Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 28

Search results for: A. Mani

28 The Importance of Jewish Influence on Foundation of Manichaean Philosophical and Religious System

Authors: Tatyana Suvorkina

Abstract:

It is indisputable that the problem of the origin of Manichaeism is very complex. Manichaeism is characterized as a syncretic religion, which was influenced by many teachings, but it is difficult to define one which can be called fundamental. The aim of this paper is an attempt to regard Jewish apocalyptic tradition as one of the most defining source of formation of Manichaean systems. To realize this aim a comparison of the Manichean texts and the Jewish apocryphal literature is made. Consideration is given first to the Coptic Manichaean treatise Kephalaia, The Cologne Mani Codex and to books of Enoch. Under the article it is not denied that Manichaeism was influenced by different doctrines and, passed through centuries, it could adapt and strengthen this influence at an even deeper level. But the fact that the Judeo-Christian environment where Mani grew up and where the first sprouts of his teaching were formed had impact on future prophet seems obvious. Nevertheless, attempts to analyze the system of Mani within the Jewish tradition are quite rare, although such studies were carried out for Gnosticism. But Manichaeism, despite the Gnostic features it contains, is not 'one of the Gnostics' to place it under this term among the rest. Frequently, gnostic currents are pointed out as the main sources for the formation of Mani’s teachings. But it seems possible that Mani's interest in Gnosticism was motivated by the fact that he considered it as something close to that interpretation of Hebrew texts, which he aspired to undertake. The question of understanding the Manichaean system is connected not only with Manichaeism but also with other dualistic teachings, which were recognized by contemporaries as Manichaean. It is seen that polemics between Manicheans and Hellenized Christianity separated from Judaism and continued to separate with every century, were polemics between adherents of initially two different worldviews who had, however, a common source. Therefore an analysis of the controversy in the context of interpretations of this common source by disputing parties is seen very important for further study.

Keywords: dualism, Jewish apocalypticism, Manichaeism, syncretism

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27 Developing Innovations in Classrom Teaching: Process or Product

Authors: Mani Ram Sharma

Abstract:

We live in a busy world with sudden distractions and many things to think about. The rapid speed of science and technology keeps our world in constant motion. Students leaving the classroom after being taught by the teachers are thinking about a thousand things: "Did I understand what teacher taught?" However, when they come into the classroom, as teachers, we expect them to be ready to learn, ready to receive information, and retain it. There is a question that how can learners do this with so much in their learning process. It is obliviously with the use of innovation in the classroom. It fosters the students to learn innovatively to establish learner's autonomy. This article outlines the role, need, and process of innovation in the language classroom and teaching.

Keywords: distraction, foster, innovation, learner's autonomy, retainment

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26 Soliton Interaction in Multi-Core Optical Fiber: Application to WDM System

Authors: S. Arun Prakash, V. Malathi, M. S. Mani Rajan

Abstract:

The analytical bright two soliton solution of the 3-coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations with variable coefficients in birefringent optical fiber is obtained by Darboux transformation method. To the design of ultra-speed optical devices, Soliton interaction and control in birefringence fiber is investigated. Lax pair is constructed for N coupled NLS system through AKNS method. Using two soliton solution, we demonstrate different interaction behaviors of solitons in birefringent fiber depending on the choice of control parameters. Our results shows that interactions of optical solitons have some specific applications such as construction of logic gates, optical computing, soliton switching, and soliton amplification in wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) system.

Keywords: optical soliton, soliton interaction, soliton switching, WDM

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25 Characteristic Study on Conventional and Soliton Based Transmission System

Authors: Bhupeshwaran Mani, S. Radha, A. Jawahar, A. Sivasubramanian

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Here, we study the characteristic feature of conventional (ON-OFF keying) and soliton based transmission system. We consider 20 Gbps transmission system implemented with Conventional Single Mode Fiber (C-SMF) to examine the role of Gaussian pulse which is the characteristic of conventional propagation and hyperbolic-secant pulse which is the characteristic of soliton propagation in it. We note the influence of these pulses with respect to different dispersion lengths and soliton period in conventional and soliton system, respectively, and evaluate the system performance in terms of quality factor. From the analysis, we could prove that the soliton pulse has more consistent performance even for long distance without dispersion compensation than the conventional system as it is robust to dispersion. For the length of transmission of 200 Km, soliton system yielded Q of 33.958 while the conventional system totally exhausted with Q=0.

Keywords: dispersion length, retrun-to-zero (rz), soliton, soliton period, q-factor

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24 Impact of ICT on Efficient Services Providing to Users by LIPs in NCR India

Authors: Mani Gupta

Abstract:

This study deals with question: i) Whether ICT plays a positive role in improvement of efficiency of LIPs in terms of providing efficient services to the Users in LICs? and ii) Role of finance in terms of required technological logistics and infrastructure for usage of ICT based services to comfort in accessing databases by Users in LICs. This is based on primary data which are collected from various libraries and Information Centers of NCR Delhi. The survey conducted during December 15 and 31, 2010 on 496 respondents across 96 libraries and information centers in NCR Delhi through electronic data collection method. There is positive and emphatic relationship between ICT and its effect on improving the level of efficient services providing by LIPs in LICs in NCR Delhi. This is divided into 6 sub-headings and finally the outcomes.

Keywords: modern globalization, linear correlation, efficient service, internet revolution, logistics

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23 Effect of Low Temperature on Structure and RNA Binding of E.coli CspA: A Molecular Dynamics Based Study

Authors: Amit Chaudhary, B. S. Yadav, P. K. Maurya, A. M., S. Srivastava, S. Singh, A. Mani

Abstract:

Cold shock protein A (CspA) is major cold inducible protein present in Escherichia coli. The protein is involved in stabilizing secondary structure of RNA by working as chaperone during cold temperature. Two RNA binding motifs play key role in the stabilizing activity. This study aimed to investigate implications of low temperature on structure and RNA binding activity of E. coli CspA. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to compare the stability of the protein at 37°C and 10 °C. The protein was mutated at RNA binding motifs and docked with RNA to assess the stability of both complexes. Results suggest that CspA as well as CspA-RNA complex is more stable at low temperature. It was also confirmed that RNP1 and RNP2 play key role in RNA binding.

Keywords: CspA, homology modelling, mutation, molecular dynamics simulation

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22 Synthesis and in-vitro Evaluation of Quinozolines as Potent EGFR Inhibitor

Authors: Vinaya Kambappa, Chinnadurai Mani, Komaraiah Palle

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Non-small cell-lung cancer (NSCLC) cells have increased expression of EGFR, which makes them a potential target for cancer therapy. Based on molecular docking and previous reports, we designed and synthesized quinazoline derivatives as potent EGFR inhibitors. Among the derivatives, three compounds showed good antiproliferative activity against A-549 and H-1299 cells. Furthermore, these compounds inhibited EGFR signaling exhibiting diminishing p-EGFR and its downstream proteins like p-Akt, p-Erk1/2, and p-mTOR; however, it did not alter the levels of EGFR, Akt, Erk1/2 and mTOR proteins. Flow cytometric analysis indicated the accumulation of cells at G1 phase suggesting induction of apoptosis, which was further confirmed by annexin V/propidium iodide staining. Our study suggested that quinazoline scaffold can be developed as novel EGFR kinase inhibitors for cancer therapy.

Keywords: apoptosis, non-small cell-lung cancer cells, EGFR, quinazoline

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21 Economic Activities Associated with Extraction of Riverbed Materials in the Tinau River, Nepal

Authors: Khet Raj Dahal, Dhruva Dhital, Chhatra Mani Sharma

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A study was conducted during 2012 to 2013 in the selected reach of Tinau River, Nepal. The main objective of the study was to quantify employment and income generation from the extraction of construction materials from the river. A 10 km stretch of the river was selected for the study. Sample survey with a semi-structured questionnaire and field observation were the main tools used during field investigation. Extraction of riverbed materials from the banks, beds and floodplain areas of the river has provided many kinds of job opportunities for the people living in the vicinity of the river. It has also generated an adequate amount of revenues. The collected revenue has been invested for many kinds of social and infrastructures development for years. Though extraction of riverbed materials is beneficial for income and employment generation, it has also negative environmental impacts in and around the river. Furthermore, the study concluded that river bed extraction should be continued with special monitoring and evaluation in the areas where there is still room for extraction.

Keywords: extraction, crusher plants, economic activities, Tinau River

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20 Unauthorized License Verifier and Secure Access to Vehicle

Authors: G. Prakash, L. Mohamed Aasiq, N. Dhivya, M. Jothi Mani, R. Mounika, B. Gomathi

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In our day to day life, many people met with an accident due to various reasons like over speed, overload in the vehicle, violation of the traffic rules, etc. Driving license system is difficult task for the government to monitor. To prevent non-licensees from driving who are causing most of the accidents, a new system is proposed. The proposed system consists of a smart card capable of storing the license details of a particular person. Vehicles such as cars, bikes etc., should have a card reader capable of reading the particular license. A person, who wishes to drive the vehicle, should insert the card (license) in the vehicle and then enter the password in the keypad. If the license data stored in the card and database about the entire license holders in the microcontroller matches, he/she can proceed for ignition after the automated opening of the fuel tank valve, otherwise the user is restricted to use the vehicle. Moreover, overload detector in our proposed system verifies and then prompts the user to avoid overload before driving. This increases the security of vehicles and also ensures safe driving by preventing accidents.

Keywords: license, verifier, EEPROM, secure, overload detection

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19 Magnet Position Variation of the Electromagnetic Actuation System in a Torsional Scanner

Authors: Loke Kean Koay, Mani Maran Ratnam

Abstract:

A mechanically-resonant torsional spring scanner was developed in a recent study. Various methods were developed to improve the angular displacement of the scanner while maintaining the scanner frequency. However, the effects of rotor magnet radial position on scanner characteristics were not well investigated. In this study, the relationships between the magnet position and the scanner characteristics such as natural frequency, angular displacement and stress level were studied. A finite element model was created and an average deviation of 3.18% was found between the simulation and experimental results, qualifying the simulation results as a guide for further investigations. Three magnet positions on the transverse oscillating suspended plate were investigated by finite element analysis (FEA) and one of the positions were selected as the design position. The magnet position with the longest distance from the twist axis of the mirror was selected since it attains minimum stress level while exceeding the minimum critical flicker frequency and delivering the targeted angular displacement to the scanner.

Keywords: torsional scanner, design optimization, computer-aided design, magnet position variation

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18 Components of Arterial Pressure and Its Association with Dietary Inflammatory Potential of Older Individuals: The Multinational Medis Study

Authors: Demosthenes Panagiotakos

Abstract:

The aim of the present work was to evaluate dietary habits’ inflammatory potential with various components of arterial blood pressure (hypertension, mean arterial pressure (MAP) and pulse pressure (PP)) in a sample of older Mediterranean people without known cardiovascular disease. During 2005-2011, 2,813 older (aged 65-100 years) individuals from 21 Mediterranean islands and the rural Mani region (Peloponnesus) were voluntarily enrolled. Standard procedures were used to determine arterial blood pressure, as well as PP and MAP, and for the evaluation of dietary habits, lifestyle, anthropometric and clinical characteristics of the participants. A dietary inflammatory index (DII) was assessed based on the participants specific dietary habits, and its calculation was based on a standard procedure. It was reported that the higher the DII level of a diet (adherence to a more pro-inflammatory diet) the greater was the likelihood of having an older adult hypertension [OR=3.82 (95% CI): 1.24 to 11.71]. Moreover, the higher the level of DII (more pro-inflammatory dietary habits) the greater were the levels of MAP [b-coefficient (95% CI): 7.23 (+1.86 to +12.59)] and PP, [b-coefficient (95% CI): 10.86 (+2.70 to +19.01)]. Diet’s inflammatory potential is related with various components of arterial pressure. Adherence to a more pro-inflammatory diet seems to be associated with increased arterial peripheral resistance and arterial stiffness.

Keywords: dietary inflammatory index, hypertension, mean arterial pressure, elderly

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17 Mitigating Supply Chain Risk for Sustainability Using Big Data Knowledge: Evidence from the Manufacturing Supply Chain

Authors: Mani Venkatesh, Catarina Delgado, Purvishkumar Patel

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The sustainable supply chain is gaining popularity among practitioners because of increased environmental degradation and stakeholder awareness. On the other hand supply chain, risk management is very crucial for the practitioners as it potentially disrupts supply chain operations. Prediction and addressing the risk caused by social issues in the supply chain is paramount importance to the sustainable enterprise. More recently, the usage of Big data analytics for forecasting business trends has been gaining momentum among professionals. The aim of the research is to explore the application of big data, predictive analytics in successfully mitigating supply chain social risk and demonstrate how such mitigation can help in achieving sustainability (environmental, economic & social). The method involves the identification and validation of social issues in the supply chain by an expert panel and survey. Later, we used a case study to illustrate the application of big data in the successful identification and mitigation of social issues in the supply chain. Our result shows that the company can predict various social issues through big data, predictive analytics and mitigate the social risk. We also discuss the implication of this research to the body of knowledge and practice.

Keywords: big data, sustainability, supply chain social sustainability, social risk, case study

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16 Isolation and Antifungal Susceptibility Pattern of Candida albicans from Endocervical and High Vaginal Swabs of Pregnant Women Attending State Specialist Hospital Gombe, Nigeria

Authors: Isa Shu’aibu, A. A. Mu’inat, F. U. Maigari, M. A. Mani

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Candida albicans is the common cause of both oral and vaginal candidiasis in humans. This candidiasis leads to a wide range of physical, psychological and even physiological problems in humans particularly pregnant women. Samples of endocervical and high vaginal swab were collected from 200 women attending Gombe Specialist Hospital and inoculated on Saboraud Dextrose Agar (SDA) incorporated with chloramphenicol to get rid of the unwanted bacterial contaminants. Gram staining technique and germ tube test were employed for the identification, as Candida albicans is positive for both. Gram positive samples were 70% (n=140) and were further subjected to germ tube test. The remaining 30% (n=60) were found to be Gram negative. 90% (n=126) of the Gram positive ones isolated were also found to be positive for germ tube test; confirming the presence of Candida albicans. Antifungal susceptibility testing revealed that members of Imidazole (Ketoconazole, Miconazole) and those of Triazoles (Fluconazole and Itraconazole) were found to be more effective at concentrations of 20, 50 and 100 µg/disc compared to Griseofulvin (Fulcin) with only 26.00 mm zone of inhibition at 100 µg/disc concentration.

Keywords: Candida albicans, candidiasis, endocervical, vaginal swab, antifungal susceptibility, imidazole, triazoles

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15 Changing Social Life of the Potters of Nongpok Sekmai in Manipur, India

Authors: Keisham Ingocha Singh, Mayanglambam Mani Babu, Lorho Mary Maheo

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Background: The tradition of the development of pottery through the handling of clay is one of the earliest skills known to the Chakpas of Manipur. Nongpok Sekmai, a Chakpa village in Thoubal district of Manipur, India, is strictly associated with making pots of red ochre colour called uyan. In the past, pottery was in great demand, each family needed them in rituals, festive occasions and also for day to day use. The whole village was engaged in the occupation of pot making. However the tradition of pottery making is fast declining. People have switched over to other economic activities which can provide them a better socioeconomic life leaving behind the age-old tradition of pottery occupation. The present study was carried out to find out the social life of the potters of Nongpok Sekmai. Materials and Method: In-depth interviews, household survey and observation were conducted to collect information on the pottery trend in the village. Results: The total population of the surveyed village is 1194 persons out of which 582 are male and 612 are female, distributed through 252 households. At present 4.94 % of the total population are still engaged in this profession. The study recorded 19 occupations other than pottery among women indicating decline of the traditional occupation. Conclusion: The study has revealed the changing life of the potters due to technological development, globalization and social network.

Keywords: Chakpas, Nongpok Sekmai, pottery, uyan

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14 Identification and Characterization of Genes Expressed in Diseased Condition Silkworms (Bombyx mori): A Systematic Investigation

Authors: Siddharth Soni, Gourav Kumar Pandey, Sneha Kumari, Dev Mani Pandey, Koel Mukherjee

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The silkworm Bombyx mori is a commercially important insect, but a major roadblock in silk production are silkworm diseases. Flacherie is one of the diseases of the silkworm, that affects the midgut of the 4th and 5th instar larvae and eventually makes them lethargic, stop feeding and finally result in their death. The concerned disease is a result of bacterial and viral infection and in some instances a combination of both. The present study aims to identify and study the expression level of genes in the flacherie condition. For the said work, total RNA was isolated from the infected larvae at their most probable infectious instar and cDNA was synthesized using Reverse Transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR). This cDNA was then used to amplify disease relalted genes whose expression levels were checked using quantitaive PCR (qPCR) using the double delta Ct method. Cry toxin receptors like APN and BtR-175, ROS mediator Dual Oxidase are few proteins whose genes were overexpressed. Interestingly, pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) C-type lectins' genes were found to be downregulated. The results explain about the strong expression of genes that can distinguish the concerned protein in the midgut of diseased silkworm and thereby aiding knowledge in the field of inhibitor designing research.

Keywords: Bombyx mori, flacherie disease, inhibitor designing, up and down regulation

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13 The Relationship between First-Day Body Temperature and Mortality in Traumatic Patients

Authors: Neda Valizadeh, Mani Mofidi, Sama Haghighi, Ali Hashemaghaee, Soudabeh Shafiee Ardestani

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Background: There are many systems and parameters to evaluate trauma patients in the emergency department. Most of these evaluations are to distinguish patients with worse conditions so that the care systems have a better prediction of condition for a better care-giving. The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between axillary body temperature and mortality in patients hospitalized in the intensive care unit (ICU) with multiple traumas and with other clinical and para-clinical factors. Methods: All patients between 16 and 75 years old with multiple traumas who were admitted into Emergency Department then hospitalized in the ICU were included in our study. An axillary temperature in the first and the second day of admission, Glasgow cola scale (GCS), systolic blood pressure, Serum glucose levels, and white blood cell counts of all patients at the admission day were recorded and their relationship with mortality were analyzed by SPSS software with suitable statistical tests. Results: Axillary body temperatures in the first and second day were statistically lower in expired traumatic patients (p=0.001 and p<0,001 respectively). Patients with lower GCS had a significantly lower first-day temperature and a significantly higher mortality. (p=0.006 and p=0.006 respectively). Furthermore, the first-day axillary temperature was significantly lower in patients with a lower first-day systolic blood pressure (p=0.014). Conclusion: Our results showed that lower axillary body temperature in the first day is associated with higher mortality, lower GCS, and lower systolic blood pressure. Thus, this could be used as a predictor of mortality in evaluation of traumatic patients in emergency settings.

Keywords: fever, trauma, mortality, emergency

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12 Germination and Seed Vigor Response of Five Wheat Cultivars to Stress of Premature Aging Effects

Authors: Mehdi Soltani Howyzeh, Neda Kardoni, Mani Mojadam

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To evaluate the vigor of wheat seeds and stress of premature aging effects on germination percentage, root length and shoot length of five wheat cultivars that include Vynak, Karkheh, Chamran, Star and Kavir which underwent a period of zero, two, three, four days in terms of premature aging with 41 °C temperature and 100% relative humidity. Seed germination percentage, root length and shoot length in these conditions were measured. This experiment was conducted as a factorial completely randomized design with four replications in laboratory conditions. The results showed that each of aging treatments used in this experiment can be used to detect differences in vigor of wheat varieties. Wheat cultivars illustrated significant differences in germination percentage, root length and shoot length in terms of premature aging. The wheat cultivars; Astar and Vynak had maximum germination percentage and Karkheh, respectively Kavir and Chamran had lowest percentage of seed germination. Reactions of root and shoot length of wheat cultivars was also different. The results showed that the seeds with a stronger vigor affected less in premature aging condition and the difference between the percentage of seed germination under normal conditions and stress was significant and the seeds with the weaker vigor were more sensitive to the premature aging stress and the premature aging had more severe negative impact on seed vigor.

Keywords: wheat cultivars, seed vigor, premature aging effects, germination

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11 Genome-Wide Expression Profiling of Cicer arietinum Heavy Metal Toxicity

Authors: B. S. Yadav, A. Mani, S. Srivastava

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Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is an annual, self-pollinating, diploid (2n = 2x = 16) pulse crop that ranks second in world legume production after common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). ICC 4958 flowers approximately 39 days after sowing under peninsular Indian conditions and the crop matures in less than 90 days in rained environments. The estimated collective yield losses due to abiotic stresses (6.4 million t) have been significantly higher than for biotic stresses (4.8 million t). Most legumes are known to be salt sensitive, and therefore, it is becoming increasingly important to produce cultivars tolerant to high-salinity in addition to other abiotic and biotic stresses for sustainable chickpea production. Our aim was to identify the genes that are involved in the defence mechanism against heavy metal toxicity in chickpea and establish the biological network of heavy metal toxicity in chickpea. ICC4958 variety of chick pea was taken and grown in normal condition and 150µM concentration of different heavy metal salt like CdCl₂, K₂Cr2O₇, NaAsO₂. At 15th day leave samples were collected and stored in RNA Later solution microarray was performed for checking out differential gene expression pattern. Our studies revealed that 111 common genes that involved in defense mechanism were up regulated and 41 genes were commonly down regulated during treatment of 150µM concentration of CdCl₂, K₂Cr₂O₇, and NaAsO₂. Biological network study shows that the genes which are differentially expressed are highly connected and having high betweenness and centrality.

Keywords: abiotic stress, biological network, chickpea, microarray

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10 Fabrication of Nanoengineered Radiation Shielding Multifunctional Polymeric Sandwich Composites

Authors: Nasim Abuali Galehdari, Venkat Mani, Ajit D. Kelkar

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Space Radiation has become one of the major factors in successful long duration space exploration. Exposure to space radiation not only can affect the health of astronauts but also can disrupt or damage materials and electronics. Hazards to materials include degradation of properties, such as, modulus, strength, or glass transition temperature. Electronics may experience single event effects, gate rupture, burnout of field effect transistors and noise. Presently aluminum is the major component in most of the space structures due to its lightweight and good structural properties. However, aluminum is ineffective at blocking space radiation. Therefore, most of the past research involved studying at polymers which contain large amounts of hydrogen. Again, these materials are not structural materials and would require large amounts of material to achieve the structural properties needed. One of the materials to alleviate this problem is polymeric composite materials, which has good structural properties and use polymers that contained large amounts of hydrogen. This paper presents steps involved in fabrication of multi-functional hybrid sandwich panels that can provide beneficial radiation shielding as well as structural strength. Multifunctional hybrid sandwich panels were manufactured using vacuum assisted resin transfer molding process and were subjected to radiation treatment. Study indicates that various nanoparticles including Boron Nano powder, Boron Carbide and Gadolinium nanoparticles can be successfully used to block the space radiation without sacrificing the structural integrity.

Keywords: multi-functional, polymer composites, radiation shielding, sandwich composites

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9 An Analytical Study on the Effect of Chronic Liver Disease Severity and Etiology on Lipid Profiles

Authors: Thinakar Mani Balusamy, Venkateswaran A. R., Bharat Narasimhan, Ratnakar Kini S., Kani Sheikh M., Prem Kumar K., Pugazhendi Thangavelu, Arun Murugan, Sibi Thooran Karmegam, Radhakrishnan N., Mohammed Noufal, Amit Soni

Abstract:

Background and Aims: The liver is integral to lipid metabolism, and a compromise in its function leads to perturbations in these pathways. In this study, we hope to determine the correlation between CLD severity and its effect on lipid parameters. We also look at the etiology-specific effects on lipid levels. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of 250 patients with cirrhosis compared to 250 healthy age and sex-matched controls. Severity assessment of CLD using MELD and Child-Pugh scores was performed and etiological details collected. A questionnaire was used to obtain patient demographic details and lastly, a fasting lipid profile (Total, LDL, HDL cholesterol, Triglycerides and VLDL) was obtained. Results: All components of the lipid profile declined linearly with increasing severity of CLD as determined by MELD and Child-Pugh scores. Lipid levels were clearly lower in CLD patients as compared to healthy controls. Interestingly, preliminary analysis indicated that CLD of different etiologies had differential effects on Lipid profiles. This aspect is under further analysis. Conclusion: All components of the lipid profile were definitely lower in CLD patients as compared to controls and demonstrated an inverse correlation with increasing severity. The utilization of this parameter as a prognosticating aid requires further study. Additionally, preliminary analysis indicates that various CLD etiologies appear to have specific effects on the lipid profile – a finding under further analysis.

Keywords: CLD, cholesterol, HDL, LDL, lipid profile, triglycerides, VLDL

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8 Opioid Administration on Patients Hospitalized in the Emergency Department

Authors: Mani Mofidi, Neda Valizadeh, Ali Hashemaghaee, Mona Hashemaghaee, Soudabeh Shafiee Ardestani

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Background: Acute pain and its management remained the most complaint of emergency service admission. Diagnostic and therapeutic procedures add to patients’ pain. Diminishing the pain increases the quality of patient’s feeling and improves the patient-physician relationship. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes and side effects of opioid administration in emergency patients. Material and Methods: patients admitted to ward II emergency service of Imam Khomeini hospital, who received one of the opioids: morphine, pethidine, methadone or fentanyl as an analgesic were evaluated. Their vital signs and general condition were examined before and after drug injection. Also, patient’s pain experience were recorded as numerical rating score (NRS) before and after analgesic administration. Results: 268 patients were studied. 34 patients were addicted to opioid drugs. Morphine had the highest rate of prescription (86.2%), followed by pethidine (8.5%), methadone (3.3%) and fentanyl (1.68). While initial NRS did not show significant difference between addicted patients and non-addicted ones, NRS decline and its score after drug injection were significantly lower in addicted patients. All patients had slight but statistically significant lower respiratory rate, heart rate, blood pressure and O2 saturation. There was no significant difference between different kind of opioid prescription and its outcomes or side effects. Conclusion: Pain management should be always in physicians’ mind during emergency admissions. It should not be assumed that an addicted patient complaining of pain is malingering to receive drug. Titration of drug and close monitoring must be in the curriculum to prevent any hazardous side effects.

Keywords: numerical rating score, opioid, pain, emergency department

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7 Role of Endotherapy vs Surgery in the Management of Traumatic Pancreatic Injury: A Tertiary Center Experience

Authors: Thinakar Mani Balusamy, Ratnakar S. Kini, Bharat Narasimhan, Venkateswaran A. R, Pugazhendi Thangavelu, Mohammed Ali, Prem Kumar K., Kani Sheikh M., Sibi Thooran Karmegam, Radhakrishnan N., Mohammed Noufal

Abstract:

Introduction: Pancreatic injury remains a complicated condition requiring an individualized case by case approach to management. In this study, we aim to analyze the varied presentations and treatment outcomes of traumatic pancreatic injury in a tertiary care center. Methods: All consecutive patients hospitalized at our center with traumatic pancreatic injury between 2013 and 2017 were included. The American Association for Surgery of Trauma (AAST) classification was used to stratify patients into five grades of severity. Outcome parameters were then analyzed based on the treatment modality employed. Results: Of the 35 patients analyzed, 26 had an underlying blunt trauma with the remaining nine presenting due to penetrating injury. Overall in-hospital mortality was 28%. 19 of these patients underwent exploratory laparotomy with the remaining 16 managed nonoperatively. Nine patients had a severe injury ( > grade 3) – of which four underwent endotherapy, three had stents placed and one underwent an endoscopic pseudocyst drainage. Among those managed nonoperatively, three underwent a radiological drainage procedure. Conclusion: Mortality rates were clearly higher in patients managed operatively. This is likely a result of significantly higher degrees of major associated non-pancreatic injuries and not just a reflection of surgical morbidity. Despite this, surgical management remains the mainstay of therapy, especially in higher grades of pancreatic injury. However we would like to emphasize that endoscopic intervention definitely remains the preferred treatment modality when the clinical setting permits. This is especially applicable in cases of main pancreatic duct injury with ascites as well as pseudocysts.

Keywords: endotherapy, non-operative management, surgery, traumatic pancreatic injury

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6 An Association Model to Correlate the Experimentally Determined Mixture Solubilities of Methyl 10-Undecenoate with Methyl Ricinoleate in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

Authors: V. Mani Rathnam, Giridhar Madras

Abstract:

Fossil fuels are depleting rapidly as the demand for energy, and its allied chemicals are continuously increasing in the modern world. Therefore, sustainable renewable energy sources based on non-edible oils are being explored as a viable option as they do not compete with the food commodities. Oils such as castor oil are rich in fatty acids and thus can be used for the synthesis of biodiesel, bio-lubricants, and many other fine industrial chemicals. There are several processes available for the synthesis of different chemicals obtained from the castor oil. One such process is the transesterification of castor oil, which results in a mixture of fatty acid methyl esters. The main products in the above reaction are methyl ricinoleate and methyl 10-undecenoate. To separate these compounds, supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO₂) was used as a green solvent. SCCO₂ was chosen as a solvent due to its easy availability, non-toxic, non-flammable, and low cost. In order to design any separation process, the preliminary requirement is the solubility or phase equilibrium data. Therefore, the solubility of a mixture of methyl ricinoleate with methyl 10-undecenoate in SCCO₂ was determined in the present study. The temperature and pressure range selected for the investigation were T = 313 K to 333 K and P = 10 MPa to 18 MPa. It was observed that the solubility (mol·mol⁻¹) of methyl 10-undecenoate varied from 2.44 x 10⁻³ to 8.42 x 10⁻³ whereas it varied from 0.203 x 10⁻³ to 6.28 x 10⁻³ for methyl ricinoleate within the chosen operating conditions. These solubilities followed a retrograde behavior (characterized by the decrease in the solubility values with the increase in temperature) throughout the range of investigated operating conditions. An association theory model, coupled with regular solution theory for activity coefficients, was developed in the present study. The deviation from the experimental data using this model can be quantified using the average absolute relative deviation (AARD). The AARD% for the present compounds is 4.69 and 8.08 for methyl 10-undecenoate and methyl ricinoleate, respectively in a mixture of methyl ricinoleate and methyl 10-undecenoate. The maximum solubility enhancement of 32% was observed for the methyl ricinoleate in a mixture of methyl ricinoleate and methyl 10-undecenoate. The highest selectivity of SCCO₂ was observed to be 12 for methyl 10-undecenoate in a mixture of methyl ricinoleate and methyl 10-undecenoate.

Keywords: association theory, liquid mixtures, solubilities, supercritical carbon dioxide

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5 Comprehensive Multilevel Practical Condition Monitoring Guidelines for Power Cables in Industries: Case Study of Mobarakeh Steel Company in Iran

Authors: S. Mani, M. Kafil, E. Asadi

Abstract:

Condition Monitoring (CM) of electrical equipment has gained remarkable importance during the recent years; due to huge production losses, substantial imposed costs and increases in vulnerability, risk and uncertainty levels. Power cables feed numerous electrical equipment such as transformers, motors, and electric furnaces; thus their condition assessment is of a very great importance. This paper investigates electrical, structural and environmental failure sources, all of which influence cables' performances and limit their uptimes; and provides a comprehensive framework entailing practical CM guidelines for maintenance of cables in industries. The multilevel CM framework presented in this study covers performance indicative features of power cables; with a focus on both online and offline diagnosis and test scenarios, and covers short-term and long-term threats to the operation and longevity of power cables. The study, after concisely overviewing the concept of CM, thoroughly investigates five major areas of power quality, Insulation Quality features of partial discharges, tan delta and voltage withstand capabilities, together with sheath faults, shield currents and environmental features of temperature and humidity; and elaborates interconnections and mutual impacts between those areas; using mathematical formulation and practical guidelines. Detection, location, and severity identification methods for every threat or fault source are also elaborated. Finally, the comprehensive, practical guidelines presented in the study are presented for the specific case of Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) feeder MV power cables in Mobarakeh Steel Company (MSC), the largest steel company in MENA region, in Iran. Specific technical and industrial characteristics and limitations of a harsh industrial environment like MSC EAF feeder cable tunnels are imposed on the presented framework; making the suggested package more practical and tangible.

Keywords: condition monitoring, diagnostics, insulation, maintenance, partial discharge, power cables, power quality

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4 Human Rabies Survivors in India: Epidemiological, Immunological and Virological Studies

Authors: Madhusudana S. N., Reeta Mani, Ashwini S. Satishchandra P., Netravati, Udhani V., Fiaz A., Karande S.

Abstract:

Rabies is an acute encephalitis which is considered 100% fatal despite occasional reports of survivors. However, in recent times more cases of human rabies survivors are being reported. In the last 5 years, there are six laboratories confirmed human rabies survivors in India alone. All cases were children below 15 years and all contracted the disease by dog bites. All of them also had received the full or partial course of rabies vaccination and 4 out of 6 had also received rabies immunoglobulin. All cases were treated in intensive care units in hospitals at Bangalore, Mumbai, Chandigarh, Lucknow and Goa. We report here the results of immunological and virological studies conducted at our laboratory on these patients. The clinical samples that were obtained from these patients were Serum, CSF, nuchal skin biopsy and saliva. Serum and CSF samples were subjected to standard RFFIT for estimation of rabies neutralizing antibodies. Skin biopsy, CSF and saliva were processed by TaqMan real-time PCR for detection of viral RNA. CSF, saliva and skin homogenates were also processed for virus isolation by inoculation of suckling mice. The PBMCs isolated from fresh blood was subjected to ELISPOT assay to determine the type of immune response (Th1/Th2). Both CSF and serum were also investigated for selected cytokines by Luminex assay. The level of antibodies to virus G protein and N protein were determined by ELISA. All survivors had very high titers of RVNA in serum and CSF 100 fold higher than non-survivors and vaccine controls. A five-fold rise in titer could be demonstrated in 4 out of 6 patients. All survivors had a significant increase in antibodies to G protein in both CSF and serum when compared to non-survivors. There was a profound and robust Th1 response in all survivors indicating that interferon gamma could play an important factor in virus clearance. We could isolate viral RNA in only one patient four years after he had developed symptoms. The partial N gene sequencing revealed 99% homology to species I strain prevalent in India. Levels of selected cytokines in CSF and serum did not reveal any difference between survivors and non-survivors. To conclude, survival from rabies is mediated by virus-specific immune responses of the host and clearance of rabies virus from CNS may involve the participation of both Th2 and Th1 immune responses.

Keywords: rabies, rabies treatment, rabies survivors, immune reponse in rabies encephalitis

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3 Developing a Framework for Assessing and Fostering the Sustainability of Manufacturing Companies

Authors: Ilaria Barletta, Mahesh Mani, Björn Johansson

Abstract:

The concept of sustainability encompasses economic, environmental, social and institutional considerations. Sustainable manufacturing (SM) is, therefore, a multi-faceted concept. It broadly implies the development and implementation of technologies, projects and initiatives that are concerned with the life cycle of products and services, and are able to bring positive impacts to the environment, company stakeholders and profitability. Because of this, achieving SM-related goals requires a holistic, life-cycle-thinking approach from manufacturing companies. Further, such an approach must rely on a logic of continuous improvement and ease of implementation in order to be effective. Currently, there exists in the academic literature no comprehensively structured frameworks that support manufacturing companies in the identification of the issues and the capabilities that can either hinder or foster sustainability. This scarcity of support extends to difficulties in obtaining quantifiable measurements in order to objectively evaluate solutions and programs and identify improvement areas within SM for standards conformance. To bridge this gap, this paper proposes the concept of a framework for assessing and continuously improving the sustainability of manufacturing companies. The framework addresses strategies and projects for SM and operates in three sequential phases: analysis of the issues, design of solutions and continuous improvement. A set of interviews, observations and questionnaires are the research methods to be used for the implementation of the framework. Different decision-support methods - either already-existing or novel ones - can be 'plugged into' each of the phases. These methods can assess anything from business capabilities to process maturity. In particular, the authors are working on the development of a sustainable manufacturing maturity model (SMMM) as decision support within the phase of 'continuous improvement'. The SMMM, inspired by previous maturity models, is made up of four maturity levels stemming from 'non-existing' to 'thriving'. Aggregate findings from the use of the framework should ultimately reveal to managers and CEOs the roadmap for achieving SM goals and identify the maturity of their companies’ processes and capabilities. Two cases from two manufacturing companies in Australia are currently being employed to develop and test the framework. The use of this framework will bring two main benefits: enable visual, intuitive internal sustainability benchmarking and raise awareness of improvement areas that lead companies towards an increasingly developed SM.

Keywords: life cycle management, continuous improvement, maturity model, sustainable manufacturing

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2 Fabrication of High Energy Hybrid Capacitors from Biomass Waste-Derived Activated Carbon

Authors: Makhan Maharjan, Mani Ulaganathan, Vanchiappan Aravindan, Srinivasan Madhavi, Jing-Yuan Wang, Tuti Mariana Lim

Abstract:

There is great interest to exploit sustainable, low-cost, renewable resources as carbon precursors for energy storage applications. Research on development of energy storage devices has been growing rapidly due to mismatch in power supply and demand from renewable energy sources This paper reported the synthesis of porous activated carbon from biomass waste and evaluated its performance in supercapicators. In this work, we employed orange peel (waste material) as the starting material and synthesized activated carbon by pyrolysis of KOH impregnated orange peel char at 800 °C in argon atmosphere. The resultant orange peel-derived activated carbon (OP-AC) exhibited a high BET surface area of 1,901 m2 g-1, which is the highest surface area so far reported for the orange peel. The pore size distribution (PSD) curve exhibits the pores centered at 11.26 Å pore width, suggesting dominant microporosity. The OP-AC was studied as positive electrode in combination with different negative electrode materials, such as pre-lithiated graphite (LiC6) and Li4Ti5O12 for making different hybrid capacitors. The lithium ion capacitor (LIC) fabricated using OP-AC with pre-lithiated graphite delivered a high energy density of ~106 Wh kg–1. The energy density for OP-AC||Li4Ti5O12 capacitor was ~35 Wh kg–1. For comparison purpose, configuration of OP-AC||OP-AC capacitors were studied in both aqueous (1M H2SO4) and organic (1M LiPF6 in EC-DMC) electrolytes, which delivered the energy density of 6.6 Wh kg-1 and 16.3 Wh kg-1, respectively. The cycling retentions obtained at current density of 1 A g–1 were ~85.8, ~87.0 ~82.2 and ~58.8% after 2500 cycles for OP-AC||OP-AC (aqueous), OP-AC||OP-AC (organic), OP-AC||Li4Ti5O12 and OP-AC||LiC6 configurations, respectively. In addition, characterization studies were performed by elemental and proximate composition, thermogravimetry, field emission-scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectra, X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern, Fourier transform-infrared, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and N2 sorption isotherms. The morphological features from FE-SEM exhibited well-developed porous structures. Two typical broad peaks observed in the XRD framework of the synthesized carbon implies amorphous graphitic structure. The ratio of 0.86 for ID/IG in Raman spectra infers high degree of graphitization in the sample. The band spectra of C 1s in XPS display the well resolved peaks related to carbon atoms in various chemical environments; for instances, the characteristics binding energies appeared at ~283.83, ~284.83, ~286.13, ~288.56, and ~290.70 eV which correspond to sp2 -graphitic C, sp3 -graphitic C, C-O, C=O and π-π*, respectively. Characterization studies revealed the synthesized carbon to be promising electrode material towards the application for energy storage devices. The findings opened up the possibility of developing high energy LICs from abundant, low-cost, renewable biomass waste.

Keywords: lithium-ion capacitors, orange peel, pre-lithiated graphite, supercapacitors

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1 High Performance Lithium Ion Capacitors from Biomass Waste-Derived Activated Carbon

Authors: Makhan Maharjan, Mani Ulaganathan, Vanchiappan Aravindan, Srinivasan Madhavi, Jing-Yuan Wang, Tuti Mariana Lim

Abstract:

The ever-increasing energy demand has made research to develop high performance energy storage systems that are able to fulfill energy needs. Supercapacitors have potential applications as portable energy storage devices. In recent years, there have been huge research interests to enhance the performances of supercapacitors via exploiting novel promising carbon precursors, tailoring textural properties of carbons, exploiting various electrolytes and device types. In this work, we employed orange peel (waste material) as the starting material and synthesized activated carbon by pyrolysis of KOH impregnated orange peel char at 800 °C in argon atmosphere. The resultant orange peel-derived activated carbon (OP-AC) exhibited BET surface area of 1,901 m² g-1, which is the highest surface area so far reported for the orange peel. The pore size distribution (PSD) curve exhibits the pores centered at 11.26 Å pore width, suggesting dominant microporosity. The high surface area OP-AC accommodates more ions in the electrodes and its well-developed porous structure facilitates fast diffusion of ions which subsequently enhance electrochemical performance. The OP-AC was studied as positive electrode in combination with different negative electrode materials, such as pre-lithiated graphite (LiC6) and Li4Ti5O12 for making hybrid capacitors. The lithium ion capacitor (LIC) fabricated using OP-AC with pre-lithiated graphite delivered high energy density of ~106 Wh kg–1. The energy density for OP-AC||Li4Ti5O12 capacitor was ~35 Wh kg⁻¹. For comparison purpose, configuration of OP-AC||OP-AC capacitors were studied in both aqueous (1M H2SO4) and organic (1M LiPF6 in EC-DMC) electrolytes, which delivered the energy density of 8.0 Wh kg⁻¹ and 16.3 Wh kg⁻¹, respectively. The cycling retentions obtained at current density of 1 A g⁻¹ were ~85.8, ~87.0 ~82.2 and ~58.8% after 2500 cycles for OP-AC||OP-AC (aqueous), OP-AC||OP-AC (organic), OP-AC||Li4Ti5O12 and OP-AC||LiC6 configurations, respectively. In addition, characterization studies were performed by elemental and proximate composition, thermogravimetry analysis, field emission-scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectra, X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern, Fourier transform-infrared, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and N2 sorption isotherms. The morphological features from FE-SEM exhibited well-developed porous structures. Two typical broad peaks observed in the XRD framework of the synthesized carbon implies amorphous graphitic structure. The ratio of 0.86 for ID/IG in Raman spectra infers high degree of graphitization in the sample. The band spectra of C 1s in XPS display the well resolved peaks related to carbon atoms in various chemical environments. The presence of functional groups is also corroborated from the FTIR spectroscopy. Characterization studies revealed the synthesized carbon to be promising electrode material towards the application for energy storage devices. Overall, the intriguing properties of OP-AC make it a new alternative promising electrode material for the development of high energy lithium ion capacitors from abundant, low-cost, renewable biomass waste. The authors gratefully acknowledge Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR)/ Singapore International Graduate Award (SINGA) and Nanyang Technological University (NTU), Singapore for funding support.

Keywords: energy storage, lithium-ion capacitors, orange peels, porous activated carbon

Procedia PDF Downloads 130