Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 220

Search results for: Priyanka Yadav

220 Burden of Communicable and Non-Communicable Disease in India: A Regional Analysis

Authors: Ajit Kumar Yadav, Priyanka Yadav, F. Ram

Abstract:

In present study is an effort to analyse the burden of diseases in the state. Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY) is estimated non-communicable diseases. Multi-rounds (52nd, 60th and 71st round) of the National Sample Surveys (NSSO), conducted in 1995-96, 2004 and 2014 respectively, and Million Deaths Study (MDS) of 2001-03, 2006 and 2013-14 datasets are used. Descriptive and multivariate analyses are carried out to identify the determinants of different types of self-reported morbidity and DALY. The prevalence was higher for population aged 60 and above, among females, illiterates, and rich across the time period and for all the selected morbidities. The results were found to be significant at P<0.001. The estimation of DALY revealed that, the burden of communicable diseases was higher during infancy, noticeably among males than females in 2002. However, females aged 1-5 years were more vulnerable to report communicable diseases than the corresponding males. The age distribution of DALY indicates that individuals aged below 5 years and above 60 year were more susceptible to ill health. The growing incidence of non-communicable diseases especially among the older generations put additional burden on the health system in the state. The state has to grapple with the unsettled preventable infectious diseases in one hand and growing non-communicable in other hand.

Keywords: disease burden, non-communicable, communicable, India and region

Procedia PDF Downloads 163
219 Development and Evaluation of Antimicrobial Herbal Mouthwash Including Methanolic Extracts of Beautea monosperma and Cordia obliqua

Authors: Reenu Yadav, S. K. Yadav

Abstract:

Herbal therapy has been used for daily oral health care to prevent, treat or cure oral conditions from halitosis to periodontal diseases. The importance of mouth and teeth cleanliness has been recognized from the earliest days of civilization to the 21st century. In the present study, leaves and seeds of Cordia obliqua and barks and twigs of Beautea monosperma, which is used traditionally for oral diseases was evaluated for its antimicrobial activity. The antimicrobial activity tests indicated that the methanolic extract exhibited stronger activities against the commonly encountered oral bacterial and fungal pathogens. The mouthwash formulation prepared and it is compared with marketed formulation HiOra. The results indicated that the herbal mouthwash could inhibit the growth of oral pathogens and may prevent plaque and other periodontal diseases caused by dental pathogens.

Keywords: herbal mouthwash, bio medicine, life sciences, herbal extracts

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
218 A Novel Design of Inset Feed Patch Antenna for Ultra Wide Band Application

Authors: Priyanka Aggarwal, Priyanka Mangla

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This work has focused on the aspect of UWB antenna design, which is very suitable for portable UWB applications. The design of new UWB antenna faces some challenges. The antenna should be compact, preferably conformal, and low cost for manufacture, and have good electrical performance, such as good matching, directional radiation performance over a wide band, good time response, etc. Keeping these goals in mind a compact and directional compact open-slot antenna was built. The antenna radiating structure is in the form of two exponentially tapered arms that lie on the opposite sides of the substrate. The antenna operates over the frequency band from 2.95 GHz to more than 12.1 GHz. It exhibits a directive radiation performance with a peak gain which is between 5.4 dBi and 8.3 dBi in the specified band. The antenna has linear phase response over the entire UWB frequency range and hence constant group delay which is vital for transmission and reception of sub-nanosecond pulses. Due to its planar profile, physically compact size, wide impedance bandwidth, directive performance over a wide bandwidth proposed antenna is a good candidate for portable UWB applications and other UWB integrated circuits.

Keywords: inset feed patch antenna, ultra wide band, radiation performance, geometry, antenna

Procedia PDF Downloads 355
217 Wheat (Triticum Aestivum) Yield Improved with Irrigation Scheduling under Salinity

Authors: Taramani Yadav, Gajender Kumar, R.K. Yadav, H.S. Jat

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Soil Salinity and irrigation water salinity is critical threat to enhance agricultural food production to full fill the demand of billion plus people worldwide. Salt affected soils covers 6.73 Mha in India and ~1000 Mha area around the world. Irrigation scheduling of saline water is the way to ensure food security in salt affected areas. Research experiment was conducted at ICAR-Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, Experimental Farm, Nain, Haryana, India with 36 treatment combinations in double split plot design. Three sets of treatments consisted of (i) three regimes of irrigation viz., 60, 80 and 100% (I1, I2 and I3, respectively) of crop ETc (crop evapotranspiration at identified respective stages) in main plot; (ii) four levels of irrigation water salinity (sub plot treatments) viz., 2, 4, 8 and 12 dS m-1 (iii) applications of two PBRs along with control (without PBRs) i.e. salicylic acid (G1; 1 mM) and thiourea (G2; 500 ppm) as sub-sub plot treatments. Grain yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum) was increased with less amount of high salt loaded irrigation water at the same level of salinity (2 dS m-1), the trend was I3>I2>I1 at 2 dS m-1 with 8.10 and 17.07% increase at 80 and 100% ETc, respectively compared to 60% ETc. But contrary results were obtained by increasing amount of irrigation water at same level of highest salinity (12 dS m-1) showing following trend; I1>I2>I3 at 12 dS m-1 with 9.35 and 12.26% increase at 80 and 60% ETc compared to 100% ETc. Enhancement in grain yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum) is not need to increase amount of irrigation water under saline condition, with salty irrigation water less amount of irrigation water gave the maximum wheat (Triticum aestivum) grain yield.

Keywords: Irrigation, Salinity, Wheat, Yield

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
216 Triticum Aestivum Yield Enhanced with Irrigation Scheduling Strategy under Salinity

Authors: Taramani Yadav, Gajender Kumar, R. K. Yadav, H. S. Jat

Abstract:

Soil Salinity and irrigation water salinity is critical threat to enhance agricultural food production to full fill the demand of billion plus people worldwide. Salt affected soils covers 6.73 Mha in India and ~1000 Mha area around the world. Irrigation scheduling of saline water is the way to ensure food security in salt affected areas. Research experiment was conducted at ICAR-Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, Experimental Farm, Nain, Haryana, India with 36 treatment combinations in double split plot design. Three sets of treatments consisted of (i) three regimes of irrigation viz., 60, 80 and 100% (I1, I2 and I3, respectively) of crop ETc (crop evapotranspiration at identified respective stages) in main plot; (ii) four levels of irrigation water salinity (sub plot treatments) viz., 2, 4, 8 and 12 dS m-1 (iii) applications of two PBRs along with control (without PBRs) i.e. salicylic acid (G1; 1 mM) and thiourea (G2; 500 ppm) as sub-sub plot treatments. Grain yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum) was increased with less amount of high salt loaded irrigation water at the same level of salinity (2 dS m-1), the trend was I3>I2>I1 at 2 dS m-1 with 8.10 and 17.07% increase at 80 and 100% ETc, respectively compared to 60% ETc. But contrary results were obtained by increasing amount of irrigation water at same level of highest salinity (12 dS m-1) showing following trend; I1>I2>I3 at 12 dS m-1 with 9.35 and 12.26% increase at 80 and 60% ETc compared to 100% ETc. Enhancement in grain yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum) is not need to increase amount of irrigation water under saline condition, with salty irrigation water less amount of irrigation water gave the maximum wheat (Triticum aestivum) grain yield.

Keywords: Irrigation Scheduling, Saline Environment, Triticum aestivum, Yield

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
215 Reproductive Health Knowledge, Attitude and Health Services Utilization among Adolescents in Kaski District of Nepal

Authors: Dipendra Kumar Yadav, Rajani Ghimire, Saroj Yadav

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Background: The concern about adolescent on reproductive health has grown due to unprecedented increasing rates of early pregnancies and sexually transmitted Infections and they do not have adequate awareness and knowledge about it. Access to these services as well as information about them is, therefore, crucial for adolescents to utilize and benefit from sexual and reproductive health services. The objective of the study was to assess the reproductive health knowledge, attitude and health services utilization among adolescents in rural and urban areas of Kaski district. Materials and Methods: A community-based descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among adolescents (10-19 years of age) in rural and urban areas of Kaski district, Nepal. The period of data collection was October to November, 2014. Altogether 419 participants were taken for the study. Results: The mean age of the respondents was 15.86 and standard deviation was ±2.305. More than half (58.7 %) of the respondents were females and 41.3 % were males. Out of 419, majority (78.8%) of the respondents were known about family planning, among them only 70 % of respondents were aware about family planning methods. Fifty-one percentages of the respondents were aware about the sexually transmitted diseases. Before giving a birth there is need to consult with partner with this fact 68.7 % of the respondents were agree, 23.6 % of them were neutral and very few (7.6%) of them were disagree. Nearly twenty six percentage of the respondents were faced the reproductive health problems within one month. Out of 107 respondents, 57.9 % did not utilize reproductive health services because of different reasons. Conclusions: The overall level of knowledge towards reproductive health among adolescents was found low. However, levels of attitude towards different reproductive health components were found favorable. Only 42.1% of the respondents were utilized reproductive health services among those who was faced the reproductive health problems within one month which was low coverage of reproductive health services utilization.

Keywords: reproductive health knowledge, reproductive health attitudes, adolescent, service utilization

Procedia PDF Downloads 268
214 Isotherm Study for Phenol Removal onto GAC

Authors: Lallan Singh Yadav, Bijay Kumar Mishra, Manoj Kumar Mahapatra, Arvind Kumar

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Adsorption data for phenol removal onto granular activated carbon were fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The adsorption capacity of phenol was estimated to be 16.12 mg/g at initial pH=5.7. The thermodynamics of adsorption process has also been determined in the present work.

Keywords: adsorption, phenol, granular activated carbon, bioinformatics, biomedicine

Procedia PDF Downloads 445
213 Copywriting and the Creative Edge

Authors: Dandeswar Bisoyi, Preeti Yadav, Utpal Barua

Abstract:

This study address particular way that verbal information can affect the processing of positive and interesting qualities which help in making the brand attractive to the consumer. Also, it address the development of a communication strategy which is a very important part of the marketing plan we have to take into account many factors. Out of all the product strengths, the strategy has to outline one marked differential which will drive our brand. This is the fundamental base on which the entire creative strategy will be big idea-based.

Keywords: copy writing, advertisement, marketing, branding, recall

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
212 Emergency Treatment of Methanol Poisoning: A Mathematical Approach

Authors: Priyanka Ghosh, Priti Kumar Roy

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Every year a considerable number of people die due to methyl alcohol poisoning, in which most of them die even before proper treatment. This work gives a simple and cheap first aid to those affected individuals by the administration of activated charcoal. In this article, we emphasise on the adsorption capability of activated charcoal for the treatment of poisoning and use an impulsive differential equation to study the effect of activated charcoal during adsorption. We also investigate the effects of various parameters on the adsorption which are incorporated in the model system.

Keywords: activated charcoal, adsorption, impulsive differential equation, methanol poisoning

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
211 Degree of Approximation by the (T.E^1) Means of Conjugate Fourier Series in the Hölder Metric

Authors: Kejal Khatri, Vishnu Narayan Mishra

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We compute the degree of approximation of functions\tilde{f}\in H_w, a new Banach space using (T.E^1) summability means of conjugate Fourier series. In this paper, we extend the results of Singh and Mahajan which in turn generalizes the result of Lal and Yadav. Some corollaries have also been deduced from our main theorem and particular cases.

Keywords: conjugate Fourier series, degree of approximation, Hölder metric, matrix summability, product summability

Procedia PDF Downloads 264
210 A Systematic Review on Challenges in Big Data Environment

Authors: Rimmy Yadav, Anmol Preet Kaur

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Big Data has demonstrated the vast potential in streamlining, deciding, spotting business drifts in different fields, for example, producing, fund, Information Technology. This paper gives a multi-disciplinary diagram of the research issues in enormous information and its procedures, instruments, and system identified with the privacy, data storage management, network and energy utilization, adaptation to non-critical failure and information representations. Other than this, result difficulties and openings accessible in this Big Data platform have made.

Keywords: big data, privacy, data management, network and energy consumption

Procedia PDF Downloads 208
209 Comparative Study of Isothermal and Cyclic Oxidation on Titanium Alloys

Authors: Poonam Yadav, Dong Bok Lee

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Isothermal oxidation at 800°C for 50h and Cyclic oxidation at 600°C and 800°C for 40h of Pure Ti and Ti64 were performed in a muffle furnace. In Cyclic oxidation, massive scale spallation occurred, and the oxide scale cracks and peels off were observed at high temperature, it represents oxide scale that formed during cyclic oxidation was spalled out owing to stresses due to thermal shock generated during repetitive oxidation and subsequent cooling. The thickness of scale is larger in cyclic oxidation than the isothermal case. This is due to inward diffusion of oxygen through oxide scales and/or pores and cracks in cyclic oxidation.

Keywords: cyclic, diffusion, isothermal, cyclic

Procedia PDF Downloads 415
208 Compensation of Bulk Charge Carriers in Bismuth Based Topological Insulators via Swift Heavy Ion Irradiation

Authors: Jyoti Yadav, Rini Singh, Anoop M.D, Nisha Yadav, N. Srinivasa Rao, Fouran Singh, Takayuki Ichikawa, Ankur Jain, Kamlendra Awasthi, Manoj Kumar

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Nanocrystalline films exhibit defects and strain induced by its grain boundaries. Defects and strain affect the physical as well as topological insulating properties of the Bi2Te3 thin films by changing their electronic structure. In the present studies, the effect of Ni7+ ion irradiation on the physical and electrical properties of Bi2Te3 thin films was studied. The films were irradiated at five different fluences (5x1011, 1x1012, 3x1012, 5x1012, 1x1013 ions/cm2). Thin films synthesized using the e-beam technique possess a rhombohedral crystal structure with the R-3m space group. The average crystallite size, as determined by x-ray diffraction (XRD) peak broadening, was found to be 18.5 ± 5 (nm). It was also observed that irradiation increases the induced strain. Raman Spectra of the films demonstrate the splitting of A_1u^1 modes originating from the vibrations along the c-axis. This is by the variation in the lattice parameter ‘c,’ as observed through XRD. The atomic force microscopy study indicates the decrease in surface roughness up to the fluence of 3x1012 ions/cm2 and further increasing the fluence increases the roughness. The decrease in roughness may be due to the growth of smaller nano-crystallites on the surface of thin films due to irradiation-induced annealing. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies reveal the composition to be in close agreement to the nominal values i.e. Bi2Te3. The resistivity v/s temperature measurements revealed an increase in resistivity up to the fluence 3x1012 ions/cm2 and a decrease on further increasing the fluence. The variation in electrical resistivity is corroborated with the change in the carrier concentration as studied through low-temperature Hall measurements. A crossover from the n-type to p-type carriers was achieved in the irradiated films. Interestingly, tuning of the Fermi level by compensating the bulk carriers using ion-irradiation could be achieved.

Keywords: Annealing, Irradiation, Fermi level, Tuning

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
207 Three-Dimensional Numerical Model of an Earth Air Heat Exchanger under a Constrained Urban Environment in India: Modeling and Validation

Authors: V. Rangarajan, Priyanka Kaushal

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This study investigates the effectiveness of a typical Earth Air Heat Exchanger (EATHE) for energy efficient space cooling in an urban environment typified by space and soil-related constraints that preclude an optimal design. It involves the development of a three-dimensional numerical transient model that is validated by measurements at a live site in India. It is found that the model accurately predicts the soil temperatures at various depths as well as the EATHE outlet air temperature. The study shows that such an EATHE, even when designed under constraints, does provide effective space cooling especially during the hot months of the year.

Keywords: earth air heat exchanger (EATHE), India, MATLAB, model, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
206 Anti-Microbial Activity of Ag-N Co-Doped ZnS and ZnS-Fe2O3 Composite Nanoparticles

Authors: O. P. Yadav

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Ag-N co-doped ZnS and ZnS/Fe2O3 composite nanoparticles have been synthesized by chemical and sol-gel methods. As-synthesized nanomaterial have been characterized by XRD and TEM techniques and their antimicrobial effects were studied using paper disc diffusion technique against gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and gram negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria. As-synthesized nanomaterial showed potent antimicrobial activity against studied bacterial strains. Antimicrobial activity of synthesized nanomaterial has also been compared with some commonly used antibiotics.

Keywords: antibiotic, Escherichia coli, nanomaterial, TEM, Staphylococcus aureus

Procedia PDF Downloads 261
205 An Analysis of Curricular and Other Curricular Activities of Ramakrishna Mission School

Authors: Shri Krishna Mishra, Badri Yadav

Abstract:

India is a democratic country requires creative dynamic citizen for its development. And it will be possible only when school produce creative prosperous students. In this aspect, researcher find out that curricular and other curricular activities of Ramkrishna Mission School is unique up to some extent because it gives emphasis on value education and holistic development of students. It giving the emphasis on self-realization, standing on their own feet and community work. Most of the teacher of this school are competent to organize classrooms and manage the behavior of their students so, outcome of this school is very effective and impressive to other school.

Keywords: Ramakrishna Mission School, analysis of curricular, other curricular activities of R. M. School, teachers

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
204 Multiband Prefractal Microstrip Antenna for Wireless Applications

Authors: Yadwinder Kumar, Priyanka Rani Amandeep Singh

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In this paper the design of a multiband pre-fractal micro strip antenna with proximity coupling feed is presented. The proposed antenna resonates on seven different frequencies that are 2.6 GHz, 5.1 GHz, 9.4 GHz, 11.5 GHz, 13.8 GHz, 16.3 GHz, and 18.6 GHz. Simulated results presented here shows that the minimum return loss is achieved at the 16.3 GHz frequency which is up to 37 dB. Also the maximum band width of 700 MHz is achieved by the frequency bands 13.4 GHz to 14.1 GHz, 15.9 GHz to 16.6 GHz and 18.2 GHz to 18.9 GHz. The proposed feed line is sandwiched between two substrate layers and increases in the bandwidth of antenna has been observed up to 13% in comparison of micro strip feed line. Effect of key design parameters such as variation in substrate material, substrate height and feeding technique on antenna S-parameter have been investigated and discussed.

Keywords: fractal antenna, pre-fractals, micro strip antenna, ISM band, electromagnetic coupling, VSWR

Procedia PDF Downloads 502
203 Training of Sensors for Early Warning System of Rainfall Induced Landslides

Authors: M. Naresh, Pratik Chaturvedi, Srishti Yadav, Varun Dutt, K. V. Uday

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Changes in the Earth’s climate are likely to increase natural hazards such as drought, floods, earthquakes, landslides, etc. The present study focusing on to early warning systems (EWS) of landslides, major issues in Himalayan region without prominence to deforestation, encroachments and un-engineered cutting of slopes and reforming for infrastructural purposes. EWS can be depicted by conducting a series of flume tests using micro-electro mechanical systems sensors data after reaching threshold values under controlled laboratory conditions. Based on the threshold value database, an alert will be sent via SMS.

Keywords: slope-instability, flume test, sensors, early warning system

Procedia PDF Downloads 149
202 Error Estimation for the Reconstruction Algorithm with Fan Beam Geometry

Authors: Nirmal Yadav, Tanuja Srivastava

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Shannon theory is an exact method to recover a band limited signals from its sampled values in discrete implementation, using sinc interpolators. But sinc based results are not much satisfactory for band-limited calculations so that convolution with window function, having compact support, has been introduced. Convolution Backprojection algorithm with window function is an approximation algorithm. In this paper, the error has been calculated, arises due to this approximation nature of reconstruction algorithm. This result will be defined for fan beam projection data which is more faster than parallel beam projection.

Keywords: computed tomography, convolution backprojection, radon transform, fan beam

Procedia PDF Downloads 407
201 Fresh Amnion Membrane Grafting for the Regeneration of Skin in Full Thickness Burn in Newborn - Case Report

Authors: Priyanka Yadav, Umesh Bnasal, Yashvinder Kumar

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The placenta is an important structure that provides oxygen and nutrients to the growing fetus in utero. It is usually thrown away after birth, but it has a therapeutic role in the regeneration of tissue. It is covered by the amniotic membrane, which can be easily separated into the amnion layer and the chorion layer—the amnion layer act as a biofilm for the healing of burn wound and non-healing ulcers. The freshly collected membrane has stem cells, cytokines, growth factors, and anti-inflammatory properties, which act as a biofilm for the healing of wounds. It functions as a barrier and prevents heat and water loss and also protects from bacterial contamination, thus supporting the healing process. The application of Amnion membranes has been successfully used for wound and reconstructive purposes for decades. It is a very cheap and easy process and has shown superior results to allograft and xenograft. However, there are very few case reports of amnion membrane grafting in newborns; we intend to highlight its therapeutic importance in burn injuries in newborns. We present a case of 9 days old male neonate who presented to the neonatal unit of Maulana Azad Medical College with a complaint of fluid-filled blisters and burns wound on the body for six days. He was born outside the hospital at 38 weeks of gestation to a 24-year-old primigravida mother by vaginal delivery. The presentation was cephalic and the amniotic fluid was clear. His birth weight was 2800 gm and APGAR scores were 7 and 8 at 1 and 5 minutes, respectively. His anthropometry was appropriate for gestational age. He developed respiratory distress after birth requiring oxygen support by nasal prongs for three days. On the day of life three, he developed blisters on his body, starting from than face then over the back and perineal region. At a presentation on the day of life nine, he had blisters and necrotic wound on the right side of the face, back, right shoulder and genitalia, affecting 60% of body surface area with full-thickness loss of skin. He was started on intravenous antibiotics and fluid therapy. Pus culture grew Pseudomonas aeuroginosa, for which culture-specific antibiotics were started. Plastic surgery reference was taken and regular wound dressing was done with antiseptics. He had a storming course during the hospital stay. On the day of life 35 when the baby was hemodynamically stable, amnion membrane grafting was done on the wound site; for the grafting, fresh amnion membrane was removed under sterile conditions from the placenta obtained by caesarean section. It was then transported to the plastic surgery unit in half an hour in a sterile fluid where the graft was applied over the infant’s wound. The amnion membrane grafting was done twice in two weeks for covering the whole wound area. After successful uptake of amnion membrane, skin from the thigh region was autografted over the whole wound area by Meek technique in a single setting. The uptake of autograft was excellent and most of the areas were healed. In some areas, there was patchy regeneration of skin so dressing was continued. The infant was discharged after three months of hospital stay and was later followed up in the plastic surgery unit of the hospital.

Keywords: amnion membrane grafting, autograft, meek technique, newborn, regeneration of skin

Procedia PDF Downloads 94
200 Performance Comparison of Prim’s and Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm to Select Shortest Path in Case of Link Failure

Authors: Rimmy Yadav, Avtar Singh

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—Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) is a promising modern approach to the unused combinatorial optimization. Here ACO is applied to finding the shortest during communication link failure. In this paper, the performances of the prim’s and ACO algorithm are made. By comparing the time complexity and program execution time as set of parameters, we demonstrate the pleasant performance of ACO in finding excellent solution to finding shortest path during communication link failure.

Keywords: ant colony optimization, link failure, prim’s algorithm, shortest path

Procedia PDF Downloads 303
199 A Survey on Genetic Algorithm for Intrusion Detection System

Authors: Prikhil Agrawal, N. Priyanka

Abstract:

With the increase of millions of users on Internet day by day, it is very essential to maintain highly reliable and secured data communication between various corporations. Although there are various traditional security imparting techniques such as antivirus software, password protection, data encryption, biometrics and firewall etc. But still network security has become the main issue in various leading companies. So IDSs have become an essential component in terms of security, as it can detect various network attacks and respond quickly to such occurrences. IDSs are used to detect unauthorized access to a computer system. This paper describes various intrusion detection techniques using GA approach. The intrusion detection problem has become a challenging task due to the conception of miscellaneous computer networks under various vulnerabilities. Thus the damage caused to various organizations by malicious intrusions can be mitigated and even be deterred by using this powerful tool.

Keywords: genetic algorithm (GA), intrusion detection system (IDS), dataset, network security

Procedia PDF Downloads 201
198 Aquaporin-1 as a Differential Marker in Toxicant-Induced Lung Injury

Authors: Ekta Yadav, Sukanta Bhattacharya, Brijesh Yadav, Ariel Hus, Jagjit Yadav

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Background and Significance: Respiratory exposure to toxicants (chemicals or particulates) causes disruption of lung homeostasis leading to lung toxicity/injury manifested as pulmonary inflammation, edema, and/or other effects depending on the type and extent of exposure. This emphasizes the need for investigating toxicant type-specific mechanisms to understand therapeutic targets. Aquaporins, aka water channels, are known to play a role in lung homeostasis. Particularly, the two major lung aquaporins AQP5 and AQP1 expressed in alveolar epithelial and vasculature endothelia respectively allow for movement of the fluid between the alveolar air space and the associated vasculature. In view of this, the current study is focused on understanding the regulation of lung aquaporins and other targets during inhalation exposure to toxic chemicals (Cigarette smoke chemicals) versus toxic particles (Carbon nanoparticles) or co-exposures to understand their relevance as markers of injury and intervention. Methodologies: C57BL/6 mice (5-7 weeks old) were used in this study following an approved protocol by the University of Cincinnati Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC). The mice were exposed via oropharyngeal aspiration to multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) particles suspension once (33 ugs/mouse) followed by housing for four weeks or to Cigarette smoke Extract (CSE) using a daily dose of 30µl/mouse for four weeks, or to co-exposure using the combined regime. Control groups received vehicles following the same dosing schedule. Lung toxicity/injury was assessed in terms of homeostasis changes in the lung tissue and lumen. Exposed lungs were analyzed for transcriptional expression of specific targets (AQPs, surfactant protein A, Mucin 5b) in relation to tissue homeostasis. Total RNA from lungs extracted using TRIreagent kit was analyzed using qRT-PCR based on gene-specific primers. Total protein in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid was determined by the DC protein estimation kit (BioRad). GraphPad Prism 5.0 (La Jolla, CA, USA) was used for all analyses. Major findings: CNT exposure alone or as co-exposure with CSE increased the total protein content in the BAL fluid (lung lumen rinse), implying compromised membrane integrity and cellular infiltration in the lung alveoli. In contrast, CSE showed no significant effect. AQP1, required for water transport across membranes of endothelial cells in lungs, was significantly upregulated in CNT exposure but downregulated in CSE exposure and showed an intermediate level of expression for the co-exposure group. Both CNT and CSE exposures had significant downregulating effects on Muc5b, and SP-A expression and the co-exposure showed either no significant effect (Muc5b) or significant downregulating effect (SP-A), suggesting an increased propensity for infection in the exposed lungs. Conclusions: The current study based on the lung toxicity mouse model showed that both toxicant types, particles (CNT) versus chemicals (CSE), cause similar downregulation of lung innate defense targets (SP-A, Muc5b) and mostly a summative effect when presented as co-exposure. However, the two toxicant types show differential induction of aquaporin-1 coinciding with the corresponding differential damage to alveolar integrity (vascular permeability). Interestingly, this implies the potential of AQP1 as a differential marker of toxicant type-specific lung injury.

Keywords: aquaporin, gene expression, lung injury, toxicant exposure

Procedia PDF Downloads 102
197 Effect of Gamma Radiation on Bromophenol Blue Dyed Films as Dosimeter

Authors: Priyanka R. Oberoi, Chandra B. Maurya, Prakash A. Mahanwar

Abstract:

Ionizing radiation can cause a drastic change in the physical and chemical properties of the material exposed. Numerous medical devices are sterilized by ionizing radiation. In the current research paper, an attempt was made to develop precise and inexpensive polymeric film dosimeter which can be used for controlling radiation dosage. Polymeric film containing (pH sensitive dye) indicator dye Bromophenol blue (BPB) was casted to check the effect of Gamma radiation on its optical and physical properties. The film was exposed to gamma radiation at 4 kGy/hr in the range of 0 to 300 kGy at an interval of 50 kGy. Release of vinyl acetate from an emulsion on high radiation reacts with the BPB fading the color of the film from blue to light blue and then finally colorless, indicating a change in pH from basic to acidic form. The change was characterized by using CIE l*a*b*, ultra-violet spectroscopy and FT-IR respectively.

Keywords: bromophenol blue, dosimeter, gamma radiation, polymer

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
196 Anthropomorphic Brand Mascot Serve as the Vehicle: To Quickly Remind Customers Who You Are and What You Stand for in Indian Cultural Context

Authors: Preeti Yadav, Dandeswar Bisoyi, Debkumar Chakrabati

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For many years organization have been exercising a creative technique of applying brand mascots, which results in making a visual ‘ambassador’ of a brand. The goal of mascot’s is just not confined to strengthening the brand identity, improving customer perception, but also acting as a vehicle of anthropomorphic translation towards the consumer. Such that it helps in embracing the power of recognition and processing the experiences happening in our daily lives. The study examines the relationship between the specific mascot features and brand attitude. It eliminates that mascot trust is an important mediator of the mascot features on brand attitude. Anthropomorphic characters turn out to be the key players despite the application of brand mascots in today’s marketing.

Keywords: advertising, mascot, branding, recall

Procedia PDF Downloads 210
195 Formulation and Characterization of Antimicrobial Herbal Mouthwash from Some Herbal Extracts for Treatment of Periodontal Diseases

Authors: Reenu Yadav, Abhay Asthana, S. K. Yadav

Abstract:

Purpose: The aim of the present work was to develop an oral gel for brushing with an antimicrobial activity which will cure/protect from various periodontal diseases such as periodontitis, gingivitis, and pyorrhea. Methods: Plant materials procured from local suppliers, extracted and standardized. Screening of antimicrobial activity was carried out with the help of disk diffusion method. The gel was formulated by dried extracts of Beautea monosperma and Cordia obliquus. Gels were evaluated on various parameters and standardization of the formulation was performed. The release of drugs was studied in pH 6.8 using a mastication device.Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were estimated by folin-Ciocalteu and aluminium chloride method, and stability studies were performed (40°C and RH 75% ± 5% for 90 days) to assess the effect of temperature and humidity on the concentration of phenolic and flavonoid contents. The results of accelerated stability conditions were compared with that of samples kept at controlled conditions (RT). The control samples were kept at room temperature (25°C, 35% RH for 180 days). Results: Results are encouraging; extracts possess significant antimicrobial activity at very low concentration (15µg/disc, 20µg/disc and 15 µg/ disc) on oral pathogenic bacteria. The formulation has optimal characteristics, as well as has a pleasant appearance, fragrance, texture, and taste, is highly acceptable by the volunteers. The diffusion coefficient values ranged from 0.6655 to 0.9164. Since the R values of korsmayer papas were close to 1, Drug release from formulation follows matrix diffusion kinetics. Hence, diffusion was the mechanism of the drug release. Formulation follows non-Fickian transport mechanism. Most Formulations released 50 % of their contents within 25-30 minutes. Results obtained from the accelerated stability studies are indicative of a slight reduction in flavonoids and phenolic contents with time on long time storage. When measured degradation under ambient conditions, degradation was significantly lower than in accelerated stability study. Conclusion: Plant extracts possess compounds with antimicrobial properties can be used as. Developed formulation will cure/protect from various periodontal diseases. Further development and evaluations oral gel including the isolated compounds on the commercial scale and their clinical and toxicological studies are the future challenges.

Keywords: herbal gel, dental care, ambient conditions, commercial scale

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194 An Experimental Study on Evacuated Tube Solar Collector for Steam Generation in India

Authors: Avadhesh Yadav, Anunaya Saraswat

Abstract:

An evacuated tube solar collector is experimentally studied for steam generation. When the solar radiation falls on evacuated tubes, this energy is absorbed by the tubes and transferred to water with natural conduction and convection. A natural circulation of water occurs due to the inclination in tubes and header. In this experimental study, the efficiency of collector has been calculated. The result shows that the collector attains the maximum efficiency of 46.26% during 14:00 to 15:00h. Steam has been generated for two hours from 13:30 to 15:30 h on a winter day. Maximum solar intensity and maximum ambient temperatures are 795W/m2 and 19oC respectively on this day.

Keywords: evacuated tube, solar collector, hot water, steam generation

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193 Use of Indian Food Mascot Design as an Advertising Tool in Maintaining and Growing the Brand Name

Authors: Preeti Yadav, Dandeswar Bisoyi, Debkumar Chakrabarti

Abstract:

Mascots provide memories to viewers, and numerous promotional campaigns with different appearances, continue to trigger viewers and capture their interest. This study investigates the effect of Indian food mascot designs and influence on enhancing communication; thereby, building long-term brand recognition by the consumers. This paper presents a descriptive approach to Indian food mascot design as an advertising tool, and its research adopts a quantitative methodology. The study confirms that mascots have an ability to communicate a message in an effective manner; all though they are simple in terms of design and fashion trend, they have the capability to build positive reactions.

Keywords: food mascot, brand recognitions, advertising, humour

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192 Design of Speedy, Scanty Adder for Lossy Application Using QCA

Authors: T. Angeline Priyanka, R. Ganesan

Abstract:

Recent trends in microelectronics technology have gradually changed the strategies used in very large scale integration (VLSI) circuits. Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) technology has been the industry standard for implementing VLSI device for the past two decades, but due to scale-down issues of ultra-low dimension achievement is not achieved so far. Hence it paved a way for Quantum Cellular Automata (QCA). It is only one of the many alternative technologies proposed as a replacement solution to the fundamental limit problem that CMOS technology will impose in the years to come. In this brief, presented a new adder that possesses high speed of operation occupying less area is proposed. This adder is designed especially for error tolerant application. Hence in the proposed adder, the overall area (cell count) and simulation time are reduced by 88 and 73 percent respectively. Various results of the proposed adder are shown and described.

Keywords: quantum cellular automata, carry look ahead adder, ripple carry adder, lossy application, majority gate, crossover

Procedia PDF Downloads 476
191 An Extension to the NK Fitness Landscape Model to Study Pleiotropy, Epistasis, and Ruggedness Independently

Authors: Priyanka Mehra, Arend Hintze

Abstract:

The NK model is designed to study evolutionary adaptation in rugged fitness landscapes. The factor K determines the number of interacting genes, their degree of pleiotropy and epistasis, and consequently the ruggedness of the fitness landscape. However, in natural organisms, the degree of epistatic interactions and the number of functions a gene can have are, to a certain degree determining the ruggedness of the landscape. Still, pleiotropy and epistasis can evolve independently from each other and are to some degree independent of the ruggedness of the landscape. Here, we propose an extension to the standard NK model to investigate these factors independently of each other. Over the course of evolution, the computational model organisms can now change how their genes interact and how they control phenotypic traits. Further, the degree of epistasis and pleiotropy is affected by the ruggedness of the landscape and becomes reduced with increasing ruggedness. While this proves that the extension of the model performs as expected, the adaptations are minor, presumably because only relatively short periods of adaptations with few mutations can be studied.

Keywords: epistasis, pleiotropy, ruggedness, fitness landscape, evolution

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