Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 1157

Search results for: groundnut shell powder

1157 Gasification of Groundnut Shell in an Air Bubbling Fluidized Bed Gasifier

Authors: Dharminer Singh, Sanjeev Yadav, Pravakar Mohanty

Abstract:

In this work, gasification of groundnut shell was carried out in an air bubbling fluidized bed gasifier. Atmospheric air used as gasification agent in the gasifier. The groundnut shell used for gasification was in powder form and the locally available river sand was used as bed material. Conventional charcoal was used for heating sand bed. Two cyclones were used for proper segregation of char particles and for proper cleaning and cooling the product gas. Experiments were performed on different equivalence ratio (ER) 0.3 - 0.33 by varying feeding rate 36 - 32.8 kg/h of biomass and by keeping the air flow rate constant at bed temperature between 700 °C – 800 °C. Performance of gasifier was evaluated on the basis of different parameters such as cold gas efficiency, carbon conversion efficiency (CCE), Tar and Suspended particles matter (SPM) generation, gas yield, and Higher heating value (HHV) of gas. The optimal ER value for gasification of groundnut shell (GNS) powder in an air bubbling fluidized bed gasifier was found to be 0.31. Cold gas efficiency and CCE value at optimal ER was found to be 63.7 %, and 91 %, respectively. Concentration of Tar and SPM, HHV of gas, and gas yield at optimal ER was found to be 11.88 g/Nm3, 2.38 MJ/Nm3, and 2.01m3/kg, respectively. In the product gas, concentrations of CO, CO2, CH4 and H2 were found to be 12.94%, 13.5%, 5.74% and 13.77%, respectively. At ER 0.31, it was observed that bed temperature of gasifier was in steady state for long time at 714 °C with 5 – 10 °C fluctuation.

Keywords: air bubbling fluidized bed gasifier, groundnut shell powder, equivalence ratio (ER), cold gas efficiency, carbon conversion efficiency (CCE), high heating value (HHV)

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1156 Effect of Palm Bunch Ash and Neem (Azardirachta indica A. Juss) Leaf Powder on Termite Infestation in Groundnut Field

Authors: K. O. Ogbedeh, C. P. Ekwe, G. O. Ihejirika, S. A. Dialoke, O. P. Onyewuchi, C. P. Anyanwu, I. E. Kalu

Abstract:

As one of the major pests of field crops, termites attack groundnut at all stages of its development, especially during prolonged dry spell. Effect of palm bunch ash and neem(Azardirachta indica A. Juss) leaf powder on termite infestation in groundnut field in Owerri, Nigeria was investigated in this study. The field trial was carried out in 2016 at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria. The experiment was laid out in a 3x3 Factorial fitted into a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. The treatments include three rates of palm bunch ash at 0.0 (control), 1.0 and 2.0tons/ha and three rates of neem leaf powder at 0.0(control), 1.0, 2.0 tons/ha respectively. Data were collected on percentage emergence, termite incidence and termite severity. These were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA), and means were separated using least significant difference at 5% level of probability. The result shows that there were no significant (P= 0.05) differences in percentage emergence amongst treatment means due to palm bunch ash and neem leaf powder applications. Contrarily, palm bunch ash at 2.0 tons/ha recorded the least termite incidence especially at twelve weeks after planting (12WAP) with a value of 22.20% while control plot maintained highest values at 6WAP (48.70%) and 12WAP (48.30%) respectively. Also palm bunch ash at 2.0tons/ha depressed termite severity more than other treatments especially at 2 and 4 WAP (0.56) respectively. Control plots on the other hand consistently maintained highest termite severity throughout the trial with the highest value at 2 and 12WAP (1.56). Conclusively, palm bunch ash exhibited highest depressive action against termite on groundnut especially at higher application value (2.0tons/ha).

Keywords: groundnut, incidence, neem, palm, severity, termites

Procedia PDF Downloads 113
1155 Effect of Synthetic L-Lysine and DL-Methionine Amino Acids on Performance of Broiler Chickens

Authors: S. M. Ali, S. I. Mohamed

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Reduction of feed cost for broiler production is at most importance in decreasing the cost of production. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the use of synthetic amino acids (L-lysine – DL-methionine) instead of super concentrate and groundnut cake versus meat powder as protein sources. A total of 180 male broiler chicks (Cobb – strain) at 15 day of age (DOA) were selected according to their average body weight (380 g) from a broiler chicks flock at Elbashair Farm. The chicks were randomly divided into six groups of 30 chicks. Each group was further sub divided into three replicates with 10 birds. Six experimental diets were formulated. The first diet contained groundnut cake and super concentrate as the control (GNC + C); in the second diet, meat powder and super concentrate (MP + C) were used. The third diet contained groundnut cake and amino acids (GNC + AA); the forth diet contained meat powder and amino acids (MP + AA). The fifth diet contained groundnut cake, meat powder and super concentrate (GNC + MP + C) and the sixth diet contained groundnut cake, meat powder and amino acids (GNC + MP + AA). The formulated rations were randomly assigned for the different sub groups in a completely randomized design of six treatments and three replicates. Weekly feed intake, body weight and mortality were recorded and body weight gain and feed conversion ratio were calculated. At the end of the experiment (49 DOA), nine birds from each treatment were slaughtered. Live body weight, carcass weight, head, shank, and some internal organs (gizzard, heart, liver, small intestine, and abdominal fat pad) weights were taken. For the overall experimental period the (GNC + C +MP) consumed significantly (P≤0.01) the highest cumulative feed while the (MP + AA) group consumed the lowest amount of feed. The (GNC + C) and the (GNC + AA) groups had the heaviest live body weight while (MP + AA) had the lowest live body weight. The overall FCR was significantly (P≤0.01) the best for (GNC + AA) group while the (MP + AA) reported the worst FCR. However, the (GNC + AA) had significantly (P≤0.01) the lowest AFP. The (GNC + MP + Con) group had the highest dressing % while the (MP + AA) group had the lowest dressing %. It is concluded that amino acids can be used instead of super concentrate in broiler feeding with perfect performance and less cost and that meat powder is not advisable to be used with amino acids.

Keywords: broiler chickens, DL-lysine, methionine, performance

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1154 Proximate Composition, Colour and Sensory Properties of Akara egbe Prepared from Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranea)

Authors: Samson A. Oyeyinka, Taiwo Tijani, Adewumi T. Oyeyinka, Mutiat A. Balogun, Fausat L. Kolawole, John K. Joseph

Abstract:

Bambara groundnut is an underutilised leguminous crop that has a similar composition to cowpea. Hence, it could be used in making traditional snack usually produced from cowpea paste. In this study, akara egbe, a traditional snack was prepared from Bambara groundnut flour or paste. Cowpea was included as the reference sample. The proximate composition and functional properties of the flours were studies as well as the proximate composition and sensory properties of the resulting akara egbe. Protein and carbohydrate were the main components of Bambara groundnut and cowpea grains. Ash, fat and fiber contents were low. Bambara groundnut flour had higher protein content (23.71%) than cowpea (19.47%). In terms of functional properties, the oil absorption capacity (0.75 g oil/g flour) of Bambara groundnut flour was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) lower than that of the cowpea (0.92 g oil/g flour), whereas, Cowpea flour absorbed more water (1.59 g water/g flour) than Bambara groundnut flour (1.12 g/g). The packed bulk density (0.92 g/mL) of Bambara groundnut was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher than cowpea flour (0.82 g/mL). Akara egbe prepared from Bambara groundnut flour showed significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher protein content (23.41%) than the sample made from Bambara groundnut paste (19.35%). Akara egbe prepared from cowpea paste had higher ratings in aroma, colour, taste, crunchiness and overall acceptability than those made from cowpea flour or Bambara groundnut paste or flour. Bambara groundnut can produce akara egbe with comparable nutritional and sensory properties to that made from cowpea.

Keywords: Bambara groundnut, Cowpea, Snack, Sensory properties

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1153 Partial Replacement for Cement and Coarse Aggregate in Concrete by Using Egg Shell Powder and Coconut Shell

Authors: A. K. Jain, M. C. Paliwal

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The production of cement leads to the emission of large amounts of carbon-dioxide gas into the atmosphere which is a major contributor for the greenhouse effect and the global warming; hence it is mandatory either to quest for another material or partly replace it with some other material. According to the practical demonstrations and reports, Egg Shell Powder (ESP) can be used as a binding material for different field applications as it contains some of the properties of lime. It can partially replace the cement and further; it can be used in different proportion for enhancing the performance of cement. It can be used as a first-class alternative, for material reuse and waste recycling practices. Eggshell is calcium rich and analogous to limestone in chemical composition. Therefore, use of eggshell waste for partial replacement of cement in concrete is feasible. Different studies reveal that plasticity index of the soil can be improved by adding eggshell wastes in all the clay soil and it has wider application in construction projects including earth canals and earthen dams. The scarcity of aggregates is also increasing nowadays. Utilization of industrial waste or secondary materials is increasing in different construction applications. Coconut shell was successfully used in the construction industry for partial or full replacement for coarse aggregates. The use of coconut shell gives advantage of using waste material to partially replace the coarse aggregate. Studies carried on coconut shell indicate that it can partially replace the aggregate. It has good strength and modulus properties along with the advantage of high lignin content. It absorbs relatively low moisture due to its low cellulose content. In the paper, study carried out on eggshell powder and coconut shell will be discussed. Optimum proportions of these materials to be used for partial replacement of cement and aggregate will also be discussed.

Keywords: greenhouse, egg shell powder, binding material, aggregates, coconut shell, coarse aggregates

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1152 Investigation of Electrospun Composites Nanofiber of Poly (Lactic Acid)/Hazelnut Shell Powder/Zinc Oxide

Authors: Ibrahim Sengor, Sumeyye Cesur, Ilyas Kartal, Faik Nuzhet Oktar, Nazmi Ekren, Ahmet Talat Inan, Oguzhan Gunduz

Abstract:

In recent years, many researchers focused on nano-size fiber production. Nanofibers have been studied due to their different and superior physical, chemical and mechanical properties. Poly (lactic acid) (PLA), is a type of biodegradable thermoplastic polyester derived from renewable sources used in biomedical owing to its biocompatibility and biodegradability. In addition, zinc oxide is an antibacterial material and hazelnut shell powder is a filling material. In this study, nanofibers were obtained by adding of different ratio Zinc oxide, (ZnO) and hazelnut shell powder at different concentration into Poly (lactic acid) (PLA) by using electrospinning method which is the most common method to obtain nanofibers. After dissolving the granulated polylactic acids in % 1,% 2,% 3 and% 4 with chloroform solvent, they are homogenized by adding tween and hazelnut shell powder at different ratios and then by electrospinning, nanofibers are obtained. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and physical analysis such as density, electrical conductivity, surface tension, viscosity measurement and antimicrobial test were carried out after production process. The resulting structures of the nanofiber possess antimicrobial and antiseptic properties, which are attractive for biomedical applications. The resulting structures of the nanofiber possess antimicrobial, non toxic, self-cleaning and rigid properties, which are attractive for biomedical applications.

Keywords: electrospinning, hazelnut shell powder, nanofibers, poly (lactic acid), zinc oxide

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1151 Calcium Uptake and Yield of Pleurotus ostreatus Cultivated in Rice Straw-Based Substrate Enriched with Natural Sources

Authors: Arianne V. Julian, Michael R. Umagat, Renato G. Reyes

Abstract:

Pleurotus ostreatus, which is one of the most widely cultivated mushrooms, is an excellent source of protein and other minerals but inherently contains low calcium level. Calcium plays several vital functions in human health; therefore, adequate daily intake is necessary. Supplementation of growth substrate is a significant approach in mushroom production to improve nutritional content and yield. This study focused on the influence of varying concentrations of Ca supplementation derived from natural sources including agricultural lime, eggshell and oyster shell in rice straw-based formulation for the production of P. ostreatus. The effect of Ca supplementation on the total yield and Ca content were obtained. Results revealed that these natural sources increased both the yield and Ca of P. ostreatus. Mushroom grown in substrate with 8-10% agricultural lime and 6% eggshell powder produced the highest yields while using oyster shell powder did not vary with the control. Meanwhile, substrate supplementation using agricultural lime and eggshell powder in all concentrations have increased Ca in fruiting bodies. However, Ca was not absorbed in the oyster shell powder-supplemented substrate. These findings imply the potential of agricultural lime and eggshell powder in the production of Ca-enriched mushrooms resulting in higher yield.

Keywords: calcium fortification, mushroom production, natural sources, Pleurotus ostreatus

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1150 The Effects of Root Zone Supply of Aluminium on Vegetative Growth of 15 Groundnut Cultivars Grown in Solution Culture

Authors: Mosima M. Mabitsela

Abstract:

Groundnut is preferably grown on light textured soils. Most of these light textured soils tend to be highly weathered and characterized by high soil acidity and low nutrient status. One major soil factor associated with infertility of acidic soils that can negatively depress groundnut yield is aluminium (Al) toxicity. In plants Al toxicity damages root cells, leading to inhibition of root growth as a result of the suppression of cell division, cell elongation and cell expansion in the apical meristem cells of the root. The end result is that roots become stunted and brittle, root hair development is poor, and the root apices become swollen. This study was conducted to determine the effects of aluminium (Al) toxicity on a range of groundnut varieties. Fifteen cultivars were tested in incremental aluminum (Al) supply in an ebb and flow solution culture laid out in a randomized complete block design. There were six aluminium (Al) treatments viz. 0 µM, 1 µM, 5.7 µM, 14.14 µM, 53.18 µM, and 200 µM. At 1 µM there was no inhibitory effect on the growth of groundnut. The inhibition of groundnut growth was noticeable from 5.7 µM to 200 µM, where the severe effect of aluminium (Al) stress was observed at 200 µM. The cultivars varied in their response to aluminium (Al) supply in solution culture. Groundnuts are one of the most important food crops in the world, and its supply is on a decline due to the light-textured soils that they thrive under as these soils are acidic and can easily solubilize aluminium (Al) to its toxic form. Consequently, there is a need to develop groundnut cultivars with high tolerance to soil acidity.

Keywords: aluminium toxicity, cultivars, reduction, root growth

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1149 Structural Strength Potentials of Nigerian Groundnut Husk Ash as Partial Cement Replacement in Mortar

Authors: F. A. Olutoge, O.R. Olulope, M. O. Odelola

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This study investigates the strength potentials of groundnut husk ash as partial cement replacement in mortar and also develops a predictive model using Artificial Neural Network. Groundnut husks sourced from Ogbomoso, Nigeria, was sun dried, calcined to ash in a furnace at a controlled temperature of 600⁰ C for a period of 6 hours, and sieved through the 75 microns. The ash was subjected to chemical analysis and setting time test. Fine aggregate (sand) for the mortar was sourced from Ado Ekiti, Nigeria. The cement: GHA constituents were blended in ratios 100:0, 95:5, 90:10, 85:15 and 80:20 %. The sum of SiO₂, Al₂O₃, and Fe₂O₃ content in GHA is 26.98%. The compressive strength for mortars PC, GHA5, GHA10, GHA15, and GHA20 ranged from 6.3-10.2 N/mm² at 7days, 7.5-12.3 N/mm² at 14 days, 9.31-13.7 N/mm² at 28 days, 10.4-16.7 N/mm² at 56days and 13.35- 22.3 N/mm² at 90 days respectively, PC, GHA5 and GHA10 had competitive values up to 28 days, but GHA10 gave the highest values at 56 and 90 days while GHA20 had the lowest values at all ages due to dilution effect. Flexural strengths values at 28 days ranged from 1.08 to 1.87 N/mm² and increased to a range of 1.53-4.10 N/mm² at 90 days. The ANN model gave good prediction for compressive strength of the mortars. This study has shown that groundnut husk ash as partial cement replacement improves the strength properties of mortar.

Keywords: compressive strength, groundnut husk ash, mortar, pozzolanic index

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1148 Modeling Thin Shell Structures by a New Flat Shell Finite Element

Authors: Djamal Hamadi, Ashraf Ayoub, Ounis Abdelhafid, Chebili Rachid

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In this paper, a new computationally-efficient rectangular flat shell finite element named 'ACM_RSBEC' is presented. The formulated element is obtained by superposition of a new rectangular membrane element 'RSBEC' based on the strain approach and the well known plate bending element 'ACM'. This element can be used for the analysis of thin shell structures, no matter how the geometrical shape might be. Tests on standard problems have been examined. The convergence of the new formulated element is also compared to other types of quadrilateral shell elements. The presented shell element ‘ACM_RSBEC’ has been demonstrated to be effective and useful in analysing thin shell structures.

Keywords: finite element, flat shell element, strain based approach, static condensation

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1147 Generation of Mesoporous Silica Shell onto SSZ-13 and Its Effects on Methanol to Olefins

Authors: Ying Weiyong

Abstract:

The micro/mesoporous core-shell composites compromising SSZ-13 cores and mesoporous silica shells were synthesized successfully with the soft template of cetytrimethylammonium. The shell thickness could be tuned from 25 nm to 100 nm by varying the TEOS/SSZ-13 ratio. The BET and SEM results show the core-shell composites possessing the tunable surface area (544.7-811.0 m2/g) with plenty of mesopores (2.7 nm). The acidity intensity of the strong acid sites on SSZ-13 was remarkably impaired with the decoration of the mesoporous silica shell, which leads to the suppression of the hydrogen transfer reaction in MTO reaction. The micro/mesoporous core-shell composites exhibit better methanol to olefins reaction performance with a prolonged lifetime and the improvement of light olefins selectivity.

Keywords: core-shell, mesoporous silica, methanol to olefins, SSZ-13

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1146 Analysis of the Recovery of Burnility Index and Reduction of CO2 for Cement Manufacturing Utilizing Waste Cementitious Powder as Alternative Raw Material of Limestone

Authors: Kwon Eunhee, Park Dongcheon, Jung Jaemin

Abstract:

In countries around the world, environmental regulations are being strengthened, and Korea is no exception to this trend, which means that environment pollution and the environmental load have recently become a significant issue. For this reason, in this study limestone was replaced with cementitious powder to reduce the volume of construction waste as well as the emission of carbon dioxide caused by Tal-carbonate reaction. The research found that cementitious powder can be used as a substitute for limestone. However, the mix proportions of fine aggregate and powder included in the cementitious powder appear to have a great effect on substitution. Thus, future research should focus on developing a technology that can effectively separate and discharge fine aggregate and powder in the cementitious powder.

Keywords: waste cementitious powder, fine aggregate powder, CO2 emission, decarbonation reaction, calcining process

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1145 Kinetic, Equilibrium and Thermodynamic Studies of the Adsorption of Crystal Violet Dye Using Groundnut Hulls

Authors: Olumuyiwa Ayoola Kokapi, Olugbenga Solomon Bello

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Dyes are organic compounds with complex aromatic molecular structure that resulted in fast colour on a substance. Dye effluent found in wastewater generated from the dyeing industries is one of the greatest contributors to water pollution. Groundnut hull (GH) is an agricultural material that constitutes waste in the environment. Environmental contamination by hazardous organic chemicals is an urgent problem, which is partially solved through adsorption technologies. The choice of groundnut hull was promised on the understanding that some materials of agricultural origin have shown potentials to act as Adsorbate for hazardous organic chemicals. The aim of this research is to evaluate the potential of groundnut hull to adsorb Crystal violet dye through kinetic, isotherm and thermodynamic studies. The prepared groundnut hulls was characterized using Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Operational parameters such as contact time, initial dye concentration, pH, and effect of temperature were studied. Equilibrium time for the adsorption process was attained in 80 minutes. Adsorption isotherms used to test the adsorption data were Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms model. Thermodynamic parameters such as ∆G°, ∆H°, and ∆S° of the adsorption processes were determined. The results showed that the uptake of dye by groundnut hulls occurred at a faster rate, corresponding to an increase in adsorption capacity at equilibrium time of 80 min from 0.78 to 4.45 mg/g and 0.77 to 4.45mg/g with an increase in the initial dye concentration from 10 to 50 mg/L for pH 3.0 and 8.0 respectively. High regression values obtained for pseudo-second-order kinetic model, sum of square error (SSE%) values along with strong agreement between experimental and calculated values of qe proved that pseudo second-order kinetic model fitted more than pseudo first-order kinetic model. The result of Langmuir and Freundlich model showed that the adsorption data fit the Langmuir model more than the Freundlich model. Thermodynamic study demonstrated the feasibility, spontaneous and endothermic nature of the adsorption process due to negative values of free energy change (∆G) at all temperatures and positive value of enthalpy change (∆H) respectively. The positive values of ∆S showed that there was increased disorderliness and randomness at the solid/solution interface of crystal violet dye and groundnut hulls. The present investigation showed that, groundnut hulls (GH) is a good low-cost alternative adsorbent for the removal of Crystal Violet (CV) dye from aqueous solution.

Keywords: adsorption, crystal violet dye, groundnut halls, kinetics

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1144 Structural and Optical Characterization of [email protected] Core–Shell Nanoparticles

Authors: A. Pourahmad, Sh. Gharipour

Abstract:

The present work describes the preparation and characterization of nanosized SiO2@PbS core-shell particles by using a simple wet chemical route. This method utilizes silica spheres formation followed by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method assisted lead sulphide shell layer formation. The final product was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV–vis spectroscopic, infrared spectroscopy (IR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) experiments. The morphological studies revealed the uniformity in size distribution with core size of 250 nm and shell thickness of 18 nm. The electron microscopic images also indicate the irregular morphology of lead sulphide shell layer. The structural studies indicate the face-centered cubic system of PbS shell with no other trace for impurities in the crystal structure.

Keywords: core-shell, nanostructure, semiconductor, optical property, XRD

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1143 The Effect of the Incorporation of Glass Powder into Cement Sorel

Authors: Rim Zgueb, Noureddine Yacoubi

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The work concerns thermo-mechanical properties of cement Sorel mixed with different proportions of glass powder. Five specimens were developed. Four different glass powder mixtures were developed 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% with one control sample without glass powder. The research presented in this study focused on evaluating the effects of replacing portion of glass powder with various percentages of cement Sorel. The influence of the glass powder on the thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, bulk density and compressive strength of the cement Sorel at 28 days of curing were determined. The thermal property of cement was measured by using Photothermal deflection technique PTD. The results revealed that the glass powder additive affected greatly on the thermal properties of the cement.

Keywords: cement sorel, photothermal deflection technique, thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity

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1142 Efficacy of DAPG Producing Fluorescent Pseudomonas for Enhancing Nutrient Use Efficacy, Bio-Control of Soil-Borne Diseases and Yield of Groundnut

Authors: Basavaraj Yenagi, P. Nagaraju, C. R. Patil

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Groundnut (Arachis hypohaea L.) is called as “King of oilseeds” and one of the most important food and cash crops in Indian subcontinent. Yield and quality of oil are negatively correlated with poor or imbalanced nutrition and constant exposure to both biotic and abiotic stress factors. Variety of diseases affect groundnut plant, most of them are caused by fungi and lead to severe yield loss. Imbalanced nutrition increases the concerns of environmental deterioration which includes soil fertility. Among different microbial antagonists, Pseudomonas is common member of the plant growth promoting rhizobacteria microflora present in the rhizosphere of groundnut. These are known to produce a beneficial effect on groundnut due to their high metabolic activity leading to the production of enzymes, exopolysaccharides, secondary metabolites, and antibiotics. The ability of pseudomonas lies on their ability to produce antibiotic metabolites such as 2, 4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG). DAPG can inhibit the growth of fungal pathogens namely collar rot and stem rot and also increase the availability of plant nutrients through increased solubilization and uptake of nutrients. Hence, the present study was conducted for three consecutive years (2014 to 2016) in vertisol during the rainy season to assess the efficacy of DAPG producing fluorescent pseudomonas for enhancing nutrient use efficacy, bio-control of soil-borne diseases and yield of groundnut at University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad farm. The experiment was laid out in an RCBD with three replications and seven treatments. The mean of three years data revealed that the effect of DAPG-producing producing fluorescent pseudomonas enhanced groundnut yield, uptake of nitrogen and phosphorus and nutrient use efficiency and also found to be effective in bio-control of collar rot and stem rot incidence leading to increase pod yield of groundnut. Higher dry pod yield of groundnut was obtained with DAPG 2(3535 kg ha-1) closely followed by DAPG 4(3492 kg ha-1), FP 98(3443 kg ha-1), DAPG 1(3414 kg ha-1), FP 86(3361 kg ha-1) and Trichoderma spp. (3380 kg ha-1) over control(3173 kg ha-1). A similar trend was obtained with other growth and yield attributing parameters. N uptake ranged from 8.21 percent to FP 86 to 17.91 percent with DAPG 2 and P uptake ranged between 5.56 percent with FP 86 to 16.67 percent with DAPG 2 over control. The first year, there was no incidence of collar rot. During the second year, the control plot recorded 2.51 percent incidence and it ranged from 0.82 percent to 1.43 percent in different DAPG-producing fluorescent pseudomonas treatments. The similar trend was noticed in the third year with lower incidence. The stem rot incidence was recorded during all the three years. Mean data indicated that the control plot recorded 2.65 percent incidence and it ranged from 0.71 percent to 1.23 percent in different DAPG-producing fluorescent pseudomonas treatments. The increase in net monetary benefits ranged from Rs.5975 ha-1 to Rs.11407 ha 1 in different treatments. Hence, as a low-cost technology, seed treatment with available DAPG-producing fluorescent pseudomonas has a beneficial effect on groundnut for enhancing groundnut yield, nutrient use efficiency and bio-control of soil-borne diseases.

Keywords: groundnut, DAPG, fluorescent pseudomonas, nutrient use efficiency, collar rot, stem rot

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1141 Effect of Dietary Spirulina Powder on Growth Performance, Body Composition, Hematological, Biological and Immunological Parameters of Oscar Fish, Astronotus ocellatus

Authors: Negar Ghotbeddin

Abstract:

In this study, the changes in survival, growth, body composition, hematological, biochemical and immunological parameters of oscar fish (Astronotus ocellatus) have been investigated with dietary spirulina powder supplementation. Total of 300 fish with an initial weight of 8.37 ± 0.36 was distributed to three treatments and one control (0%). The fish were fed 8 weeks with diets containing different concentrations of S. powder: (control (0%), 2.5%, 5%, and 10%). Then sampling was done, and different parameters were measured by standard methods. Growth performance such as weight gain (%), specific growth rate (SGR) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) significantly improved in fish fed with S. powder (p < 0.5). Crude protein significantly increased in the S. powder supplemented groups (p < 0.5). However, crude lipid decreased with the increasing of dietary S. powder levels. Total protein increased in fish fed with 10% S. powder. Triglycerides and cholesterol decreased with the increasing of dietary S. powder levels. Immunological parameters including C3 and C4 increased significantly with the increasing of dietary S. powder levels, and lysozyme was improved in 10% S. powder. Results of this study indicated that S. powder had positive effects on Oscar fish and the best values were observed at 10 % S. powder.

Keywords: spirulina powder, growth performance, body composition, hematology, immunity, Astronotus ocellatus

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1140 Effects of Microbiological and Physicochemical Processes on the Quality of Complementary Foods Based on Maize (Zea mays) Fortification with Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranea)

Authors: T. I. Mbata, M. J. Ikenebomeh

Abstract:

Background: The study was aim at formulating a complementary foods based on maize and bambara groundnut with a view of reducing malnutrition in low income families. Protein-energy malnutrition is a major health challenge attributed to the inappropriate complementary feeding practices, low nutritional quality of traditional complementary foods and high cost of quality protein-based complementary foods. Methods: The blends 70% maize, 30% bambara groundnut were evaluated for proximate analyses, minerals, amino acids profile, and antinutritional factors, using proprietary formula (‘Nutrend’) as standard. Antinutritional factors, amino acids, microbiological properties and sensory attributes were determined using standard methods. Results; For Protein, the results were 15.0% for roasted bambara groundnut maize germinated flour (RBMGF), 13.80% for cooked bambara groundnut maize germinated flour (CBMGF), 15.18% for soaked bambara groundnut maize germinated flour (SBMGF); values for maize flour and nutrend had 10.4% and 23.21% respectively. With respect to energy value, RBMGF, CBMGF, SBMGF, maize flour and nutrend had 494.9, 327.58, 356.49, 366.8 and 467.2 kcal respectively. The percentages of total essential amino acids in the composition of the blends were 36.9%, 40.7% and 38.9% for CBMGF, SBMGF and RBMGF, respectively, non-essential amino acids contents were 63.1%, 59.3% and 61.1% for CBMGF, SBMGF and RBMGF respectively. The mineral content, that is, calcium, potassium, magnesium and sodium, of formulated samples were higher than those obtained for maize flour and Nutrend. The antinutrient composition of RBMGF and CBMGF were lower than of SBMGF. The rats fed with the control diet exhibited better growth performance such as feed intake (1527 g) and body weight gain (93.8 g). For the microbial status, microflora gradually changed from gram negative enteric bacteria, molds, lactic acid bacteria and yeast to be dominated by gram positive lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts. Yeasts and LAB growth counts in the complementary food varied between 4.44 and 7.36 log cfu/ml. LAB number increased from 5.40 to 7.36 log cfu/ml during fermentation. Yeasts increased from 4.44 to 5.60 log cfu/ml. Organoleptic evaluation revealed that the foods were well accepted. Conclusion: Based on the findings the application of bambara groundnut fortification to traditional foods can promote the nutritional quality of African maize - based traditional foods with acceptable rheological and cooking qualities.

Keywords: bambara groundnut, maize, fortification, complementary food

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1139 Effects of Palm Kernel Expeller Processing on the Ileal Populations of Lactobacilli and Escherichia Coli in Broiler Chickens

Authors: B. Navidshad

Abstract:

The main objective of this study was to examine the effects of enzymatic treatment and shell content of palm kernel expeller (PKE) on the ileal Lactobacilli and Escherichia coli populations in broiler chickens. At the finisher phase, one hundred male broiler chickens (Cobb-500) were fed a control diet or the diets containing 200 g/kg of normal PKE (70 g/kg shell), low shell PKE (30 g/kg shell), enzymatic treated PKE or low shell-enzymatic treated PKE. The quantitative real-time PCR were used to determine the ileal bacteria populations. The lowest ileal Lactobacilli population was found in the chickens fed the low shell PKE diet. Dietary normal PKE or low shell-enzymatic treated PKE decreased the Escherichia coli population compared to the control diet. The results suggested that PKE could be included up to 200 g/kg in the finisher diet, however, any screening practice to reduce the shell content of PKE without enzymatic degradation of β-mannan, decrease ileal Lactobacilli population.

Keywords: palm kernel expeller, exogenous enzyme, shell content, ileum bacteria, broiler chickens

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
1138 Variation in N₂ Fixation and N Contribution by 30 Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Varieties Grown in Blesbokfontein Mpumalanga Province, South Africa

Authors: Titus Y. Ngmenzuma, Cherian. Mathews, Feilx D. Dakora

Abstract:

In Africa, poor nutrient availability, particularly N and P, coupled with low soil moisture due to erratic rainfall, constitutes the major crop production constraints. Although inorganic fertilizers are an option for meeting crop nutrient requirements for increased grain yield, the high cost and scarcity of inorganic inputs make them inaccessible to resource-poor farmers in Africa. Because crops grown on such nutrient-poor soils are micronutrient deficient, incorporating N₂-fixing legumes into cropping systems can sustainably improve crop yield and nutrient accumulation in the grain. In Africa, groundnut can easily form an effective symbiosis with native soil rhizobia, leading to marked N contribution in cropping systems. In this study, field experiments were conducted at Blesbokfontein in Mpumalanga Province to assess N₂ fixation and N contribution by 30 groundnut varieties during the 2018/2019 planting season using the ¹⁵N natural abundance technique. The results revealed marked differences in shoot dry matter yield, symbiotic N contribution, soil N uptake and grain yield among the groundnut varieties. The percent N derived from fixation ranged from 37 to 44% for varieties ICGV131051 and ICGV13984. The amount of N-fixed ranged from 21 to 58 kg/ha for varieties Chinese and IS-07273, soil N uptake from 31 to 80 kg/ha for varieties IS-07947 and IS-07273, and grain yield from 193 to 393 kg/ha for varieties ICGV15033 and ICGV131096, respectively. Compared to earlier studies on groundnut in South Africa, this study has shown low N₂ fixation and N contribution to the cropping systems, possibly due to environmental factors such as low soil moisture. Because the groundnut varieties differed in their growth, symbiotic performance and grain yield, more field testing is required over a range of differing agro-ecologies to identify genotypes suitable for different cropping environments

Keywords: ¹⁵N natural abundance, percent N derived from fixation, amount of N-fixed, grain yield

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1137 Effects of Roasting as Preservative Method on Food Value of the Runner Groundnuts, Arachis hypogaea

Authors: M. Y. Maila, H. P. Makhubele

Abstract:

Roasting is one of the oldest preservation method used in foods such as nuts and seeds. It is a process by which heat is applied to dry foodstuffs without the use of oil or water as a carrier. Groundnut seeds, also known as peanuts when sun dried or roasted, are among the oldest oil crops that are mostly consumed as a snack, after roasting in many parts of South Africa. However, roasting can denature proteins, destroy amino acids, decrease nutritive value and induce undesirable chemical changes in the final product. The aim of this study, therefore, was to evaluate the effect of various roasting times on the food value of the runner groundnut seeds. A constant temperature of 160 °C and various time-intervals (20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 min) were used for roasting groundnut seeds in an oven. Roasted groundnut seeds were then cooled and milled to flour. The milled sundried, raw groundnuts served as reference. The proximate analysis (moisture, energy and crude fats) was performed and the results were determined using standard methods. The antioxidant content was determined using HPLC. Mineral (cobalt, chromium, silicon and iron) contents were determined by first digesting the ash of sundried and roasted seed samples in 3M Hydrochloric acid and then determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. All results were subjected to ANOVA through SAS software. Relative to the reference, roasting time significantly (p ≤ 0.05) reduced moisture (71%–88%), energy (74%) and crude fat (5%–64%) of the runner groundnut seeds, whereas the antioxidant content was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) increased (35%–72%) with increasing roasting time. Similarly, the tested mineral contents of the roasted runner groundnut seeds were also significantly (p ≤ 0.05) reduced at all roasting times: cobalt (21%–83%), chromium (48%–106%) and silicon (58%–77%). However, the iron content was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) unaffected. Generally, the tested runner groundnut seeds had higher food value in the raw state than in the roasted state, except for the antioxidant content. Moisture is a critical factor affecting the shelf life, texture and flavor of the final product. Loss of moisture ensures prolonged shelf life, which contribute to the stability of the roasted peanuts. Also, increased antioxidant content in roasted groundnuts is essential in other health-promoting compounds. In conclusion, the overall reduction in the proximate and mineral contents of the runner groundnuts seeds due to roasting is sufficient to suggest influences of roasting time on the food value of the final product and shelf life.

Keywords: dry roasting, legume, oil source, peanuts

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1136 Diversification of Indonesian Terasi Shrimp (Acetes indicus) Powder as Alternative and Sustainable Food for the Double Burden of Malnutrition

Authors: Galuh Asri Bestari, Hajar Shofiyya

Abstract:

Double burden of malnutrition (DBM) has been a global problem in these last decades occurs in both developed and developing countries. Overweight in adults and stunting among preschool children have dramatically increased and become the main problems of malnutrition that should be solved immediately since they are directly related with the health status and productivity. Reformulation of food product by using the local sea resources called terasi shrimp (Acetes indicus) has a potential possibility in facing the DBM. A study was carried out in Indonesia to determine the acceptability of terasi shrimp powder through sensory evaluation. Terasi shrimps were processed into powder form through sun drying and pounding methods. The powder form was directly added in food as alternative seasonings and tested among stunted and normal preschool children. Meanwhile, a further processing method is given to the shrimp powder tested in overweight and normal-weighed adults. The shrimp powder was mixed with sago flour and formed into balls, then steamed for 15-20 minutes, and finally served as alternative snacks. Based on the sensory evaluation, the shrimp powder has a good acceptance in taste (54%), shape (60%), and color properties (63%), while the shrimp balls has a good acceptance in size (65%), shape (50%), color (48%), taste (40%), and texture (36%). Terasi shrimp powder can be stored for a month in room temperature. In addition, carried out chemical analysis revealed that terasi shrimp (Acetes indicus) has higher percentage of protein, calcium, and iron than other animal sources, but conversely contains zero sodium and very low percentage of fat. Terasi shrimp’s shell also contains a substance called chitosan which acts by forming gels in the intestinal tract to entrap lipids, thus interfering with their absorption. After going through some processing methods, the shrimp powder and balls did not show any significant changes in their nutrient contents. So that, terasi shrimp powder is good to be consumed not only by overweight adults, but also by children to support their optimum growth. Intervention of terasi shrimp powder should be implemented step by step from national up to global governance program to face the DBM.

Keywords: Acetes indicus, alternative food, double burden of malnutrition, sensory evaluation

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1135 Research on Static and Dynamic Behavior of New Combination of Aluminum Honeycomb Panel and Rod Single-Layer Latticed Shell

Authors: Xu Chen, Zhao Caiqi

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In addition to the advantages of light weight, resistant corrosion and ease of processing, aluminum is also applied to the long-span spatial structures. However, the elastic modulus of aluminum is lower than that of the steel. This paper combines the high performance aluminum honeycomb panel with the aluminum latticed shell, forming a new panel-and-rod composite shell structure. Through comparative analysis between the static and dynamic performance, the conclusion that the structure of composite shell is noticeably superior to the structure combined before.

Keywords: combination of aluminum honeycomb panel, rod latticed shell, dynamic performence, response spectrum analysis, seismic properties

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1134 Fungicidal Action of the Mycogenic Silver Nanoparticles Against Aspergillus niger Inciting Collar Rot Disease in Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

Authors: R. Sarada Jayalakshmi Devi B. Bhaskar, S. Khayum Ahammed, T. N. V. K. V. Prasad

Abstract:

Use of bioagents and biofungicides is safe to manage the plant diseases and to avoid human health hazards which improves food security. Myconanotechnology is the study of nanoparticles synthesis using fungi and their applications. The present work reports on preparation, characterization and antifungal activity of biogenic silver nanoparticles produced by the fungus Trichoderma sp. which was collected from groundnut rhizosphere. The culture filtrate of Trichoderma sp. was used for the reduction of silver ions (Ag+) in AgNO3 solution to the silver (Ag0) nanoparticles. The different ages (4 days, 6 days, 8 days, 12 days, and 15 days) of culture filtrates were screened for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized using UV-Vis spectrophotometer, particle size and zeta potential analyzer, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometer (FTIR) and Transmission Electron Microscopy. Among all the treatments the silver nitrate solution treated with six days aged culture filtrate of Trichoderma sp. showed the UV absorption peak at 440 nm with maximum intensity (0.59) after 24 hrs incubation. The TEM micrographs showed the spherical shaped silver nanoparticles with an average size of 30 nm. The antifungal activity of silver nanoparticles against Aspergillus niger causing collar rot disease in groundnut and aspergillosis in humans showed the highest per cent inhibition at 100 ppm concentration (74.8%). The results points to the usage of these mycogenic AgNPs in agriculture to control plant diseases.

Keywords: groundnut rhizosphere, Trichoderma sp., silver nanoparticles synthesis, antifungal activity

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1133 Evaluation of Rhizobia for Nodulation, Shoot and Root Biomass from Host Range Studies Using Soybean, Common Bean, Bambara Groundnut and Mung Bean

Authors: Sharon K. Mahlangu, Mustapha Mohammed, Felix D. Dakora

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Rural households in Africa depend largely on legumes as a source of high-protein food due to N₂-fixation by rhizobia when they infect plant roots. However, the legume/rhizobia symbiosis can exhibit some level of specificity such that some legumes may be selectively nodulated by only a particular group of rhizobia. In contrast, some legumes are highly promiscuous and are nodulated by a wide range of rhizobia. Little is known about the nodulation promiscuity of bacterial symbionts from wild legumes such as Aspalathus linearis, especially if they can nodulate cultivated grain legumes such as cowpea and Kersting’s groundnut. Determining the host range of the symbionts of wild legumes can potentially reveal novel rhizobial strains that can be used to increase nitrogen fixation in cultivated legumes. In this study, bacteria were isolated and tested for their ability to induce root nodules on their homologous hosts. Seeds were surface-sterilized with alcohol and sodium hypochlorite and planted in sterile sand contained in plastic pots. The pot surface was covered with sterile non-absorbent cotton wool to avoid contamination. The plants were watered with nitrogen-free nutrient solution and sterile water in alternation. Three replicate pots were used per isolate. The plants were grown for 90 days in a naturally-lit glasshouse and assessed for nodulation (nodule number and nodule biomass) and shoot biomass. Seven isolates from each of Kersting’s groundnut and cowpea and two from Rooibos tea plants were tested for their ability to nodulate soybean, mung bean, common bean and Bambara groundnut. The results showed that of the isolates from cowpea, where VUSA55 and VUSA42 could nodulate all test host plants, followed by VUSA48 which nodulated cowpea, Bambara groundnut and soybean. The two isolates from Rooibos tea plants nodulated Bambara groundnut, soybean and common bean. However, isolate L1R3.3.1 also nodulated mung bean. There was a greater accumulation of shoot biomass when cowpea isolate VUSA55 nodulated common bean. Isolate VUSA55 produced the highest shoot biomass, followed by VUSA42 and VUSA48. The two Kersting’s groundnut isolates, MGSA131 and MGSA110, accumulated average shoot biomass. In contrast, the two Rooibos tea isolates induced a higher accumulation of biomass in Bambara groundnut, followed by common bean. The results suggest that inoculating these agriculturally important grain legumes with cowpea isolates can contribute to improved soil fertility, especially soil nitrogen levels.

Keywords: legumes, nitrogen fixation, nodulation, rhizobia

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1132 Evaluation of Raw Diatomaceous Earth and Plant Powders in the Control of Callosobruchus subinnotatus (Pic.) on Stored Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) (Verdc.) Seeds

Authors: Ibrahim Nasiru Dole, Audu Abdullahi, Dike Michiel Chidozie, Lawal Mansur

Abstract:

Bambara groundnut is an important grain legume and the seeds in storage suffer infestation by Callosobruchus subinnotatus. Laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of raw diatomaceous earth (RDE) and plant powders (Jatropha curcas (L.), Eucalyptus camaldulensis (Dehnh.) and Melia azedarach (L.) against C. subinnotatus infesting stored bambara groundnut seeds. Rearing of the insects and the experiments were conducted in Agricultural Biology Laboratory of the Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto - Nigeria under ambient conditions (29-33oC and a relative humidity of 44-56%). Four treatments at three levels: RDE at 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 g while plant powders at 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g, standard/check (2.0 g of Actellic dust), and a control. These were separately admixed with 100 g of sterilized seeds in glass jars. Each jar was later infested with thirty, 1-2-days old C. subinnotatus of mixed sexes. Adult mortality was assessed 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours, F1 and F2 progenies, seed damage, weight loss and viability were also assessed after 90 days. Eighty-nine (89%) percent adult mortality was recorded in the highest dose of RDE after 96 hours of exposure. These treatments significantly (P < 0.05) suppressed F1 and F2 progenies emergence in relation to the control. The control suffered significantly (P < 0.05) higher seed damage (51.0 %) and weight loss (40.8%) thereby recording lower seed germination. Therefore, RDE and plant powders could be used against C. subinnotatus on stored bambara groundnut seeds.

Keywords: bambara, callosobruchus subinnotatus, plant powders, raw diatomaceous earth,

Procedia PDF Downloads 317
1131 Shell Lime: An Eco-Friendly and Cost-Efficient Alternative for Agricultural Lime

Authors: Hene L. Hapinat, Mae D. Dumapig

Abstract:

This study aimed to determine the lime potential of 3 mollusks, namely: Crassostrea iredalei (Oyster shell), Turritella terebra (Turret shell), and Anodontia edentula (Mangrove clam shell) as alternative for commercially produced agricultural lime. The hydrogen ion concentration (pH) and the lime concentration using Calcium Carbonate Equivalent (CCE) of each shellfish species were measured and tested for the enhancement of an acidic soil. The experiment was laid out in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with 4 treatments replicated 3 times. The treatments were as follows: Treatment A- 100 g agricultural lime; B- 100 g oyster shell lime; C- 100 g turret shell lime; and D- 100 g mangrove clam shell lime. Each treatment was combined to the acidic soil sample. The results were statistically analyzed using One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Least Square Difference (LSD) at 0.01 and 0.05 levels of significance. Results revealed that lime produced from the 3 selected mollusks can be a potential source of alternative and/or supplement materials for agricultural lime in dealing with soil acidity, entailing lower cost of farm production.

Keywords: shell lime, pH, calcium carbonate concentrations, mollusks, agricultural lime, lime potential concentration, acidic soil

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
1130 Experimental Study of Iron Metal Powder Compacting by Controlled Impact

Authors: Todor N. Penchev, Dimitar N. Karastoianov, Stanislav D. Gyoshev

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For compacting of iron powder are used hydraulic presses and high velocity hammers. In this paper are presented initial research on application of an innovative powder compacting method, which uses a hammer working with controlled impact. The results show that by this method achieves the reduction of rebounds and improve efficiency of impact, compared with a high-speed compacting. Depending on the power of the engine (industrial rocket engine), this effect may be amplified to such an extent as to obtain a impact without rebound (sticking impact) and in long-time action of the impact force.

Keywords: powder metallurgy, impact, iron powder compacting, rocket engine

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1129 Antibacterial Activity of Noble Metal Functionalized Magnetic Core-Zeolitic Shell Nanostructures

Authors: Mohsen Padervand

Abstract:

Functionalized magnetic core-zeolitic shell nanostructures were prepared by the hydrothermal and coprecipitation methods. The products were characterized by Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared spectra (FTIR), nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms (BET) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The growth of mordenite nanoparticles on the surface of silica coated nickel ferrite nanoparticles at the presence of organic templates was well approved. The antibacterial activity of prepared samples was investigated by the inactivation of E.coli as a gram negative bacterium. A new mechanism was proposed to inactivate the bacterium over the prepared samples. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and reuse ability were studied too. TEM images of the destroyed microorganism after the treatment time were applied to illustrate the inactivation mechanism. The interaction of the noble metals with organic components on the surface of nanostructures studied theoretically and the results were used to interpret the experimental results.

Keywords: nickel ferrite nanoparticles, magnetic core-zeolitic shell, antibacterial activity, E. coli

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
1128 Powder Flow with Normalized Powder Particles Size Distribution and Temperature Analyses in Laser Melting Deposition: Analytical Modelling and Experimental Validation

Authors: Muhammad Arif Mahmood, Andrei C. Popescu, Mihai Oane, Diana Chioibascu, Carmen Ristoscu, Ion N. Mihailescu

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Powder flow and temperature distributions are recognized as influencing factors during laser melting deposition (LMD) process, that not only affect the consolidation rate but also characteristics of the deposited layers. Herewith, two simplified analytical models will be presented to simulate the powder flow with the inclusion of powder particles size distribution in Gaussian form, under three powder jet nozzles, and temperature analyses during LMD process. The output of the 1st model will serve as the input in the 2nd model. The models will be validated with experimental data, i.e., weight measurement method for powder particles distribution and infrared imaging for temperature analyses. This study will increase the cost-efficiency of the LMD process by adjustment of the operating parameters for reaching optimal powder debit and energy. This research has received funds under the Marie Sklodowska-Curie grant agreement No. 764935, from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program.

Keywords: laser additive manufacturing, powder particles size distribution in Gaussian form, powder stream distribution, temperature analyses

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