Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7328

Search results for: dielectric properties

7328 Dielectric Properties of Ni-Al Nano Ferrites Synthesized by Citrate Gel Method

Authors: D. Ravinder, K. S. Nagaraju


Ni–Al ferrite with composition of NiAlxFe2-xO4 (x=0.2, 0.4 0.6, and 0.8, ) were prepared by citrate gel method. The dielectric properties for all the samples were investigated at room temperature as a function of frequency. The dielectric constant shows dispersion in the lower frequency region and remains almost constant at higher frequencies. The frequency dependence of dielectric loss tangent (tanδ) is found to be abnormal, giving a peak at certain frequency for mixed Ni-Al ferrites. A qualitative explanation is given for the composition and frequency dependence of the dielectric loss tangent.

Keywords: ferrites, citrate method, lattice parameter, dielectric constant

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7327 Comparative Dielectric Properties of 1,2-Dichloroethane with n-Methylformamide and n,n-Dimethylformamide Using Time Domain Reflectometry Technique in Microwave Frequency

Authors: Shagufta Tabassum, V. P. Pawar, jr., G. N. Shinde


The study of dielectric relaxation properties of polar liquids in the binary mixture has been carried out at 10, 15, 20 and 25 ºC temperatures for 11 different concentrations using time domain reflectometry technique. The dielectric properties of a solute-solvent mixture of polar liquids in the frequency range of 10 MHz to 30 GHz gives the information regarding formation of monomers and multimers and also an interaction between the molecules of the liquid mixture under study. The dielectric parameters have been obtained by the least squares fit method using the Debye equation characterized by a single relaxation time without relaxation time distribution.

Keywords: excess properties, relaxation time, static dielectric constant, and time domain reflectometry technique

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7326 Dielectric Properties of MWCNT-Muscovite/Epoxy Hybrid Composites

Authors: Nur Suraya Anis Ahmad Bakhtiar, Hazizan Md Akil


In the present work, the dielectric properties of Epoxy/MWCNTs-muscovite HYBRID and MIXED composites based on ratio 30:70 were studies. The multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were prepared by two method; (a) muscovite-MWCNTs hybrids were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and (b) physically mixing of muscovite with MWCNTs. The effect of different preparations of the composites and filler loading was evaluated. It is revealed that the dielectric constants of HYBRID epoxy composites are slightly higher compared to MIXED epoxy composites. It is also indicated that the dielectric constant increased by increases the MWCNTs filler loading.

Keywords: muscovite, epoxy, dielectric properties, hybrid composite

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7325 Piezoelectric and Dielectric Properties of Poly(Vinylideneflouride-Hexafluoropropylene)/ZnO Nanocomposites

Authors: P. Hemalatha, Deepalekshmi Ponnamma, Mariam Al Ali Al-Maadeed


The Poly(vinylideneflouride-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP)/ zinc oxide (ZnO) nanocomposites films were successfully prepared by mixing the fine ZnO particles into PVDF-HFP solution followed by film casting and sandwich techniques. Zinc oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrothermal method. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the structure and properties of the obtained nanocomposites. The dielectric properties of the PVDF-HFP/ZnO nanocomposites were analyzed in detail. In comparison with pure PVDF-HFP, the dielectric constant of the nanocomposite (1wt% ZnO) was significantly improved. The piezoelectric co-efficients of the nanocomposites films were measured. Experimental results revealed the influence of filler on the properties of PVDF-HFP and enhancement in the output performance and dielectric properties reflects the ability for energy storage capabilities.

Keywords: dielectric constant, hydrothermal, nanoflowers, organic compounds

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
7324 Dielectric Properties of La2MoO6 Ceramics at Microwave Frequency

Authors: Yih-Chien Chen, Yu-Cheng You


The microwave dielectric properties of La2MoO6 ceramics were investigated with a view to their application in mobile communication. La2MoO6 ceramics were prepared by the conventional solid-state method with various sintering conditions. The X-ray diffraction peaks of La2MoO6 ceramic did not vary significantly with sintering conditions. The average grain size of La2MoO6 ceramics increased as the temperature and time of sintering increased. A maximum density of 5.67 g/cm3, a dielectric constants (εr) of 14.1, a quality factor (Q×f) of 68,000 GHz, and a temperature coefficient of resonant frequency (τf) of -56 ppm/℃ were obtained when La2MoO6 ceramics that were sintered at 1300 ℃ for 4h.

Keywords: ceramics, sintering, microwave dielectric properties, La2MoO6

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7323 Dependence of Dielectric Properties on Sintering Conditions of Lead Free KNN Ceramics Modified With Li-Sb

Authors: Roopam Gaur, K. Chandramani Singh, Radhapiyari Laishram


In order to produce lead free piezoceramics with optimum piezoelectric and dielectric properties, KNN modified with Li+ (as an A site dopant) and Sb5+ (as a B site dopant) (K0.49Na0.49Li0.02) (Nb0.96Sb0.04) O3 (referred as KNLNS in this paper) have been synthesized using solid state reaction method and conventional sintering technique. The ceramics were sintered in the narrow range of 10500C-10900C for 2-3 hours to get precise information about sintering parameters. Detailed study of dependence of microstructural, dielectric and piezoelectric properties on sintering conditions was then carried out. The study suggests that the volatility of the highly hygroscopic KNN ceramics is not only sensitive to sintering temperatures but also to sintering durations. By merely reducing the sintering duration for a given sintering temperature we saw an increase in the density of the samples which was supported by the increase in dielectric constants of the ceramics. And since density directly or indirectly affects almost all the associated properties, other dielectric and piezoelectric properties were also enhanced as we approached towards the most suitable sintering temperature and duration combination.

Keywords: piezoelectric, dielectric, Li, Sb, KNN, conventional sintering

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7322 Electrical and Magnetic Properties of Neodymium and Erbium Doped Bismuth Ferrite Multifunctional Materials for Spintronic Devices

Authors: Ravinder Dachepalli, Naveena Gadwala, K. Vani


Nd and Er substituted bismuth nano crystalline multifunctional materials were prepared by citrate gel autocombution technique. The structural characterization was carried out by XRD and SEM. Electrical properties such are electrical conductivity and dielectric properties have been measured. Plots of electrical conductivity versus temperature increases with increasing temperature and shown a transition near Curie temperature. Dielectric properties such are dielectric constant and dielectric loss tangent have been measured from 20Hz to 2 MHz at room temperature. Plots of dielectric constant versus frequency show a normal dielectric behaviour of multifunctional materials. Temperature dependence of magnetic properties of Bi-Nd and Bi-Er multi-functional materials were carried out by using Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The magnetization as a function of an applied field ±100 Oe was carried out at 3K and 360 K. Zero field Cooled (ZFC) and Field Cooled (FC) magnetization measurements under an applied field of 100Oe a in the temperature range of 5-375K. The observed results can be explained for spintronic devices.

Keywords: Bi-Nd and Bi-Er Multifunctional Materia, Citrate Gel Auto combustion Technique, FC-ZFC magnetization, Dielectric constant

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7321 Effects of Water Content on Dielectric Properties of Mineral Transformer Oil

Authors: Suwarno, M. Helmi Prakoso


Mineral oil is commonly used for high voltage transformer insulation. The insulation quality of mineral oil is affecting the operation process of high voltage transformer. There are many contaminations which could decrease the insulation quality of mineral oil. One of them is water. This research talks about the effect of water content on dielectric properties, physic properties, and partial discharge pattern on mineral oil. Samples were varied with 10 varieties of water content value. And then all samples were tested to measure the dielectric properties, physic properties, and partial discharge pattern. The result of this research showed that an increment of water content value would decrease the insulation quality of mineral oil.

Keywords: dielectric properties, high voltage transformer, mineral oil, water content

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7320 Greatly Improved Dielectric Properties of Poly'vinylidene fluoride' Nanocomposites Using Ag-BaTiO₃ Hybrid Nanoparticles as Filler

Authors: K. Silakaew, P. Thongbai


There is an increasing need for high–permittivity polymer–matrix composites (PMC) owing to the rapid development of the electronics industry. Unfortunately, the dielectric permittivity of PMC is still too low ( < 80). Moreover, the dielectric loss tangent is usually high (tan > 0.1) when the dielectric permittivity of PMC increased. In this research work, the dielectric properties of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF)–based nanocomposites can be significantly improved by incorporating by silver–BaTiO3 (Ag–BT) ceramic hybrid nanoparticles. The Ag–BT/PVDF nanocomposites were fabricated using various volume fractions of Ag–BT hybrid nanoparticles (fAg–BT = 0–0.5). The Ag–BT/PVDF nanocomposites were characterized using several techniques. The main phase of Ag and BT can be detected by the XRD technique. The microstructure of the Ag–BT/PVDF nanocomposites was investigated to reveal the dispersion of Ag–BT hybrid nanoparticles because the dispersion state of a filler can have an effect on the dielectric properties of the nanocomposites. It was found that the filler hybrid nanoparticles were well dispersed in the PVDF matrix. The phase formation of PVDF phases was identified using the XRD and FTIR techniques. We found that the fillers can increase the polar phase of a PVDF polymer. The fabricated Ag–BT/PVDF nanocomposites are systematically characterized to explain the dielectric behavior in Ag–BT/PVDF nanocomposites. Interestingly, largely enhanced dielectric permittivity (>240) and suppressed loss tangent (tan<0.08) over a wide frequency range (102 – 105 Hz) are obtained. Notably, the dielectric permittivity is slightly dependent on temperature. The greatly enhanced dielectric permittivity was explained by the interfacial polarization between the Ag and PVDF interface, and due to a high permittivity of BT particles.

Keywords: BaTiO3, PVDF, polymer composite, dielectric properties

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7319 Overview of the Various Factors Affecting the Properties of Microwave and Millimeterwave Dielectric Ceramics

Authors: Abdul Manan


Dielectric Resonators (DRs) have revolutionized the microwave wireless communication industry globally. There are three directions for research in ceramics for application in telecommunication industry Three key properties of ceramic dielectrics that determine their functionality at microwave and millimetrewave frequencies include relative permittivity (εr), unloaded quality factor Qu- the inverse of the dielectric loss (tanδ) and temperature coefficient of resonant frequency (τf). Each direction requires specific properties. These dielectric properties are affected by a number of factors. These includes tolerance factor, onset of structural phase transitions, dark core formation, processing conditions, raw materials and impurities, order/disorder behavior, compositional ordering, porosity, humidity, grain size, orientation of the crystallites, and grain boundaries. The data related to these factors is scattered. The main purpose of this review is to bring these together and present the effects of these factors on the microwave dielectric properties. Control of these factors is important for improvement in the microwave properties. This review would be very helpful to the novice researchers and technologists in the field.

Keywords: order disorder, sintering, defect, porosity, grain boundaries

Procedia PDF Downloads 257
7318 Structural Properties of Polar Liquids in Binary Mixture Using Microwave Technique

Authors: Shagufta Tabassum, V. P. Pawar


The study of static dielectric properties in a binary mixture of 1,2 dichloroethane (DE) and n,n dimethylformamide (DMF) polar liquids has been carried out in the frequency range of 10 MHz to 30 GHz for 11 different concentration using time domain reflectometry technique at 10ºC temperature. The dielectric relaxation study of solute-solvent mixture at microwave frequencies gives information regarding the creation of monomers and multimers as well as interaction between the molecules of the binary mixture. The least squares fit method is used to determine the values of dielectric parameters such as static dielectric constant (ε0), dielectric constant at high frequency (ε) and relaxation time (τ).

Keywords: shagufta shaikhexcess parameters, relaxation time, static dielectric constant, time domain reflectometry

Procedia PDF Downloads 147
7317 Structural and Electrical Characterization of Polypyrrole and Cobalt Aluminum Oxide Nanocomposites

Authors: Sutar Rani Ananda, M. V. Murugendrappa


To investigate electrical properties of conducting polypyrrole (PPy) and cobalt aluminum oxide (CAO) nanocomposites, impedance analyzer in frequency range of 100 Hz to 5 MHz is used. In this work, PPy/CAO nanocomposites were synthesized by chemical oxidation polymerization method in different weight percent of CAO in PPy. The dielectric properties and AC conductivity studies were carried out for different nanocomposites in temperature range of room temperature to 180 °C. With the increase in frequency, the dielectric constant for all the nanocomposites was observed to decrease. AC conductivity of PPy was improved by addition of CAO nanopowder.

Keywords: polypyrrole, dielectric constant, dielectric loss, AC conductivity

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7316 Ultra-Low Loss Dielectric Properties of (Mg1-xNix)2(Ti0.95Sn0.05)O4 Microwave Ceramics

Authors: Bing-Jing Li, Sih-Yin Wang, Tse-Chun Yeh, Yuan-Bin Chen


Microwave dielectric ceramic materials of (Mg1-xNix)2(Ti0.95Sn0.05)O4 for x = 0.01, 0.03, 0.05, 0.07 and 0.09 were prepared and sintered at 1250–1400ºC. The microstructure and microwave dielectric properties of the ceramic materials were examined and measured. The observations shows that the content of Ni2+ ions has little effect on the crystal structure, dielectric constant, temperature coefficient of resonant frequency (τf) and sintering temperatures of the ceramics. However, the quality values (Q×f) are greatly improved due to the addition of Ni2+ ions. The present study showed that the ceramic material prepared for x = 0.05 and sintered at 1325ºC had the best Q×f value of 392,000 GHz, about 23% improvement compared with that of Mg2(Ti0.95Sn0.05)O4.

Keywords: (Mg1-xNix)2(Ti0.95Sn0.05)O4, microwave dielectric ceramics, high quality factor, high frequency wireless communication

Procedia PDF Downloads 359
7315 Optical and Dielectric Properties of Self-Assembled 0D Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Insulator

Authors: S. Kassou, R. El Mrabet, A. Belaaraj, P. Guionneau, N. Hadi, T. Lamcharfi


The organic–inorganic hybrid perovskite-like [C6H5C2H4NH3]2ZnCl4 (PEA-ZnCl4) was synthesized by saturated solutions method. X-ray powder diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, UV-visible transmittance, and capacitance meter measurements have been used to characterize the structure, the functional groups, the optical parameters, and the dielectric constants of the material. The material has a layered structure. The optical transmittance (T %) was recorded and applied to deduce the absorption coefficient (α) and optical band gap (Eg). The hybrid shows an insulator character with a direct band gap about 4.46 eV, and presents high dielectric constants up to a frequency of about 105 Hz, which suggests a ferroelectric behavior. The reported optical and dielectric properties can help to understand the fundamental properties of perovskite materials and also to be used for optimizing or designing new devices.

Keywords: dielectric constants, optical band gap (eg), optical parameters, Raman spectroscopy, self-assembly organic inorganic hybrid

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7314 Dielectric and Impedance Spectroscopy of Samarium and Lanthanum Doped Barium Titanate at Room Temperature

Authors: Sukhleen Bindra Narang, Dalveer Kaur, Kunal Pubby


Dielectric ceramic samples in the BaO-Re2O3-TiO2 ternary system were synthesized with structural formula Ba2-xRe4+2x/3Ti8O24 where Re= rare earth metal and Re= Sm and La where x varies from 0.0 to 0.6 with step size 0.1. Polycrystalline samples were prepared by the conventional solid state reaction technique. The dielectric, electrical and impedance analysis of all the samples in the frequency range 1KHz- 1MHz at room temperature (25°C) have been done to get the understanding of electrical conduction and dielectric relaxation and their correlation. Dielectric response of the samples at lower frequencies shows dielectric dispersion while at higher frequencies it shows dielectric relaxation. The ac conductivity is well fitted by the Jonscher law (σac = σdc+Aωn). The spectroscopic data in the impedance plane confirms the existence of grain contribution to the relaxation. All the properties are found out to be function of frequency as well as the amount of substitution.

Keywords: dielectric ceramics, dielectric constant, loss tangent, AC conductivity, impedance spectroscopy

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7313 Polyvinylidene Fluoride-Polyaniline Films for Improved Dielectric Properties

Authors: Anjana Jain, S. Jayanth Kumar


Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) is a well-known material for remarkable mechanical properties, resistance to chemicals and superior ferroelectric performances. This endows PVDF the potential for application in supercapacitor devices. The dielectric properties of PVDF, however, are not very high. To improve the dielectric properties of Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), Piezoelectric polymer nanocomposites are prepared without affecting the other useful properties of PVDF. Polyaniline (PANI) was chosen as a filler material to prepare the nanocomposites. PVDF-PANI nanocomposite films were prepared using solvent cast method with different volume fractions of PANI varying from 0.04% to 0.048% of PANI content. The films are characterized for structural, mechanical, and surface morphological properties using X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimeter, Raman spectra, Infrared spectra, tensile testing, and scanning electron microscopy. The X-ray diffraction analysis shows that, prepared films were in β-phase. The DSC scans indicated that the degree of crystallinity in PVDF-PANI is improved. Raman and Infrared spectrum further confirm the presence of β-phase of PVDF-PANI film. Tensile properties of PVDF-PANI films were in good agreement with those reported in literature. The surface feature shows that PANI is uniformly distributed in PVDF and also results in disappearance of spherulites. The influence of volume fraction of PANI in PVDF on dielectric properties was analyzed. The results showed that the dielectric permittivity of PVDF-PANI (120) was much higher than that of PVDF (12). The sensitivity of these films was studied on application of a pressure and a constant output voltage was obtained.

Keywords: dielectric Properties, PANI, PVDF, smart materials

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7312 A Computational Diagnostics for Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma

Authors: Zainab D. Abd Ali, Thamir H. Khalaf


In this paper, the characteristics of electric discharge in gap between two (parallel-plate) dielectric plates are studies, the gap filled with Argon gas in atm pressure at ambient temperature, the thickness of gap typically less than 1 mm and dielectric may be up 10 cm in diameter. One of dielectric plates a sinusoidal voltage is applied with Rf frequency, the other plates is electrically grounded. The simulation in this work depending on Boltzmann equation solver in first few moments, fluid model and plasma chemistry, in one dimensional modeling. This modeling have insight into characteristics of Dielectric Barrier Discharge through studying properties of breakdown of gas, electric field, electric potential, and calculating electron density, mean electron energy, electron current density ,ion current density, total plasma current density. The investigation also include: 1. The influence of change in thickness of gap between two plates if we doubled or reduced gap to half. 2. The effect of thickness of dielectric plates. 3. The influence of change in type and properties of dielectric material (gass, silicon, Teflon).

Keywords: computational diagnostics, Boltzmann equation, electric discharge, electron density

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7311 Dielectric Behavior of 2D Layered Insulator Hexagonal Boron Nitride

Authors: Nikhil Jain, Yang Xu, Bin Yu


Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) has been used as a substrate and gate dielectric for graphene field effect transistors (GFETs). Using a graphene/h-BN/TiN (channel/dielectric/gate) stack, key material properties of h-BN were investigated i.e. dielectric strength and tunneling behavior. Work function difference between graphene and TiN results in spontaneous p-doping of graphene through a multi-layer h-BN flake. However, at high levels of current stress, n-doping of graphene is observed, possibly due to the charge transfer across the thin h-BN multi layer. Neither Direct Tunneling (DT) nor Fowler-Nordheim Tunneling (FNT) was observed in TiN/h-BN/Au hetero structures with h-BN showing two distinct volatile conduction states before breakdown. Hexagonal boron nitride emerges as a material of choice for gate dielectrics in GFETs because of robust dielectric properties and high tunneling barrier.

Keywords: graphene, transistors, conduction, hexagonal boron nitride, dielectric strength, tunneling

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
7310 High Efficiency Electrolyte Lithium Battery and RF Characterization

Authors: Wei Quan, Liu Chao, Mohammed N. Afsar


The dielectric properties and ionic conductivity of novel "ceramic state" polymer electrolytes for high capacity lithium battery are characterized by radio-frequency and Microwave methods in two broad frequency ranges from 50 Hz to 20 KHz and 4 GHz to 40 GHz. This innovative solid polymer electrolyte which is highly ionic conductive (10-3 S/cm at room temperature) from -40 oC to +150 oC and can be used in any battery application. Such polymer exhibits properties more like a ceramic rather than polymer. The various applied measurement methods produced accurate dielectric results for comprehensive analysis of electrochemical properties and ion transportation mechanism of this newly invented polymer electrolyte. Two techniques and instruments employing air gap measurement by capacitance bridge and inwave guide measurement by vector network analyzer are applied to measure the complex dielectric spectra. The complex dielectric spectra are used to determine the complex alternating current electrical conductivity and thus the ionic conductivity.

Keywords: polymer electrolyte, dielectric permittivity, lithium battery, ionic relaxation, microwave measurement

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7309 Dielectric Properties of Thalium Selenide Thin Films at Radio Wave Frequencies

Authors: Onur Potok, Deniz Deger, Kemal Ulutas, Sahin Yakut, Deniz Bozoglu


Thalium Selenide (TlSe) is used for optoelectronic devices, pressure sensitive detectors, and gamma-ray detectors. The TlSe samples were grown as large single crystals using the Stockbarger-Bridgman method. The thin films, in the form of Al/TlSe/Al, were deposited on the microscope slide in different thicknesses (300-3000 Å) using thermal evaporation technique at 10-5 Torr. The dielectric properties of (TlSe) thin films, capacitance (C) and dielectric loss factor (tanδ), were measured in a frequency range of 10-105 Hz, and temperatures between 213K and 393K via Broadband Dielectric Spectroscopy analyzer. The dielectric constant (ε’) and the dielectric loss (ε’’) of the thin films were derived from measured parameters (C and tanδ). These results showed that the dielectric properties of TlSe thin films are frequency and temperature dependent. The capacitance and the dielectric constant decrease with increasing frequency and decreasing temperature. The dielectric loss of TlSe thin films decreases with increasing frequency, on the other hand, they increase with increasing temperature and increasing thicknesses. There is two relaxation region in the investigated frequency and temperature interval. These regions can be called as low and high-frequency dispersion regions. Low-frequency dispersion region can be attributed to the polarization of the main part of the chain structure of TlSe while high-frequency dispersion region can be attributed to the polarization of side parts of the structure.

Keywords: thin films, thallium selenide, dielectric spectroscopy, binary compounds

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7308 Influence of Annealing Temperature on Optical, Anticandidal, Photocatalytic and Dielectric Properties of ZnO/TiO2 Nanocomposites

Authors: Wasi Khan, Suboohi Shervani, Swaleha Naseem, Mohd. Shoeb, J. A. Khan, B. R. Singh, A. H. Naqvi


We have successfully synthesized ZnO/TiO2 nanocomposite using a two-step solochemical synthesis method. The influence of annealing temperature on microstructural, optical, anticandidal, photocatalytic activities and dielectric properties were investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) show the formation of nanocomposite and uniform surface morphology of all samples. The UV-Vis spectra indicate decrease in band gap energy with increase in annealing temperature. The anticandidal activity of ZnO/TiO2 nanocomposite was evaluated against MDR C. albicans 077. The in-vitro killing assay revealed that the ZnO/TiO2 nanocomposite efficiently inhibit the growth of the C. albicans 077. The nanocomposite also exhibited the photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methyl orange as a function of time at 465 nm wavelength. The electrical behaviour of composite has been studied over a wide range of frequencies at room temperature using complex impedance spectroscopy. The dielectric constants, dielectric loss and ac conductivity (σac) were studied as the function of frequency, which have been explained by ‘Maxwell Wagner Model’. The data reveals that the dielectric constant and loss (tanδ) exhibit the normal dielectric behavior and decreases with the increase in frequency.

Keywords: ZnO/TiO2 nanocomposites, SEM, photocatalytic activity, dielectric properties

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7307 Microwave Dielectric Relaxation Study of Diethanolamine with Triethanolamine from 10 MHz-20 GHz

Authors: A. V. Patil


The microwave dielectric relaxation study of diethanolamine with triethanolamine binary mixture have been determined over the frequency range of 10 MHz to 20 GHz, at various temperatures using time domain reflectometry (TDR) method for 11 concentrations of the system. The present work reveals molecular interaction between same multi-functional groups [−OH and –NH2] of the alkanolamines (diethanolamine and triethanolamine) using different models such as Debye model, Excess model, and Kirkwood model. The dielectric parameters viz. static dielectric constant (ε0) and relaxation time (τ) have been obtained with Debye equation characterized by a single relaxation time without relaxation time distribution by the least squares fit method.

Keywords: diethanolamine, excess properties, kirkwood properties, time domain reflectometry, triethanolamine

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7306 Theoretical Analysis of the Optical and Solid State Properties of Thin Film

Authors: E. I. Ugwu


Theoretical analysis of the optical and Solid State properties of ZnS thin film using beam propagation technique in which a scalar wave is propagated through the material thin film deposited on a substrate with the assumption that the dielectric medium is section into a homogenous reference dielectric constant term, and a perturbed dielectric term, representing the deposited thin film medium is presented in this work. These two terms, constitute arbitrary complex dielectric function that describes dielectric perturbation imposed by the medium of for the system. This is substituted into a defined scalar wave equation in which the appropriate Green’s Function was defined on it and solved using series technique. The green’s value obtained from Green’s Function was used in Dyson’s and Lippmann Schwinger equations in conjunction with Born approximation method in computing the propagated field for different input regions of field wavelength during which the influence of the dielectric constants and mesh size of the thin film on the propagating field were depicted. The results obtained from the computed field were used in turn to generate the data that were used to compute the band gaps, solid state and optical properties of the thin film such as reflectance, Transmittance and reflectance with which the band gap obtained was found to be in close approximate to that of experimental value.

Keywords: scalar wave, optical and solid state properties, thin film, dielectric medium, perturbation, Lippmann Schwinger equations, Green’s Function, propagation

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7305 Structural, Magnetic, Dielectric, and Electrical Properties of ZnFe2O4 Nanoparticles

Authors: Raghvendra Singh Yadav, Ivo Kuřitka, Jarmila Vilcakova, Pavel Urbanek, Michal Machovsky, Milan Masař, Martin Holek


ZnFe2O4 spinel ferrite nanoparticles were synthesized by sol-gel auto-combustion method. The synthesized spinel ferrite nanoparticles were annealed at different higher temperature to achieve different size nanoparticles. The as synthesized and annealed samples were characterized by powder X-ray Diffraction Spectroscopy, Raman Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, UV-Vis absorption Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy. The magnetic properties were studied by vibrating sample magnetometer. The variation in magnetic parameters was noticed with variation in grain size. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss with variation of frequency shows normal behaviour of spinel ferrite. The variation in conductivity with variation in grain size is noticed. Modulus and Impedance Spectroscopy shows the role of grain and grain boundary on the electrical resistance and capacitance of different grain sized spinel ferrite nanoparticles. Acknowledgment: This work was supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic – Program NPU I (LO1504).

Keywords: spinel ferrite, nanoparticles, magnetic properties, dielectric properties

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7304 Influence of La³⁺ on Structural, Magnetic, Optical and Dielectric Properties in CoFe₂O₄ Nanoparticles Synthesized by Starch-Assisted Sol-Gel Combustion Method

Authors: Raghvendra Singh Yadav, Ivo Kuřitka, Jarmila Vilcakova, Pavel Urbánek, Michal Machovsky, Milan Masař, Martin Holek


Herein, we reported the influence of La³⁺ substitution on structural, magnetic and dielectric properties of CoFe₂O₄ nanoparticles synthesized by starch-assisted sol-gel combustion method. X-ray diffraction pattern confirmed the formation of cubic spinel structure of La³⁺ ions doped CoFe₂O₄ nanoparticles. Raman and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy study also confirmed cubic spinel structure of La³⁺ substituted CoFe₂O₄ nanoparticles. The field emission scanning electron microscopy study revealed that La³⁺ substituted CoFe2O4 nanoparticles were in the range of 10-40 nm. The magnetic properties of La³⁺ substituted CoFe₂O₄ nanoparticles were investigated by using vibrating sample magnetometer. The variation in saturation magnetization, coercivity and remanent magnetization with La³⁺ concentration in CoFe2O4 nanoparticles was observed. The variation of real and imaginary part of dielectric constant, tan δ, and AC conductivity were studied with change of concentration of La³⁺ ions in CoFe₂O₄ nanoparticles. The variation in optical properties was studied via UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. Acknowledgment: This work was supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic – Program NPU I (LO1504).

Keywords: starch, sol-gel combustion method, nanoparticles, magnetic properties, dielectric properties

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7303 Review of Dielectric Permittivity Measurement Techniques

Authors: Ahmad H. Abdelgwad, Galal E. Nadim, Tarek M. Said, Amr M. Gody


The prime objective of this manuscript is to provide intensive review of the techniques used for permittivity measurements. The measurement techniques, relevant for any desired application, rely on the nature of the measured dielectric material, both electrically and physically, the degree of accuracy required, and the frequency of interest. Regardless of the way that distinctive sorts of instruments can be utilized, measuring devices that provide reliable determinations of the required electrical properties including the obscure material in the frequency range of interest can be considered. The challenge in making precise dielectric property or permittivity measurements is in designing of the material specimen holder for those measurements (RF and MW frequency ranges) and adequately modeling the circuit for reliable computation of the permittivity from the electrical measurements. If the RF circuit parameters such as the impedance or admittance are estimated appropriately at a certain frequency, the material’s permittivity at this frequency can be estimated by the equations which relate the way in which the dielectric properties of the material affect on the parameters of the circuit.

Keywords: dielectric permittivity, free space measurement, waveguide techniques, coaxial probe, cavity resonator

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7302 Microwave Dielectric Properties and Microstructures of Nd(Ti₀.₅W₀.₅)O₄ Ceramics for Application in Wireless Gas Sensors

Authors: Yih-Chien Chen, Yue-Xuan Du, Min-Zhe Weng


Carbon monoxide is a substance produced by the incomplete combustion. It is toxic even at concentrations of less than 100ppm. Since it is colorless and odorless, it is difficult to detect. CO sensors have been developed using a variety of physical mechanisms, including semiconductor oxides, solid electrolytes, and organic semiconductors. Many works have focused on using semiconducting sensors composed of sensitive layers such as ZnO, TiO₂, and NiO with high sensitivity for gases. However, these sensors working at high temperatures increased their power consumption. On the other hand, the dielectric resonator (DR) is attractive for gas detection due to its large surface area and sensitivity for external environments. Materials that are to be employed in sensing devices must have a high-quality factor. Numerous researches into the fergusonite-type structure and related ceramic systems have explored. Extensive research into RENbO₄ ceramics has explored their potential application in resonators, filters, and antennas in modern communication systems, which are operated at microwave frequencies. Nd(Ti₀.₅W₀.₅)O₄ ceramics were synthesized herein using the conventional mixed-oxide method. The Nd(Ti₀.₅W₀.₅)O₄ ceramics were prepared using the conventional solid-state method. Dielectric constants (εᵣ) of 15.4-19.4 and quality factor (Q×f) of 3,600-11,100 GHz were obtained at sintering temperatures in the range 1425-1525°C for 4 h. The dielectric properties of the Nd(Ti₀.₅W₀.₅)O₄ ceramics at microwave frequencies were found to vary with the sintering temperature. For a further understanding of these microwave dielectric properties, they were analyzed by densification, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and by making microstructural observations.

Keywords: dielectric constant, dielectric resonators, sensors, quality factor

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7301 Enhanced Dielectric Properties of La Substituted CoFe2O4 Magnetic Nanoparticles

Authors: M. Vadivel, R. Ramesh Babu


Spinel ferrite magnetic nanomaterials have received a great deal of attention in recent years due to their wide range of potential applications in various fields such as magnetic data storage and microwave device applications. Among the family of spinel ferrites, cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) has been widely used in the field of high-frequency applications because of its remarkable material qualities such as moderate saturation magnetization, high coercivity, large permeability at higher frequency and high electrical resistivity. For aforementioned applications, the materials should have an improved electrical property, especially enhancement in the dielectric properties. It is well known that the substitution of rare earth metal cations in Fe3+ site of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles leads to structural distortion and thus significantly influences the structural and morphological properties whereas greatly modifies the electrical and magnetic properties of a material. In the present investigation, we report on the influence of lanthanum (La3+) ion substitution on the structural, morphological, dielectric and magnetic properties of CoFe2O4 magnetic nanoparticles prepared by co-precipitation method. Powder X-ray diffraction patterns reveal the formation of inverse cubic spinel structure with the signature of LaFeO3 phase at higher La3+ ion concentrations. Raman and Fourier transform infrared spectral analysis also confirms the formation of inverse cubic spinel structure and Fe-O symmetrical stretching vibrations of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy study reveals that the size of the particles gradually increases with increasing La3+ ion concentrations whereas the agglomeration gets slightly reduced for La3+ ion substituted CoFe2O4 nanoparticles than that of undoped CoFe2O4 nanoparticles. Dielectric properties such as dielectric constant and dielectric loss were recorded as a function of frequency and temperature which reveals that the dielectric constant gradually increases with increasing temperatures as well as La3+ ion concentrations. The increased dielectric constant might be the reason that the formation of LaFeO3 secondary phase at higher La3+ ion concentrations. Magnetic measurement demonstrates that the saturation magnetization gradually decreases from 61.45 to 25.13 emu/g with increasing La3+ ion concentrations which is due to the nonmagnetic nature of La3+ ions substitution.

Keywords: cobalt ferrite, co-precipitation, dielectric properties, saturation magnetization

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7300 Electrostatic and Dielectric Measurements for Hair Building Fibers from DC to Microwave Frequencies

Authors: K. Y. You, Y. L. Then


In the recent years, the hair building fiber has become popular, in other words, it is an effective method which helps people who suffer hair loss or sparse hair since the hair building fiber is capable to create a natural look of simulated hair rapidly. In the markets, there are a lot of hair fiber brands that have been designed to formulate an intense bond with hair strands and make the hair appear more voluminous instantly. However, those products have their own set of properties. Thus, in this report, some measurement techniques are proposed to identify those products. Up to five different brands of hair fiber are tested. The electrostatic and dielectric properties of the hair fibers are macroscopically tested using design DC and high-frequency microwave techniques. Besides, the hair fibers are microscopically analysis by magnifying the structures of the fiber using scanning electron microscope (SEM). From the SEM photos, the comparison of the uniformly shaped and broken rate of the hair fibers in the different bulk samples can be observed respectively.

Keywords: hair fiber, electrostatic, dielectric properties, broken rate, microwave techniques

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7299 Structural and Electromagnetic Properties of CoFe2O4-ZrO2 Nanocomosites

Authors: Ravinder Reddy Butreddy, Sadhana Katlakunta


The nanocomposites of CoFe2O4-xZrO2 with different loadings of ZrO2 (x = 0.025, 0.05, 0.075, 0.1 and 1.5) were prepared using ball mill method. All the samples were prepared at 980°C/1h using microwave sintering method. The x-ray diffraction patterns show the existence of tetragonal/monoclinic phase of ZrO2 and cubic phase of CoFe2O4. The effects of ZrO2 on structural and microstructural properties of CoFe2O4 composite ceramics were investigated. It is observed that the density of the composite decreases and porosity increases with x. The magnetic properties such as saturation magnetization (Ms), and Coercive field were calculated at room temperature. The Ms is decreased with x while coercive field is increased with x. The dielectric parameters exhibit the relaxation behavior in high-frequency region and showing increasing trend with ZrO2 concentration, showing suitable

Keywords: dielectric properties, magnetic properties, microwave sintering, nanocomposites

Procedia PDF Downloads 152