Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 327

Search results for: antibiotics

327 Efficacy Enhancement of Hydrophobic Antibiotics Employing Rhamnolipid as Biosurfactant

Authors: Abdurrahim A. Elouzi, Abdurrauf M. Gusbi, Ali M. Elgerbi

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Antibiotic resistance has become a global public-health problem, thus it is imperative that new antibiotics continue to be developed. Major problems are being experienced in human medicine from antibiotic resistant bacteria. Moreover, no new chemical class of antibiotics has been introduced into medicine in the past two decades. The aim of the current study presents experimental results that evaluate the capability of bio surfactant rhamnolipid on enhancing the efficacy of hydrophobic antibiotics. Serial dilutions of azithromycin and clarithromycin were prepared. A bacterial suspension (approximately 5 X 105 CFU) from an overnight culture in MSM was inoculated into 20 ml sterile test tube each containing a serial 10-fold dilution of the test antibiotic(s) in broth with or without 200 mgL-1 rhamnolipid. The tubes were incubated for 24 h with vigorous shaking at 37°C. Antimicrobial activity in multiple antibiotic-resistant gram-negative bacteria pathogens and gram-positive bacteria were assessed using optical density technique. The results clearly demonstrated that the presence of rhamnolipid significantly improved the efficiency of both antibiotics. We hypothesized that the addition of rhamnolipid at low concentration, causes release of LPS which results in an increase in cell surface hydrophobicity. This allows increased association of cells with hydrophobic antibiotics resulting in increased cytotoxicity rates.

Keywords: hydrophobic antibiotics, biosurfactant, rhamnolipid, azithromycin, clarithromycin

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326 The Role of Biosecurity in Sustainable Aquaculture

Authors: Barbara Montwill

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The last three decades of continuing increase in the farming of aquatic animals worldwide placed a biosecurity in a different perspective. An introduction of new countries, technologies, species to aquaculture, increased movement of animals are a few factors the might be associated with biosecurity risks. Most farms depend on trade for various inputs such as broodstock, post-larvae/fingerlings and feed. These inputs represent potential pathways by which pathogens can enter farming operations and create conditions for emergence of new or reoccurrence of diseases and production loses. Farm biosecurity should be considered an essential component of a national aquatic animal biosecurity program and together with adequate import and export controls can lead to the development of successful aquaculture industry as a reliable source of safe seafood product. This presentation would describe some biosecurity management approaches to minimize the negative impact of aquatic diseases on production and preserve the power of antibiotics.

Keywords: aquaculture, biosecurity, antibiotics, antibiotics residues

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325 Extracellular Protein Secreted by Bacillus subtilis ATCC21332 in the Presence of Streptomycin Sulfate

Authors: M. N. Hanina, M. Hairul Shahril, I. Ismatul Nurul Asyikin, A. K. Abdul Jalil, M. R. Salina, M. R. Maryam, M. Rosfarizan

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The extracellular proteins secreted by bacteria may be increased in stressful surroundings, such as in the presence of antibiotics. It appears that many antibiotics, when used at low concentrations, have in common the ability to activate or repress gene transcription, which is distinct from their inhibitory effect. There have been comparatively few studies on the potential of antibiotics as a specific chemical signal that can trigger a variety of biological functions. Therefore, this study was carried out to determine the effect of Streptomycin Sulfate in regulating extracellular proteins secreted by Bacillus subtilis ATCC21332. Results of Microdilution assay showed that the Minimum Inhibition Concentration (MIC) of Streptomycin Sulfate on B. subtilis ATCC21332 was 2.5 mg/ml. The bacteria cells were then exposed to Streptomycin Sulfate at concentration of 0.01 MIC before being further incubated for 48h to 72 h. The extracellular proteins secreted were then isolated and analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Proteins profile revealed that three additional bands with approximate sizes of 30 kDa, 22 kDa and 23 kDa were appeared for the treated bacteria with Streptomycin Sulfate. Thus, B. subtilis ATCC21332 in stressful condition with the presence of Streptomycin Sulfate at low concentration could induce the extracellular proteins secretion.

Keywords: Bacillus subtilis ATCC21332, streptomycin sulfate, extracellular proteins, antibiotics

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324 Oral Antibiotics in Trans-Rectal Prostate Biopsy and Its Efficacy to Reduce Infectious Complications: Systematic Review

Authors: Mohand Yaghi, O. Kehinde

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Background: For the diagnosis of prostate cancer Trans-rectal prostate biopsy (TRPB) is used commonly, the procedure is associated with infective complications. There is evidence that antibiotics (ABx) decrease infective events after TRPB, but different regimens are used. Aim: To systematically review different regimens of prophylactic oral antibiotics in TRPB. Design: Medline, Embase, Clinical trials site, and Cochrane library were searched, experts were consulted about relevant studies. Randomized clinical trials (RCT) conducted in the last twenty years, which investigated different oral antibiotic regimens in TRPB, and compared their efficacy to reduce infectious complications were analyzed. Measurements: Primary outcomes were bacteriuria, urinary tract infection (UTI), fever, bacteremia, sepsis. Secondary outcomes were hospitalization rate, and the prevalence of ABx-resistant bacteria. Results: Nine trials were eligible with 3012 patients. Antibiotics prevented bacteriuria (3.5% vs. 9.88%), UTI (4.46% vs. 9.75%), and hospitalization (0.21% vs. 2.13%) significantly in comparison with placebo or no treatment. No significant difference was found in all outcomes of the review between the single dose regimen and the 3 days. The single dose regimen was as effective as the multiple dose except in Bacteriuria (6.75% vs. 3.25%), and the prevalence of ABx-resistant bacteria (1.57% vs. 0.27%). Quinolones reduced only UTI significantly in comparison with other antibiotics. Lastly, Ciprofloxacin is the best Quinolone to prevent UTI, and hospitalization. Conclusion: it is essential to prescribe prophylactic Antibiotics in TRPB. No conclusive evidence could be claimed about the superiority of the multiple or the 3 days regimens to the single dose regimen. Unexpectedly, ABx-resistant bacteria was identified more often in the single dose cohorts.

Keywords: infection, prostate cancer, sepsis, TRPB

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323 Achieving Appropriate Use of Antibiotics through Pharmacists’ Intervention at Practice Point: An Indian Study Report

Authors: Parimalakrishnan Sundararjan, Madheswaran Murugan, Dhanya Dharman, Yatindra Kumar, Sudhir Singh Gangwar, Guru Prasad Mohanta

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Antibiotic resistance AR is a global issue, India started to redress the issues of antibiotic resistance late and it plans to have: active surveillance of microbial resistance and promote appropriate use of antibiotics. The present study attempted to achieve appropriate use of antibiotics through pharmacists’ intervention at practice point. In a quasi-experimental prospective cohort study, the cases with bacteremia from four hospitals were identified during 2015 and 2016 for intervention. The pharmacists centered intervention: active screening of each prescription and comparing with the selection of antibiotics with susceptibility of the bacteria. Wherever irrationality noticed, it was brought to the notice of the treating physician for making changes. There were two groups: intervention group and control group without intervention. The active screening and intervention in 915 patients has reduced therapeutic regimen time in patients with bacteremia. The intervention group showed the decreased duration of hospital stay 3.4 days from 5.1 days. Further, multivariate modeling of patients who were in control group showed that patients in the intervention group had a significant decrease in both duration of hospital stay and infection-related mortality. Unlike developed countries, pharmacists are not active partners in patient care in India. This unique attempt of pharmacist’ invention was planned in consultation with hospital authorities which proved beneficial in terms of reducing the duration of treatment, hospital stay, and infection-related mortality. This establishes the need for a collaborative decision making among the health workforce in patient care at least for promoting rational use of antibiotics, an attempt to combat resistance.

Keywords: antibiotics resistance, intervention, bacteremia, multivariate modeling

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322 Prevalence and Antibiotic Resistance Patterns of Salmonella from Retail Dressed Chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) in Wet Markets of Cavite, Philippines

Authors: Chester Joshua V. Saldana, Yolanda A. Ilagan

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This study determines the prevalence of Salmonella from retail dressed chickens using chicken wings as samples in five wet city markets of Cavite, Philippines, compares the prevalence among the markets' samples and determines the serotypes and antibiotic resistance pattern of Salmonella isolates. The overall prevalence of Salmonella in five wet markets in Cavite was 13.33 percent. Samples from Bacoor yielded the highest prevalence rate of 26.6 percent, followed by Imus (23.3%), Dasmarinas (11.6%), Trece Martires (3.3%) and Tagaytay (1.6%). Seven serotypes (serogroups B, C2, C3, D1 and E1) were isolated which include Salmonella weltevreden, S. derby, S. newport, S. albany, S. typhimurium, and S. enteritidis. Salmonella weltevreden was the predominant serotype while S. typhi and S. albany were the least common. Among the 15 antibiotics tested, resistance to ampicillin, tetracycline, and cephalexin was exhibited by all the isolates while 5 percent showed resistance to gentamicin, 2.5 percent to streptomycin and 12.5 percent to nitrofurantoin. One isolate was resistant to four antibiotics whereas most isolates of S. enteritidis were resistant to 2 to 5 antibiotics. Four resistance patterns were recorded. This study revealed the emergence of multidrug-resistant Salmonella serotypes from chicken meat in Cavite, Philippines.

Keywords: antibiotics, dressed chickens, resistance patterns, Salmonella serovars

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321 Seasonal Effect of Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria into the Environment from Treated Sewage Effluents

Authors: S. N. Al-Bahry, S. K. Al-Musharafi, I. Y. Mahmoud

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Recycled treated sewage effluents (TSE) is used for agriculture, Public park irrigation and industrial purposes. TSE was found to play a major role in the distribution of antibiotic resistant bacteria into the environment. Fecal coliform and enterococci counts were significantly higher during summer compared to winter seasons. Oman has low annual rainfall with annual average temperature varied between 15-45oC. The main source of potable water is from seawater desalination. Resistance of the isolates to 10 antibiotics (Amikacin, Ampicillin, chloramphenicol, gentamycine, minocylin, nalidixicacid, neomycin, streptomycin, Tetracycline, Tobramycin, and Trimethoprim) was tested. Both fecal coliforms and enterococci were multiple resistant to 2-10 antibiotics. However, temperature variation during summer and winter did not affect resistance of the isolates to antibiotics. The significance of this investigation may be indicator to the environmental TSE pollution.

Keywords: antibiotic resistance, bacteria, environment, sewage treated effluent

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320 A Prospective Audit to Look into Antimicrobial Prescribing in the Clinical Setting: In a Teaching Hospital in the UK

Authors: Richa Sinha, Mohammad Irfan Javed, Sanjay Singh

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Introduction: Good antimicrobial prescribing reduces length of stay in hospital, risk of adverse events, antimicrobial resistance, and unnecessary hospital expenditure. The aim of this prospective audit was to identify any problems with antimicrobial prescribing including documentation of the relevant aspects as well as appropriateness of antibiotics use. The audit was conducted on the surgical wards in a teaching hospital in the UK. Methods: Standards included the indication, duration, choice, and prescription of antibiotic should be in line with current Regional Guidelines and should be clearly documented on the prescription chart. There should be an entry in each patients’ medical record of the diagnosis and indication for each acute antibiotic prescription issued. All prescriptions should clearly document the route, frequency and dose of antibiotic. Data collection was done for 2 weeks in the month of March 2014. A proforma including all the questions above was completed for all the patients. The results were analysed using Excel. Results: 35 patients in total were selected for the audit. 85.7% of patients had indication of antibiotic documented on the prescription chart and 68.5% of patients had indication documented in the notes. The antibiotic used was in line with hospital guidelines in 45.7% of patients, however, in a further 28.5% of patients the reason for the antibiotic prescription was microbiology approved. Therefore, in total 74.2% of patients had been prescribed appropriate antibiotics. The duration of antibiotic was documented in 68.6% of patients and the antibiotic was reviewed in 37.1% of patients. The dose, frequency and route was documented clearly in 100% of patients. Conclusion: Overall, prescribing can be improved on the surgical wards in this hospital. Only 37.1% of patients had clear documentation of a review of antibiotics. It may be that antibiotics have been reviewed but this should be clearly highlighted on the prescription chart or the notes. Failure to review antibiotics can lead to poor patient care and antimicrobial resistance and therefore it is important to address this. It is also important to address the appropriateness of antibiotics as inappropriate antibiotic prescription can lead to failure of treatment as well as antimicrobial resistance. The good points from the audit was that all patients had clear documentation of dose, route and frequency which is extremely important in the administration of antibiotics. Recommendations from this audit included to emphasize good antimicrobial prescribing at induction (twice yearly), an antimicrobial handbook for junior doctors, and re-audit in 6 months time.

Keywords: prescribing, antimicrobial, indication, duration

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319 Antimicrobial Resistance: Knowledge towards Antibiotics in a Mexican Population

Authors: L. D. Upegui, Isabel Alvarez-Solorza, Karina Garduno-Ulloa, Maren Boecker

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Introduction: The increasing prevalence rate of resistant and multiresistant bacterial strains to antibiotics is a threat to public health and requires a rapid multifunctional answer. Individuals that are affected by resistant strains present a higher morbidity and mortality than individuals that are infected with the same species of bacteria but with sensitive strains. There have been identified risk factors that are related to the misuse and overuse of antibiotics, like socio-demographic characteristics and psychological aspects of the individuals that have not been explored objectively due to a lack of valid and reliable instruments for their measurement. Objective: To validate a questionnaire for the evaluation of the levels of knowledge related to the use of antibiotics in a Mexican population. Materials and Methods: Analytical cross-sectional observational study. The questionnaire consists of 12 items to evaluated knowledge (1=no, 2=not sure, 3=yes) regarding the use of antibiotics, with higher scores corresponding to a higher level of knowledge. Data are collected in a sample of students. Data collection is still ongoing. In this abstract preliminary results of 30 respondents are reported which were collected during pilot-testing. The validation of the instrument was done using the Rasch model. Fit to the Rasch model was tested checking overall fit to the model, unidimensionality, local independence and evaluating the presence of Differential Item Functioning (DIF) by age and gender. The software Rumm2030 and the SPSS were used for the analyses. Results: The participants of the pilot-testing presented an average age of 32 years ± 12.6 and 53% were women. The preliminary results indicated that the items showed good fit to the Rasch model (chi-squared=12.8 p=0.3795). Unidimensionality (number of significant t-tests of 3%) could be proven, the items were locally independent, and no DIF was observed. Knowledge was the smallest regarding statements on the role of antibiotics in treating infections, e.g., most of the respondents did not know that antibiotics would not work against viral infections (70%) and that they could also cause side effects (87%). The knowledge score ranged from 0 to 100 points with a transformed measurement (mean of knowledge 27.1 ± 4.8). Conclusions: The instrument showed good psychometric proprieties. The low scores of knowledge about antibiotics suggest that misinterpretations on the use of these medicaments were prevalent, which could influence the production of antibiotic resistance. The application of this questionnaire will allow the objective identification of 'Hight risk groups', which will be the target population for future educational campaigns, to reduce the knowledge gaps on the general population as an effort against antibiotic resistance.

Keywords: antibiotics, knowledge, misuse, overuse, questionnaire, Rasch model, validation

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318 Occurrence of Antibiotics of Veterinary Use in Water of the Lake Titicaca: Its Environmental Implication and Human Health

Authors: Franz Zirena Vilca, Nestor Cahui Galarza, Walter Alejandro Zamalloa Cuba, Edith Tello Palma, Teofilo Donaires Flores, Valdemar Luiz Tornisielo

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The production of rainbow trout in the Lake Titicaca represents an important economic activity for Peru. The city of Puno is responsible for 83% of this production, so the use of antibiotics within the aquaculture system is not alien to this reality. Meanwhile, the waters of Lake Titicaca represent an important source for the supply of drinking water for 80% of the population of the Puno city. In this paper, twelve antibiotics for veterinary use were monitored in water samples during two seasons: dry (July 2015) and rainy (February 2016), water samples from trout production systems, near the water catching point in the lake and drinking water in the city house of Puno were considered. The samples were analyzed using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry and solid online phase extraction (On-line SPE-LC-MS/MS), all samples analyzed showed concentrations of Ciprofloxacin up to 65.2 ng L⁻¹ at the rainy season. On the other hand, 63% of water samples from the dry season and 36 % from the rainy season showed Chlortetracycline up to 8.7 and 6.1 ng L⁻¹, respectively. The presence of residues of veterinary antibiotics in drinking water means a serious health risk for 80% of the population of Puno since all these people are supplied from this source.

Keywords: chromatography, DNA damage, environmental risk, water pollution

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317 Effect Mechanisms of Aromatic Plants: Effects on Intestinal Health and Broiler Feeding

Authors: Ozlem Durna Aydin, Gultekin Yildiz

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Antibiotics are microbial metabolites with low molecular weight produced by fungi and algae, inhibiting the development of other microorganisms even in low growth. Antibiotics have been used as growth factors in animal feeds for many years. They prohibited; because of increased residue problem and increased resistance to antibiotics in bacteria due to prolonged use. Aromatic plants and extracts have attracted the attention of scientists nowadays due to positive reasons such as confidence of the community to the products those are coming from nature, desire to consume, and no residue problems. Plant extracts are obtained from aromatic plants, and they come forward with antifungal, antibacterial, antiviral, antioxidant and antilipidemic properties. It has been stated that intestinal histomorphology and microbiosis are positively affected by the use of plant extract in feeds. In the present day, aromatic plants and extracts are a remarkable research field with intriguing unknowns in the field of animal nutrition, and they continue to exist in the journal in vitro and in vivo studies.

Keywords: aromatic plant, broilers, extract mechanism of action, intestinal health

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316 Physicochemical Profile of Essential Oil of Daucus carota

Authors: Nassima Behidj-Benyounes, Thoraya Dahmene

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Essential oils have a significant antimicrobial activity. These oils can successfully replace the antibiotics. So, the microorganisms show their inefficiencies resistant for the antibiotics. For this reason, we study the physic-chemical analysis and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Daucus carota. The extraction is done by steam distillation of water which brought us a very significant return of 4.65%. The analysis of the essential oil is performed by GC/MS and has allowed us to identify 32 compounds in the oil of D. carota flowering tops of Bouira. Three of which are in the majority are the α-pinene (22.3%), the carotol (21.7%) and the limonene (15.8%).

Keywords: daucus carota, essential oil, α-pinene, carotol, limonene

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315 Antibiotic Susceptibility Profile and Horizontal Gene Transfer in Pseudomonas sp. Isolated from Clinical Specimens

Authors: Sadaf Ilyas, Saba Riaz

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The extensive use of antibiotics has led to increases emergence of antibiotic-resistant organisms. Pseudomonas is a notorious opportunistic pathogen involoved in nosocomial infections and exhibit innate resistance to many antibiotics. The present study was conducted to assess the prevalence, levels of antimicrobial susceptibility and resistance mechanisms of Pseudomonas. A total of thirty clinical strains of Pseudomonas were isolated from different clinical sites of infection. All clinical specimens were collected from Chughtais Lahore Lab. Jail road, during 8-07-2010 to 11-01-2011. Biochemical characterization was done using routine biochemical tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by Kirby-Baeur method. The plasmids were isolated from all the strains and digested with restriction enzyme PstI and EcoRI. Transfer of Multi-resistance plasmid was checked via transformation and conjugation to confirm the plasmid mediated resistance to antibiotics. The prevalence of Pseudomonas in clinical specimens was found out to be 14% of all bacterial infections. IPM has shown to be the most effective drug against Pseudomonas followed by CES, PTB and meropenem, wheareas most of the Pseudomonas strains have developed significant resistance against Penicillins and some Cephalasporins. Antibiotic resistance determinants were carried by plasmids, as they conferred resistance to transformed K1 strains. The isolates readily undergo conjugation, transferring the resistant genes to other strains, illustrating the high rates of cross infection and nosocomial infection in the immunocompromised patients.

Keywords: pseudomonas, antibiotics, drug resistance, horizontal gene transfer

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314 A Prospective Study on the Pattern of Antibiotics Use and Prevalence of Multidrug Resistant Escherichia Coli in Poultry Chickens and Its Correlation with Urinary Tract Infection

Authors: Stelvin Sebastian, Andriya Annie Tom, Joyalanna Babu, Merin Joshy

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Introduction: The worldwide increase in the use of antibiotics in poultry and livestock industry to treat and prevent bacterial diseases and as growth promoters in feeds has led to the problem of development of antibiotic resistance both in animals and human population. Aim: To study the pattern of antibiotic use and prevalence of multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli in poultry chickens in selected farms in Muvattupuzha and to compare the spread of multidrug-resistant bacteria from poultry environment to UTI patients. Methodology: Two farms from each of 6 localities in Muvattupuzha were selected. A questionnaire on the pattern of antibiotic use and various farming practices were surveyed from farms. From each farm, 60samples of fresh fecal matter, litter from inside, litter from the outside shed, agricultural soil and control soil were collected, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of E. coli was done. Antibiogram of UTI patients was collected from the secondary care hospital included in the study, and those were compared with resistance patterns of poultry samples. Results: From survey response antibiotics such as ofloxacin, enrofloxacin, levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, colistin, ceftriaxone, neomycin, cephalexin, and oxytetracycline were used for treatment and prevention of infections in poultry. 31of 48 samples (51.66%) showed E. coli growth. 7 of 15 antibiotics (46.6%) showed resistance. Ampicillin, amoxicillin, meropenem, tetracycline showed 100% resistance to all samples. Statistical analysis confirmed similar resistance pattern in the poultry environment and UTI patients for antibiotics such as ampicillin, amoxicillin, amikacin, and ofloxacin. Conclusion: E. coli were resistant not only to extended-spectrum beta-lactams but also to carbapenems, which may be disseminated to the environment where litter was used as manure. This may due to irrational use of antibiotics in chicken or from their use in poultry feed as growth promoters. The study concludes the presence of multidrug-resistant E.coli in poultry and its spread to environment and humans, which may cause potentially serious implications for human health.

Keywords: multidrug resistance, escherichia coli, urinary tract infection, poultry

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313 Physico-Chemical Characterization of the Essential Oil of Daucus carota

Authors: Nassima Behidj-Benyounes, Thoraya Dahmene, Khaled Benyounes Nadjiba Chebouti1and F/Zohra Bissaad

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Essential oils have a significant antimicrobial activity. These oils can successfully replace the antibiotics. So, the microorganisms show their inefficiencies resistant for the antibiotics. For this reason, we study the physicochemical analysis and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Daucus carota. The extraction is done by steam distillation of water which brought us a very significant return of 4.65%. The analysis of the essential oil is performed by GC/MS and has allowed us to identify 32 compounds in the oil of D. carota flowering tops of Bouira. Three of which are in the majority are the α-pinene (22.3%), the carotol (21.7%) and the limonene (15.8%).

Keywords: Daucus carota, essential oil, α-pinene, carotol, limonene

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312 Selection Effects on the Molecular and Abiotic Evolution of Antibiotic Resistance

Authors: Abishek Rajkumar

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Antibiotic resistance can occur naturally given the selective pressure placed on antibiotics. Within a large population of bacteria, there is a significant chance that some of those bacteria can develop resistance via mutations or genetic recombination. However, a growing public health concern has arisen over the fact that antibiotic resistance has increased significantly over the past few decades. This is because humans have been over-consuming and producing antibiotics, which has ultimately accelerated the antibiotic resistance seen in these bacteria. The product of all of this is an ongoing race between scientists and the bacteria as bacteria continue to develop resistance, which creates even more demand for an antibiotic that can still terminate the newly resistant strain of bacteria. This paper will focus on a myriad of aspects of antibiotic resistance in bacteria starting with how it occurs on a molecular level and then focusing on the antibiotic concentrations and how they affect the resistance and fitness seen in bacteria.

Keywords: antibiotic, molecular, mutation, resistance

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311 Biochemical Identification and Study of Antibiotic Resistance in Isolated Bacteria from WWTP TIMGAD

Authors: Abdessemed Zineb, Atia Yahia, Yeza Salima

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Water is self-purified by activated sludge process which makes its uniqueness. The main goal is the microbial biocenosis study of the input and output water of the waste water treatment system plant Timgad. 89.47% of the identified biocenosis belongs to ɤ-Proteobacteria while the remaining 10.52 % is equally divided between α-Proteobacteria and β-Proteobacteria. The antibiotics susceptibility profiles reveal that over 30 % are wild strains while the penicillinases are often present (11.30-20 %) with also other profiles. This proportion is worrying that the water discharged join the Oued Soltez used for irrigation. This disadvantage involves the installation of a chlorination step.

Keywords: activated sludge, biocenosis, antibiotics profiles, penicillinases, physic-chemical quality

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310 Monitoring Prolong Use of Intravenous Antibiotics: Antimicrobial Stewardship

Authors: Komal Fizza

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Irrational and non-judicious use of antibiotics pave the way for an upsurge in antibiotic resistance, diminished effectiveness of different therapeutic regimens and as well as impounding effect on disease management leading to further morbidities. In the backdrop of this the current research is aimed to assess whether antimicrobial prescribing is in accordance with the Infectious Disease Society of America Guidelines in hospitalized patients at Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad, Pakistan. Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad is a 500 bed hospital. With the help of MIS team a form wad developed that gave the information about medical records number, name of the patient, day of start of antibiotic, the day antibiotic is supposed to be stopped and as well as the diagnosis of the patient. A ward pharmacist was employed to generate this report on a daily basis. The therapeutic regiment was reviewed by the pharmacist by monitoring the clinical progress, laboratory report and diagnosis. On the basis of this information, pharmacist made suggestions and forwarded to the hospital doctors responsible for prescribing antibiotics. If desired, changes were made regularly. In the current research our main focus was to implement this action and therefore, started monitoring patients who were on antibiotic regimens for more than 10-15 days. We took this initiative since November, 2013. At the start of the program a maximum 19 patients/day were reported to be on antibiotic regimen for more than 10-15 days. After the implementation of the initiative, the number of patients was decreased to fifteen patients per day in December, further decreased to 7 in the month of January and 9 and 6 in February and March respectively. The average patient census was 350. The current pilot study highlighted the role of pharmacist in initiating antibiotic stewardship programs in hospital settings.

Keywords: stewardship, antibiotics, resistance, clinical process

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309 Application of Bacteriophages as Natural Antibiotics in Aquaculture

Authors: Chamilani Nikapitiya, Mahanama De Zoysa, Jehee Lee

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Most of the bacterial diseases are associated with high mortalities in aquaculture species and causing huge economic losses. Different approaches have been taken to prevent or control of bacterial diseases including use of vaccines, probiotics, chemotherapy, water quality management, etc. Antibiotics are widely applying as chemotherapy to control bacterial diseases, however, it has been shown that frequent use of antibiotics is favored to develop multi-drug resistance bacteria. Therefore, phages and phage encoded lytic proteins are known to be one of the most promising alternatives for antibiotics to avoid the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. We isolated and characterized the two lytic phages, namely pAh-1 and pAs-1 against pathogenic Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas salmonicida, respectively. Morphological characteristics were analyzed by Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and host strain specificities were tested with Aeromonas and other closely related bacterial strains. TEM analysis revealed that both pAh-1 and pAsm-1 are composed of an icosahedral head and a segmented tail, and we suggest that, they are new members of Myoviridae family. Genome sizes of isolated phages were estimated by restriction enzyme digestion of genomic DNA using selected endonucleases followed by agarose gel electrophoresis. Estimated genome size of pAh-1 and pAs-1 were approximately 64 Kbp and 120 Kbp, respectively. Both pAh-1 and pAs-1 have shown narrow host specificity. Moreover, protective effects of phage therapy against fish pathogenic A. hydrophila were investigated in zebrafish model. The survival rate was 40% higher when zebrafish received intra-peritoneal injection (i.p.) of pAh-1 were simultaneously challenge A. hydrophila (2 x 106 CFU/fish) compared to that without phage treatment. Overall results suggest that both pAh-1 and pAs-1 can be used as a potential phage therapy to control Aeromonas infections in aquaculture.

Keywords: Aeromonas infections, antibiotic resistance, bacteriophage, bio-control, lytic phage

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308 Evaluating and Improving the Management of Tonsilitis in an a+E Department

Authors: Nicolas Koslover, Tamara Levene

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Aims: Tonsilitis is one of the most common presentations to the A+E department. We aimed to assess whether patients presenting with tonsilitis are being managed in-line with current guidance. We then set out to educate A+E staff about tonsilitis management and then assessed for improvement in management. Methods: All patients presenting to A+E in one fortnight with a documented diagnosis of tonsilitis were included. We reviewed the notes to assess the choice of treatment in each case and whether a clinical score (CENTOR or FEVERPain score) was used to guide choice of treatment (in accordance with NICE guideline [NG84]). We designed and delivered an educational intervention for A+E staff covering tonsilitis guidelines. The audit was repeated two weeks later. Results: Over the study period, 49 patients were included; only 35% (n=17) had either a clinical score documented or had all components of a score recorded. In total, 39% (n=19) were treated with antibiotics. Of these, 63% (n=12) should not have been prescribed an antibiotic and 37% (n=7) were prescribed an inappropriate antibiotic. At re-audit, (n=50 cases), 58% (n=29) had a clinical score documented and 28% (n=14) were treated with antibiotics. Of these, 29% (n=4) should not have been prescribed antibiotics and 21% (n=3) were prescribed an inappropriate antibiotic. Thus, after this teaching session, there was a significant improvement in antibiotic prescribing practices (63% vs. 29%, p=0.026). Conclusions: A+E assessment and management of tonsilitis frequently deviated from guidelines, but a single teaching session vastly improved clinical scoring and antibiotic prescribing practices.

Keywords: tonsilitis, education, emergency medicine, ENT

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307 Early Onset Neonatal Sepsis Pathogens in Malaysian Hospitals: Determining Empiric Antibiotic

Authors: Nazedah Ain Ibrahim, Mohamed Mansor Manan

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Treatment of suspected early onset neonatal sepsis (EONS) in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) is essential. However, information regarding EONS pathogens may vary between regions. Global perspectives showed Group B Streptococcal (GBS) as the most common causative pathogens, but the widespread use of intrapartum antibiotics has changed the pathogens pattern towards gram negative microorganisms, especially E. coli. Objective of this study is to describe the pathogens isolated, to assess current treatment and risk of EONS. Records of 899 neonates born in three General Hospitals between 2009 until 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. The inclusion criteria were neonates with blood culture taken prior to empiric antibiotics administration and within 72 hours of life. Of the study group, a total of 734 (82%) cases had documented blood culture that met the inclusion criteria. Proven EONS (as confirmed by positive blood culture) was found in 22 (3%) neonates. The majority was isolated with gram positive organisms, 17 (2.3%). In addition, other common gram positive organism isolated were Coagulase negative staphylococci (7) followed by Bacillus sp. (5) and Streptococcus pneumonia (2), and only one case isolated with GBS, Streptococcus spp. and Enterococcus sp. Meanwhile, only five cases of gram negative organisms [Stenotropomonas (xantho) maltophi (1), Haemophilus influenza (1), Spingomonas paucimobilis (1), Enterobacter gergoviae (1) and E. coli (1)] were isolated. A total of 286 (39%) cases were exposed to intrapartum antibiotics and of those, 157 (21.4%) were administered prior to delivery. All grams positive and most gram negative organisms showed sensitivity to the tested antibiotics. Only two rare gram negative organisms showed total resistant. Male, surfactant, caesarean delivery and prolonged rapture of membrane >18hours were a possible risk of proven EONS. Although proven EONS remains uncommon in Malaysia, nonetheless, the effect of intrapartum antibiotics still required continuous surveillance. However, by analyzing isolated pathogens it can be used as treatment guidance in managing suspected EONS.

Keywords: early onset neonatal sepsis, neonates, pathogens, gram positive, gram negative

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306 Changes to Populations Might Aid the Spread Antibiotic Resistance in the Environment

Authors: Yasir Bashawri, Vincent N. Chigor James McDonald, Merfyn Williams, Davey Jones, A. Prysor Williams

Abstract:

Resistance to antibiotics has become a threat to public health. As a result of their misuse and overuse, bacteria have become resistant to many common antibiotics. Βeta lactam (β-lactam) antibiotics are one of the most significant classes of antimicrobials in providing therapeutic benefits for the treatment of bacterial infections in both human and veterinary medicine, for approximately 60% of all antibiotics are used. In particular, some Enterobacteriaceae produce Extend Spectrum Beta Lactamases (ESBLs) that enable them to some break down multi-groups of antibiotics. CTX-M enzymes have rapidly become the most important ESBLs, with increases in mainly CTX-M 15 in many countries during the last decade. Global travel by intercontinental medical ‘tourists’, migrant employees and overseas students could theoretically be a risk factor for spreading antibiotic resistance genes in different parts of the world. Bangor city, North Wales, is subject to sudden demographic changes due to a large proportion (>25%) of the population being students, most of which arrive over a space of days. This makes it a suitable location to study the impacts of large demographic change on the presence of ESBLs. The aim of this study is to monitor the presence of ESBLs in Escherichia coli and faecal coliform bacteria isolated from Bangor wastewater treatment plant, before, during and after the arrival week of students to Bangor University. Over a five-week period, water samples were collected twice a week, from the influent, primary sedimentation tank, aeration tank and the final effluent. Isolation and counts for Escherichia coli and other faecal coliforms were done on selective agar (primary UTI agar). ESBL presence will be confirmed by phenotypic and genotypic methods. Sampling at all points of the tertiary treatment stages will indicate the effectiveness of wastewater treatment in reducing the spread of ESBLs genes. The study will yield valuable information to help tackle a problem which many regard to be the one of the biggest threats to modern-day society.

Keywords: extended spectrum β-lactamase, enterobacteriaceae, international travel, wastewater treatment plant

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305 Identification and Antibiotic Resistance Rates of Acinetobacter baumannii Strains Isolated from the Respiratory Tract Samples, Obtained from the Different Intensive Care Units

Authors: Recep Kesli, Gulşah Asik, Cengiz Demir, Onur Turkyilmaz

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Objective: Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) can cause health-care associated infections, such as bacteremia, urinary tract and wound infections, endocarditis, meningitis, and pneumonia, particularly in intensive care unit patients. In this study, we aimed to evaluate A. baumannii production in sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage and susceptibilities for antibiotics in a 24 months period. Methods: Between October 2013 and September 2015, Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from respiratory tract speciments were evaluated retrospectively. The strains were isolated from the different intensive care units patients. A. baumannii strains were identified by both the conventional methods and aoutomated identification system -VITEK 2 (bio-Merieux, Marcy l’etoile, France). Antibiotic resistance testing was performed by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method according to CLSI criteria. Results: All the ninety isolates included in the study were from respiratory tract specimens. While of all the isolated 90 Acinetobacter baumannii strains were found to be resistant (100%), against ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin and piperacillin/ tazobactam, resistance rates against other tested antibiotics found as follows; meropenem 77, 86%, imipenem 75, 83%, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-STX) 69, 76,6%, gentamicin 51, 56,6% and amikacin 48, 53,3%. Colistin was found as the most effective antibiotic against Acinetobacter baumannii, and there were not found any resistant (0%) strain against colistin. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the no resistance was found in Acinetobacter baumannii against to colistin. High rates of resistance to carbapenems (imipenem and meropenem) and other tested antibiotics (ceftiaxone, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacine, piperacilline-tazobactam, TMP-STX gentamicin and amikacin) also have remarkable resistance rates. There was a significant relationship between demographic features of patients such as age, undergoing mechanical ventilation, length of hospital stay with resistance rates. High resistance rates against antibiotics require implementation of the infection control program and rational use of antibiotics. In the present study, while there were not found colistin resistance, panresistance were found against to ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin and piperacillin/ tazobactam.

Keywords: acinetobacter baumannii, antibiotic resistance, multi drug resistance, intensive care unit

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304 Antibiotic Prescribing in the Acute Care in Iraq

Authors: Ola A. Nassr, Ali M. Abd Alridha, Rua A. Naser, Rasha S. Abbas

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Background: Excessive and inappropriate use of antimicrobial agents among hospitalized patients remains an important patient safety and public health issue worldwide. Not only does this behavior incur unnecessary cost but it is also associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study is to obtain an insight into the prescribing patterns of antibiotics in surgical and medical wards, to help identify a scope for improvement in service delivery. Method: A simple point prevalence survey included a convenience sample of 200 patients admitted to medical and surgical wards in a government teaching hospital in Baghdad between October 2017 and April 2018. Data were collected by a trained pharmacy intern using a standardized form. Patient’s demographics and details of the prescribed antibiotics, including dose, frequency of dosing and route of administration, were reported. Patients were included if they had been admitted at least 24 hours before the survey. Patients under 18 years of age, having a diagnosis of cancer or shock, or being admitted to the intensive care unit, were excluded. Data were checked and entered by the authors into Excel and were subjected to frequency analysis, which was carried out on anonymized data to protect patient confidentiality. Results: Overall, 88.5% of patients (n=177) received 293 antibiotics during their hospital admission, with a small variation between wards (80%-97%). The average number of antibiotics prescribed per patient was 1.65, ranging from 1.3 for medical patients to 1.95 for surgical patients. Parenteral third-generation cephalosporins were the most commonly prescribed at a rate of 54.3% (n=159) followed by nitroimidazole 29.4% (n=86), quinolones 7.5% (n=22) and macrolides 4.4% (n=13), while carbapenems and aminoglycosides were the least prescribed together accounting for only 4.4% (n=13). The intravenous route was the most common route of administration, used for 96.6% of patients (n=171). Indications were reported in only 63.8% of cases. Culture to identify pathogenic organisms was employed in only 0.5% of cases. Conclusion: Broad-spectrum antibiotics are prescribed at an alarming rate. This practice may provoke antibiotic resistance and adversely affect the patient outcome. Implementation of an antibiotic stewardship program is warranted to enhance the efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness of antimicrobial agents.

Keywords: Acute care, Antibiotic misuse, Iraq, Prescribing

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303 Prevalence of Uropathogens in Diabetic Patients with Urinary Tract Infection and Antimicrobial Sensitivity Pattern at Bangladesh

Authors: Mohammad Saifuddin, Shahjada Selim

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Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) are prone to develop infection, especially urinary tract infection (UTI) in comparison with non-diabetics. Due to the emergence of multidrug resistant (MDR) uropathogenic strains, the choice of antimicrobial agent is sometimes difficult. This study is designed to reveal the distribution of uropathogens in Diabetic patients and corresponding sensitivity patterns and to correlate the microbiological results with various clinical parameters. A nine-month retrospective review of 100 urine culture reports of Diabetic patients from January 2015 to September 2015 from semiurbanmultispeciality hospital of Feni, Bangladesh were analyzed. Only Diabetic patients were included in this study who were clinically diagnosed as UTI patients with a corresponding urine culture showing a bacterial count of ˃105cfu/ml.Out of 100 patients with UTI, 39 (39%) were male, and 61 (61%) were female. Organisms grown in urine culture were Escherichia coli (64) followed by Klebsiella (11), Proteus (7), Staph Aureus (4), Pseudomonas (4), Acinetobacter (3), Sreptococcus(3), Enterococcus (2 ) and one each of Enterobacter and Fungi. Overall sensitivity pattern in decreasing order of various commonly used antibiotics was Meropenem (89%), Nitrofurantoin (86%), Amikacin (81%), Ceftriaxone (68%), Cefuroxime (61%), Cefixime (39%), Quinolones (28%), Amoxicillin (16%). The significance of the study lies in the determination of common pathogens in diabetic patients with UTI and the resistance pattern of antibiotics so that physicians and pharmacists get the proper information rationalizing the rational use of antibiotics.

Keywords: Bangladesh, Diabetes Mellitus, E. coli, urinary tract infection

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
302 Production of Novel Antibiotics by Importing eryK and eryG Genes in Streptomyces fradiae

Authors: Neda Gegar Goshe, Hossein Rassi

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The antibacterial properties of macrolide antibiotics (such as erythromycin and tylosin) depend ultimately on the glycosylation of otherwise inactive polyketide lactones. Among the sugars commonly found in such macrolides are various 6-deoxyhexoses including the 3-dimethylamino sugars mycaminose and desosamine (4-deoxymycaminose). Some macrolides (such as tylosin) possess multiple sugar moieties, whereas others (such as erythromycin) have two sugar substituents. Streptomyces fradiae is an ideal host for development of generic polyketide-overproducing strains because it contains three of the most common precursors-malonyl-CoA, methylmalonyl-CoA and ethylmalonyl-CoA-used by modular PKS, and is a host that is amenable to genetic manipulation. As patterns of glycosylation markedly influence a macrolide's drug activity, there is considerable interest in the possibility of using combinatorial biosynthesis to generate new pairings of polyketide lactones with sugars, especially 6-deoxyhexoses. Here, we report a successful attempt to alter the aminodeoxyhexose-biosynthetic capacity of Streptomyces fradiae (a producer of tylosin) by importing genes from the erythromycin producer Saccharopolyspora erythraea. The biotransformation of erythromycin-D into the desired major component erythromycin-A involves two final enzymatic reactions, EryK-catalyzed hydroxylation at the C-12 position of the aglycone and EryG-catalyzed O methylation at the C-3 position of macrose .This engineered S. fradiae produced substantial amounts of two potentially useful macrolides that had not previously been obtained by fermentation.

Keywords: Streptomyces fradiae, eryK and eryG genes, tylosin, antibiotics

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
301 Toxicity and Biodegradability of Veterinary Antibiotic Tiamulin

Authors: Gabriela Kalcikova, Igor Bosevski, Ula Rozman, Andreja Zgajnar Gotvajn

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Antibiotics are extensively used in human medicine and also in animal husbandry to prevent or control infections. Recently, a lot of attention has been put on veterinary antibiotics, because their global consumption is increasing and it is expected to be 106.600 tons in 2030. Most of veterinary antibiotics are introduced into the environment via animal manure, which is used as fertilizer. One of such veterinary antibiotics is tiamulin. It is used the form of fumarate for treatment of pig and poultry. It is used against prophylaxis of dysentery, pneumonia and mycroplasmal infections, but its environmental impact is practically unknown. Tiamulin has been found very persistent in animal manure and thus it is expected that can be, during rainfalls, transported into the aquatic environment and affect various organisms. For assessment of its environmental impact, it is necessary to evaluate its biodegradability and toxicity to various organisms from different levels of a food chain. Therefore, the aim of our study was to evaluate ready biodegradability and toxicity of tiamulin fumarate to various organisms. Bioassay used included luminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri heterotrophic and nitrifying microorganisms of activated sludge, water flea Daphnia magna and duckweed Lemna minor. For each species, EC₅₀ values were calculated. Biodegradability test was used for determination of ready biodegradability and it provides information about biodegradability of tiamulin under the most common environmental conditions. Results of our study showed that tiamulin differently affects selected organisms. The most sensitive organisms were water fleas with 48hEC₅₀ = 14.2 ± 4.8 mg/L and duckweed with 168hEC₅₀ = 22.6 ± 0.8 mg/L. Higher concentrations of tiamulin (from 10 mg/L) significantly affected photosynthetic pigments content in duckweed and concentrations above 80 mg/L cause visible chlorosis. It is in agreement with previous studies showing significant effect of tiamulin on green algae and cyanobacteria. Tiamuline has a low effect on microorganisms. The lower toxicity was observed for heterotrophic microorganisms (30minEC₅₀ = 1656 ± 296 mg/L), than Vibrio fisheri (30minEC₅₀ = 492 ± 21) and the most sensitive organisms were nitrifying microorganisms (30minEC₅₀ = 183 ± 127 mg/L). The reason is most probably the mode of action of tiamulin being effective to gram-positive bacteria while gram-negative (e.g., Vibrio fisheri) are more tolerant to tiamulin. Biodegradation of tiamulin was very slow with a long lag-phase being 20 days. The maximal degradation reached 40 ± 2 % in 43 days of the test and tiamulin as other antibiotics (e.g. ciprofloxacin) are not easily biodegradable. Tiamulin is widely used antibiotic in veterinary medicine and thus present in the environment. According to our results, tiamulin can have negative effect on water fleas and duckweeds, but the concentrations are several magnitudes higher than that found in any environmental compartment. Tiamulin is low toxic to tested microorganisms, but it is very low biodegradable and thus possibly persistent in the environment.

Keywords: antibiotics, biodegradability, tiamulin, toxicity

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300 Extract and Naphthoquinone Derivatives from in vitro Culture of an Ascomycetous Marine Fungus with Antibacterial Activity

Authors: Uftah Ali M. Shushni, Viola Stuppec, Ulrike Lindequist

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Because of the evolving resistance of microorganisms to existing antibiotics, there is an increasing need for new antibiotics not only in human but also in veterinary medicine. As part of our ongoing work on the secondary metabolites produced by marine fungi, the organic extract of the culture filtrate of an Ascomycetous fungus, which was found on driftwood collected from the coast of the Greifswalder Bodden, Baltic Sea, Germany displayed antimicrobial activity against some fish and human pathogenic bacteria. Bioactivity-guided column chromatographic separation led to the isolation of 6-Deoxybostrycoidin. The structure was determined from the interpretation of spectroscopic data (UV, MS, and NMR). 6-Deoxybostrycoidin exhibited in vitro activity against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Flexibacter maritimus with minimal inhibitory concentrations of 25, 12.5 and 12.5 μg/ml respectively.

Keywords: marine fungi, fish pathogenic bacteria, microorganism, medicine

Procedia PDF Downloads 425
299 Antibacterial Activity of Melaleuca Cajuputi Oil against Resistant Strain Bacteria

Authors: R. M. Noah, N. M. Nasir, M. R. Jais, M. S. S. Wahab, M. H. Abdullah, A. S. S. Raj

Abstract:

Infectious diseases are getting more difficult to treat due to the resistant strains of bacteria. Current generations of antibiotics are most likely ineffective against multi-drug resistant strains bacteria. Thus, there is an urgent need in search of natural antibiotics in particular from medicinal plants. One of the common medicinal plants, Melaleuca cajuputi, has been reported to possess antibacterial properties. The study was conducted to evaluate and justify the presence of antibacterial activity of Melaleuca cajuputi essential oil (EO) against the multi-drug resistant bacteria. Clinical isolates obtained from the teaching hospital were re-assessed to confirm the exact identity of the bacteria to be tested, namely methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae (CRE), and extended-spectrum beta-lactamases producer (ESBLs). A well diffusion method was done to observe the inhibition zones of the essential oil against the bacteria. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined using the microdilution method in 96-well flat microplate. The absorbance was measured using a microplate reader. Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was performed using the agar medium method. The zones of inhibition produced by the EO against MRSA, CRE, and ESBL were comparable to that of generic antibiotics used, gentamicin and augmentin. The MIC and MBC results highlighted the antimicrobial efficacy of the EO. The outcome of this study indicated that the EO of Melaleuca cajuputi had antibacterial activity on the multi-drug resistant bacteria. This finding was eventually substantiated by electron microscopy work.

Keywords: melaleuca cajuputi, antibacterial, resistant bacteria, essential oil

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298 Progress in Replacing Antibiotics in Farm Animal Production

Authors: Debabrata Biswas

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The current trend in the development of antibiotic resistance by multiple bacterial pathogens has resulted in a troubling loss of effective antibiotic options for human. The emergence of multi-drug-resistant pathogens has necessitated higher dosages and combinations of multiple antibiotics, further exacerbating the problem of antibiotic resistance. Zoonotic bacterial pathogens, such as Salmonella, Campylobacter, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (such as enterohaemorrhagic E. coli or EHEC), and Listeria are the most common and predominant foodborne enteric infectious agents. It was observed that these pathogens gained/developed their ability to survive in the presence of antibiotics either in farm animal gut or farm environment and researchers believe that therapeutic and sub-therapeutic antibiotic use in farm animal production might play an important role in it. The mechanism of action of antimicrobial components used in farm animal production in genomic interplay in the gut and farm environment, has not been fully characterized. Even the risk of promoting the exchange of mobile genetic elements between microbes specifically pathogens needs to be evaluated in depth, to ensure sustainable farm animal production, safety of our food and to mitigate/limit the enteric infection with multiple antibiotic resistant bacterial pathogens. Due to the consumer’s demand and considering the current emerging situation, many countries are in process to withdraw antibiotic use in farm animal production. Before withdrawing use of the sub-therapeutic antibiotic or restricting the use of therapeutic antibiotics in farm animal production, it is essential to find alternative natural antimicrobials for promoting the growth of farm animal and/or treating animal diseases. Further, it is also necessary to consider whether that compound(s) has the potential to trigger the acquisition or loss of genetic materials in zoonotic and any other bacterial pathogens. Development of alternative therapeutic and sub-therapeutic antimicrobials for farm animal production and food processing and preservation and their effective implementation for sustainable strategies for farm animal production as well as the possible risk for horizontal gene transfer in major enteric pathogens will be focus in the study.

Keywords: food safety, natural antimicrobial, sustainable farming, antibiotic resistance

Procedia PDF Downloads 141