Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2828

Search results for: granular activated carbon

2828 Efficiency of Modified Granular Activated Carbon Coupled with Membrane Bioreactor for Trace Organic Contaminants Removal

Authors: Mousaab Alrhmoun, Magali Casellas, Michel Baudu, Christophe Dagot

Abstract:

The aim of the study is to improve removal of trace organic contaminants dissolved in activated sludge by the process of filtration with membrane bioreactor combined with modified activated carbon, for a maximum removal of organic compounds characterized by low molecular weight. Special treatment was conducted in laboratory on activated carbon. Tow reaction parameters: The pH of aqueous middle and the type of granular activated carbon were very important to improve the removal and to motivate the electrostatic Interactions of organic compounds with modified activated carbon in addition to physical adsorption, ligand exchange or complexation on the surface activated carbon. The results indicate that modified activated carbon has a strong impact in removal 21 of organic contaminants and in percentage of 100% of the process.

Keywords: activated carbon, organic micropolluants, membrane bioreactor, carbon

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2827 Isotherm Study for Phenol Removal onto GAC

Authors: Lallan Singh Yadav, Bijay Kumar Mishra, Manoj Kumar Mahapatra, Arvind Kumar

Abstract:

Adsorption data for phenol removal onto granular activated carbon were fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The adsorption capacity of phenol was estimated to be 16.12 mg/g at initial pH=5.7. The thermodynamics of adsorption process has also been determined in the present work.

Keywords: adsorption, phenol, granular activated carbon, bioinformatics, biomedicine

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2826 Synthesis and Characterization of Green Coke-Derived Activated Carbon by KOH Activation

Authors: Richard, Iyan Subiyanto, Chairul Hudaya

Abstract:

Activated carbon has been playing a significant role for many applications, especially in energy storage devices. However, commercially activated carbons generally require complicated processes and high production costs. Therefore, in this study, an activated carbon originating from green coke waste, that is economically affordable will be used as a carbon source. To synthesize activated carbon, KOH as an activator was employed with variation of C:KOH in ratio of 1:2, 1:3, 1:4, and 1:5, respectively, with an activation temperature of 700°C. The characterizations of activated carbon are obtained from Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive X-Ray, Raman Spectroscopy, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller. The optimal activated carbon sample with specific surface area of 2,024 m²/g with high carbon content ( > 80%) supported by the high porosity carbon image obtained by SEM was prepared at C:KOH ratio of 1:4. The result shows that the synthesized activated carbon would be an ideal choice for energy storage device applications. Therefore, this study is expected to reduce the costs of activated carbon production by expanding the utilization of petroleum waste.

Keywords: activated carbon, energy storage material, green coke, specific surface area

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
2825 Adsorption of Chromium Ions from Aqueous Solution by Carbon Adsorbent

Authors: S. Heydari, H. Sharififard, M. Nabavinia, H. Kiani, M. Parvizi

Abstract:

Rapid industrialization has led to increased disposal of heavy metals into the environment. Activated carbon adsorption has proven to be an effective process for the removal of trace metal contaminants from aqueous media. This paper was investigated chromium adsorption efficiency by commercial activated carbon. The sorption studied as a function of activated carbon particle size, dose of activated carbon and initial pH of solution. Adsorption tests for the effects of these factors were designed with Taguchi approach. According to the Taguchi parameter design methodology, L9 orthogonal array was used. Analysis of experimental results showed that the most influential factor was initial pH of solution. The optimum conditions for chromium adsorption by activated carbons were found to be as follows: Initial feed pH 6, adsorbent particle size 0.412 mm and activated carbon dose 6 g/l. Under these conditions, nearly %100 of chromium ions was adsorbed by activated carbon after 2 hours.

Keywords: chromium, adsorption, Taguchi method, activated carbon

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
2824 Viable Use of Natural Extract Solutions from Tuberous and Cereals to Enhance the Synthesis of Activated Carbon-Graphene Composite

Authors: Pamphile Ndagijimana, Xuejiao Liu, Zhiwei Li, Yin Wang

Abstract:

Enhancing the properties of activated carbon is very imperative for various applications. Indeed, the activated carbon has promising physicochemical properties desired for a considerable number of applications. In this regard, we are proposing an enhanced and green technology for increasing the efficiency and performance of the activated carbon to various applications. The technique poses on the use of natural extracts from tuberous and cereals based-solutions. These solutions showed high potentiality to be used in the synthesis of activated carbon-graphene composite with only 3 mL. The extracted liquid from tuberous sourcing was enough to induce precipitation within a fraction of a minute in contrast to that from cereal sourced. Using these extracts, a synthesis of activated carbon-graphene composite was successful. Different characterization techniques such as XRD, SEM, FTIR, BET, and Raman spectroscopy were performed to investigate the composite materials. The results confirmed a conjugation between activated carbon and graphene material.

Keywords: activated carbon, cereals, extract solution, graphene, tuberous

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2823 The Adsorption of Zinc Metal in Waste Water Using ZnCl2 Activated Pomegranate Peel

Authors: S. N. Turkmen, A. S. Kipcak, N. Tugrul, E. M. Derun, S. Piskin

Abstract:

Activated carbon is an amorphous carbon chain which has extremely extended surface area. High surface area of activated carbon is due to the porous structure. Activated carbon, using a variety of materials such as coal and cellulosic materials; can be obtained by both physical and chemical methods. The prepared activated carbon can be used for decolorize, deodorize and also can be used for removal of organic and non-organic pollution. In this study, pomegranate peel was subjected to 800W microwave power for 1 to 4 minutes. Also fresh pomegranate peel was used for the reference material. Then ZnCl2 was used for the chemical activation purpose. After the activation process, activated pomegranate peels were used for the adsorption of Zn metal (40 ppm) in the waste water. As a result of the adsorption experiments, removal of heavy metals ranged from 89% to 85%.

Keywords: activated carbon, adsorption, chemical activation, microwave, pomegranate peel

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2822 An Efficient Activated Carbon for Copper (II) Adsorption Synthesized from Indian Gooseberry Seed Shells

Authors: Somen Mondal, Subrata Kumar Majumder

Abstract:

Removal of metal pollutants by efficient activated carbon is challenging research in the present-day scenario. In the present study, the characteristic features of an efficient activated carbon (AC) synthesized from Indian gooseberry seed shells for the copper (II) adsorption are reported. A three-step chemical activation method consisting of the impregnation, carbonization and subsequent activation is used to produce the activated carbon. The copper adsorption kinetics and isotherms onto the activated carbon were analyzed. As per present investigation, Indian gooseberry seed shells showed the BET surface area of 1359 m²/g. The maximum adsorptivity of the activated carbon at a pH value of 9.52 was found to be 44.84 mg/g at 30°C. The adsorption process followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model along with the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. This AC could be used as a favorable and cost-effective copper (II) adsorbent in wastewater treatment to remove the metal contaminants.

Keywords: activated carbon, adsorption isotherm, kinetic model, characterization

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2821 Removal of Perchloroethylene, a Common Pollutant, in Groundwater Using Activated Carbon

Authors: Marianne Miguet, Gaël Plantard, Yves Jaeger, Vincent Goetz

Abstract:

The contamination of groundwater is a major concern. A common pollutant, the perchloroethylene, is the target contaminant. Water treatment process as Granular Activated Carbons are very efficient but requires pilot-scale testing to determine the full-scale GAC performance. First, the batch mode was used to get a reliable experimental method to estimate the adsorption capacity of a common volatile compound is settled. The Langmuir model is acceptable to fit the isotherms. Dynamic tests were performed with three columns and different operating conditions. A database of concentration profiles and breakthroughs were obtained. The resolution of the set of differential equations is acceptable to fit the dynamics tests and could be used for a full-scale adsorber.

Keywords: activated carbon, groundwater, perchloroethylene, full-scale

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2820 Effectiveness of Catalysis in Ozonation for the Removal of Herbizide 2,4 Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid from Contaminated Water

Authors: S. Shanthi

Abstract:

Catalyzed oxidation processes show extraordinary guarantee for application in numerous wastewater treatment ranges. Advanced oxidation processes are emerging innovation that might be utilized for particular objectives in wastewater treatment. This research work provides a solution for removal a refractory organic compound 2,4-dichlorophenoxyaceticacid a common water pollutant. All studies were done in batch mode in a constantly stirred reactor. Alternative ozonation processes catalysed by transition metals or granular activated carbon have been investigated for degradation of organics. Catalytic ozonation under study are homogeneous catalytic ozonation, which is based on ozone activation by transition metal ions present in aqueous solution, and secondly as heterogeneous catalytic ozonation in the presence of Granular Activated Carbon (GAC). The present studies reveal that heterogeneous catalytic ozonation using GAC favour the ozonation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyaceticacid by increasing the rate of ozonation and a much higher degradation of substrates were obtained in a given time. Be that it may, Fe2+and Fe3+ ions decreased the rate of degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyaceticacid indicating that it acts as a negative catalyst. In case of heterogeneous catalytic ozonation using GAC catalyst it was found that during the initial 5 minutes of contact solution concentration decreased significantly as the pollutants were adsorbed initially. Thereafter the substrate started getting oxidized and ozonation became a dominates the treatment process. The exhausted GAC was found to be regenerated in situ. The percentage reduction of the substrate was maximum achieved in minimum possible time when GAC catalyst is employed.

Keywords: ozonation, homogeneous catalysis, heterogeneous catalysis, granular activated carbon

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2819 The Adsorption of Perfluorooctanoic Acid on Coconut Shell Activated Carbons

Authors: Premrudee Kanchanapiya, Supachai Songngam, Thanapol Tantisattayakul

Abstract:

Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is one of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) that have increasingly attracted concerns due to their global distribution in environment, persistence, high bioaccumulation, and toxicity. It is important to study the effective treatment to remove PFOA from contaminated water. The feasibility of using commercial coconut shell activated carbon produced in Thailand to remove PFOA from water was investigated with regard to their adsorption kinetics and isotherms of powder activated carbon (PAC-325) and granular activated carbon (GAC-20x50). Adsorption kinetic results show that the adsorbent size significantly affected the adsorption rate of PFOA, and GAC-20x50 required at least 100 h to achieve the equilibrium, much longer than 3 h for PAC-325. Two kinetic models were fitted to the experimental data, and the pseudo-second-order model well described the adsorption of PFOA on both PAC-325 and GAC-20x50. PAC-325 trended to adsorb PFOA faster than GAC-20x50, and testing with the shortest adsorption times (5 min) still yielded substantial PFOA removal (~80% for PAC-325). The adsorption isotherms show that the adsorption capacity of PAC-325 was 0.80 mmol/g, which is 83 % higher than that for GAC-20x50 (0.13 mmol/g), according to the Langmuir fitting.

Keywords: perfluorooctanoic acid, PFOA, coconut shell activated carbons, adsorption, water treatment

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2818 Colour and Curcuminoids Removal from Turmeric Wastewater Using Activated Carbon Adsorption

Authors: Nattawat Thongpraphai, Anusorn Boonpoke

Abstract:

This study aimed to determine the removal of colour and curcuminoids from turmeric wastewater using granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption. The adsorption isotherm and kinetic behavior of colour and curcuminoids was invested using batch and fixed bed columns tests. The results indicated that the removal efficiency of colour and curcuminoids were 80.13 and 78.64%, respectively at 8 hr of equilibrium time. The adsorption isotherm of colour and curcuminoids were well fitted with the Freundlich adsorption model. The maximum adsorption capacity of colour and curcuminoids were 130 Pt-Co/g and 17 mg/g, respectively. The continuous experiment data showed that the exhaustion concentration of colour and curcuminoids occurred at 39 hr of operation time. The adsorption characteristic of colour and curcuminoids from turmeric wastewater by GAC can be described by the Thomas model. The maximum adsorption capacity obtained from kinetic approach were 39954 Pt-Co/g and 0.0516 mg/kg for colour and curcuminoids, respectively. Moreover, the decrease of colour and curcuminoids concentration during the service time showed a similar trend.

Keywords: adsorption, turmeric, colour, curcuminoids, activated carbon

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2817 Adsorption of Paracetamol Using Activated Carbon of Dende and Babassu Coconut Mesocarp

Authors: R. C. Ferreira, H. H. C. De Lima, A. A. Cândido, O. M. Couto Junior, P. A. Arroyo, K. Q De Carvalho, G. F. Gauze, M. A. S. D. Barros

Abstract:

Removal of the widespread used drug paracetamol from water was investigated using activated carbon originated from dende coconut mesocarp and babassu coconut mesocarp. Kinetic and equilibrium data were obtained at different values of pH. Babassu activated carbon showed higher efficiency due to its acidity and higher microporosity. Pseudo-second order model was better adjusted to the kinetic results. Equilibrium data may be represented by Langmuir equation. Lower solution pH provided better removal efficiency as the carbonil groups may be attracted by the positively charged carbon surface.

Keywords: adsorption, activated carbon, babassu, dende

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
2816 The Utilization of Tea Residues for Activated Carbon Preparation

Authors: Jiazhen Zhou, Youcai Zhao

Abstract:

Waste tea is commonly generated in certain areas of China and its utilization has drawn a lot of concern nowadays. In this paper, highly microporous and mesoporous activated carbons were produced from waste tea by physical activation in the presence of water vapor in a tubular furnace. The effect of activation temperature on yield and pore properties of produced activated carbon are studied. The yield decreased with the increase of activation temperature. According to the Nitrogen adsorption isotherms, the micropore and mesopore are both developed in the activated carbon. The specific surface area and the mesopore volume fractions of the activated carbon increased with the raise of activation temperature. The maximum specific surface area attained 756 m²/g produced at activation temperature 900°C. The results showed that the activation temperature had a significant effect on the micro and mesopore volumes as well as the specific surface area.

Keywords: activated carbon, nitrogen adsorption isotherm, physical activation, waste tea

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2815 Comparative Evaluation of Kinetic Model of Chromium and Lead Uptake from Aqueous Solution by Activated Balanitesaegyptiaca Seeds

Authors: Mohammed Umar Manko

Abstract:

A series of batch experiments were conducted in order to investigate the feasibility of Balanitesaegyptiaca seeds based activated carbon as compared with industrial activated carbon for the removal of chromium and lead ions from aqueous solution by the adsorption process within 30 to 150 minutes contact time. The activated samples were prepared using zinc chloride and tetraoxophophate(VI) acid. The results obtained showed that the activated carbon of Balanitesaegyptiaca seeds studied had relatively high adsorption capacities for these heavy metal ions compared with industrial Activated Carbon. The percentage removal of Cr (VI) and lead (II) ions by the three activated carbon samples were 64%, 70% and 71%; 60%, 66% and 60% respectively. Adsorption equilibrium was established in 90 minutes for the heavy metal ions. The equilibrium data fitted the pseudo second order out of the pseudo first, pseudo second, Elovich ,Natarajan and Khalaf models tested. The investigation also showed that the adsorbents can effectively remove metal ions from similar wastewater and aqueous media.

Keywords: activated carbon, pseudo second order, chromium, lead, Elovich model

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2814 Elimination of Phosphorus by Activated Carbon Prepared from Algerian Dates Stones

Authors: A. Kamarchoua, A. A. Bebaa, A. Douadi

Abstract:

The current work has a goal of the preparation of activated carbon from the stones of dates from southern Algeria (El-Oued province) using a simple pyrolysis proceeded by chemical impregnation in sulphuric acid. For the preparation of the carbon, we choose the diameter of the pellets (0.5-1)mm, activation by acid and water (1:1), carbonization at 450˚C. The prepared carbon has the following characteristics: specific surface 125.86 m2/g, methylene blue number 40, CCE = 0.3meq.g/l, IR and micrographics SEM. The activated carbon thus obtained is used at the water purification in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) at Kouinine, El- Oued province, to totally eliminate phosphorus. We analyzed the water at the WWTP before the purification procedure. In this study, we have looked at the effect of the following parameters on the adsorption of carbon: the pH, the contact time (Tc) and the agitation speed (Va). The best conditions for phosphorus adsorption are: pH=4 or pH >5, Tc = 60 min and Va = 900 rotations per minute.

Keywords: activated carbon, date stones, pyrolysis, phosphate pollutants

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2813 Zinc Adsorption Determination of H2SO4 Activated Pomegranate Peel

Authors: S. N. Turkmen Koc, A. S. Kipcak, M. B. Piskin, E. Moroydor Derun, N. Tugrul

Abstract:

Active carbon can be obtained from agricultural sources. Due to the high surface area, the production of activated carbon from cheap resources is very important. Since the surface area of 1 g activated carbon is approximately between 300 and 2000 m2, it can be used to remove both organic and inorganic impurities. In this study, the adsorption of Zn metal was studied with the product of activated carbon, which is obtained from pomegranate peel by microwave and chemical activation methods. The microwave process of pomegranate peel was carried out under constant microwave power of 800 W and 1 to 4 minutes. After the microwave process, samples were treated with H2SO4 for 3 h. Then prepared product was used in synthetic waste water including 40 ppm Zn metal. As a result, removal of waste Zn in waste water ranged from 91% to 93%.

Keywords: activated carbon, chemical activation, H₂SO₄, microwave, pomegranate peel

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2812 Preparation of Activated Carbon from Lignocellulosic Precursor for Dyes Adsorption

Authors: H. Mokaddem, D. Miroud, N. Azouaou, F. Si-Ahmed, Z. Sadaoui

Abstract:

The synthesis and characterization of activated carbon from local lignocellulosic precursor (Algerian alfa) was carried out for the removal of cationic dyes from aqueous solutions. The effect of the production variables such as impregnation chemical agents, impregnation ratio, activation temperature and activation time were investigated. Carbon obtained using the optimum conditions (CaCl2/ 1:1/ 500°C/2H) was characterized by various analytical techniques scanning electron microscopy (SEM), infrared spectroscopic analysis (FTIR) and zero-point-of-charge (pHpzc). Adsorption tests of methylene blue on the optimal activated carbon were conducted. The effects of contact time, amount of adsorbent, initial dye concentration and pH were studied. The adsorption equilibrium examined using Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Redlich–Peterson models reveals that the Langmuir model is most appropriate to describe the adsorption process. The kinetics of MB sorption onto activated carbon follows the pseudo-second order rate expression. The examination of the thermodynamic analysis indicates that the adsorption process is spontaneous (ΔG ° < 0) and endothermic (ΔH ° > 0), the positive value of the standard entropy shows the affinity between the activated carbon and the dye. The present study showed that the produced optimal activated carbon prepared from Algerian alfa is an effective low-cost adsorbent and can be employed as alternative to commercial activated carbon for removal of MB dye from aqueous solution.

Keywords: activated carbon, adsorption, cationic dyes, Algerian alfa

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2811 Magnetic Activated Carbon: Preparation, Characterization, and Application for Vanadium Removal

Authors: Hakimeh Sharififard, Mansooreh Soleimani

Abstract:

In this work, the magnetic activated carbon nanocomposite (Fe-CAC) has been synthesized by anchorage iron hydr(oxide) nanoparticles onto commercial activated carbon (CAC) surface and characterized using BET, XRF, SEM techniques. The influence of various removal parameters such as pH, contact time and initial concentration of vanadium on vanadium removal was evaluated using CAC and Fe-CAC in batch method. The sorption isotherms were studied using Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin–Radushkevich (D–R) isotherm models. These equilibrium data were well described by the Freundlich model. Results showed that CAC had the vanadium adsorption capacity of 37.87 mg/g, while the Fe-AC was able to adsorb 119.01 mg/g of vanadium. Kinetic data was found to confirm pseudo-second-order kinetic model for both adsorbents.

Keywords: magnetic activated carbon, remove, vanadium, nanocomposite, freundlich

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2810 Decoloriation of Rhodamine-B Dye by Pseudomonas putida on Activated Carbon

Authors: U. K. Ghosh, A. Ullhyan

Abstract:

Activated carbon prepared from mustard stalk was applied to decolorize Rhodamine-B dye bearing synthetic wastewater by simple adsorption and simultaneous adsorption and biodegradation (SAB) using Pseudomonas putida MTCC 1194. Results showed that percentage of Rhodamine-B dye removal was 82% for adsorption and 99.3% for SAB at pH 6.5, adsorbent dose 10 g/L and temperature 32ºC.

Keywords: activated carbon, mustard stalk, Rhodamine-B, adsorption, SAB, Pseudomonas putida

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2809 Determination of Chemical and Adsorption Kinetics: An Investigation of a Petrochemical Wastewater Treatment Utilizing GAC

Authors: Leila Vafajoo, Feria Ghanaat, Alireza Mohmadi Kartalaei, Amin Ghalebi

Abstract:

Petrochemical industries are playing an important role in producing wastewaters. Nowadays different methods are employed to treat these materials. The goal of the present research was to reduce the COD of a petrochemical wastewater via adsorption technique using a commercial granular activated carbon (GAC) as adsorbent. In the current study, parameters of kinetic models as well as; adsorption isotherms were determined through utilizing the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The key parameters of KL= 0.0009 and qm= 33.33 for the former and nf=0.5 and Kf= 0.000004 for the latter isotherms resulted. Moreover, a correlation coefficient of above 90% for both cases proved logical use of such isotherms. On the other hand, pseudo-first and -second order kinetics equations were implemented. These resulted in coefficients of k1=0.005 and qe=2018 as well as; K2=0.009 and qe=1250; respectively. In addition, obtaining the correlation coefficients of 0.94 and 0.68 for these 1st and 2nd order kinetics; respectively indicated advantageous use of the former model. Furthermore, a significant experimental reduction of the petrochemical wastewater COD revealed that, using GAC for the process undertaken was an efficient mean of treatment. Ultimately, the current investigation paved down the road for predicting the system’s behavior on industrial scale.

Keywords: petrochemical wastewater, adsorption, granular activated carbon, equilibrium isotherm, kinetic model

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2808 Adsorption Studies of Lead from Aqueos Solutions on Cocount Shell Activated Carbon

Authors: G. E. Sharaf El-Deen, S. E. A. Sharaf El-Deen

Abstract:

Activated carbon was prepared from coconut shell (ACS); a discarded agricultural waste was used to produce bioadsorbent through easy and environmental friendly processes. This activated carbon based biosorbent was evaluated for adsorptive removal of lead from water. The characterisation results showed this biosorbent had very high specific surface area and functional groups. The adsorption equilibrium data was well described by Langmuir, whilst kinetics data by pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order and Intraparticle diffusion models. The adsorption process could be described by the pseudo-second order kinetic.

Keywords: coconut shell, activated carbon, adsorption isotherm and kinetics, lead removal

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2807 Activated Carbons Prepared from Date Pits for Hydrogen Storage

Authors: M. Belhachemi, M. Monteiro de Castro, M. Casco, A. Sepúlveda-Escribano, F. Rodríguez-Reinoso

Abstract:

In this study, activated carbons were prepared from Algerian date pits using thermal activation with CO2 or steam. The prepared activated carbons were doped by vanadium oxide in order to increase the H2 adsorption capacity. The adsorbents were characterized by N2 and CO2 adsorption at 77 K and 273K, respectively. The hydrogen adsorption experiments were carried at 298K in the 0–100 bar pressure range using a volumetric equipment. The results show that the H2 adsorption capacity is influenced by the size and volume of micropores in the activated carbon adsorbent. Furthermore, vanadium doping of activated carbons has a slight positive effect on H2 storage.

Keywords: hydrogen storage, activated carbon, vanadium doping, adsorption

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2806 Design of Low-Cost Water Purification System Using Activated Carbon

Authors: Nayan Kishore Giri, Ramakar Jha

Abstract:

Water is a major element for the life of all the mankind in the earth. India’s surface water flows through fourteen major streams. Indian rivers are the main source of potable water in India. In the eastern part of India many toxic hazardous metals discharged into the river from mining industries, which leads many deadly diseases to human being. So the potable water quality is very significant and vital concern at present as it is related with the present and future health perspective of the human race. Consciousness of health risks linked with unsafe water is still very low among the many rural and urban areas in India. Only about 7% of total Indian people using water purifier. This unhealthy situation of water is not only present in India but also present in many underdeveloped countries. The major reason behind this is the high cost of water purifier. This current study geared towards development of economical and efficient technology for the removal of maximum possible toxic metals and pathogen bacteria. The work involves the design of portable purification system and purifying material. In this design Coconut shell granular activated carbon(GAC) and polypropylene filter cloths were used in this system. The activated carbon is impregnated with Iron(Fe). Iron is used because it enhances the adsorption capacity of activated carbon. The thorough analysis of iron impregnated activated carbon(Fe-AC) is done by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) , BET surface area test were done. Then 10 ppm of each toxic metal were infiltrated through the designed purification system and they were analysed in Atomic absorption spectrum (AAS). The results are very promising and it is low cost. This work will help many people who are in need of potable water. They can be benefited for its affordability. It could be helpful in industries and other domestic usage.

Keywords: potable water, coconut shell GAC, polypropylene filter cloths, SEM, XRD, BET, AAS

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2805 Effect of Fluidized Granular Activated Carbon for the Mitigation of Membrane Fouling in Wastewater Treatment

Authors: Jingwei Wang, Anthony G. Fane, Jia Wei Chew

Abstract:

The use of fluidized Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) as a means of mitigation membrane fouling in membrane bioreactors (MBRs) has received much attention in recent years, especially in anaerobic fluidized bed membrane bioreactors (AFMBRs). It has been affirmed that the unsteady-state tangential shear conferred by GAC fluidization on membrane surface suppressed the extent of membrane fouling with energy consumption much lower than that of bubbling (i.e., air sparging). In a previous work, the hydrodynamics of the fluidized GAC particles were correlated with membrane fouling mitigation effectiveness. Results verified that the momentum transfer from particle to membrane held a key in fouling mitigation. The goal of the current work is to understand the effect of fluidized GAC on membrane critical flux. Membrane critical flux values were measured by a vertical Direct Observation Through the Membrane (DOTM) setup. The polystyrene particles (known as latex particles) with the particle size of 5 µm were used as model foulant thus to give the number of the foulant on the membrane surface. Our results shed light on the positive effect of fluidized GAC enhancing the critical membrane flux by an order-of-magnitude as compared to that of liquid shear alone. Membrane fouling mitigation was benefitted by the increasing of power input.

Keywords: membrane fouling mitigation, liquid-solid fluidization, critical flux, energy input

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2804 Comparative Study of Fenton and Activated Carbon Treatment for Dyeing Waste Water

Authors: Prem Mohan, Namrata Jariwala

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In recent years 10000 dyes are approximately used by dying industry which makes dyeing wastewater more complex in nature. It is very difficult to treat dyeing wastewater by conventional methods. Here an attempt has been made to treat dyeing wastewater by the conventional and advanced method for removal of COD. Fenton process is the advanced method and activated carbon treatment is the conventional method. Experiments have been done on synthetic wastewater prepared from three different dyes; acidic, disperse and reactive. Experiments have also been conducted on real effluent obtained from industry. The optimum dose of catalyst and hydrogen peroxide in Fenton process and optimum activated carbon dose for each of these wastewaters were obtained. In Fenton treatment, COD removal was obtained up to 95% whereas 70% removal was obtained with activated carbon treatment.

Keywords: activated carbon, advanced oxidation process, dyeing waste water, fenton oxidation process

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2803 Evaluation of the Adsorption Adaptability of Activated Carbon Using Dispersion Force

Authors: Masao Fujisawa, Hirohito Ikeda, Tomonori Ohata, Miho Yukawa, Hatsumi Aki, Takayoshi Kimura

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We attempted to predict adsorption coefficients by utilizing dispersion energies. We performed liquid-phase free energy calculations based on gas-phase geometries of organic compounds using the DFT and studied the relationship between the adsorption of organic compounds by activated carbon and dispersion energies of the organic compounds. A linear correlation between absorption coefficients and dispersion energies was observed.

Keywords: activated carbon, adsorption, prediction, dispersion energy

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2802 Production of Clean Reusable Distillery Waste Water Using Activated Carbon Prepared from Waste Orange Peels

Authors: Joseph Govha, Sharon Mudutu

Abstract:

The research details the treatment of distillery waste water by making use of activated carbon prepared from orange peels as an adsorbent. Adsorption was carried out at different conditions to determine the optimum conditions that work best for the removal of color in distillery waste water using orange peel activated carbon. Adsorption was carried out at different conditions by varying contact time, adsorbent dosage, pH, testing for color intensity and Biological Oxygen Demand. A maximum percentage color removal of 88% was obtained at pH 7 at an adsorbent dosage of 1g/20ml. Maximum adsorption capacity was obtained from the Langmuir isotherm at R2=0.98.

Keywords: distillery, waste water, orange peel, activated carbon, adsorption

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2801 Fabrication of Activated Carbon from Palm Trunksfor Removal of Harmful Dyes

Authors: Eman Alzahrani

Abstract:

Date palm trees are abundant and cheap natural resources in Saudi Arabia. In this study, an activated carbon was prepared from palm trunks by chemical processes. The chemical activation was performed by impregnation of the raw materials after grinding with H3PO4 solution (63%), followed by placing of the sample solution on a muffle furnace at 400ºC for 30 min, and then at 800ºC for 10 min. The morphology of the fabricated material was checked using scanning electron microscopy that showed the rough surfaces on the carbon samples. The use of fabricated activated carbon for removal of eosin dye from aqueous solutions at different contact time, initial dye concentration, pH and adsorbent doses was investigated. The experimental results show that the adsorption process attains equilibrium within 20 min. The adsorption isotherm equilibrium was studied by means of the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms, and it was found that the data fit the Langmuir isotherm equation with maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 126.58 mg g-1. The results indicated that the home made activated carbon prepared from palm trunks has the ability to remove eosin dye from aqueous solution and it will be a promising adsorbent for the removal of harmful dyes from waste water.

Keywords: activated carbon, date palm trunks, H3PO4 activation, adsorption, dye removal, eosin dye, isotherm

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2800 Analysis of Reinforced Granular Pile in Soft Soil

Authors: G. Nitesh

Abstract:

Stone column or granular pile is a proven technique to mitigate settlement in soft soil. Granular pile increases both rate of consolidation and stiffness of the ground. In this paper, a method to analyze further reduction in settlement of granular column reinforced with lime pile is presented treating the system as a unit cell and considering one-dimensional compression approach. The core of the granular pile is stiffened with a steel rod or lime column. Influence of a wide range of parameters such as area ratio of granular pile-soft soil, area ratio of lime pile-granular pile, modular ratio of granular pile and modular ratio of lime pile with respect to granular pile on settlement reduction factor, etc. are obtained and presented.

Keywords: lime pile, granular pile, soft soil, settlement

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2799 Removal of Nitrate and Phosphates from Waste Water Using Activated Bio-Carbon Produced from Agricultural Waste

Authors: Kgomotso Matobole, Natania De Wet, Tefo Mbambo, Hilary Rutto, Tumisang Seodigeng

Abstract:

Nitrogen and phosphorus are nutrients which are required in the ecosystem, however, at high levels, these nutrients contribute to the process of eutrophication in the receiving water bodies, which threatens aquatic organisms. Hence it is vital that they are removed before the water is discharged. This phenomenon increases the cost related to wastewater treatment. This raises the need for the development of processes that are cheaper. Activated biocarbon was used in batch and filtration system to remove nitrates and phosphates. The batch system has higher nutrients removal capabilities than the filtration system. For phosphate removal, 93 % removal is achieved at the adsorbent of 300 g while for nitrates, 84 % removal is achieved when 200 g of activated carbon is loaded.

Keywords: waste water treatment, phosphates, nitrates, activated carbon, agricultural waste

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