Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1485

Search results for: Bijay Kumar Mishra

1485 Isotherm Study for Phenol Removal onto GAC

Authors: Lallan Singh Yadav, Bijay Kumar Mishra, Manoj Kumar Mahapatra, Arvind Kumar


Adsorption data for phenol removal onto granular activated carbon were fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The adsorption capacity of phenol was estimated to be 16.12 mg/g at initial pH=5.7. The thermodynamics of adsorption process has also been determined in the present work.

Keywords: adsorption, phenol, granular activated carbon, bioinformatics, biomedicine

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1484 Design of Lead-Lag Based Internal Model Controller for Binary Distillation Column

Authors: Rakesh Kumar Mishra, Tarun Kumar Dan


Lead-Lag based Internal Model Control method is proposed based on Internal Model Control (IMC) strategy. In this paper, we have designed the Lead-Lag based Internal Model Control for binary distillation column for SISO process (considering only bottom product). The transfer function has been taken from Wood and Berry model. We have find the composition control and disturbance rejection using Lead-Lag based IMC and comparing with the response of simple Internal Model Controller.

Keywords: SISO, lead-lag, internal model control, wood and berry, distillation column

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1483 Modulational Instability of Ion-Acoustic Wave in Electron-Positron-Ion Plasmas with Two-Electron Temperature Distributions

Authors: Jitendra Kumar Chawla, Mukesh Kumar Mishra


The nonlinear amplitude modulation of ion-acoustic wave is studied in the presence of two-electron temperature distribution in unmagnetized electron-positron-ion plasmas. The Krylov-Bogoliubov-Mitropolosky (KBM) perturbation method is used to derive the nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The dispersive and nonlinear coefficients are obtained which depend on the temperature and concentration of the hot and cold electron species as well as the positron density and temperature. The modulationally unstable regions are studied numerically for a wide range of wave number. The effects of the temperature and concentration of the hot and cold electron on the modulational stability are investigated in detail.

Keywords: modulational instability, ion acoustic wave, KBM method

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1482 A Review on Electrical Behavior of Different Substrates, Electrodes and Membranes in Microbial Fuel Cell

Authors: Bharat Mishra, Sanjay Kumar Awasthi, Raj Kumar Rajak


The devices, which convert the energy in the form of electricity from organic matters, are called microbial fuel cell (MFC). Recently, MFCs have been given a lot of attention due to their mild operating conditions, and various types of biodegradable substrates have been used in the form of fuel. Traditional MFCs were included in anode and cathode chambers, but there are single chamber MFCs. Microorganisms actively catabolize substrate, and bioelectricities are produced. In the field of power generation from non-conventional sources, apart from the benefits of this technique, it is still facing practical constraints such as low potential and power. In this study, most suitable, natural, low cost MFCs components are electrodes (anode and cathode), organic substrates, membranes and its design is selected on the basis of maximum potential (voltage) as an electrical parameter, which indicates a vital role of affecting factor in MFC for sustainable power production.

Keywords: substrates, electrodes, membranes, MFCs design, voltage

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1481 Support Vector Regression for Retrieval of Soil Moisture Using Bistatic Scatterometer Data at X-Band

Authors: Dileep Kumar Gupta, Rajendra Prasad, Pradeep Kumar, Varun Narayan Mishra, Ajeet Kumar Vishwakarma, Prashant K. Srivastava


An approach was evaluated for the retrieval of soil moisture of bare soil surface using bistatic scatterometer data in the angular range of 200 to 700 at VV- and HH- polarization. The microwave data was acquired by specially designed X-band (10 GHz) bistatic scatterometer. The linear regression analysis was done between scattering coefficients and soil moisture content to select the suitable incidence angle for retrieval of soil moisture content. The 250 incidence angle was found more suitable. The support vector regression analysis was used to approximate the function described by the input-output relationship between the scattering coefficient and corresponding measured values of the soil moisture content. The performance of support vector regression algorithm was evaluated by comparing the observed and the estimated soil moisture content by statistical performance indices %Bias, root mean squared error (RMSE) and Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE). The values of %Bias, root mean squared error (RMSE) and Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) were found 2.9451, 1.0986, and 0.9214, respectively at HH-polarization. At VV- polarization, the values of %Bias, root mean squared error (RMSE) and Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) were found 3.6186, 0.9373, and 0.9428, respectively.

Keywords: bistatic scatterometer, soil moisture, support vector regression, RMSE, %Bias, NSE

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1480 Studies on the Feasibility of Cow Dung as a Non-Conventional Energy Source

Authors: Raj Kumar Rajak, Bharat Mishra


Bio-batteries represent an entirely new long-term, reasonable, reachable and ecofriendly approach to produce sustainable energy. In the present experimental work, we have studied the effect of generation of power by bio-battery using different electrode pairs. The tests show that it is possible to generate electricity using cow dung as an electrolyte. C-Mg electrode pair shows maximum voltage and SCC (Short Circuit Current) while C-Zn electrode pair shows less OCV (Open Circuit Voltage) and SCC. We have chosen C-Zn electrodes because Mg electrodes are not economical. By the studies of different electrodes and cow dung, it is found that C-Zn electrode battery is more suitable. This result shows that the bio-batteries have the potency to full fill the need of electricity demand for lower energy equipment.

Keywords: bio-batteries, electricity, cow-dung, electrodes, non-conventional

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1479 Customized Cow’s Urine Battery Using MnO2 Depolarizer

Authors: Raj Kumar Rajak, Bharat Mishra


Bio-battery represents an entirely new long term, reasonable, reachable and ecofriendly approach to production of sustainable energy. Types of batteries have been developed using MnO2 in various ways. MnO2 is suitable with physical, chemical, electrochemical, and catalytic properties, serving as an effective cathodic depolarizer and may be considered as being the life blood of the battery systems. In the present experimental work, we have studied the effect of generation of power by bio-battery using different concentrations of MnO2. The tests show that it is possible to generate electricity using cow’s urine as an electrolyte. After ascertaining the optimum concentration of MnO2, various battery parameters and performance indicates that cow urine solely produces power of 695 mW, while a combination with MnO2 (40%) enhances power of bio-battery, i.e. 1377 mW. On adding more and more MnO2 to the electrolyte, the power suppressed because inflation of internal resistance. The analysis of the data produced from experiment shows that MnO2 is quite suitable to energize the bio-battery.

Keywords: bio-batteries, cow’s urine, manganese dioxide, non-conventional

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1478 Studies on the Feasibility of Cow’s Urine as Non-Conventional Energy Sources

Authors: Raj Kumar Rajak, Bharat Mishra


Bio-batteries represent an entirely new long-term, reasonable, reachable, and eco-friendly approach to generation of sustainable energy. In the present experimental work, we have studied the effect of the generation of power by bio-battery using different electrode pairs. The tests show that it is possible to generate electricity using cow’s urine as an electrolyte. C-Mg electrode pair shows maximum Voltage and Short Circuit Current (SCC), while C-Zn electrode pair shows less Open Circuit Voltage (OCV) and SCC. By the studies of cow urine and different electrodes, it is found that C-Zn electrode battery is more economical. The cow urine battery with C-Zn electrode provides maximum power (707.4 mW) and durability (up to 145 h). This result shows that the bio-batteries have the potency to full fill the need of electricity demand for lower energy equipment.

Keywords: bio-batteries, cow's urine, electrodes, non-conventional

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1477 Removal of Aromatic Fractions of Natural Organic Matter from Synthetic Water Using Aluminium Based Electrocoagulation

Authors: Tanwi Priya, Brijesh Kumar Mishra


Occurrence of aromatic fractions of Natural Organic Matter (NOM) led to formation of carcinogenic disinfection by products such as trihalomethanes in chlorinated water. In the present study, the efficiency of aluminium based electrocoagulation on the removal of prominent aromatic groups such as phenol, hydrophobic auxochromes, and carboxyl groups from NOM enriched synthetic water has been evaluated using various spectral indices. The effect of electrocoagulation on turbidity has also been discussed. The variation in coagulation performance as a function of pH has been studied. Our result suggests that electrocoagulation can be considered as appropriate remediation approach to reduce trihalomethanes formation in water. It has effectively reduced hydrophobic fractions from NOM enriched low turbid water. The charge neutralization and enmeshment of dispersed colloidal particles inside metallic hydroxides is the possible mechanistic approach in electrocoagulation.

Keywords: aromatic fractions, electrocoagulation, natural organic matter, spectral indices

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1476 Fractional Order Differentiator Using Chebyshev Polynomials

Authors: Koushlendra Kumar Singh, Manish Kumar Bajpai, Rajesh Kumar Pandey


A discrete time fractional orderdifferentiator has been modeled for estimating the fractional order derivatives of contaminated signal. The proposed approach is based on Chebyshev’s polynomials. We use the Riemann-Liouville fractional order derivative definition for designing the fractional order SG differentiator. In first step we calculate the window weight corresponding to the required fractional order. Then signal is convoluted with this calculated window’s weight for finding the fractional order derivatives of signals. Several signals are considered for evaluating the accuracy of the proposed method.

Keywords: fractional order derivative, chebyshev polynomials, signals, S-G differentiator

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1475 Effect of Built in Polarization on Thermal Properties of InGaN/GaN Heterostructures

Authors: Bijay Kumar Sahoo


An important feature of InₓGa₁-ₓN/GaN heterostructures is strong built-in polarization (BIP) electric field at the hetero-interface due to spontaneous (sp) and piezoelectric (pz) polarizations. The intensity of this electric field reaches several MV/cm. This field has profound impact on optical, electrical and thermal properties. In this work, the effect of BIP field on thermal conductivity of InₓGa₁-ₓN/GaN heterostructure has been investigated theoretically. The interaction between the elastic strain and built in electric field induces additional electric polarization. This additional polarization contributes to the elastic constant of InₓGa₁-ₓN alloy. This in turn modifies material parameters of InₓGa₁-ₓN. The BIP mechanism enhances elastic constant, phonon velocity and Debye temperature and their bowing constants in InₓGa₁-ₓN alloy. These enhanced thermal parameters increase phonon mean free path which boost thermal conduction process. The thermal conductivity (k) of InxGa1-xN alloy has been estimated for x=0, 0.1, 0.3 and 0.9. Computation finds that irrespective of In content, the room temperature k of InₓGa₁-ₓN/GaN heterostructure is enhanced by BIP mechanism. Our analysis shows that at a certain temperature both k with and without BIP show crossover. Below this temperature k with BIP field is lower than k without BIP; however, above this temperature k with BIP field is significantly contributed by BIP mechanism leading to k with BIP field become higher than k without BIP field. The crossover temperature is primary pyroelectric transition temperature. The pyroelectric transition temperature of InₓGa₁-ₓN alloy has been predicted for different x. This signature of pyroelectric nature suggests that thermal conductivity can reveal pyroelectricity in InₓGa₁-ₓN alloy. The composition dependent room temperature k for x=0.1 and 0.3 are in line with prior experimental studies. The result can be used to minimize the self-heating effect in InₓGa₁-ₓN/GaN heterostructures.

Keywords: built-in polarization, phonon relaxation time, thermal properties of InₓGa₁-ₓN /GaN heterostructure, self-heating

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1474 Performance Comparison of Reactive, Proactive and Hybrid Routing Protocols in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

Authors: Kumar Manoj, Ramesh Kumar, Kumari Arti, Kumar Prashant


Routing protocols have a central role in any mobile ad hoc network (MANET). There are many routing protocols that exhibit different performance levels in different scenarios. In this paper we compare AODV, DSDV, DSR and ZRP routing protocol in mobile ad hoc networks to determine the best operational conditions for each protocol. We analyses these routing protocols by extensive simulations in OPNET simulator and show that how pause time and the number of nodes affect their performance. In this study, performance is measured in terms of control traffic received, control traffic sent, data traffic received, data traffic sent, throughput, retransmission attempts.


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1473 Imperatives for Teacher Empowerment in Devising Extension Education as Part of the Holistic Curriculum for Hospitality and Tourism Domains: A Conceptual Study in Indian Context

Authors: Rajiv Mishra, Mantun Kumar Singh


The role of educator or teacher in the Indian context is circumscribed by the objective of social transformation as articulated in the Indian National Movement and later enshrined in the Preamble to the Indian Constitution, in the Fundamental Rights and in the Directive Principles of State Policy. Extension, which is the additional dimension of professional practice among teachers at higher education can be used as a revolutionary tool to modify the existing slogan of ‘education for all’ to ‘education for all and for-ever’, thereby making the ‘life-long education’, a reality. This conceptual paper addresses the twin needs of preparing the students for individual growth as also to facilitate them to contribute to social development. It focuses on the inclusion of the measures required to be taken for providing social consciousness and sensitivity, as this happens to be a neglected part of the curriculum. The extra effort so needed to build community based activities presupposes the requirement for professional training to be given to the hospitality and tourism educators as a continuing education initiative.

Keywords: continuing education, extension activities, holistic curriculum, hospitality and tourism educators

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1472 Improved Super-Resolution Using Deep Denoising Convolutional Neural Network

Authors: Pawan Kumar Mishra, Ganesh Singh Bisht


Super-resolution is the technique that is being used in computer vision to construct high-resolution images from a single low-resolution image. It is used to increase the frequency component, recover the lost details and removing the down sampling and noises that caused by camera during image acquisition process. High-resolution images or videos are desired part of all image processing tasks and its analysis in most of digital imaging application. The target behind super-resolution is to combine non-repetition information inside single or multiple low-resolution frames to generate a high-resolution image. Many methods have been proposed where multiple images are used as low-resolution images of same scene with different variation in transformation. This is called multi-image super resolution. And another family of methods is single image super-resolution that tries to learn redundancy that presents in image and reconstruction the lost information from a single low-resolution image. Use of deep learning is one of state of art method at present for solving reconstruction high-resolution image. In this research, we proposed Deep Denoising Super Resolution (DDSR) that is a deep neural network for effectively reconstruct the high-resolution image from low-resolution image.

Keywords: resolution, deep-learning, neural network, de-blurring

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1471 An Innovative Auditory Impulsed EEG and Neural Network Based Biometric Identification System

Authors: Ritesh Kumar, Gitanjali Chhetri, Mandira Bhatia, Mohit Mishra, Abhijith Bailur, Abhinav


The prevalence of the internet and technology in our day to day lives is creating more security issues than ever. The need for protecting and providing a secure access to private and business data has led to the development of many security systems. One of the potential solutions is to employ the bio-metric authentication technique. In this paper we present an innovative biometric authentication method that utilizes a person’s EEG signal, which is acquired in response to an auditory stimulus,and transferred wirelessly to a computer that has the necessary ANN algorithm-Multi layer perceptrol neural network because of is its ability to differentiate between information which is not linearly separable.In order to determine the weights of the hidden layer we use Gaussian random weight initialization. MLP utilizes a supervised learning technique called Back propagation for training the network. The complex algorithm used for EEG classification reduces the chances of intrusion into the protected public or private data.

Keywords: EEG signal, auditory evoked potential, biometrics, multilayer perceptron neural network, back propagation rule, Gaussian random weight initialization

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1470 Development and Characterization of Double Liposomes Based Dual Drug Delivery System for H. Pylori Targeting

Authors: Ashish Kumar Jain, Deepak Mishra


The objective of the present investigation was to prepare and evaluate a vesicular dual drug delivery system for effective management of mucosal ulcer. Inner encapsulating and Double liposomes were prepared by glass bead and reverse phase evaporation method respectively. The formulation consisted of inner liposomes bearing Ranitidine Bismuth Citrate (RBC) and outer liposomes encapsulating Amoxicillin trihydrate (AMOX). The optimized inner liposomes and double liposomes were extensively characterized for vesicle size, morphology, zeta potential, vesicles count, entrapment efficiency and in vitro drug release. In vitro, the double liposomes demonstrated a sustained release of AMOX and RBC viz 91.4±1.8% and 77.2±2.1% respectively at the end of 72 hr. Furthermore binding specificity and targeting propensity toward H. pylori (SKP-56) was confirmed by agglutination and in situ adherence assay. Reduction of the absolute alcohol induced ulcerogenic index from 3.01 ± 0.25 to 0.31 ± 0.09 and 100% H. pylori clearance rate was observed. These results suggested that double liposomes are potential vector for the development of dual drug delivery for effective treatment of H. pylori-associated peptic ulcer.

Keywords: double liposomes, H. pylori targeting, PE liposomes, glass-beads method, peptic ulcers

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1469 Synthesis of Biologically Active Heterocyclic Compounds via C-H Bond Activation

Authors: Neeraj Kumar Mishra, In Su Kim


The isoindoline, indazole and indole heterocycles are ubiquitous structural motif found in heterocyclic compounds as they exhibit biological and medicinal applications. For example, isoindoline motif is present in molecules that act as endothelin-A receptor antagonists and dipeptidyl peptidase inhibitors. Moreover, isoindoline derivatives are very crucial constituents in the field of materials science as attractive candidates for organic light-emitting devices. However, compounds containing the indazole motif are known to exhibit to a variety of biological activities, such as estrogen receptor, HIV protease inhibition and anti-tumor activity. The prevalence of indazoles and indoles has led to the development of many useful methods for their preparation. Thus, isoindoline, indazole and indole heterocycles can be new candidates for the next generation of pharmaceuticals. Therefore, the development of highly efficient strategies for the formation of these heterocyclic architectures is an area of great interest in organic synthesis. The past years, transition-metal-catalyzed C−H activation followed by annulation reaction has been frequently used as a powerful tool to construct various heterocycles. Herein, we describe our recent achievements about the transition-metal-catalyzed tandem cyclization reactions of N-benzyltriflamides, 1,2-disubstituted arylhydrazines, acetanilides, etc. via C−H bond activation to access the corresponding bioactive heterocylic scaffolds.

Keywords: biologically active, C-H activation, heterocyclic compounds, transition-metal catalysts

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1468 Experimental Investigation of Interfacial Bond Strength of Concrete Layers

Authors: Rajkamal Kumar, Sudhir Mishra


The connections between various elements of concrete structures play a vital role in determining the durability of structures. These connections produce discontinuities and to ensure the monolithic behavior of structures, these connections should be carefully designed. The connections between concrete layers may occur in various situations such as structure repairing and rehabilitation or construction of huge structures with cast-in-situ or pre-cast elements, etc. Bond strength at the interface of these concrete layers should be able to prevent the progressive slip from taking place and it should also ensure satisfactory performance of the structure. Different approaches to enhance the bond strength at interface have been a major area of research. Nowadays, micro-concrete is getting popular as a repair material. Under this ambit, this paper aims to present the experimental results of connections between concrete layers of different age with artificial indentation at interface with two types of repair material: Concrete with same parent concrete composition and ready-mix mortar (micro-concrete), artificial indentations (grooves and holes) were made on the old layer of concrete to increase the bond strength. Curing plays an important role in determining the bond strength. Optimum duration for curing have also been discussed for each type of repair material. Different types of failure patterns have also been mentioned.

Keywords: adhesion, cohesion, compressive stress, micro-concrete, shear stress, slant shear test

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1467 Quinazoline Analogue as a Pet Tracer for Imaging PDE10A: Radiosynthesis and Biological Evaluation

Authors: Anjani Kumar Tiwari, Neelam Kumari, Anil Mishra


The family of phosphodiesterases (PDEs) plays a critical role in control of the level, localization, and duration of intracellular 3’-5’-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and 3’-5’-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) signals by specifically hydrolyzing these cyclic nucleotides. As the involvement of cyclic nucleotide second messengers in cell signaling and homeostasis is established, the regulation of these pathways in the brain by various PDE isoforms is an area of considerable interest, as they are involved in nearly all brain functions and in the etiology of neuropsychiatric diseases. The PDE10A isoform, isolated from different species and characterized regarding structure and function, has received much attention in recent years, particularly in the context of schizophrenia and Huntington’s disease, which are both related to a role of PDE10A in the regulation of striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission. Quinazoline analogue 1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-6,7-dimethoxyquinazoline, was evaluated as specific PET marker for phosphodiesterase (PDE) 10A. Here, we report the radiosynthesis of [11C]2 and the in vitro and in vivo evaluation of [11C]2 as a potential positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracer for imaging PDE10A in the central nervous system (CNS). The radiosynthesis of [11C]2 was achieved by O-methylation of the corresponding des-methyl precursor with [11C]methyl iodide. [11C]2 was obtained with ∼50% radiochemical yield. PET imaging studies in rat brain displayed initial specific uptake with very rapid clearance of [11C]2 from brain. Though [11C]2 is not an ideal radioligand for clinical imaging of PDE10A in the CNS. Modified analogue of quinazoline having a higher potency for inhibiting PDE10A and improved pharmacokinetic properties will be necessary for imaging this enzyme with PET.

Keywords: PDE10A, PET, radiotracer, quinazoline

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1466 Investigation of Delivery of Triple Play Service in GE-PON Fiber to the Home Network

Authors: Anurag Sharma, Dinesh Kumar, Rahul Malhotra, Manoj Kumar


Fiber based access networks can deliver performance that can support the increasing demands for high speed connections. One of the new technologies that have emerged in recent years is Passive Optical Networks. This paper is targeted to show the simultaneous delivery of triple play service (data, voice and video). The comparative investigation and suitability of various data rates is presented. It is demonstrated that as we increase the data rate, number of users to be accommodated decreases due to increase in bit error rate.


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1465 A Problem in Microstretch Thermoelastic Diffusive Medium

Authors: Devinder Singh, Arvind Kumar, Rajneesh Kumar


The general solution of the equations for a homogeneous isotropic microstretch thermo elastic medium with mass diffusion for two dimensional problems is obtained due to normal and tangential forces. The integral transform technique is used to obtain the components of displacements, microrotation, stress and mass concentration, temperature change and mass concentration. A particular case of interest is deduced from the present investigation.

Keywords: normal force, tangential force, microstretch, thermoelastic, the integral transform technique, deforming force, microstress force, boundary value problem

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1464 Ellagic Acid Enhanced Apoptotic Radiosensitivity via G1 Cell Cycle Arrest and γ-H2AX Foci Formation in HeLa Cells in vitro

Authors: V. R. Ahire, A. Kumar, B. N. Pandey, K. P. Mishra, G. R. Kulkarni


Radiation therapy is an effective vital strategy used globally in the treatment of cervical cancer. However, radiation efficacy principally depends on the radiosensitivity of the tumor, and not all patient exhibit significant response to irradiation. A radiosensitive tumor is easier to cure than a radioresistant tumor which later advances to local recurrence and metastasis. Herbal polyphenols are gaining attention for exhibiting radiosensitization through various signaling. Current work focuses to study the radiosensitization effect of ellagic acid (EA), on HeLa cells. EA intermediated radiosensitization of HeLa cells was due to the induction γ-H2AX foci formation, G1 phase cell cycle arrest, and loss of reproductive potential, growth inhibition, drop in the mitochondrial membrane potential and protein expression studies that eventually induced apoptosis. Irradiation of HeLa in presence of EA (10 μM) to doses of 2 and 4 Gy γ-radiation produced marked tumor cytotoxicity. EA also demonstrated radio-protective effect on normal cell, NIH3T3 and aided recovery from the radiation damage. Our results advocate EA to be an effective adjuvant for improving cancer radiotherapy as it displays striking tumor cytotoxicity and reduced normal cell damage instigated by irradiation.

Keywords: apoptotic radiosensitivity, ellagic acid, mitochondrial potential, cell-cycle arrest

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1463 Modified Acetamidobenzoxazolone Based Biomarker for Translocator Protein Mapping during Neuroinflammation

Authors: Anjani Kumar Tiwari, Neelam Kumari, Anil Mishra


The 18-kDa translocator protein (TSPO) previously called as peripheral benzodiazepine receptor, is proven biomarker for variety of neuroinflammation. TSPO is tryptophane rich five transmembranal protein found on outer mitochondrial membrane of steroid synthesising and immunomodulatory cells. In case of neuronal damage or inflammation the expression level of TSPO get upregulated as an immunomodulatory response. By utilizing Benzoxazolone as a basic scaffold, series of TSPO ligands have been designed followed by their screening through in silico studies. Synthesis has been planned by employing convergent methodology in six high yielding steps. For the synthesized ligands the ‘in vitro’ assay was performed to determine the binding affinity in term of Ki. On ischemic rat brain, autoradiography studies were also carried to check the specificity and affinity of the designed radiolabelled ligand for TSPO.Screening was performed on the basis of GScore of CADD based schrodinger software. All the modified and better prospective compound were successfully carried out and characterized by spectroscopic techniques (FTIR, NMR and HRMS). In vitro binding assay showed best binding affinity Ki = 6.1+ 0.3 for TSPO over central benzodiazepine receptor (CBR) Ki > 200. ARG studies indicated higher uptake of two analogues on the lesion side compared with that on the non-lesion side of ischemic rat brains. Displacement experiments with unlabelled ligand had minimized the difference in uptake between the two sides which indicates the specificity of the ligand towards TSPO receptor.

Keywords: TSPO, PET, imaging, Acetamidobenzoxazolone

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1462 Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of Tolyloxy Derived Oxadiazoles

Authors: Shivkanya Fuloria, Neeraj Kumar Fuloria, Sokinder Kumar


m-Cresol and oxadiazoles are the potent antimicrobial moieties. 2-(m-Tolyloxy)acetohydrazide (1) on cyclization with aromatic acids yielded 2-(aryl)-5-(m-tolyloxymethyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole (1A-E). The structures of newer oxadiazoles were confirmed by elemental and spectral analysis. The newer compounds were evaluated for their antimicrobial potential. The compound 1E containing strong electron withdrawing group showed maximum antimicrobial potential. Other compounds also displayed antimicrobial potential to certain extent. The SAR of newer oxadiazoles indicated that substitution of strong electronegative group in the tolyloxy derived oxadiazoles enhanced their antimicrobial potential.

Keywords: antibacterial, cresol, hydrazide, oxadiazoles

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1461 Edge Detection in Low Contrast Images

Authors: Koushlendra Kumar Singh, Manish Kumar Bajpai, Rajesh K. Pandey


The edges of low contrast images are not clearly distinguishable to the human eye. It is difficult to find the edges and boundaries in it. The present work encompasses a new approach for low contrast images. The Chebyshev polynomial based fractional order filter has been used for filtering operation on an image. The preprocessing has been performed by this filter on the input image. Laplacian of Gaussian method has been applied on preprocessed image for edge detection. The algorithm has been tested on two test images.

Keywords: low contrast image, fractional order differentiator, Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) method, chebyshev polynomial

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1460 Enhancing Sensitization of Cervical Cancer Cells to γ-Radiation Ellagic Acid

Authors: Vidhula Ahire, Amit Kumar, K. P. Mishra, Gauri Kulkarni


Herbal polyphenols have gained significance because of their increasing promise in prevention and treatment of cancer. Therefore, development of a dietary compound as an effective radiosensitizer and a radioprotector is highly warranted for cervical cancer patients undergoing therapy. This study describes the cytotoxic effects of the flavonoid, ellagic acid (EA) when administered either alone or in combination with gamma radiation on cervical cancer HeLa cells in vitro. Apoptotic index and proliferation were measured by using trypan blue assay. Reproductive cell death was analyzed by clonogenic assay. Propidium iodide staining for flowcytometry was performed to analyze cell cycle modulation. Nuclear and mitochondrial changes were studied with specific dyes. DNA repair kinetics was analyzed by immunofluorescence assay. Evaluation and comparison of EA effects were performed with other clinically used breast cancer drugs. When tumor cells were exposed to 2 and 4 Gy of irradiation in presence of EA (10 μM), it yielded a synergistic cytotoxic effect on cervical cancer cells whereas in NIH3T3 cells it reversed the injury caused by irradiation and abetted in the regaining of normal healthy cells. At 24h ~25foci/cell was observed and 2.6 fold decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential. Up to 40% cell were arrested in the G1 phase and 20-36% cells exhibited apoptosis. Our results demonstrate the role of increased apoptosis and cell cycle modulation in the mechanism of EA mediated radiosensitization of cervical cancer cells and thus advocating EA as an adjuvant for preclinical trials in cancer chemo- radiotherapy.

Keywords: cervical cancer, ellagic acid, sensitization, radiation therapy

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1459 Biodegradation of Direct Red 23 by Bacterial Consortium Isolated from Dye Contaminated Soil Using Sequential Air-lift Bioreactor

Authors: Lata Kumari Dhanesh Tiwary, Pradeep Kumar Mishra


The effluent coming from various industries such as textile, carpet, food, pharmaceutical and many other industries is big challenge due to its recalcitrant and xenobiotiocs in nature. Recently, biodegradation of dye wastewater through biological means was widely used due to eco-friendly and cost effective with the higher percentage of removal of dye from wastewater. The present study deals with the biodegradation and decolourization of Direct Red 23 dye using indigenously isolated bacterial consortium. The bacterial consortium was isolated from soil sample from dye contaminated site near a cluster of Carpet industries of Bhadohi, Uttar Pradesh, India. The bacterial strain formed consortia were identified and characterized by morphological, biochemical and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The bacterial strain mainly Staphylococcus saprophyticus strain BHUSS X3 (KJ439576), Microbacterium sp. BHUMSp X4 (KJ740222) and Staphylococcus saprophyticus strain BHUSS X5 (KJ439576) were used as consortia for further studies of dye decolorization. Experimental investigations were made in a Sequencing Air- lift bioreactor using the synthetic solution of Direct Red 23 dye by optimizing various parameters for efficient degradation of dye. The effect of several operating parameters such as flow rate, pH, temperature, initial dye concentration and inoculums size on removal of dye was investigated. The efficiency of isolated bacterial consortia from dye contaminated area in Sequencing Air- lift Bioreactor with different concentration of dye between 100-1200 mg/l at different hydraulic rate (HRTs) 26h and 10h. The maximum percentage of dye decolourization 98% was achieved when operated at HRT of 26h. The percentage of decolourization of dye was confirmed by using UV-Vis spectrophotometer and HPLC.

Keywords: carpet industry, bacterial consortia, sequencing air-lift bioreactor

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1458 Induced Emotional Empathy and Contextual Factors like Presence of Others Reduce the Negative Stereotypes Towards Persons with Disabilities through Stronger Prosociality

Authors: Shailendra Kumar Mishra


In this paper, we focus on how contextual factors like the physical presence of other perceivers and then developed induced emotional empathy towards a person with disabilities may reduce the automatic negative stereotypes and then response towards that person. We demonstrated in study 1 that negative attitude based on negative stereotypes assessed on ATDP-test questionnaires on five points Linkert-scale are significantly less negative when participants were tested with a group of perceivers and then tested alone separately by applying 3 (positive, indifferent, and negative attitude levels) X 2 (physical presence condition and alone) factorial design of ANOVA test. In the second study, we demonstrate, by applying regression analysis, in the presence of other perceivers, whether in a small group, participants showed more induced emotional empathy through stronger prosociality towards a high distress target like a person with disabilities in comparison of that of other stigmatized persons such as racial biased or gender-biased people. Thus results show that automatic affective response in the form of induced emotional empathy in perceiver and contextual factors like the presence of other perceivers automatically activate stronger prosocial norms and egalitarian goals towards physically challenged persons in comparison to other stigmatized persons like racial or gender-biased people. This leads to less negative attitudes and behaviour towards a person with disabilities.

Keywords: contextual factors, high distress target, induced emotional empathy, stronger prosociality

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1457 An Overview of Heating and Cooling Techniques Used in Green Buildings

Authors: Umesh Kumar Soni, Suresh Kumar Soni, S. R. Awasthi


Worldwide biggest difficulties are climate change, future availability of fossil fuels, and economical feasibility of renewable energy. They force us to use to a greater extent renewable energy and develop suitable hybrid renewable systems. Building heating/cooling consumes significant amount of energy. It can be conserved by use of proper heating/cooling techniques. This paper reviews and critically analyzes various active, passive and hybrid heating/cooling techniques used in green buildings.

Keywords: natural ventilation, energy conservation, hybrid ventilation techniques, climate change

Procedia PDF Downloads 372
1456 Anisotropic Approach for Discontinuity Preserving in Optical Flow Estimation

Authors: Pushpendra Kumar, Sanjeev Kumar, R. Balasubramanian


Estimation of optical flow from a sequence of images using variational methods is one of the most successful approach. Discontinuity between different motions is one of the challenging problem in flow estimation. In this paper, we design a new anisotropic diffusion operator, which is able to provide smooth flow over a region and efficiently preserve discontinuity in optical flow. This operator is designed on the basis of intensity differences of the pixels and isotropic operator using exponential function. The combination of these are used to control the propagation of flow. Experimental results on the different datasets verify the robustness and accuracy of the algorithm and also validate the effect of anisotropic operator in the discontinuity preserving.

Keywords: optical flow, variational methods, computer vision, anisotropic operator

Procedia PDF Downloads 583