cold room, solar collector, vacuum tube

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5410 3D CFD Modelling of the Airflow and Heat Transfer in Cold Room Filled with Dates

Authors: Zina Ghiloufi, Tahar Khir


A transient three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model is developed to determine the velocity and temperature distribution in different positions cold room during pre-cooling of dates. The turbulence model used is the k-ω Shear Stress Transport (SST) with the standard wall function, the air. The numerical results obtained show that cooling rate is not uniform inside the room; the product at the medium of room has a slower cooling rate. This cooling heterogeneity has a large effect on the energy consumption during cold storage.

Keywords: CFD, cold room, cooling rate, dDates, numerical simulation, k-ω (SST)

Procedia PDF Downloads 102
5409 Cold Formed Steel Sections: Analysis, Design and Applications

Authors: A. Saha Chaudhuri, D. Sarkar


In steel construction, there are two families of structural members. One is hot rolled steel and another is cold formed steel. Cold formed steel section includes steel sheet, strip, plate or flat bar. Cold formed steel section is manufactured in roll forming machine by press brake or bending operation. Cold formed steel (CFS), also known as Light Gauge Steel (LGS). As cold formed steel is a sustainable material, it is widely used in green building. Cold formed steel can be recycled and reused with no degradation in structural properties. Cold formed steel structures can earn credits for green building ratings such as LEED and similar programs. Cold formed steel construction satisfies international demand for better, more efficient and affordable buildings. Cold formed steel sections are used in building, car body, railway coach, various types of equipment, storage rack, grain bin, highway product, transmission tower, transmission pole, drainage facility, bridge construction etc. Various shapes of cold formed steel sections are available, such as C section, Z section, I section, T section, angle section, hat section, box section, square hollow section (SHS), rectangular hollow section (RHS), circular hollow section (CHS) etc. In building construction cold formed steel is used as eave strut, purlin, girt, stud, header, floor joist, brace, diaphragm and covering for roof, wall and floor. Cold formed steel has high strength to weight ratio and high stiffness. Cold formed steel is non shrinking and non creeping at ambient temperature, it is termite proof and rot proof. CFS is durable, dimensionally stable and non combustible material. CFS is economical in transportation and handling. At present days cold formed steel becomes a competitive building material. In this paper all these applications related present research work are described and how the CFS can be used as blast resistant structural system that is examined.

Keywords: cold form steel sections, applications, present research review, blast resistant design

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5408 Development of a Testing Rig for a Cold Formed-Hot Rolled Steel Hybrid Wall Panel System

Authors: Mina Mortazavi, Hamid Ronagh, Pezhman Sharafi


The new concept of a cold formed-hot rolled hybrid steel wall panel system is introduced to overcome the deficiency in lateral load resisting capacity of cold-formed steel structures. The hybrid system is composed of a cold-formed steel part laterally connected to hot rolled part. The hot rolled steel part is responsible for carrying the whole lateral load; while the cold formed steel part is only required to transfer the lateral load to the hot rolled part without any local failure. The vertical load is beared by both hot rolled, and cold formed steel part, proportionally. In order to investigate the lateral performance of the proposed system, it should be tested under simultaneous lateral and vertical load. The main concern is to deliver the loads to each part during the test to simulate the real load distribution in the structure. In this paper, a detailed description of the proposed wall panel system and the designed testing rig is provided.

Keywords: cold-formed steel, hybrid system, wall panel system, testing rig design

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5407 Investigation of the Working Processes in Thermocompressor Operating on Cryogenic Working Fluid

Authors: Evgeny V. Blagin, Aleksandr I. Dovgjallo, Dmitry A. Uglanov


This article deals with research of the working process in the thermocompressor which operates on cryogenic working fluid. Thermocompressor is device suited for the conversation of heat energy directly to the potential energy of pressure. Suggested thermocompressor is suited for operation during liquid natural gas (LNG) re-gasification and is placed after evaporator. Such application of thermocompressor allows using of the LNG cold energy for rising of working fluid pressure, which then can be used for electricity generation or another purpose. Thermocompressor consists of two chambers divided by the regenerative heat exchanger. Calculation algorithm for unsteady calculation of thermocompressor working process was suggested. The results of this investigation are to change of thermocompressor’s chambers temperature and pressure during the working cycle. These distributions help to find out the parameters, which significantly influence thermocompressor efficiency. These parameters include regenerative heat exchanger coefficient of the performance (COP) dead volume of the chambers, working frequency of the thermocompressor etc. Exergy analysis was performed to estimate thermocompressor efficiency. Cryogenic thermocompressor operated on nitrogen working fluid was chosen as a prototype. Calculation of the temperature and pressure change was performed with taking into account heat fluxes through regenerator and thermocompressor walls. Temperature of the cold chamber significantly differs from the results of steady calculation, which is caused by friction of the working fluid in regenerator and heat fluxes from the hot chamber. The rise of the cold chamber temperature leads to decreasing of thermocompressor delivery volume. Temperature of hot chamber differs negligibly because losses due to heat fluxes to a cold chamber are compensated by the friction of the working fluid in the regenerator. Optimal working frequency was selected. Main results of the investigation: -theoretical confirmation of thermocompressor operation capability on the cryogenic working fluid; -optimal working frequency was found; -value of the cold chamber temperature differs from the starting value much more than the temperature of the hot chamber; -main parameters which influence thermocompressor performance are regenerative heat exchanger COP and heat fluxes through regenerator and thermocompressor walls.

Keywords: cold energy, liquid natural gas, thermocompressor, regenerative heat exchanger

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5406 Assessment of Relationships between Agro-Morphological Traits and Cold Tolerance in Faba Bean (vicia faba l.) and Wild Relatives

Authors: Nisa Ertoy Inci, Cengiz Toker


Winter or autumn-sown faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is one the most efficient ways to overcome drought since faba bean is usually grown under rainfed where drought and high-temperature stresses are the main growth constraints. The objectives of this study were assessment of (i) relationships between cold tolerance and agro-morphological traits, and (ii) the most suitable agro-morphological trait(s) under cold conditions. Three species of the genus Vicia L. includes 109 genotypes of faba bean (Vicia faba L.), three genotypes of narbon bean (V. narbonensis L.) and two genotypes of V. montbretii Fisch. & C.A. Mey. Davis and Plitmann were sown in autumn at highland of Mediterranean region of Turkey. All relatives of faba bean were more cold-tolerant than the faba bean genotypes. Three faba bean genotypes, ACV-42, ACV-84 and ACV-88, were selected as sources of cold tolerance under field conditions. Path and correlation coefficients and factor and principal component analyses indicated that biological yield should be evaluated in selection for cold tolerance under cold conditions ahead of many agro-morphological traits. The seed weight should be considered for selection in early breeding generations because they had the highest heritability.

Keywords: cold tolerance, faba bean, narbon bean, selection

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5405 The Role and Impact of Cold Spray Technology on Surface Engineering

Authors: Ionel Botef


Studies show that, for viable product realisation and maintenance, a spectrum of novel processing technologies and materials to improve performance and reduce costs and environmental impact must constantly be addressed. One of these technologies, namely the cold spray process, has enabled a broad range of coatings and applications, including many that have not been previously possible or commercially practical, hence its potential for new aerospace, electronics, or medical applications. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to summarise the state of the art of this technology alongside its theoretical and experimental studies, and explore the role and impact of cold spraying on surface engineering.

Keywords: surface engineering, cold spray, ageing aircrafts, corrosion, microchannels, maintenance

Procedia PDF Downloads 505
5404 Compare Hot Forming and Cold Forming in Rolling Process

Authors: Ali Moarrefzadeh


In metalworking, rolling is a metal forming process in which metal stock is passed through a pair of rolls. Rolling is classified according to the temperature of the metal rolled. If the temperature of the metal is above its recrystallization temperature, then the process is termed as hot rolling. If the temperature of the metal is below its recrystallization temperature, the process is termed as cold rolling. In terms of usage, hot rolling processes more tonnage than any other manufacturing process, and cold rolling processes the most tonnage out of all cold working processes. This article describes the use of advanced tubing inspection NDT methods for boiler and heat exchanger equipment in the petrochemical industry to supplement major turnaround inspections. The methods presented include remote field eddy current, magnetic flux leakage, internal rotary inspection system and eddy current.

Keywords: hot forming, cold forming, metal, rolling, simulation

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5403 Evaluation of Polyphenolics Compounds in Cold Brewed Indian Tea

Authors: Chandrima Das, Sirshendu Chatterjee


Tea (Camellia sinensis) is known as nature's low calorie wonder drink. Since ancient times hot consumptions of tea is very much popular. We have observed that many heat sensitive secondary metabolites which get destroyed on heating, moreover by people, who are permanently live at higher altitude or the members of high altitude expedition team, are deprived of various tea brewing facilities like electricity, fuel, etc. and the hence cold decoction of tea might be a good alternative. In this backdrop present study aims at the analysis of antioxidants like polyphenols, flavonoids and free radical scavenging activity as well as the l-theanine concentration of different types of cold brewed teas like black, green, white and oolong and compared with its hot decoction. Further, we also analysed in details about the bioactive components by using HPLC followed by green synthesis of nanoparticles. The study highlighted that the difference between the concentration of antioxidant in cold and hot brewed tea is insignificant and hence intake of cold decoction will be beneficial to health.

Keywords: antioxidants, flavanoid, polyphenols, HPLC, nanoparticles

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5402 BTEX (Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene and Xylene) Degradation by Cold Plasma

Authors: Anelise Leal Vieira Cubas, Marina de Medeiros Machado, Marília de Medeiros Machado


The volatile organic compounds - BTEX (Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, and Xylene) petroleum derivatives, have high rates of toxicity, which may carry consequences for human health, biota and environment. In this direction, this paper proposes a method of treatment of these compounds by using corona discharge plasma technology. The efficiency of the method was tested by analyzing samples of BTEX after going through a plasma reactor by gas chromatography method. The results show that the optimal residence time of the sample in the reactor was 8 minutes.

Keywords: BTEX, degradation, cold plasma, ecological sciences

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
5401 Effects of Exercise in the Cold on Glycolipid Metabolism and Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Rats

Authors: Chaoge Wang, Xiquan Weng, Yan Meng, Wentao Lin


Objective: Cold exposure and exercise serve as two physiological stimuli to glycolipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity. So far, it remains to be elucidated whether exercise plus cold exposure can produce an addictive effect on promoting glycolipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity. Methods: 64 SD rats were subjected to high-fat and high-sugar diets for 9-week and sucessfully to establish an obesity model. They were randomly divided into 8 groups: normal control group (NC), normal exercise group (NE), continuous cold control group (CC), continuous cold exercise group (CE), acute clod control group (AC), acute cold exercise group (AE), intermittent cold control group (IC) and intermittent cold exercise group (IE). For continuous cold exposure, the rats stayed in a cold environment all day; for acute cold exposure, the rats were exposed to cold for only 4h before the end of the experiment; for intermittent cold exposure, the rats were exposed to cold for 4h per day. The protocol for treadmill runnings were as follows: 25m/min (speed), 0°C (slope), 30 mins each time, an interval for 10 mins between two runnings, twice/two days, lasting for 5 weeks. Sampling were conducted on the 5th weekend. Blood lipids, free fatty acids, blood glucose (FBG), and serum insulin (FINS) were examined, and the insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR = FBG (mmol/L)×FINS(mIU/L)/22.5) was calculated. SPSS 22.0 was used for statistical analysis of the experimental results, and the ANOVA analysis was performed between groups (p < 0.05 was significant). Results: (1) Compared with the NC group, the FBG of the rats was significantly declined in the NE, CE, AC, AE, and IE groups (p < 0.05), the FINS of the rats was significantly declined in the AE group (p < 0.05), the HOMA-IR of the rats was significantly declined in the NE, CE, AC, AE and IE groups (p < 0.05). Compared with the NE group, the FBG of the rats was significantly declined in the CE, AE, and IE groups (p < 0.05), the FINS and HOMA-IR of the rats were significantly declined in the AE group (p < 0.05). (2) Compared with the NC group, the CHO, TG, LDL-C, and FFA of the rats were significantly declined in CE and IE groups (p < 0.05), the HDL-C of the rats was significantly higher in NE, CC, CE, AE, and IE groups (p < 0.05). Compared with the NE group, the HDL-C of the rats was significantly higher in the CE and IE groups (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Sedentariness or exercise in the acute cold doesn't make sense in the treatment of type 2 diabetes, which led to one-off increases of the body's insulin sensitivity. Exercise in the continuous and intermittent cold can effectively decline the FBG, TC, TG, LDL-C, and FFA levels and increase the HDL-C level and insulin sensitivity in obese rats. These results can impact the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes.

Keywords: cold, exercise, insulin sensitivity, obesity

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5400 A Novel Technological Approach to Maintaining the Cold Chain during Transportation

Authors: Philip J. Purnell


Innovators propose to use the Internet of Things to solve the problem of maintaining the cold chain during the transport of biopharmaceutical products. Sending a data logger with refrigerated goods is only useful to inform the recipient of the goods that they have either breached the cold chain and are therefore potentially spoiled or that they have not breached it and are therefore assumed to be in good condition. Connecting the data logger to the Internet of Things means that the supply chain manager will be informed in real-time of the exact location and the precise temperature of the material at any point on earth. Readable using a simple online interface, the supply chain manager will watch the progress of their material on a Google map together with accurate and crucially real-time temperature readings. The data logger will also send alarms to the supply chain manager if a cold chain breach becomes imminent allowing them time to contact the transporter and restore the cold chain before the material is affected. This development is expected to save billions of dollars in wasted biologics that currently arrive either spoiled or in an unreliable condition.

Keywords: internet of things, cold chain, data logger, transportation

Procedia PDF Downloads 317
5399 Modeling of Cold Tube Drawing with a Fixed Plug by Finite Element Method and Determination of Optimum Drawing Parameters

Authors: E. Yarar, E. A. Guven, S. Karabay


In this study, a comprehensive simulation was made for the cold tube drawing with fixed plug. The cold tube drawing process is preferred due to its high surface quality and the high mechanical properties. In drawing processes applied to materials with low plastic deformability, cracks can occur on the surfaces and the process efficiency decreases. The aim of the work is to investigate the effects of different drawing parameters on drawing forces and stresses. In the simulations, optimum conditions were investigated for four different materials, Ti64Al4V, AA5052, AISI4140, and C365. One of the most important parameters for the cold drawing process is the die angle. Three dies were designed for the analysis with semi die angles of 5°, 10°, and 15°. Three different parameters were used for the friction coefficient between die and the material. In the simulations, reduction of area and the drawing speed is kept constant. Drawing is done in one pass. According to the simulation results, the highest drawing forces were obtained in Ti64Al4V. As the semi die angle increases, the drawing forces decrease. The change in semi die angle was most effective on Ti64Al4V. Increasing the coefficient of friction is another effect that increases the drawing forces. The increase in the friction coefficient has also increased in drawing stresses. The increase in die angle also increased the drawing stress distribution for the other three materials outside C365. According to the results of the analysis, it is found that the designed drawing die is suitable for drawing. The lowest drawing stress distribution and drawing forces were obtained for AA5052. Drawing die parameters have a direct effect on the results. In addition, lubricants used for drawing have a significant effect on drawing forces.

Keywords: cold tube drawing, drawing force, drawing stress, semi die angle

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5398 Recommendation of Semi Permanent Buildings for Tsunami Prone Areas

Authors: Fitri Nugraheni, Adwitya Bhaskara, N. Faried Hanafi


Coastal is one area that can be a place to live. Various buildings can be built in the area around the beach. Many Indonesians use beaches as housing and work, but we know that coastal areas are identical to tsunami and wind. Costs incurred due to permanent damage caused by tsunamis and wind disasters in Indonesia can be minimized by replacing permanent buildings into semi-permanent buildings. Semi-permanent buildings can be realized by using cold-formed steel as a building. Thus, the purpose of this research is to provide efficient semi-permanent building recommendations for residents around the coast. The research is done by first designing the building model by using sketch-up software, then the validation phase is done in consultation with the expert consultant of cold form steel structure. Based on the results of the interview there are several revisions on several sides of the building by adding some bracing rods on the roof, walls and floor frame. The result of this research is recommendation of semi-permanent building model, where the nature of the building; easy to disassemble and install (knockdown), tsunami-friendly (continue the tsunami load), cost and time efficient (using cold-formed-steel and prefabricated GRC), zero waste, does not require many workers (less labor). The recommended building design concept also keeps the architecture side in mind thus it remains a comfortable occupancy for the residents.

Keywords: construction method, cold-formed steel, efficiency, semi-permanent building, tsunami

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5397 Recrystallization Microstructure Studies of Cold-Rolled Ta0.5Nb0.5Hf0.5ZrTi1.5 Non-Equiatomic Refractory High Entropy Alloy

Authors: Veeresham Mokali


Recrystallization microstructure and grain growth studies of Ta₀.₅Nb₀.₅Hf₀.₅ZrTi₁.₅ refractory high entropy alloy have been explored in the present work. The as-cast Ta₀.₅Nb₀.₅Hf₀.₅ZrTi₁.₅ alloy was cold-rolled to 90% in several passes at room temperature and further subjected to annealing treatment for recrystallization at 800°C, 1000°C, 1250°C, and 1400°C temperatures for one hour. However, the characterization of heavily cold-rolled and annealed condition specimens was done using scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EBSD). The cold-rolled specimens showed the development of an inhomogeneous microstructure. Upon annealing, recrystallized microstructures were achieved; in addition to that, the coarsening of microstructure with raising annealing temperature noticed in the range of 800°C – 1400°C annealed temperatures.

Keywords: refractory high entropy alloys, cold-rolling, recrystallization, microstructure

Procedia PDF Downloads 60