Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1006

Search results for: shortest path

1006 Top-K Shortest Distance as a Similarity Measure

Authors: Andrey Lebedev, Ilya Dmitrenok, JooYoung Lee, Leonard Johard

Abstract:

Top-k shortest path routing problem is an extension of finding the shortest path in a given network. Shortest path is one of the most essential measures as it reveals the relations between two nodes in a network. However, in many real world networks, whose diameters are small, top-k shortest path is more interesting as it contains more information about the network topology. Many variations to compute top-k shortest paths have been studied. In this paper, we apply an efficient top-k shortest distance routing algorithm to the link prediction problem and test its efficacy. We compare the results with other base line and state-of-the-art methods as well as with the shortest path. Then, we also propose a top-k distance based graph matching algorithm.

Keywords: graph matching, link prediction, shortest path, similarity

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1005 Integer Programming Model for the Network Design Problem with Facility Dependent Shortest Path Routing

Authors: Taehan Lee

Abstract:

We consider a network design problem which has shortest routing restriction based on the values determined by the installed facilities on each arc. In conventional multicommodity network design problem, a commodity can be routed through any possible path when the capacity is available. But, we consider a problem in which the commodity between two nodes must be routed on a path which has shortest metric value and the link metric value is determined by the installed facilities on the link. By this routing restriction, the problem has a distinct characteristic. We present an integer programming formulation containing the primal-dual optimality conditions to the shortest path routing. We give some computational results for the model.

Keywords: integer programming, multicommodity network design, routing, shortest path

Procedia PDF Downloads 312
1004 Development of Modular Shortest Path Navigation System

Authors: Nalinee Sophatsathit

Abstract:

This paper presents a variation of navigation systems which tallies every node along the shortest path from start to destination nodes. The underlying technique rests on the well-established Dijkstra Algorithm. The ultimate goal is to serve as a user navigation guide that furnishes stop over cost of every node along this shortest path, whereby users can decide whether or not to visit any specific nodes. The output is an implementable module that can be further refined to run on the Internet and smartphone technology. This will benefit large organizations having physical installations spreaded over wide area such as hospitals, universities, etc. The savings on service personnel, let alone lost time and unproductive work, are attributive to innovative navigation system management.

Keywords: navigation systems, shortest path, smartphone technology, user navigation guide

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
1003 Performance Comparison of Prim’s and Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm to Select Shortest Path in Case of Link Failure

Authors: Rimmy Yadav, Avtar Singh

Abstract:

—Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) is a promising modern approach to the unused combinatorial optimization. Here ACO is applied to finding the shortest during communication link failure. In this paper, the performances of the prim’s and ACO algorithm are made. By comparing the time complexity and program execution time as set of parameters, we demonstrate the pleasant performance of ACO in finding excellent solution to finding shortest path during communication link failure.

Keywords: ant colony optimization, link failure, prim’s algorithm, shortest path

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1002 Geospatial Network Analysis Using Particle Swarm Optimization

Authors: Varun Singh, Mainak Bandyopadhyay, Maharana Pratap Singh

Abstract:

The shortest path (SP) problem concerns with finding the shortest path from a specific origin to a specified destination in a given network while minimizing the total cost associated with the path. This problem has widespread applications. Important applications of the SP problem include vehicle routing in transportation systems particularly in the field of in-vehicle Route Guidance System (RGS) and traffic assignment problem (in transportation planning). Well known applications of evolutionary methods like Genetic Algorithms (GA), Ant Colony Optimization, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) have come up to solve complex optimization problems to overcome the shortcomings of existing shortest path analysis methods. It has been reported by various researchers that PSO performs better than other evolutionary optimization algorithms in terms of success rate and solution quality. Further Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have emerged as key information systems for geospatial data analysis and visualization. This research paper is focused towards the application of PSO for solving the shortest path problem between multiple points of interest (POI) based on spatial data of Allahabad City and traffic speed data collected using GPS. Geovisualization of results of analysis is carried out in GIS.

Keywords: particle swarm optimization, GIS, traffic data, outliers

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1001 Memetic Algorithm for Solving the One-To-One Shortest Path Problem

Authors: Omar Dib, Alexandre Caminada, Marie-Ange Manier

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to introduce a novel approach to solve the one-to-one shortest path problem. A directed connected graph is assumed in which all edges’ weights are positive. Our method is based on a memetic algorithm in which we combine a genetic algorithm (GA) and a variable neighborhood search method (VNS). We compare our approximate method with two exact algorithms Dijkstra and Integer Programming (IP). We made experimentations using random generated, complete and real graph instances. In most case studies, numerical results show that our method outperforms exact methods with 5% average gap to the optimality. Our algorithm’s average speed is 20-times faster than Dijkstra and more than 1000-times compared to IP. The details of the experimental results are also discussed and presented in the paper.

Keywords: shortest path problem, Dijkstra’s algorithm, integer programming, memetic algorithm

Procedia PDF Downloads 390
1000 Decision Support System for Solving Multi-Objective Routing Problem

Authors: Ismail El Gayar, Ossama Ismail, Yousri El Gamal

Abstract:

This paper presented a technique to solve one of the transportation problems that faces us in real life which is the Bus Scheduling Problem. Most of the countries using buses in schools, companies and traveling offices as an example to transfer multiple passengers from many places to specific place and vice versa. This transferring process can cost time and money, so we build a decision support system that can solve this problem. In this paper, a genetic algorithm with the shortest path technique is used to generate a competitive solution to other well-known techniques. It also presents a comparison between our solution and other solutions for this problem.

Keywords: bus scheduling problem, decision support system, genetic algorithm, shortest path

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999 Designing Floor Planning in 2D and 3D with an Efficient Topological Structure

Authors: V. Nagammai

Abstract:

Very-large-scale integration (VLSI) is the process of creating an integrated circuit (IC) by combining thousands of transistors into a single chip. Development of technology increases the complexity in IC manufacturing which may vary the power consumption, increase the size and latency period. Topology defines a number of connections between network. In this project, NoC topology is generated using atlas tool which will increase performance in turn determination of constraints are effective. The routing is performed by XY routing algorithm and wormhole flow control. In NoC topology generation, the value of power, area and latency are predetermined. In previous work, placement, routing and shortest path evaluation is performed using an algorithm called floor planning with cluster reconstruction and path allocation algorithm (FCRPA) with the account of 4 3x3 switch, 6 4x4 switch, and 2 5x5 switches. The usage of the 4x4 and 5x5 switch will increase the power consumption and area of the block. In order to avoid the problem, this paper has used one 8x8 switch and 4 3x3 switches. This paper uses IPRCA which of 3 steps they are placement, clustering, and shortest path evaluation. The placement is performed using min – cut placement and clustering are performed using an algorithm called cluster generation. The shortest path is evaluated using an algorithm called Dijkstra's algorithm. The power consumption of each block is determined. The experimental result shows that the area, power, and wire length improved simultaneously.

Keywords: application specific noc, b* tree representation, floor planning, t tree representation

Procedia PDF Downloads 331
998 Survey: Topology Hiding in Multipath Routing Protocol in MANET

Authors: Akshay Suhas Phalke, Manohar S. Chaudhari

Abstract:

In this paper, we have discussed the multipath routing with its variants. Our purpose is to discuss the different types of the multipath routing mechanism. Here we also put the taxonomy of the multipath routing. Multipath routing is used for the alternate path routing, reliable transmission of data and for better utilization of network resources. We also discussed the multipath routing for topology hiding such as TOHIP. In multipath routing, different parameters such as energy efficiency, packet delivery ratio, shortest path routing, fault tolerance play an important role. We have discussed a number of multipath routing protocol based on different parameters lastly.

Keywords: multi-path routing, WSN, topology, fault detection, trust

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
997 Comparison of Agree Method and Shortest Path Method for Determining the Flow Direction in Basin Morphometric Analysis: Case Study of Lower Tapi Basin, Western India

Authors: Jaypalsinh Parmar, Pintu Nakrani, Bhaumik Shah

Abstract:

Digital Elevation Model (DEM) is elevation data of the virtual grid on the ground. DEM can be used in application in GIS such as hydrological modelling, flood forecasting, morphometrical analysis and surveying etc.. For morphometrical analysis the stream flow network plays a very important role. DEM lacks accuracy and cannot match field data as it should for accurate results of morphometrical analysis. The present study focuses on comparing the Agree method and the conventional Shortest path method for finding out morphometric parameters in the flat region of the Lower Tapi Basin which is located in the western India. For the present study, open source SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission with 1 arc resolution) and toposheets issued by Survey of India (SOI) were used to determine the morphometric linear aspect such as stream order, number of stream, stream length, bifurcation ratio, mean stream length, mean bifurcation ratio, stream length ratio, length of overland flow, constant of channel maintenance and aerial aspect such as drainage density, stream frequency, drainage texture, form factor, circularity ratio, elongation ratio, shape factor and relief aspect such as relief ratio, gradient ratio and basin relief for 53 catchments of Lower Tapi Basin. Stream network was digitized from the available toposheets. Agree DEM was created by using the SRTM and stream network from the toposheets. The results obtained were used to demonstrate a comparison between the two methods in the flat areas.

Keywords: agree method, morphometric analysis, lower Tapi basin, shortest path method

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
996 RFID Based Indoor Navigation with Obstacle Detection Based on A* Algorithm for the Visually Impaired

Authors: Jayron Sanchez, Analyn Yumang, Felicito Caluyo

Abstract:

The visually impaired individual may use a cane, guide dog or ask for assistance from a person. This study implemented the RFID technology which consists of a low-cost RFID reader and passive RFID tag cards. The passive RFID tag cards served as checkpoints for the visually impaired. The visually impaired was guided through audio output from the system while traversing the path. The study implemented an ultrasonic sensor in detecting static obstacles. The system generated an alternate path based on A* algorithm to avoid the obstacles. Alternate paths were also generated in case the visually impaired traversed outside the intended path to the destination. A* algorithm generated the shortest path to the destination by calculating the total cost of movement. The algorithm then selected the smallest movement cost as a successor to the current tag card. Several trials were conducted to determine the effect of obstacles in the time traversal of the visually impaired. A dependent sample t-test was applied for the statistical analysis of the study. Based on the analysis, the obstacles along the path generated delays while requesting for the alternate path because of the delay in transmission from the laptop to the device via ZigBee modules.

Keywords: A* algorithm, RFID technology, ultrasonic sensor, ZigBee module

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995 Design and Implementation of Bluetooth Controlled Autonomous Vehicle

Authors: Amanuel Berhanu Kesamo

Abstract:

This paper presents both circuit simulation and hardware implementation of a robot vehicle that can be either controlled manually via Bluetooth with video streaming or navigate autonomously to a target point by avoiding obstacles. In manual mode, the user controls the mobile robot using C# windows form interfaced via Bluetooth. The camera mounted on the robot is used to capture and send the real time video to the user. In autonomous mode, the robot plans the shortest path to the target point while avoiding obstacles along the way. Ultrasonic sensor is used for sensing the obstacle in its environment. An efficient path planning algorithm is implemented to navigate the robot along optimal route.

Keywords: Arduino Uno, autonomous, Bluetooth module, path planning, remote controlled robot, ultra sonic sensor

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994 Altered Network Organization in Mild Alzheimer's Disease Compared to Mild Cognitive Impairment Using Resting-State EEG

Authors: Chia-Feng Lu, Yuh-Jen Wang, Shin Teng, Yu-Te Wu, Sui-Hing Yan

Abstract:

Brain functional networks based on resting-state EEG data were compared between patients with mild Alzheimer’s disease (mAD) and matched patients with amnestic subtype of mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). We integrated the time–frequency cross mutual information (TFCMI) method to estimate the EEG functional connectivity between cortical regions and the network analysis based on graph theory to further investigate the alterations of functional networks in mAD compared with aMCI group. We aimed at investigating the changes of network integrity, local clustering, information processing efficiency, and fault tolerance in mAD brain networks for different frequency bands based on several topological properties, including degree, strength, clustering coefficient, shortest path length, and efficiency. Results showed that the disruptions of network integrity and reductions of network efficiency in mAD characterized by lower degree, decreased clustering coefficient, higher shortest path length, and reduced global and local efficiencies in the delta, theta, beta2, and gamma bands were evident. The significant changes in network organization can be used in assisting discrimination of mAD from aMCI in clinical.

Keywords: EEG, functional connectivity, graph theory, TFCMI

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993 Application of Rapidly Exploring Random Tree Star-Smart and G2 Quintic Pythagorean Hodograph Curves to the UAV Path Planning Problem

Authors: Luiz G. Véras, Felipe L. Medeiros, Lamartine F. Guimarães

Abstract:

This work approaches the automatic planning of paths for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) through the application of the Rapidly Exploring Random Tree Star-Smart (RRT*-Smart) algorithm. RRT*-Smart is a sampling process of positions of a navigation environment through a tree-type graph. The algorithm consists of randomly expanding a tree from an initial position (root node) until one of its branches reaches the final position of the path to be planned. The algorithm ensures the planning of the shortest path, considering the number of iterations tending to infinity. When a new node is inserted into the tree, each neighbor node of the new node is connected to it, if and only if the extension of the path between the root node and that neighbor node, with this new connection, is less than the current extension of the path between those two nodes. RRT*-smart uses an intelligent sampling strategy to plan less extensive routes by spending a smaller number of iterations. This strategy is based on the creation of samples/nodes near to the convex vertices of the navigation environment obstacles. The planned paths are smoothed through the application of the method called quintic pythagorean hodograph curves. The smoothing process converts a route into a dynamically-viable one based on the kinematic constraints of the vehicle. This smoothing method models the hodograph components of a curve with polynomials that obey the Pythagorean Theorem. Its advantage is that the obtained structure allows computation of the curve length in an exact way, without the need for quadratural techniques for the resolution of integrals.

Keywords: path planning, path smoothing, Pythagorean hodograph curve, RRT*-Smart

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992 A Review on Comparative Analysis of Path Planning and Collision Avoidance Algorithms

Authors: Divya Agarwal, Pushpendra S. Bharti

Abstract:

Autonomous mobile robots (AMR) are expected as smart tools for operations in every automation industry. Path planning and obstacle avoidance is the backbone of AMR as robots have to reach their goal location avoiding obstacles while traversing through optimized path defined according to some criteria such as distance, time or energy. Path planning can be classified into global and local path planning where environmental information is known and unknown/partially known, respectively. A number of sensors are used for data collection. A number of algorithms such as artificial potential field (APF), rapidly exploring random trees (RRT), bidirectional RRT, Fuzzy approach, Purepursuit, A* algorithm, vector field histogram (VFH) and modified local path planning algorithm, etc. have been used in the last three decades for path planning and obstacle avoidance for AMR. This paper makes an attempt to review some of the path planning and obstacle avoidance algorithms used in the field of AMR. The review includes comparative analysis of simulation and mathematical computations of path planning and obstacle avoidance algorithms using MATLAB 2018a. From the review, it could be concluded that different algorithms may complete the same task (i.e. with a different set of instructions) in less or more time, space, effort, etc.

Keywords: path planning, obstacle avoidance, autonomous mobile robots, algorithms

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991 Three-Dimensional Off-Line Path Planning for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Using Modified Particle Swarm Optimization

Authors: Lana Dalawr Jalal

Abstract:

This paper addresses the problem of offline path planning for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in complex three-dimensional environment with obstacles, which is modelled by 3D Cartesian grid system. Path planning for UAVs require the computational intelligence methods to move aerial vehicles along the flight path effectively to target while avoiding obstacles. In this paper Modified Particle Swarm Optimization (MPSO) algorithm is applied to generate the optimal collision free 3D flight path for UAV. The simulations results clearly demonstrate effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in guiding UAV to the final destination by providing optimal feasible path quickly and effectively.

Keywords: obstacle avoidance, particle swarm optimization, three-dimensional path planning unmanned aerial vehicles

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990 Joint Path and Push Planning among Moveable Obstacles

Authors: Victor Emeli, Akansel Cosgun

Abstract:

This paper explores the navigation among movable obstacles (NAMO) problem and proposes joint path and push planning: which path to take and in what direction the obstacles should be pushed at, given a start and goal position. We present a planning algorithm for selecting a path and the obstacles to be pushed, where a rapidly-exploring random tree (RRT)-based heuristic is employed to calculate a minimal collision path. When it is necessary to apply a pushing force to slide an obstacle out of the way, the planners leverage means-end analysis through a dynamic physics simulation to determine the sequence of linear pushes to clear the necessary space. Simulation experiments show that our approach finds solutions in higher clutter percentages (up to 49%) compared to the straight-line push planner (37%) and RRT without pushing (18%).

Keywords: motion planning, path planning, push planning, robot navigation

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989 An Efficient Robot Navigation Model in a Multi-Target Domain amidst Static and Dynamic Obstacles

Authors: Michael Ayomoh, Adriaan Roux, Oyindamola Omotuyi

Abstract:

This paper presents an efficient robot navigation model in a multi-target domain amidst static and dynamic workspace obstacles. The problem is that of developing an optimal algorithm to minimize the total travel time of a robot as it visits all target points within its task domain amidst unknown workspace obstacles and finally return to its initial position. In solving this problem, a classical algorithm was first developed to compute the optimal number of paths to be travelled by the robot amidst the network of paths. The principle of shortest distance between robot and targets was used to compute the target point visitation order amidst workspace obstacles. Algorithm premised on the standard polar coordinate system was developed to determine the length of obstacles encountered by the robot hence giving room for a geometrical estimation of the total surface area occupied by the obstacle especially when classified as a relevant obstacle i.e. obstacle that lies in between a robot and its potential visitation point. A stochastic model was developed and used to estimate the likelihood of a dynamic obstacle bumping into the robot’s navigation path and finally, the navigation/obstacle avoidance algorithm was hinged on the hybrid virtual force field (HVFF) method. Significant modelling constraints herein include the choice of navigation path to selected target points, the possible presence of static obstacles along a desired navigation path and the likelihood of encountering a dynamic obstacle along the robot’s path and the chances of it remaining at this position as a static obstacle hence resulting in a case of re-routing after routing. The proposed algorithm demonstrated a high potential for optimal solution in terms of efficiency and effectiveness.

Keywords: multi-target, mobile robot, optimal path, static obstacles, dynamic obstacles

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988 A Column Generation Based Algorithm for Airline Cabin Crew Rostering Problem

Authors: Nan Xu

Abstract:

In airlines, the crew scheduling problem is usually decomposed into two stages: crew pairing and crew rostering. In the crew pairing stage, pairings are generated such that each flight is covered by exactly one pairing and the overall cost is minimized. In the crew rostering stage, the pairings generated in the crew pairing stage are combined with off days, training and other breaks to create individual work schedules. The paper focuses on cabin crew rostering problem, which is challenging due to the extremely large size and the complex working rules involved. In our approach, the objective of rostering consists of two major components. The first is to minimize the number of unassigned pairings and the second is to ensure the fairness to crew members. There are two measures of fairness to crew members, the number of overnight duties and the total fly-hour over a given period. Pairings should be assigned to each crew member so that their actual overnight duties and fly hours are as close to the expected average as possible. Deviations from the expected average are penalized in the objective function. Since several small deviations are preferred than a large deviation, the penalization is quadratic. Our model of the airline crew rostering problem is based on column generation. The problem is decomposed into a master problem and subproblems. The mater problem is modeled as a set partition problem and exactly one roster for each crew is picked up such that the pairings are covered. The restricted linear master problem (RLMP) is considered. The current subproblem tries to find columns with negative reduced costs and add them to the RLMP for the next iteration. When no column with negative reduced cost can be found or a stop criteria is met, the procedure ends. The subproblem is to generate feasible crew rosters for each crew member. A separate acyclic weighted graph is constructed for each crew member and the subproblem is modeled as resource constrained shortest path problems in the graph. Labeling algorithm is used to solve it. Since the penalization is quadratic, a method to deal with non-additive shortest path problem using labeling algorithm is proposed and corresponding domination condition is defined. The major contribution of our model is: 1) We propose a method to deal with non-additive shortest path problem; 2) Operation to allow relaxing some soft rules is allowed in our algorithm, which can improve the coverage rate; 3) Multi-thread techniques are used to improve the efficiency of the algorithm when generating Line-of-Work for crew members. Here a column generation based algorithm for the airline cabin crew rostering problem is proposed. The objective is to assign a personalized roster to crew member which minimize the number of unassigned pairings and ensure the fairness to crew members. The algorithm we propose in this paper has been put into production in a major airline in China and numerical experiments show that it has a good performance.

Keywords: aircrew rostering, aircrew scheduling, column generation, SPPRC

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987 Path Planning for Orchard Robot Using Occupancy Grid Map in 2D Environment

Authors: Satyam Raikwar, Thomas Herlitzius, Jens Fehrmann

Abstract:

In recent years, the autonomous navigation of orchard and field robots is an emerging technology of the mobile robotics in agriculture. One of the core aspects of autonomous navigation builds upon path planning, which is still a crucial issue. Generally, for simple representation, the path planning for a mobile robot is performed in a two-dimensional space, which creates a path between the start and goal point. This paper presents the automatic path planning approach for robots used in orchards and vineyards using occupancy grid maps with field consideration. The orchards and vineyards are usually structured environment and their topology is assumed to be constant over time; therefore, in this approach, an RGB image of a field is used as a working environment. These images undergone different image processing operations and then discretized into two-dimensional grid matrices. The individual grid or cell of these grid matrices represents the occupancy of the space, whether it is free or occupied. The grid matrix represents the robot workspace for motion and path planning. After the grid matrix is described, a probabilistic roadmap (PRM) path algorithm is used to create the obstacle-free path over these occupancy grids. The path created by this method was successfully verified in the test area. Furthermore, this approach is used in the navigation of the orchard robot.

Keywords: orchard robots, automatic path planning, occupancy grid, probabilistic roadmap

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986 The Conceptual Design Model of an Automated Supermarket

Authors: V. Sathya Narayanan, P. Sidharth, V. R. Sanal Kumar

Abstract:

The success of any retail business is predisposed by its swift response and its knack in understanding the constraints and the requirements of customers. In this paper a conceptual design model of an automated customer-friendly supermarket has been proposed. In this model a 10-sided, space benefited, regular polygon shaped gravity shelves have been designed for goods storage and effective customer-specific algorithms have been built-in for quick automatic delivery of the randomly listed goods. The algorithm is developed with two main objectives, viz., delivery time and priority. For meeting these objectives the randomly listed items are reorganized according to the critical-path of the robotic arm specific to the identified shop and its layout and the items are categorized according to the demand, shape, size, similarity and nature of the product for an efficient pick-up, packing and delivery process. We conjectured that the proposed automated supermarket model reduces business operating costs with much customer satisfaction warranting a win-win situation.

Keywords: automated supermarket, electronic shopping, polygon-shaped rack, shortest path algorithm for shopping

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985 Independence and Path Independence on Cayley Digraphs of Left Groups and Right Groups

Authors: Nuttawoot Nupo, Sayan Panma

Abstract:

A semigroup S is said to be a left (right) zero semigroup if S satisfies the equation xy=x (xy=y) for all x,y in S. In addition, the semigroup S is called a left (right) group if S is isomorphic to the direct product of a group and a left (right) zero semigroup. The Cayley digraph Cay(S,A) of a semigroup S with a connection set A is defined to be a digraph with the vertex set S and the arc set E(Cay(S,A))={(x,xa) | x∈S, a∈A} where A is any subset of S. All sets in this research are assumed to be finite. Let D be a digraph together with a vertex set V and an arc set E. Let u and v be two different vertices in V and I a nonempty subset of V. The vertices u and v are said to be independent if (u,v)∉E and (v,u)∉E. The set I is called an independent set of D if any two different vertices in I are independent. The independence number of D is the maximum cardinality of an independent set of D. Moreover, the vertices u and v are said to be path independent if there is no dipath from u to v and there is no dipath from v to u. The set I is called a path independent set of D if any two different vertices in I are path independent. The path independence number of D is the maximum cardinality of a path independent set of D. In this research, we describe a lower bound and an upper bound of the independence number of Cayley digraphs of left groups and right groups. Some examples corresponding to those bounds are illustrated here. Furthermore, the exact value of the path independence number of Cayley digraphs of left groups and right groups are also presented.

Keywords: Cayley digraphs, independence number, left groups, path independence number, right groups

Procedia PDF Downloads 136
984 Optimizing Network Latency with Fast Path Assignment for Incoming Flows

Authors: Qing Lyu, Hang Zhu

Abstract:

Various flows in the network require to go through different types of middlebox. The improper placement of network middlebox and path assignment for flows could greatly increase the network latency and also decrease the performance of network. Minimizing the total end to end latency of all the ows requires to assign path for the incoming flows. In this paper, the flow path assignment problem in regard to the placement of various kinds of middlebox is studied. The flow path assignment problem is formulated to a linear programming problem, which is very time consuming. On the other hand, a naive greedy algorithm is studied. Which is very fast but causes much more latency than the linear programming algorithm. At last, the paper presents a heuristic algorithm named FPA, which takes bottleneck link information and estimated bandwidth occupancy into consideration, and achieves near optimal latency in much less time. Evaluation results validate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

Keywords: flow path, latency, middlebox, network

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983 System Survivability in Networks

Authors: Asma Ben Yaghlane, Mohamed Naceur Azaiez

Abstract:

We consider the problem of attacks on networks. We define the concept of system survivability in networks in the presence of intelligent threats. Our setting of the problem assumes a flow to be sent from one source node to a destination node. The attacker attempts to disable the network by preventing the flow to reach its destination while the defender attempts to identify the best path-set to use to maximize the chance of arrival of the flow to the destination node. Our concept is shown to be different from the classical concept of network reliability. We distinguish two types of network survivability related to the defender and to the attacker of the network, respectively. We prove that the defender-based-network survivability plays the role of a lower bound while the attacker-based-network survivability plays the role of an upper bound of network reliability. We also prove that both concepts almost never agree nor coincide with network reliability. Moreover, we use the shortest-path problem to determine the defender-based-network survivability and the min-cut problem to determine the attacker-based-network survivability. We extend the problem to a variety of models including the minimum-spanning-tree problem and the multiple source-/destination-network problems.

Keywords: defense/attack strategies, information, networks, reliability, survivability

Procedia PDF Downloads 318
982 The K-Distance Neighborhood Polynomial of a Graph

Authors: Soner Nandappa D., Ahmed Mohammed Naji

Abstract:

In a graph G = (V, E), the distance from a vertex v to a vertex u is the length of shortest v to u path. The eccentricity e(v) of v is the distance to a farthest vertex from v. The diameter diam(G) is the maximum eccentricity. The k-distance neighborhood of v, for 0 ≤ k ≤ e(v), is Nk(v) = {u ϵ V (G) : d(v, u) = k}. In this paper, we introduce a new distance degree based topological polynomial of a graph G is called a k- distance neighborhood polynomial, denoted Nk(G, x). It is a polynomial with the coefficient of the term k, for 0 ≤ k ≤ e(v), is the sum of the cardinalities of Nk(v) for every v ϵ V (G). Some properties of k- distance neighborhood polynomials are obtained. Exact formulas of the k- distance neighborhood polynomial for some well-known graphs, Cartesian product and join of graphs are presented.

Keywords: vertex degrees, distance in graphs, graph operation, Nk-polynomials

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981 Eliminating Cutter-Path Deviation For Five-Axis Nc Machining

Authors: Alan C. Lin, Tsong Der Lin

Abstract:

This study proposes a deviation control method to add interpolation points to numerical control (NC) codes of five-axis machining in order to achieve the required machining accuracy. Specific research issues include: (1) converting machining data between the CL (cutter location) domain and the NC domain, (2) calculating the deviation between the deviated path and the linear path, (3) finding interpolation points, and (4) determining tool orientations for the interpolation points. System implementation with practical examples will also be included to highlight the applicability of the proposed methodology.

Keywords: CAD/CAM, cutter path, five-axis machining, numerical control

Procedia PDF Downloads 349
980 Critical Path Segments Method for Scheduling Technique

Authors: Sherif M. Hafez, Remon F. Aziz, May S. A. Elalim

Abstract:

Project managers today rely on scheduling tools based on the Critical Path Method (CPM) to determine the overall project duration and the activities’ float times which lead to greater efficiency in planning and control of projects. CPM was useful for scheduling construction projects, but researchers had highlighted a number of serious drawbacks that limit its use as a decision support tool and lacks the ability to clearly record and represent detailed information. This paper discusses the drawbacks of CPM as a scheduling technique and presents a modified critical path method (CPM) model which is called critical path segments (CPS). The CPS scheduling mechanism addresses the problems of CPM in three ways: decomposing the activity duration of separated but connected time segments; all relationships among activities are converted into finish–to–start relationship; and analysis and calculations are made with forward path. Sample cases are included to illustrate the shortages in CPM, CPS full analysis and calculations are explained in details, and how schedules can be handled better with the CPS technique.

Keywords: construction management, scheduling, critical path method, critical path segments, forward pass, float, project control

Procedia PDF Downloads 269
979 Generalized Central Paths for Convex Programming

Authors: Li-Zhi Liao

Abstract:

The central path has played the key role in the interior point method. However, the convergence of the central path may not be true even in some convex programming problems with linear constraints. In this paper, the generalized central paths are introduced for convex programming. One advantage of the generalized central paths is that the paths will always converge to some optimal solutions of the convex programming problem for any initial interior point. Some additional theoretical properties for the generalized central paths will be also reported.

Keywords: central path, convex programming, generalized central path, interior point method

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978 Construction Project Planning Using Fuzzy Critical Path Approach

Authors: Omar M. Aldenali

Abstract:

Planning is one of the most important phases of the management science and network planning, which represents the project activities relationship. Critical path is one of the project management techniques used to plan and control the execution of a project activities. The objective of this paper is to implement a fuzzy logic approach to arrange network planning on construction projects. This method is used to finding out critical path in the fuzzy construction project network. The trapezoidal fuzzy numbers are used to represent the activity construction project times. A numerical example that represents a house construction project is introduced. The critical path method is implemented on the fuzzy construction network activities, and the results showed that this method significantly affects the completion time of the construction projects.

Keywords: construction project, critical path, fuzzy network project, planning

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977 Graphical Theoretical Construction of Discrete time Share Price Paths from Matroid

Authors: Min Wang, Sergey Utev

Abstract:

The lessons from the 2007-09 global financial crisis have driven scientific research, which considers the design of new methodologies and financial models in the global market. The quantum mechanics approach was introduced in the unpredictable stock market modeling. One famous quantum tool is Feynman path integral method, which was used to model insurance risk by Tamturk and Utev and adapted to formalize the path-dependent option pricing by Hao and Utev. The research is based on the path-dependent calculation method, which is motivated by the Feynman path integral method. The path calculation can be studied in two ways, one way is to label, and the other is computational. Labeling is a part of the representation of objects, and generating functions can provide many different ways of representing share price paths. In this paper, the recent works on graphical theoretical construction of individual share price path via matroid is presented. Firstly, a study is done on the knowledge of matroid, relationship between lattice path matroid and Tutte polynomials and ways to connect points in the lattice path matroid and Tutte polynomials is suggested. Secondly, It is found that a general binary tree can be validly constructed from a connected lattice path matroid rather than general lattice path matroid. Lastly, it is suggested that there is a way to represent share price paths via a general binary tree, and an algorithm is developed to construct share price paths from general binary trees. A relationship is also provided between lattice integer points and Tutte polynomials of a transversal matroid. Use this way of connection together with the algorithm, a share price path can be constructed from a given connected lattice path matroid.

Keywords: combinatorial construction, graphical representation, matroid, path calculation, share price, Tutte polynomial

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