Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 174

Search results for: mutation

174 MCERTL: Mutation-Based Correction Engine for Register-Transfer Level Designs

Authors: Khaled Salah

Abstract:

In this paper, we present MCERTL (mutation-based correction engine for RTL designs) as an automatic error correction technique based on mutation analysis. A mutation-based correction methodology is proposed to automatically fix the erroneous RTL designs. The proposed strategy combines the processes of mutation and assertion-based localization. The erroneous statements are mutated to produce possible fixes for the failed RTL code. A concurrent mutation engine is proposed to mitigate the computational cost of running sequential mutants operators. The proposed methodology is evaluated against some benchmarks. The experimental results demonstrate that our proposed method enables us to automatically locate and correct multiple bugs at reasonable time.

Keywords: bug localization, error correction, mutation, mutants

Procedia PDF Downloads 118
173 Quality and Coverage Assessment in Software Integration Based On Mutation Testing

Authors: Iyad Alazzam, Kenneth Magel, Izzat Alsmadi

Abstract:

The different activities and approaches in software testing try to find the most possible number of errors or failures with the least amount of possible effort. Mutation is a testing approach that is used to discover possible errors in tested applications. This is accomplished through changing one aspect of the software from its original and writes test cases to detect such change or mutation. In this paper, we present a mutation approach for testing software components integration aspects. Several mutation operations related to components integration are described and evaluated. A test case study of several open source code projects is collected. Proposed mutation operators are applied and evaluated. Results showed some insights and information that can help testing activities in detecting errors and improving coverage.

Keywords: software testing, integration testing, mutation, coverage, software design

Procedia PDF Downloads 313
172 The Effect of Program Type on Mutation Testing: Comparative Study

Authors: B. Falah, N. E. Abakouy

Abstract:

Due to its high computational cost, mutation testing has been neglected by researchers. Recently, many cost and mutants’ reduction techniques have been developed, improved, and experimented, but few of them has relied the possibility of reducing the cost of mutation testing on the program type of the application under test. This paper is a comparative study between four operators’ selection techniques (mutants sampling, class level operators, method level operators, and all operators’ selection) based on the program code type of each application under test. It aims at finding an alternative approach to reveal the effect of code type on mutation testing score. The result of our experiment shows that the program code type can affect the mutation score and that the programs using polymorphism are best suited to be tested with mutation testing.

Keywords: equivalent mutant, killed mutant, mutation score, mutation testing, program code type, software testing

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171 Machine Learning Approach for Mutation Testing

Authors: Michael Stewart

Abstract:

Mutation testing is a type of software testing proposed in the 1970s where program statements are deliberately changed to introduce simple errors so that test cases can be validated to determine if they can detect the errors. Test cases are executed against the mutant code to determine if one fails, detects the error and ensures the program is correct. One major issue with this type of testing was it became intensive computationally to generate and test all possible mutations for complex programs. This paper used reinforcement learning and parallel processing within the context of mutation testing for the selection of mutation operators and test cases that reduced the computational cost of testing and improved test suite effectiveness. Experiments were conducted using sample programs to determine how well the reinforcement learning-based algorithm performed with one live mutation, multiple live mutations and no live mutations. The experiments, measured by mutation score, were used to update the algorithm and improved accuracy for predictions. The performance was then evaluated on multiple processor computers. With reinforcement learning, the mutation operators utilized were reduced by 50 – 100%.

Keywords: automated-testing, machine learning, mutation testing, parallel processing, reinforcement learning, software engineering, software testing

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
170 A Microfluidic Biosensor for Detection of EGFR 19 Deletion Mutation Targeting Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer on Rolling Circle Amplification

Authors: Ji Su Kim, Bo Ram Choi, Ju Yeon Cho, Hyukjin Lee

Abstract:

Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) 19 deletion mutation gene is over-expressed in carcinoma patient. EGFR 19 deletion mutation is known as typical biomarker of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), which one section in the coding exon 19 of EGFR is deleted. Therefore, there have been many attempts over the years to detect EGFR 19 deletion mutation for replacing conventional diagnostic method such as PCR and tissue biopsy. We developed a simple and facile detection platform based on Rolling Circle Amplification (RCA), which provides highly amplified products in isothermal amplification of the ligated DNA template. Limit of detection (~50 nM) and a faster detection time (~30 min) could be achieved by introducing RCA.

Keywords: EGFR19, cancer, diagnosis, rolling circle amplification (RCA), hydrogel

Procedia PDF Downloads 153
169 Effect of SCN5A Gene Mutation in Endocardial Cell

Authors: Helan Satish, M. Ramasubba Reddy

Abstract:

The simulation of an endocardial cell for gene mutation in the cardiac sodium ion channel NaV1.5, encoded by SCN5A gene, is discussed. The characterization of Brugada Syndrome by loss of function effect on SCN5A mutation due to L812Q mutant present in the DII-S4 transmembrane region of the NaV1.5 channel protein and its effect in an endocardial cell is studied. Ten Tusscher model of human ventricular action potential is modified to incorporate the changes contributed by L812Q mutant in the endocardial cells. Results show that BrS-associated SCN5A mutation causes reduction in the inward sodium current by modifications in the channel gating dynamics such as delayed activation, enhanced inactivation, and slowed recovery from inactivation in the endocardial cell. A decrease in the inward sodium current was also observed, which affects depolarization phase (Phase 0) that leads to reduction in the spike amplitude of the cardiac action potential.

Keywords: SCN5A gene mutation, sodium channel, Brugada syndrome, cardiac arrhythmia, action potential

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168 The Effects of Androgen Receptor Mutation on Cryptorchid Testes in 46, XY Female

Authors: Ihtisham Bukhari

Abstract:

In the current study, we enrolled a 46, XY phenotypically female patient bearing testes in her inguinal canal. DNA sequencing of the AR gene detected a missense mutation C.1715A > G (p. Y572C) in exon 2 which is already known to cause Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS). We further studied the effects of this mutation on the testicular histopathology of the patient. No spermatocytes were seen in the surface spreading of testicular tissues while H&E staining showed that seminiferous tubules predominantly have only Sertoli cells. To confirm this meiotic failure is likely due to the current AR mutation we performed mRNA expression of genes associated with AR pathway, expression and location of the associated proteins in testicular tissues. Western blot and real-time PCR data showed that the patient had high levels of expression of AMH, SOX9, and INNB in testis. Tubules were stained with SOX9 and AMH which revealed Sertoli cell maturation arrest. Therefore, we suggest that AR mutation enhances AMH expression which ultimately leads to failure in the maturation of Sertoli cells and failure in spermatogenesis.

Keywords: androgen receptor, spermatogenesis, infertility, Sertoli cell only syndrome

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
167 A Study on Stochastic Integral Associated with Catastrophes

Authors: M. Reni Sagayaraj, S. Anand Gnana Selvam, R. Reynald Susainathan

Abstract:

We analyze stochastic integrals associated with a mutation process. To be specific, we describe the cell population process and derive the differential equations for the joint generating functions for the number of mutants and their integrals in generating functions and their applications. We obtain first-order moments of the processes of the two-way mutation process in first-order moment structure of X (t) and Y (t) and the second-order moments of a one-way mutation process. In this paper, we obtain the limiting behaviour of the integrals in limiting distributions of X (t) and Y (t).

Keywords: stochastic integrals, single–server queue model, catastrophes, busy period

Procedia PDF Downloads 519
166 Comparing Accuracy of Semantic and Radiomics Features in Prognosis of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Mutation in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

Authors: Mahya Naghipoor

Abstract:

Purpose: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common lung cancer type. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation is the main reason which causes NSCLC. Computed tomography (CT) is used for diagnosis and prognosis of lung cancers because of low price and little invasion. Semantic analyses of qualitative CT features are based on visual evaluation by radiologist. However, the naked eye ability may not assess all image features. On the other hand, radiomics provides the opportunity of quantitative analyses for CT images features. The aim of this review study was comparing accuracy of semantic and radiomics features in prognosis of EGFR mutation in NSCLC. Methods: For this purpose, the keywords including: non-small cell lung cancer, epidermal growth factor receptor mutation, semantic, radiomics, feature, receiver operating characteristics curve (ROC) and area under curve (AUC) were searched in PubMed and Google Scholar. Totally 29 papers were reviewed and the AUC of ROC analyses for semantic and radiomics features were compared. Results: The results showed that the reported AUC amounts for semantic features (ground glass opacity, shape, margins, lesion density and presence or absence of air bronchogram, emphysema and pleural effusion) were %41-%79. For radiomics features (kurtosis, skewness, entropy, texture, standard deviation (SD) and wavelet) the AUC values were found %50-%86. Conclusions: In conclusion, the accuracy of radiomics analysis is a little higher than semantic in prognosis of EGFR mutation in NSCLC.

Keywords: lung cancer, radiomics, computer tomography, mutation

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165 In silico Analysis of a Causative Mutation in Cadherin-23 Gene Identified in an Omani Family with Hearing Loss

Authors: Mohammed N. Al Kindi, Mazin Al Khabouri, Khalsa Al Lamki, Tommasso Pappuci, Giovani Romeo, Nadia Al Wardy

Abstract:

Hereditary hearing loss is a heterogeneous group of complex disorders with an overall incidence of one in every five hundred newborns presented as syndromic and non-syndromic forms. Cadherin-related 23 (CDH23) is one of the listed deafness causative genes. CDH23 is found to be expressed in the stereocilia of hair cells and the retina photoreceptor cells. Defective CDH23 has been associated mostly with prelingual severe-to-profound sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in either syndromic (USH1D) or non-syndromic SNHL (DFNB12). An Omani family diagnosed clinically with severe-profound sensorineural hearing loss was genetically analysed by whole exome sequencing technique. A novel homozygous missense variant, c.A7451C (p.D2484A), in exon 53 of CDH23 was detected. One hundred and thirty control samples were analysed where all were negative for the detected variant. The variant was analysed in silico for pathogenicity verification using several mutation prediction software. The variant proved to be a pathogenic mutation and is reported for the first time in Oman and worldwide. It is concluded that in silico mutation prediction analysis might be used as a useful molecular diagnostics tool benefiting both genetic counseling and mutation verification. The aspartic acid 2484 alanine missense substitution might be the main disease-causing mutation that damages CDH23 function and could be used as a genetic hearing loss marker for this particular Omani family.

Keywords: Cdh23, d2484a, in silico, Oman

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164 Mutation of Galp Improved Fermentation of Mixed Sugars to Succinate Using Engineered Escherichia coli As1600a

Authors: Apichai Sawisit, Sirima Suvarnakuta Jantama, Sunthorn Kanchanatawee, Lonnie O. Ingram, Kaemwich Jantama

Abstract:

Escherichia coli KJ122 was engineered to produce succinate from glucose using the wild type GalP for glucose uptake instead of the native phosphotransferase system (ptsI mutation). This strain ferments 10% (w/v) xylose poorly. Mutants were selected by serial transfers in AM1 mineral salts medium with 10% (w/v) xylose. Evolved mutants exhibited a similar improvement, co-fermentation of an equal mixture of xylose and glucose. One of these, AS1600a, produced 84.26±1.37 g/L succinate, equivalent to that produced by the parent (KJ122) strain from 10% glucose (85.46±1.78 g/L). AS1600a was sequenced and found to contain a mutation in galactose permease (GalP, G236D). Expressing the galP* mutation gene in KJ122ΔgalP resembled the xylose utilization phenotype of the mutant AS1600a. The strain AS1600a and KJ122ΔgalP (pLOI5746; galP*) also co-fermented a mixture of glucose, xylose, arabinose, and galactose in sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate for succinate production.

Keywords: xylose, furfural, succinat, sugarcane bagasse, E. coli

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
163 Study of the Genes Involved in the Resistance of Nosocomial Pseudomonas aeruginosa to Fluoroquinolone

Authors: Rosetta Moshirian Farahi, Ahya Abdi Ali, Sara Gharavi

Abstract:

The major mechanism of Pseudomonas aeruginosa resistance to fluoroquinolones is the alteration of target enzymes, type II and IV topoisomerases due to mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDR) of the gyrA and parC genes coding A subunits of these enzymes. 37 isolates from patients with burn wounds and 20 isolates from blood, urine and sputum specimen were selected to evaluate mutations involved in antibiotic resistance and were subsequently verified for their resistance to ciprofloxacin. QRDRs regions of gyrA and parC were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and were subsequently sequenced. 90% of isolates with MIC≥8 µg/ml to ciprofloxacin had a mutation in gyrA gene in which threonine at position 83 changed to isoleucine. 87.5% of isolates had mutation in parC, Serine 87 changed. 75% had Ser87Leu and 12.5% possessed Serin87Trp. Various silent mutations were also detected such as Val103Val, Ala118Ala, Ala136Ala, His132His in gyrA and Ala115Ala in parC. The data indicates that the common mutation in gyrA is Thr83Ile and in parC is Ser87Leu/Trp. No individual parC mutation was observed while mutations in gyrA and parC occurred simultaneously and appears to be the main reason of high-level resistance to fluoroquinolones in patients with burn wounds and urine infection. The vast majority of P.aeruginosa isolates had mutation in parC which can play a crucial role in increased resistance of these isolates. This is a report of parC mutations from resistant P. aeruginosa isolates from Iran, Tehran.

Keywords: P. aeruginosa, fluoroquinolones, gyrA, parC, antibiotic resistance

Procedia PDF Downloads 173
162 Mutation Analysis of the ATP7B Gene in 43 Vietnamese Wilson’s Disease Patients

Authors: Huong M. T. Nguyen, Hoa A. P. Nguyen, Mai P. T. Nguyen, Ngoc D. Ngo, Van T. Ta, Hai T. Le, Chi V. Phan

Abstract:

Wilson’s disease (WD) is an autosomal recessive disorder of the copper metabolism, which is caused by a mutation in the copper-transporting P-type ATPase (ATP7B). The mechanism of this disease is the failure of hepatic excretion of copper to bile, and leads to copper deposits in the liver and other organs. The ATP7B gene is located on the long arm of chromosome 13 (13q14.3). This study aimed to investigate the gene mutation in the Vietnamese patients with WD, and make a presymptomatic diagnosis for their familial members. Forty-three WD patients and their 65 siblings were identified as having ATP7B gene mutations. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples; 21 exons and exon-intron boundaries of the ATP7B gene were analyzed by direct sequencing. We recognized four mutations ([R723=; H724Tfs*34], V1042Cfs*79, D1027H, and IVS6+3A>G) in the sum of 20 detectable mutations, accounting for 87.2% of the total. Mutation S105* was determined to have a high rate (32.6%) in this study. The hotspot regions of ATP7B were found at exons 2, 16, and 8, and intron 14, in 39.6 %, 11.6 %, 9.3%, and 7 % of patients, respectively. Among nine homozygote/compound heterozygote siblings of the patients with WD, three individuals were determined as asymptomatic by screening mutations of the probands. They would begin treatment after diagnosis. In conclusion, 20 different mutations were detected in 43 WD patients. Of this number, four novel mutations were explored, including [R723=; H724Tfs*34], V1042Cfs*79, D1027H, and IVS6+3A>G. The mutation S105* is the most prevalent and has been considered as a biomarker that can be used in a rapid detection assay for diagnosis of WD patients. Exons 2, 8, and 16, and intron 14 should be screened initially for WD patients in Vietnam. Based on risk profile for WD, genetic testing for presymptomatic patients is also useful in diagnosis and treatment.

Keywords: ATP7B gene, mutation detection, presymptomatic diagnosis, Vietnamese Wilson’s disease

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161 MSIpred: A Python 2 Package for the Classification of Tumor Microsatellite Instability from Tumor Mutation Annotation Data Using a Support Vector Machine

Authors: Chen Wang, Chun Liang

Abstract:

Microsatellite instability (MSI) is characterized by high degree of polymorphism in microsatellite (MS) length due to a deficiency in mismatch repair (MMR) system. MSI is associated with several tumor types and its status can be considered as an important indicator for tumor prognostic. Conventional clinical diagnosis of MSI examines PCR products of a panel of MS markers using electrophoresis (MSI-PCR) which is laborious, time consuming, and less reliable. MSIpred, a python 2 package for automatic classification of MSI was released by this study. It computes important somatic mutation features from files in mutation annotation format (MAF) generated from paired tumor-normal exome sequencing data, subsequently using these to predict tumor MSI status with a support vector machine (SVM) classifier trained by MAF files of 1074 tumors belonging to four types. Evaluation of MSIpred on an independent 358-tumor test set achieved overall accuracy of over 98% and area under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of 0.967. These results indicated that MSIpred is a robust pan-cancer MSI classification tool and can serve as a complementary diagnostic to MSI-PCR in MSI diagnosis.

Keywords: microsatellite instability, pan-cancer classification, somatic mutation, support vector machine

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160 Mutations in rpoB, katG and inhA Genes: The Association with Resistance to Rifampicin and Isoniazid in Egyptian Mycobacterium tuberculosis Clinical Isolates

Authors: Ayman K. El Essawy, Amal M. Hosny, Hala M. Abu Shady

Abstract:

The rapid detection of TB and drug resistance, both optimizes treatment and improves outcomes. In the current study, respiratory specimens were collected from 155 patients. Conventional susceptibility testing and MIC determination were performed for rifampicin (RIF) and isoniazid (INH). Genotype MTBDRplus assay, which is a molecular genetic assay based on the DNA-STRIP technology and specific gene sequencing with primers for rpoB, KatG, and mab-inhA genes were used to detect mutations associated with resistance to rifampicin and isoniazid. In comparison to other categories, most of rifampicin resistant (61.5%) and isoniazid resistant isolates (47.1%) were from patients relapsed in treatment. The genotypic profile (using Genotype MTBDRplus assay) of multi-drug resistant (MDR) isolates showed missing of katG wild type 1 (WT1) band and appearance of mutation band katG MUT2. For isoniazid mono-resistant isolates, 80% showed katG MUT1, 20% showed katG MUT1, and inhA MUT1, 20% showed only inhA MUT1. Accordingly, 100% of isoniazid resistant strains were detected by this assay. Out of 17 resistant strains, 16 had mutation bands for katG distinguished high resistance to isoniazid. The assay could clearly detect rifampicin resistance among 66.7% of MDR isolates that showed mutation band rpoB MUT3 while 33.3% of them were considered as unknown. One mono-resistant rifampicin isolate did not show rifampicin mutation bands by Genotype MTBDRplus assay, but it showed an unexpected mutation in Codon 531 of rpoB by DNA sequence analysis. Rifampicin resistance in this strain could be associated with a mutation in codon 531 of rpoB (based on molecular sequencing), and Genotype MTBDRplus assay could not detect the associated mutation. If the results of Genotype MTBDRplus assay and sequencing were combined, this strain shows hetero-resistance pattern. Gene sequencing of eight selected isolates, previously tested by Genotype MTBDRplus assay, could detect resistance mutations mainly in codon 315 (katG gene), position -15 in inhA promotes gene for isoniazid resistance and codon 531 (rpoB gene) for rifampicin resistance. Genotyping techniques allow distinguishing between recurrent cases of reinfection or reactivation and supports epidemiological studies.

Keywords: M. tuberculosis, rpoB, KatG, inhA, genotype MTBDRplus

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159 Optimization of Polymerase Chain Reaction Condition to Amplify Exon 9 of PIK3CA Gene in Preventing False Positive Detection Caused by Pseudogene Existence in Breast Cancer

Authors: Dina Athariah, Desriani Desriani, Bugi Ratno Budiarto, Abinawanto Abinawanto, Dwi Wulandari

Abstract:

Breast cancer is a regulated by many genes. Defect in PIK3CA gene especially at position of exon 9 (E542K and E545K), called hot spot mutation induce early transformation of breast cells. The early detection of breast cancer based on mutation profile of this hot spot region would be hampered by the existence of pseudogene, marked by its substitution mutation at base 1658 (E545A) and deletion at 1659 that have been previously proven in several cancers. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, until recently no studies have been reported about pseudogene phenomenon in breast cancer. Here, we reported PCR optimization to to obtain true exon 9 of PIK3CA gene from its pseudogene hence increasing the validity of data. Material and methods: two genomic DNA with Dev and En code were used in this experiment. Two pairs of primer were design for Standard PCR method. The size of PCR products for each primer is 200bp and 400bp. While other primer was designed for Nested-PCR followed with DNA sequencing method. For Nested-PCR, we optimized the annealing temperature in first and second run of PCR, and the PCR cycle for first run PCR (15x versus 25x). Result: standard PCR using both primer pairs designed is failed to detect the true PIK3CA gene, appearing a substitution mutation at 1658 and deletion at 1659 of PCR product in sequence chromatogram indicated pseudogene. Meanwhile, Nested-PCR with optimum condition (annealing temperature for the first round at 55oC, annealing temperatung for the second round at 60,7oC with 15x PCR cycles) and could detect the true PIK3CA gene. Dev sample were identified as WT while En sample contain one substitution mutation at position 545 of exon 9, indicating amino acid changing from E to K. For the conclusion, pseudogene also exists in breast cancer and the apllication of optimazed Nested-PCR in this study could detect the true exon 9 of PIK3CA gene.

Keywords: breast cancer, exon 9, hotspot mutation, PIK3CA, pseudogene

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
158 Computational Prediction of the Effect of S477N Mutation on the RBD Binding Affinity and Structural Characteristic, A Molecular Dynamics Study

Authors: Mohammad Hossein Modarressi, Mozhgan Mondeali, Khabat Barkhordari, Ali Etemadi

Abstract:

The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by SARS-CoV-2, has led to significant concerns worldwide due to its catastrophic effects on public health. The SARS-CoV-2 infection is initiated with the binding of the receptor-binding domain (RBD) in its spike protein to the ACE2 receptor in the host cell membrane. Due to the error-prone entity of the viral RNA-dependent polymerase complex, the virus genome, including the coding region for the RBD, acquires new mutations, leading to the appearance of multiple variants. These variants can potentially impact transmission, virulence, antigenicity and evasive immune properties. S477N mutation located in the RBD has been observed in the SARS-CoV-2 omicron (B.1.1. 529) variant. In this study, we investigated the consequences of S477N mutation at the molecular level using computational approaches such as molecular dynamics simulation, protein-protein interaction analysis, immunoinformatics and free energy computation. We showed that displacement of Ser with Asn increases the stability of the spike protein and its affinity to ACE2 and thus increases the transmission potential of the virus. This mutation changes the folding and secondary structure of the spike protein. Also, it reduces antibody neutralization, raising concern about re-infection, vaccine breakthrough and therapeutic values.

Keywords: S477N, COVID-19, molecular dynamic, SARS-COV2 mutations

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157 A Multi-population DE with Adaptive Mutation and Local Search for Global Optimization

Authors: Zhoucheng Bao, Haiyan Zhu, Tingting Pang, Zuling Wang

Abstract:

This paper proposes a multi-population DE with adaptive mutation and local search for global optimization, named AMMADE. In order to better coordinate the cooperation between the populations and the rational use of resources. In AMMADE, the population is divided based on the Euclidean distance sorting method at each generation to appropriately coordinate the cooperation between subpopulations and the usage of resources, such that the best-performed subpopulation will get more computing resources in the next generation. Further, an adaptive local search strategy is employed on the best-performed subpopulation to achieve a balanced search. The proposed algorithm has been tested by solving optimization problems taken from CEC2014 benchmark problems. Experimental results show that our algorithm can achieve a competitive or better than related methods. The results also confirm the significance of devised strategies in the proposed algorithm.

Keywords: differential evolution, multi-mutation strategies, memetic algorithm, adaptive local search

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156 Investigating Dynamic Transition Process of Issues Using Unstructured Text Analysis

Authors: Myungsu Lim, William Xiu Shun Wong, Yoonjin Hyun, Chen Liu, Seongi Choi, Dasom Kim, Namgyu Kim

Abstract:

The amount of real-time data generated through various mass media has been increasing rapidly. In this study, we had performed topic analysis by using the unstructured text data that is distributed through news article. As one of the most prevalent applications of topic analysis, the issue tracking technique investigates the changes of the social issues that identified through topic analysis. Currently, traditional issue tracking is conducted by identifying the main topics of documents that cover an entire period at the same time and analyzing the occurrence of each topic by the period of occurrence. However, this traditional issue tracking approach has limitation that it cannot discover dynamic mutation process of complex social issues. The purpose of this study is to overcome the limitations of the existing issue tracking method. We first derived core issues of each period, and then discover the dynamic mutation process of various issues. In this study, we further analyze the mutation process from the perspective of the issues categories, in order to figure out the pattern of issue flow, including the frequency and reliability of the pattern. In other words, this study allows us to understand the components of the complex issues by tracking the dynamic history of issues. This methodology can facilitate a clearer understanding of complex social phenomena by providing mutation history and related category information of the phenomena.

Keywords: Data Mining, Issue Tracking, Text Mining, topic Analysis, topic Detection, Trend Detection

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
155 Genetic Change in Escherichia coli KJ122 That Improved Succinate Production from an Equal Mixture of Xylose and Glucose

Authors: Apichai Sawisit, Sirima Suvarnakuta Jantama, Sunthorn Kanchanatawee, Lonnie O. Ingram, Kaemwich Jantama

Abstract:

Escherichia coli KJ122 was engineered to produce succinate from glucose using the wild type GalP for glucose uptake instead of the native phosphotransferase system (ptsI mutation). This strain ferments 10% (w/v) xylose poorly. Mutants were selected by serial transfers in AM1 mineral salts medium with 10% (w/v) xylose. Evolved mutants exhibited a similar improvement, co-fermentation of an equal mixture of xylose and glucose. One of these, AS1600a, produced 84.26±1.37 g/L succinate, equivalent to that produced by the parent (KJ122) strain from 10% glucose (85.46±1.78 g/L). AS1600a was sequenced and found to contain a mutation in galactose permease (GalP, G236D). Expressing the galP* mutation gene in KJ122ΔgalP resembled the xylose utilization phenotype of the mutant AS1600a. The strain AS1600a and KJ122ΔgalP (pLOI5746; galP*) also co-fermented a mixture of glucose, xylose, arabinose, and galactose in sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate for succinate production.

Keywords: xylose, furfural, succinate, sugarcane bagasse, E. coli

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
154 Cytology Is a Promising Tool for the Diagnosis of High-Grade Serous Ovarian Carcinoma from Ascites

Authors: Miceska Simona, Škof Erik, Frković Grazio Snježana, Jeričević Anja, Smrkolj Špela, Cvjetićanin Branko, Novaković Srdjan, Grčar Kuzmanov Biljana, Kloboves-Prevodnik Veronika

Abstract:

Objectives: High-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) is characterized by the dissemination of the tumor cells (TC) in the peritoneal cavity forming malignant ascites at the time of diagnosis or recurrence. Still, cytology itself has been underutilized as a modality for the diagnosis of HGSOC from ascites, and histological examination from the tumor tissue is yet the only validated method used. The objective of this study was to evaluate the reliability of cytology in the diagnosis of HGSOC in relation to the histopathological examination. Methods: The study included 42 patients with histologically confirmed HGSOC, accompanied by malignant ascites. To confirm the malignancy of the TC in the ascites and to define their immunophenotype, immunohistochemical reaction (IHC) of the following antigens: Calretinin, MOC, WT1, PAX8, p53, p16 & Ki-67 was evaluated on ascites cytospins and tissue blocks. For complete cytological determination of HGSOC, BRCA 1/2 gene mutation was determined from ascites, tissue block, and blood. BRCA1/2 mutation from blood was performed to define the type of mutation, somatic vs germline. Results: Among 42 patients, the immunophenotype of HGSOC from ascites was confirmed in 36 cases (86%). For more profound analysis, the patients were divided in 3 groups regarding the number of TC present in the ascites: patients with less than 10% TC, 10% TC, and more than 10% TC. From all included patients, in the group with less than 10% TC, there were 10 cases, and only 5 of them(50%) showed HGSOC phenotype; 12 cases had equally 10% of TC, and 11 cases (92%) showed HGSOC phenotype; 20 cases had more than 10% TC and all of them (100%) confirmed the HGSOC immunophenotype from ascites. Only 33 patients were eligible for further BRCA1/2 analysis. Eleven BRCA1/2 mutations were detected from thetissue block: 6 germline and 5 somatic. In 2 cases with less than 10% TC, BRCA1/2 mutation was not detected; 4 cases had 10% TC, and 2 of them (50%) confirmed the mutation; 4 cases had more than 10% TC, and all showed 100% reliability with the tumor tissue. Conclusions: Cytology is a highly reliable method for determining the immunophenotype of HGSOC and BRCA1/2 mutation if more than 10% of tumor cells are present in the ascites. This may present an additional non-invasive clinical approach for fast and effective diagnose in the future, especially in inoperable conditions or relapses.

Keywords: cytology, ascites, high-grade serous ovarian cancer, immunophenotype, BRCA1/2

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153 PCR Based DNA Analysis in Detecting P53 Mutation in Human Breast Cancer (MDA-468)

Authors: Debbarma Asis, Guha Chandan

Abstract:

Tumor Protein-53 (P53) is one of the tumor suppressor proteins. P53 regulates the cell cycle that conserves stability by preventing genome mutation. It is named so as it runs as 53-kilodalton (kDa) protein on Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis although the actual mass is 43.7 kDa. Experimental evidence has indicated that P53 cancer mutants loses tumor suppression activity and subsequently gain oncogenic activities to promote tumourigenesis. Tumor-specific DNA has recently been detected in the plasma of breast cancer patients. Detection of tumor-specific genetic materials in cancer patients may provide a unique and valuable tumor marker for diagnosis and prognosis. Commercially available MDA-468 breast cancer cell line was used for the proposed study.

Keywords: tumor protein (P53), cancer mutants, MDA-468, tumor suppressor gene

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
152 Role of Imaging in Predicting the Receptor Positivity Status in Lung Adenocarcinoma: A Chapter in Radiogenomics

Authors: Sonal Sethi, Mukesh Yadav, Abhimanyu Gupta

Abstract:

The upcoming field of radiogenomics has the potential to upgrade the role of imaging in lung cancer management by noninvasive characterization of tumor histology and genetic microenvironment. Receptor positivity like epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) genotyping are critical in lung adenocarcinoma for treatment. As conventional identification of receptor positivity is an invasive procedure, we analyzed the features on non-invasive computed tomography (CT), which predicts the receptor positivity in lung adenocarcinoma. Retrospectively, we did a comprehensive study from 77 proven lung adenocarcinoma patients with CT images, EGFR and ALK receptor genotyping, and clinical information. Total 22/77 patients were receptor-positive (15 had only EGFR mutation, 6 had ALK mutation, and 1 had both EGFR and ALK mutation). Various morphological characteristics and metastatic distribution on CT were analyzed along with the clinical information. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used. On multivariable logistic regression analysis, we found spiculated margin, lymphangitic spread, air bronchogram, pleural effusion, and distant metastasis had a significant predictive value for receptor mutation status. On univariate analysis, air bronchogram and pleural effusion had significant individual predictive value. Conclusions: Receptor positive lung cancer has characteristic imaging features compared with nonreceptor positive lung adenocarcinoma. Since CT is routinely used in lung cancer diagnosis, we can predict the receptor positivity by a noninvasive technique and would follow a more aggressive algorithm for evaluation of distant metastases as well as for the treatment.

Keywords: lung cancer, multidisciplinary cancer care, oncologic imaging, radiobiology

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151 In vivo Estimation of Mutation Rate of the Aleutian Mink Disease Virus

Authors: P.P. Rupasinghe, A.H. Farid

Abstract:

The Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV, Carnivore amdoparvovirus 1) causes persistent infection, plasmacytosis, and formation and deposition of immune complexes in various organs in adult mink, leading to glomerulonephritis, arteritis and sometimes death. The disease has no cure nor an effective vaccine, and identification and culling of mink positive for anti-AMDV antibodies have not been successful in controlling the infection in many countries. The failure to eradicate the virus from infected farms may be caused by keeping false-negative individuals on the farm, virus transmission from wild animals, or neighboring farms. The identification of sources of infection, which can be performed by comparing viral sequences, is important in the success of viral eradication programs. High mutation rates could cause inaccuracies when viral sequences are used to trace back an infection to its origin. There is no published information on the mutation rate of AMDV either in vivo or in vitro. The in vivo estimation is the most accurate method, but it is difficult to perform because of the inherent technical complexities, namely infecting live animals, the unknown numbers of viral generations (i.e., infection cycles), the removal of deleterious mutations over time and genetic drift. The objective of this study was to determine the mutation rate of AMDV on which no information was available. A homogenate was prepared from the spleen of one naturally infected American mink (Neovison vison) from Nova Scotia, Canada (parental template). The near full-length genome of this isolate (91.6%, 4,143 bp) was bidirectionally sequenced. A group of black mink was inoculated with this homogenate (descendant mink). Spleen sampled were collected from 10 descendant mink after 16 weeks post-inoculation (wpi) and from anther 10 mink after 176 wpi, and their near-full length genomes were bi-directionally sequenced. Sequences of these mink were compared with each other and with the sequence of the parental template. The number of nucleotide substitutions at 176 wpi was 3.1 times greater than that at 16 wpi (113 vs 36) whereas the estimates of mutation rate at 176 wpi was 3.1 times lower than that at 176 wpi (2.85×10-3 vs 9.13×10-4 substitutions/ site/ year), showing a decreasing trend in the mutation rate per unit of time. Although there is no report on in vivo estimate of the mutation rate of DNA viruses in animals using the same method which was used in the current study, these estimates are at the higher range of reported values for DNA viruses determined by various techniques. These high estimates are logical based on the wide range of diversity and pathogenicity of AMDV isolates. The results suggest that increases in the number of nucleotide substitutions over time and subsequent divergence make it difficult to accurately trace back AMDV isolates to their origin when several years elapsed between the two samplings.

Keywords: Aleutian mink disease virus, American mink, mutation rate, nucleotide substitution

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150 Mutations in the GJB2 Gene Are the Cause of an Important Number of Non-Syndromic Deafness Cases

Authors: Habib Onsori, Somayeh Akrami, Mohammad Rahmati

Abstract:

Deafness is the most common sensory disorder with the frequency of 1/1000 in many populations. Mutations in the GJB2 (CX26) gene at the DFNB1 locus on chromosome 13q12 are associated with congenital hearing loss. Approximately 80% of congenital hearing loss cases are recessively inherited and 15% dominantly inherited. Mutations of the GJB2 gene, encoding gap junction protein Connexin 26 (Cx26), are the most common cause of hereditary congenital hearing loss in many countries. This report presents two cases of different mutations from Iranian patients with bilateral hearing loss. DNA studies were performed for the GJB2 gene by PCR and sequencing methods. In one of them, direct sequencing of the gene showed a heterozygous T→C transition at nucleotide 604 resulting in a cysteine to arginine amino acid substitution at codon 202 (C202R) in the fourth extracellular domain (TM4) of the protein. The analyses indicate that the C202R mutation appeared de novo in the proband with a possible dominant effect (GenBank: KF 638275). In the other one, DNA sequencing revealed a compound heterozygous mutation (35delG, 363delC) in the Cx26 gene that is strongly associated with congenital non-syndromic hearing loss (NSHL). So screening the mutations for hearing loss individuals referring to genetics counseling centers before marriage and or pregnancy is recommended.

Keywords: CX26, deafness, GJB2, mutation

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149 Phenotypic and Genotypic Diagnosis of Gaucher Disease in Algeria

Authors: S. Hallal, Z. Chami, A. Hadji-Lehtihet, S. Sokhal-Boudella, A. Berhoune, L. Yargui

Abstract:

Gaucher disease is the most common lysosomal storage in our population, it is due to a deficiency of β –glucosidase acid. The enzyme deficiency causes a pathological accumulation of undegraded substrate in lysosomes. This metabolic overload is responsible for a multisystemic disease with hepatosplenomegaly, anemia, thrombocytopenia, and bone involvement. Neurological involvement is rare. The laboratory diagnosis of Gaucher disease consists of phenotypic diagnosis by determining the enzymatic activity of β - glucosidase by fluorimetric method, a study by genotypic diagnosis in the GBA gene, limiting the search recurrent mutations (N370S, L444P, 84 GG); PCR followed by an enzymatic digestion. Abnormal profiles were verified by sequencing. Monitoring of treated patients is provided by the determination of chitotriosidase. Our experience spaning a period of 6 years (2007-2014) has enabled us to diagnose 78 patients out of a total of 328 requests from the various departments of pediatrics, internal medicine, neurology. Genotypic diagnosis focused on the entire family of 9 children treated at pediatric CHU Mustapha, which help define the clinical form; or 5 of them had type III disease, carrying the L444P mutation in the homozygous state. Three others were composite (N370/L444P) (N370S/other unintended mutation in our study), and only in one family no recurrent mutation has been found. This molecular study permits screening of heterozygous essential for genetic counseling.

Keywords: Gaucher disease, mutations, N370S, L444P

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148 Analysis of Mutation Associated with Male Infertility in Patients and Healthy Males in the Russian Population

Authors: Svetlana Zhikrivetskaya, Nataliya Shirokova, Roman Bikanov, Elizaveta Musatova, Yana Kovaleva, Nataliya Vetrova, Ekaterina Pomerantseva

Abstract:

Nowadays there is a growing number of couples with conceiving problems due to male or female infertility. Genetic abnormalities are responsible for about 31% of all cases of male infertility. These abnormalities include both chromosomal aberrations or aneuploidies and mutations in certain genes. Chromosomal abnormalities can be easily identified, thus the development of screening panels able to reveal genetic reasons of male infertility on gene level is of current interest. There are approximately 2,000 genes involved in male fertility that is the reason why it is very important to determine the most clinically relevant in certain population and ethnic conditions. An infertility screening panel containing 48 mutations in genes AMHR2, CFTR, DNAI1, HFE, KAL1, TSSK2 and AZF locus which are the most clinically relevant for the European population according to databases NCBI and ClinVar was designed. The aim of this research was to confirm clinic relevance of these mutations in the Russian population. Genotyping was performed in 220 patients with different types of male infertility and in 57 healthy males with normozoospermia. Mutations were identified by end-point PCR with TaqMan probes in microfluidic plates. The frequency of 5 mutations in healthy males and 13 mutations in patients with infertility was revealed and estimated. The frequency of mutation c.187C>G in HFE gene was significantly lower for healthy males (8.8%) compared with patients (17.7%) and the values for the European population according to ExAc database (13.7%) and dbSNP (17.2%). Analysis of c.3454G>C, and c.1545_1546delTA mutations in the CFTR gene revealed increased frequency (0.9 and 0.2%, respectively) in patients with infertility compared with data for the European population (0.04%, respectively (ExAc, European (Non-Finnish) and for the Aggregated Populations (0.002% (ExAc), because there is no data for European population for c.1545_1546delTA mutation. The frequency of del508 mutation (CFTR) in patients (1.59%) were lower comparing with male infertility Europeans (3.34-6.25% depending on nationality) and at the same level with healthy Europeans (1.06%, ExAc, European (Non-Finnish). Analysis of c.845G>A (HFE) mutation resulted in decreased frequency in patients (1.8%) in contrast with the European population data (5.1%, respectively, ExAc, European (Non-Finnish). Moreover, obtained data revealed no statistically significant frequency difference for c.845G>A mutation (HFE) between healthy males in the Russian and the European populations. Allele frequencies of mutations c.350G>A (CFTR), c.193A>T (HFE), c.774C>T, and c.80A>G (gene TSSK2) showed no significantly difference among patients with infertility, healthy males and Europeans. Analysis of AZF locus revealed increased frequency for AZFc microdeletion in patients with male infertility. Thereby, the new data of the allele frequencies in infertility patients in the Russian population was obtained. As well as the frequency differences of mutations associated with male infertility among patients, healthy males in the Russian population and the European one were estimated. The revealed differences showed that for high effectiveness of screening panel detecting genetically caused male infertility it is very important to consider ethnic and population characteristics of patients which will be screened.

Keywords: allele frequency, azoospermia, male infertility, mutation, population

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147 Water Use Efficiency of Sunflower Genotypes Under Drip Irrigation

Authors: Adel M. Mahmoud

Abstract:

This Investigation was conducted to determine the productivity and water use efficiency for new sunflower genotypes. Ten sunflower genotypes were evaluated under drip irrigation using two treatments of. Results indicate that decreasing the amount of irrigation water from 1500 to 1130 mm/hectar significantly reduced all studied traits. Mutation (M1-63) surpassed all the other one genotypes in seed yield and WUE. Lines which gave the highest yield of the seed have water use efficiency under drought conditions higher than water use efficiency under normal irrigation. The lowest depression in seed yield due to drought conditions has been registered for Line 20, Line M1-63 and Sakha 53 genotypes (11 , 18 and 16 %, respectively). Genotypes (Line 20 , Line M1-63 and Sakha 53) are more tolerant to drought than others and we can used its in breeding program to develop sunflower hybrids suitable for cultivation under drought condition.

Keywords: sunflower genotypes, water use efficiency, mutation, inbred lines

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146 NprRX Regulation on Surface Spreading Motility in Bacillus cereus

Authors: Yan-Shiang Chiou, Yi-Huang Hsueh

Abstract:

Bacillus cereus is a foodborne pathogen that causes two types of foodborne illness, the emetic and diarrheal syndromes. B. cereus consistently ranks among the top three among bacterial foodborne outbreaks in the ten years of 2001 to 2010 in Taiwan. Foodborne outbreak caused by B. cereus has been increased, and recently it ranks second foodborne pathogen after Vibrio parahaemolyticus. This pathogen is difficult to control due to its ubiquitousness in the environment, the psychrotrophic nature of many strains, and the heat resistance of their spores. Because complete elimination of biofilms is difficult, a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of biofilm formation by B. cereus will help to develop better strategies to control this pathogen. Surface translocation can be an important factor in biofilm formation. In B. cereus, NprR is a quorum sensor, and its apo NprR is a dimer and changes to a tetramer in the presence of NprX. The small peptide NprX may induce conformational change allowing the apo dimer to switch to an active tetramer specifically recognizing target DNA sequences. Our result showed that mutation of nprRX causes surface spreading deficiency. Mutation of flagella, pili and surfactant genes (flgAB, bcpAB, krsABC), did not abolish spreading motility. Under nprRX mutant, mutation of spo0A restored the spreading deficiency. This suggests that spreading motility is not related surfactant, pili and flagella but other unknown mechanism and Spo0A, a sporulation initiation protein, inhibits spreading motility.

Keywords: Bacillus cereus, nprRX, spo0A, spreading motility

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145 Phenotypic and Molecular Heterogeneity Linked to the Magnesium Transporter CNNM2

Authors: Reham Khalaf-Nazzal, Imad Dweikat, Paula Gimenez, Iker Oyenarte, Alfonso Martinez-Cruz, Domonik Muller

Abstract:

Metal cation transport mediator (CNNM) gene family comprises 4 isoforms that are expressed in various human tissues. Structurally, CNNMs are complex proteins that contain an extracellular N-terminal domain preceding a DUF21 transmembrane domain, a ‘Bateman module’ and a C-terminal cNMP-binding domain. Mutations in CNNM2 cause familial dominant hypomagnesaemia. Growing evidence highlights the role of CNNM2 in neurodevelopment. Mutations in CNNM2 have been implicated in epilepsy, intellectual disability, schizophrenia, and others. In the present study, we aim to elucidate the function of CNNM2 in the developing brain. Thus, we present the genetic origin of symptoms in two family cohorts. In the first family, three siblings of a consanguineous Palestinian family in which parents are first cousins, and consanguinity ran over several generations, presented a varying degree of intellectual disability, cone-rod dystrophy, and autism spectrum disorder. Exome sequencing and segregation analysis revealed the presence of homozygous pathogenic mutation in the CNNM2 gene, the parents were heterozygous for that gene mutation. Magnesium blood levels were normal in the three children and their parents in several measurements. They had no symptoms of hypomagnesemia. The CNNM2 mutation in this family was found to locate in the CBS1 domain of the CNNM2 protein. The crystal structure of the mutated CNNM2 protein was not significantly different from the wild-type protein, and the binding of AMP or MgATP was not dramatically affected. This suggests that the CBS1 domain could be involved in pure neurodevelopmental functions independent of its magnesium-handling role, and this mutation could have affected a protein partner binding or other functions in this protein. In the second family, another autosomal dominant CNNM2 mutation was found to run in a large family with multiple individuals over three generations. All affected family members had hypomagnesemia and hypermagnesuria. Oral supplementation of magnesium did not increase the levels of magnesium in serum significantly. Some affected members of this family have defects in fine motor skills such as dyslexia and dyslalia. The detected mutation is located in the N-terminal part, which contains a signal peptide thought to be involved in the sorting and routing of the protein. In this project, we describe heterogenous clinical phenotypes related to CNNM2 mutations and protein functions. In the first family, and up to the authors’ knowledge, we report for the first time the involvement of CNNM2 in retinal photoreceptor development and function. In addition, we report the presence of a neurophenotype independent of magnesium status related to the CNNM2 protein mutation. Taking into account the different modes of inheritance and the different positions of the mutations within CNNM2 and its different structural and functional domains, it is likely that CNNM2 might be involved in a wide spectrum of neuropsychiatric comorbidities with considerable varying phenotypes.

Keywords: magnesium transport, autosomal recessive, autism, neurodevelopment, CBS domain

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