Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 157

Search results for: ethanol

157 The Investigations of Water-ethanol Mixture by Monte Carlo Method

Authors: Atamas N. A., Atamas A. A.

Abstract:

Energetic and structural results for ethanol-water mixtures as a function of the mole fraction were calculated using Monte Carlo methodology. Energy partitioning results obtained for equimolar water-ethanol mixture and ether organic liquids are compared. It has been shown that at xet=0.22 the RDFs for waterethanol and ethanol-ethanol interactions indicated strong hydrophobic interactions between ethanol molecules and the local structure of solution is less structured at this concentration as at ether ones. Results obtained for ethanol-water mixture as a function of concentration are in good agreement with the experimental data.

Keywords: Ethanol, molecular liquids, Monte Carlo, water, thermodynamics.

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156 Extractive Fermentation of Ethanol Using Vacuum Fractionation Technique

Authors: Weeraya Samnuknit, Apichat Boontawan

Abstract:

A vacuum fractionation technique was introduced to remove ethanol from fermentation broth. The effect of initial glucose and ethanol concentrations were investigated for specific productivity. The inhibitory ethanol concentration was observed at 100 g/L. In order to increase the fermentation performance, the ethanol product was removed as soon as it is produced. The broth was boiled at 35oC by reducing the pressure to 65 mBar. The ethanol/water vapor was fractionated for up to 90 wt% before leaving the column. Ethanol concentration in the broth was kept lower than 25 g/L, thus minimized the product inhibition effect to the yeast cells. For batch extractive fermentation, a high substrate utilization rate was obtained at 26.6 g/L.h and most of glucose was consumed within 21 h. For repeated-batch extractive fermentation, addition of glucose was carried out up to 9 times and ethanol was produced more than 8-fold higher than batch fermentation.

Keywords: Ethanol, Extractive fermentation, Product inhibition, Vacuum fractionation.

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155 Physicochemical Parameters and Economic Evaluation of Bio Ethanol Produced from Waste of Starting Dates in South Algeria

Authors: Insaf Mehani, Bachir Bouchekima

Abstract:

The fight against climate change and the replacement of fossil energies nearing exhaustion gradually emerge as major societal and economic challenges. It is possible to develop common dates of low commercial value, and put on the local and international market a new generation of products with high added values such as bio ethanol. Besides its use in chemical synthesis, bio ethanol can be blended with gasoline to produce a clean fuel while improving the octane.

Keywords: Bio energy, waste dates, bio ethanol.

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154 Coproduction of Fructose and Ethanol from Dates by S. cerevisiae ATCC 36859

Authors: M. A. Zeinelabdeen, A. E. Abasaeed, M. H. Gaily, A. K. Sulieman, M. D. Putra

Abstract:

Coproduction of fructose and ethanol from dates extract by a glucose-selective S. cerevisiae ATCC 36859 strain has been studied. Various initial sugar concentrations (i.e., 131.4, 315.3, 408.2, and 500.0 g/l) have been tested. The fermentation experiments were performed in a water shaker bath at 30°C and 120 rpm. The results showed that highest yields of fructose (95.0%) and ethanol (72.8%) were achieved for the 131.4 g/l concentration. Increasing the initial concentration to 315.3 g/l resulted in lower yields of fructose (82.2%) and ethanol (61.0%). However, further increase to 408.2 g/l increased the fructose yield (97.5%) at the expense of ethanol yield (42.0%) due to probable substrate inhibitions that resulted in lower glucose conversion. At 500 g initial sugar/l the growth rate of ATCC 36859 was highly inhibited. 

Keywords: Dates, ethanol, fructose, fermentation, S. cerevisiae.

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153 Micro-aerobic, Anaerobic and Two-stage Condition for Ethanol Production by enterobacter aerogenes from Biodiesel-derived Crude Glycerol

Authors: Kanokrat Saisaard, Irini Angelidaki, Poonsuk Prasertsan

Abstract:

The microbial production of ethanol from biodiesel¬derived crude glycerol by Enterobacter aerogenes TISTR1468, under micro-aerobic and anaerobic conditions, was investigated. The experimental results showed that micro-aerobic conditions were more favorable for cellular growth (4.0 g/L DCW), ethanol production (20.7 g/L) as well as the ethanol yield (0.47 g/g glycerol) than anaerobic conditions (1.2 g/L DCW, 6.3 g/L ethanol and 0.72 g/g glycerol, respectively). Crude glycerol (100 g/L) was consumed completely with the rate of 1.80 g/L/h. Two-stage fermentation (combination of micro-aerobic and anaerobic condition) exhibited higher ethanol production (24.5 g/L) than using one-stage fermentation (either micro-aerobic or anaerobic condition. The two- stage configuration, exhibited slightly higher crude glycerol consumption rate (1.81 g/L/h), as well as ethanol yield (0.56 g/g) than the one-stage configuration. Therefore, two-stage process was selected for ethanol production from E. aerogenes TISTR1468 in scale-up studies.

Keywords: crude glycerol, ethanol, micro-aerobic, two-stage, Enterobacter aerogenes

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152 Effect of Mineral Ion Addition on Yeast Performance during Very High Gravity Wort Fermentation

Authors: H. O. Udeh, T. E. Kgatla, A. I. O. Jideani

Abstract:

The effect of Zn2+, Mg2+, and Ba2+ on Saccharomyces pastorianus performance was evaluated in this study at independent and three variable combinations. After 96 h of fermentation, high wort fermentability (%F) = 29.53 was obtained in medium containing 900:4 ppm Mg2+ + Ba2+. Increased ethanol yield 7.35 %(v/v) and 7.13 %(v/v) were obtained in media containing 900:4 ppm Mg2+ + Ba2+ and 12:900 ppm Zn2+ + Mg2+. Decrease %F = 22.54 and ethanol yield 6.18 % (v/v) was obtained in medium containing 12:4 ppm Zn2+ + Ba2+. In media containing the individual ions, increased %F = 27.94 and 26.03 were recorded for media containing 700 ppm Mg2+ and 2 ppm Ba2+ , with ethanol yield of 7.88% (v/v) and 7.62% (v/v) respectively. Reduced %F and ethanol yield was observed for 10 ppm Zn2+ and 4 ppm Ba2+ media. The impact of Ba2+ at 1 and 2 ppm was significant.

Keywords: Ethanol yield, fermentability, mineral ions, yeast stress, very high gravity fermentation.

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151 Pressure Swing Adsorption with Cassava Adsorbent for Dehydration of Ethanol Vapor

Authors: Chontira Boonfung, Panarat Rattanaphanee

Abstract:

Ethanol has become more attractive in fuel industry either as fuel itself or an additive that helps enhancing the octane number and combustibility of gasoline. This research studied a pressure swing adsorption using cassava-based adsorbent prepared from mixture of cassava starch and cassava pulp for dehydration of ethanol vapor. The apparatus used in the experiments consisted of double adsorption columns, an evaporator, and a vacuum pump. The feed solution contained 90-92 %wt of ethanol. Three process variables: adsorption temperatures (110, 120 and 130°C), adsorption pressures (1 and 2 bar gauge) and feed vapor flow rate (25, 50 and 75 % valve opening of the evaporator) were investigated. According to the experimental results, the optimal operating condition for this system was found to be at 2 bar gauge for adsorption pressure, 120°C for adsorption temperature and 25% valve opening of the evaporator. Production of 1.48 grams of ethanol with concentration higher than 99.5 wt% per gram of adsorbent was obtained. PSA with cassavabased adsorbent reported in this study could be an alternative method for production of nearly anhydrous ethanol. Dehydration of ethanol vapor achieved in this study is due to an interaction between free hydroxyl group on the glucose units of the starch and the water molecules.

Keywords: Adsorption, PSA, Ethanol, Dehydration, Cassava.

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150 Ethanol Fuelled HCCI Engine: A Review

Authors: B. Bahri, A. A. Aziz, M. Shahbakhti, M. F. Muhamad Said

Abstract:

The greenhouse effect and limitations on carbon dioxide emissions concern engine maker and the future of the internal combustion engines should go toward substantially and improved thermal efficiency engine. Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is an alternative high-efficiency technology for combustion engines to reduce exhaust emissions and fuel consumption. However, there are still tough challenges in the successful operation of HCCI engines, such as controlling the combustion phasing, extending the operating range, and high unburned hydrocarbon and CO emissions. HCCI and the exploitation of ethanol as an alternative fuel is one way to explore new frontiers of internal combustion engines with an eye towards maintaining its sustainability. This study was done to extend database knowledge about HCCI with ethanol a fuel.

Keywords: Ethanol combustion, Ethanol fuel, HCCI.

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149 Gasification of Trans-4-Hydroxycinnamic Acid with Ethanol at Elevated Temperatures

Authors: Shyh-Ming Chern, Wei-Ling Lin

Abstract:

Lignin is a major constituent of woody biomass, and exists abundantly in nature. It is the major byproducts from the paper industry and bioethanol production processes. The byproducts are mainly used for low-valued applications. Instead, lignin can be converted into higher-valued gaseous fuel, thereby helping to curtail the ever-growing price of oil and to slow down the trend of global warming. Although biochemical treatment is capable of converting cellulose into liquid ethanol fuel, it cannot be applied to the conversion of lignin. Alternatively, it is possible to convert lignin into gaseous fuel thermochemically. In the present work, trans-4-hydroxycinnamic acid, a model compound for lignin, which closely resembles the basic building blocks of lignin, is gasified in an autoclave with ethanol at elevated temperatures and pressures, that are above the critical point of ethanol. Ethanol, instead of water, is chosen, because ethanol dissolves trans-4-hydroxycinnamic acid easily and helps to convert it into lighter gaseous species relatively well. The major operating parameters for the gasification reaction include temperature (673-873 K), reaction pressure (5-25 MPa) and feed concentration (0.05-0.3 M). Generally, more than 80% of the reactant, including trans-4-hydroxycinnamic acid and ethanol, were converted into gaseous products at an operating condition of 873 K and 5 MPa.

Keywords: Ethanol, gasification, lignin, supercritical.

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148 Bio Fuel Production from Waste of Starting Dates in South Algeria

Authors: Insaf Mehani, Ahmed Boulal, Bachir Bouchekima

Abstract:

Renewable energy, including bio energy are an alternative to fossil fuel depletion and a way to fight against the harmful effects of climate change. It is possible to develop common dates of low commercial value, and put on the local and international market a new generation of products with high added values ​​such as bio ethanol. Besides its use in chemical synthesis, bio ethanol can be blended with gasoline to produce a clean fuel while improving the octane.

Keywords: Bio energy, dates, bio ethanol.

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147 Study Interaction between Tin Dioxide Nanowhiskers and Ethanol Molecules in Gas Phase: Monte Carlo(MC) and Langevin Dynamics (LD) Simulation

Authors: L. Mahdavian, M. Raouf

Abstract:

Three dimensional nanostructure materials have attracted the attention of many researches because the possibility to apply them for near future devices in sensors, catalysis and energy related. Tin dioxide is the most used material for gas sensing because its three-dimensional nanostructures and properties are related to the large surface exposed to gas adsorption. We propose the use of branch SnO2 nanowhiskers in interaction with ethanol. All Sn atoms are symmetric. The total energy, potential energy and Kinetic energy calculated for interaction between SnO2 and ethanol in different distances and temperatures. The calculations achieved by methods of Langevin Dynamic and Mont Carlo simulation. The total energy increased with addition ethanol molecules and temperature so interactions between them are endothermic.

Keywords: Tin dioxide, nanowhisker, Ethanol, Langevin Dynamic and Mont Carlo Simulation.

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146 Pseudo-Homogeneous Kinetic of Dilute-Acid Hydrolysis of Rice Husk for Ethanol Production: Effect of Sugar Degradation

Authors: Megawati, Wahyudi B. Sediawan, Hary Sulistyo, Muslikhin Hidayat

Abstract:

Rice husk is a lignocellulosic source that can be converted to ethanol. Three hundreds grams of rice husk was mixed with 1 L of 0.18 N sulfuric acid solutions then was heated in an autoclave. The reaction was expected to be at constant temperature (isothermal), but before that temperature was achieved, reaction has occurred. The first liquid sample was taken at temperature of 140 0C and repeated every 5 minute interval. So the data obtained are in the regions of non-isothermal and isothermal. It was observed that the degradation has significant effects on the ethanol production. The kinetic constants can be expressed by Arrhenius equation with the frequency factors for hydrolysis and sugar degradation of 1.58 x 105 1/min and 2.29 x 108 L/mole/min, respectively, while the activation energies are 64,350 J/mole and 76,571 J/mole. The highest ethanol concentration from fermentation is 1.13% v/v, attained at 220 0C.

Keywords: degradation, ethanol, hydrolysis, rice husk

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145 Pseudo-Homogeneous Kinetic of Dilute-Acid Hydrolysis of Rice Huskfor Ethanol Production: Effect of Sugar Degradation

Authors: Megawati, Wahyudi B. Sediawan, Hary Sulistyo, Muslikhin Hidayat

Abstract:

Rice husk is a lignocellulosic source that can be converted to ethanol. Three hundreds grams of rice husk was mixed with 1 L of 0.18 N sulfuric acid solutions then was heated in an autoclave. The reaction was expected to be at constant temperature (isothermal), but before that temperature was achieved, reaction has occurred. The first liquid sample was taken at temperature of 140 0C and repeated every 5 minute interval. So the data obtained are in the regions of non-isothermal and isothermal. It was observed that the degradation has significant effects on the ethanol production. The kinetic constants can be expressed by Arrhenius equation with the frequency factors for hydrolysis and sugar degradation of 1.58 x 105 min-1 and 2.29 x 108 L/mole-min, respectively, while the activation energies are 64,350 J/mole and 76,571 J/mole. The highest ethanol concentration from fermentation is 1.13% v/v, attained at 220 0C.

Keywords: degradation, ethanol, hydrolysis, rice husk.

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144 Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium Data for Butan-2-ol - Ethanol - Water, Pentan-1-ol - Ethanol - Water and Toluene - Acetone - Water Systems

Authors: Tinuade Jolaade Afolabi, Theresa Ibibia Edewor

Abstract:

Experimental liquid-liquid equilibra of butan-2-ol - ethanol -water; pentan-1-ol - ethanol - water and toluene - acetone - water ternary systems were investigated at (25oC). The reliability of the experimental tie-line data was ascertained by using Othmer-Tobias and Hand plots. The distribution coefficients (D) and separation factors (S) of the immiscibility region were evaluated for the three systems.

Keywords: Distribution coefficient, Liquid-liquid equilibrium, separation factors, thermodynamic models

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143 Studying the Effect of Ethanol and Operating Temperature on Purification of Lactulose Syrup Containing Lactose

Authors: N. Zanganeh, M. Zabet

Abstract:

Lactulose is a synthetic disaccharide which has remarkable applications in food and pharmaceutical fields. Lactulose is not found in nature and it is produced by isomerization reaction of lactose in an alkaline environment. It should be noted that this reaction has a very low yield since significant amount of lactose stays un-reacted in the system. Basically, purification of lactulose is difficult and costly. Previous studies have revealed that solubility of lactose and lactulose are significantly different in ethanol. Considering the fact that solubility is also affected by temperature itself, we investigated the effect of ethanol and temperature on separation process of lactose from the syrup containing lactose and lactulose. For this purpose, a saturated solution containing lactulose and lactose was made at three different temperatures; 25⁰C (room temperature), 31⁰C, and 37⁰C first.  Five samples containing 2g saturated solution was taken and then 2g, 3g, 4g, 5g, and 6g ethanol separately was added to the sampling tubes. Sampling tubes were kept at respective temperatures afterward. The concentration of lactose and lactulose after separation process measured and analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Results showed that ethanol has such a greater impact than operating temperature on purification process. Also, it was observed that the maximum rate of separation occurred at initial amount of added ethanol.

Keywords: Ethanol, lactose, lactulose syrup, purification.

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142 Fermentation of Xylose and Glucose Mixture in Intensified Reactors by Scheffersomyces stipitis to Produce Ethanol

Authors: S. C. Santos, S. R. Dionísio, A. L. D. De Andrade, L. R. Roque, A. C. Da Costa, J. L. Ienczak

Abstract:

In this work, two fermentations at different temperatures (25 and 30ºC), with cell recycling, were accomplished to produce ethanol, using a mix of commercial substrates, xylose (70%) and glucose (30%), as organic source for Scheffersomyces stipitis. Five consecutive fermentations of 80 g L-1 (1º, 2º and 3º recycles), 96 g L-1 (4º recycle) and 120 g L-1 (5º recycle)reduced sugars led to a final maximum ethanol concentration of 17.2 and 34.5 g L-1, at 25 and 30ºC, respectively. Glucose was the preferred substrate; moreover xylose startup degradation was initiated after a remaining glucose presence in the medium. Results showed that yeast acid treatment, performed before each cycle, provided improvements on cell viability, accompanied by ethanol productivity of 2.16 g L-1 h- 1 at 30ºC. A maximum 36% of xylose was retained in the fermentation medium and after five-cycle fermentation an ethanol yield of 0.43 g ethanol/g sugars was observed. S. stipitis fermentation capacity and tolerance showed better results at 30ºC with 83.4% of theoretical yield referenced on initial biomass.

Keywords: 5-carbon sugar, cell recycling fermenter, mixed sugars, xylose-fermenting yeast.

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141 Comparison of Different Solvents and Extraction Methods for Isolation of Phenolic Compounds from Horseradish Roots (Armoracia rusticana)

Authors: Lolita Tomsone, Zanda Kruma, Ruta Galoburda

Abstract:

Horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) is a perennial herb belonging to the Brassicaceae family and contains biologically active substances. The aim of the current research was to determine best method for extraction of phenolic compounds from horseradish roots showing high antiradical activity. Three genotypes (No. 105; No. 106 and variety ‘Turku’) of horseradish roots were extracted with eight different solvents: n-hexane, ethyl acetate, diethyl ether, 2-propanol, acetone, ethanol (95%), ethanol / water / acetic acid (80/20/1 v/v/v) and ethanol / water (80/20 by volume) using two extraction methods (conventional and Soxhlet). As the best solvents ethanol and ethanol / water solutions can be chosen. Although in Soxhlet extracts TPC was higher, scavenging activity of DPPH˙ radicals did not increase. It can be concluded that using Soxhlet extraction method more compounds that are not effective antioxidants.

Keywords: DPPH˙, extraction, solvent, Soxhlet, TPC

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140 Model of Continuous Cheese Whey Fermentation by Candida Pseudotropicalis

Authors: Rudy Agustriyanto, Akbarningrum Fatmawati

Abstract:

The utilization of cheese whey as a fermentation substrate to produce bio-ethanol is an effort to supply bio-ethanol demand as a renewable energy. Like other process systems, modeling is also required for fermentation process design, optimization and plant operation. This research aims to study the fermentation process of cheese whey by applying mathematics and fundamental concept in chemical engineering, and to investigate the characteristic of the cheese whey fermentation process. Steady state simulation results for inlet substrate concentration of 50, 100 and 150 g/l, and various values of hydraulic retention time, showed that the ethanol productivity maximum values were 0.1091, 0.3163 and 0.5639 g/l.h respectively. Those values were achieved at hydraulic retention time of 20 hours, which was the minimum value used in this modeling. This showed that operating reactor at low hydraulic retention time was favorable. Model of bio-ethanol production from cheese whey will enhance the understanding of what really happen in the fermentation process.

Keywords: Cheese whey, ethanol, fermentation, modeling.

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139 The Correlation of Total Phenol Content with Free Radicals Scavenging Activity and Effect of Ethanol Concentration in Extraction Process of Mangosteen Rind (Garcinia mangostana)

Authors: Ririn Lestari Sri Rahayu, Mustofa Ahda

Abstract:

The use of synthetic antioxidants often causes a negative effect on health and increases the incidence of carcinogenesis. Development of the natural antioxidants should be investigated. However, natural antioxidants have a low toxicity and are safe for human consumption. Ethanol extract of mangosteen rind (Garcinia mangostana) contains natural antioxidant compounds that have various pharmacological activities. Antioxidants from the ethanol extract of mangosteen rind have free radicals scavenging activities. The scavenging activity of ethanol extract of mangosteen rind was determined by DPPH method. The phenolic compound from the ethanol extract of mangosteen rind is determined with Folin-Ciocalteu method. The results showed that the absolute ethanol extract of mangosteen rind has IC50 of 40.072 ug/mL. The correlation of total phenols content with free radical scavenging activity has an equation y: 5.207x + 205.51 and determination value (R2) of 0.9329. Total phenols content from the ethanol extract of mangosteen rind has a good correlation with free radicals scavenging activity of DPPH.

Keywords: Antioxidant, Garcinia mangostana, inhibition concentration 50%, total phenolic compounds.

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138 Statistical Screening of Medium Components on Ethanol Production from Cashew Apple Juice using Saccharomyces diasticus

Authors: Karuppaiya Maruthai, Viruthagiri Thangavelu, Manikandan Kanagasabai

Abstract:

In the present study, effect of critical medium components (a total of fifteen components) on ethanol production from waste cashew apple juice (CAJ) using yeast Saccharomyces diasticus was studied. A statistical response surface methodology (RSM) based Plackett-Burman Design (PBD) was used for the design of experiments. The design contains a total of 32 experimental trails. The effect of medium components on ethanol was studied at two different levels such as low concentration level (-) and high concentration levels (+). The dependent variables selected in this study were ethanol concentration (g/L) and cellmass concentration (g/L). Data obtained from RSM on ethanol production were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA). In general, initial substrate concentration significantly influenced the microbial growth and product formation. Of the medium components evaluated, CAJ concentration, yeast extract, (NH4)2SO4, and malt extract showed significant effect on ethanol fermentation. A second-order polynomial model was used to predict the experimental data and the model fitted the data with a high correlation coefficient (R2 > 0.98). Maximum ethanol (15.3 g/L) and biomass (6.4 g/L) concentrations were obtained at the optimum medium composition and at optimum condition (temperature-30°C; initial pH-6.8) after 72 h fermentation using S.diasticus.

Keywords: cashew apple juice, ethanol, fermentation, yeast, response surface methodology

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137 Optimization of Ethanol Fermentation from Pineapple Peel Extract Using Response Surface Methodology (RSM)

Authors: Nadya Hajar, Zainal, S., Atikah, O., Tengku Elida, T. Z. M.

Abstract:

Ethanol has been known for a long time, being perhaps the oldest product obtained through traditional biotechnology fermentation. Agriculture waste as substrate in fermentation is vastly discussed as alternative to replace edible food and utilization of organic material. Pineapple peel, highly potential source as substrate is a by-product of the pineapple processing industry. Bio-ethanol from pineapple (Ananas comosus) peel extract was carried out by controlling fermentation without any treatment. Saccharomyces ellipsoides was used as inoculum in this fermentation process as it is naturally found at the pineapple skin. In this study, the capability of Response Surface Methodology (RSM) for optimization of ethanol production from pineapple peel extract using Saccharomyces ellipsoideus in batch fermentation process was investigated. Effect of five test variables in a defined range of inoculum concentration 6- 14% (v/v), pH (4.0-6.0), sugar concentration (14-22°Brix), temperature (24-32°C) and time of incubation (30-54 hrs) on the ethanol production were evaluated. Data obtained from experiment were analyzed with RSM of MINITAB Software (Version 15) whereby optimum ethanol concentration of 8.637% (v/v) was determined. The optimum condition of 14% (v/v) inoculum concentration, pH 6, 22°Brix, 26°C and 30hours of incubation. The significant regression equation or model at the 5% level with correlation value of 99.96% was also obtained.

Keywords: Bio-ethanol, pineapple peel extract, Response Surface Methodology (RSM), Saccharomyces ellipsoideus.

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136 Statistical Optimization of Process Variables for Direct Fermentation of 226 White Rose Tapioca Stem to Ethanol by Fusarium oxysporum

Authors: A. Magesh, B. Preetha, T. Viruthagiri

Abstract:

Direct fermentation of 226 white rose tapioca stem to ethanol by Fusarium oxysporum was studied in a batch reactor. Fermentation of ethanol can be achieved by sequential pretreatment using dilute acid and dilute alkali solutions using 100 mesh tapioca stem particles. The quantitative effects of substrate concentration, pH and temperature on ethanol concentration were optimized using a full factorial central composite design experiment. The optimum process conditions were then obtained using response surface methodology. The quadratic model indicated that substrate concentration of 33g/l, pH 5.52 and a temperature of 30.13oC were found to be optimum for maximum ethanol concentration of 8.64g/l. The predicted optimum process conditions obtained using response surface methodology was verified through confirmatory experiments. Leudeking-piret model was used to study the product formation kinetics for the production of ethanol and the model parameters were evaluated using experimental data.

Keywords: Fusarium oxysporum, Lignocellulosic biomass, Product formation kinetics, Statistical experimental design

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135 Kinetic and Optimization Studies on Ethanol Production from Corn Flour

Authors: K. Manikandan, T. Viruthagiri

Abstract:

Studies on Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF) of corn flour, a major agricultural product as the substrate using starch digesting glucoamylase enzyme derived from Aspergillus niger and non starch digesting and sugar fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a batch fermentation. Experiments based on Central Composite Design (CCD) were conducted to study the effect of substrate concentration, pH, temperature, enzyme concentration on Ethanol Concentration and the above parameters were optimized using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The optimum values of substrate concentration, pH, temperature and enzyme concentration were found to be 160 g/l, 5.5, 30°C and 50 IU respectively. The effect of inoculums age on ethanol concentration was also investigated. The corn flour solution equivalent to 16% initial starch concentration gave the highest ethanol concentration of 63.04 g/l after 48 h of fermentation at optimum conditions of pH and temperature. Monod model and Logistic model were used for growth kinetics and Leudeking – Piret model was used for product formation kinetics.

Keywords: Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation(SSF), Corn Starch, Ethanol, Logisitic Model.

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134 Low Temperature Ethanol Gas Sensor based on SnO2/MWNTs Nanocomposite

Authors: O. Alizadeh Sahraei, A. Khodadadi, Y. Mortazavi, M. Vesali Naseh, S. Mosadegh

Abstract:

A composite made of plasma functionalized multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) coated with SnO2 was synthesized by sonochemical precipitation method. Thick layer of this nanocomposite material was used as ethanol sensor at low temperatures. The composite sensitivity for ethanol has increased by a factor of 2 at room temperature and by a factor of 13 at 250°C in comparison to that of pure SnO2. SEM image of nanocomposite material showed MWNTs were embedded in SnO2 matrix and also a higher surface area was observed in the presence of functionalized MWNTs. Greatly improved sensitivity of the composite material to ethanol can be attributed to new gas accessing passes through MWNTs and higher specific surface area.

Keywords: Carbon nanotube, Functionalized, Gas sensor, Low temperature, Nanocomposite, Tin oxide.

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133 Hydrolysis of Eicchornia crassipes and Egeria densa for Ethanol Production by Yeasts Isolated from Colombian Lake Fúquene

Authors: P. Martínez-Nieto, M. Vanegas-Hoyos, M. Zapata-Pineda, J. Robles-Camargo

Abstract:

The aquatic plants are a promising renewable energy resource. Lake Fúquene polluting macrophytes, water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes C. Mart.) and Brazilian elodea (Egeria densa Planch.), were saccharifiedby different treatments and fermented to ethanol by native yeasts. Among the tested chemical and biological methods for the saccharification, Pleurotus ostreatus at 10% (m/v) was chosen as the best pre-treatment in both macrophytes (P<0.01). Subsequently 49 yeasts were isolated from Lake Fúquene and nine strains were selected, which presented the highest precipitates characteristic of ethanol in the iodoform test. The fermentations from water hyacinth and Brazilian elodea hydrolysates using these yeasts produced ethanol at a rate between 0.38 to 0.80gL-1h-1 and 0.15 to 0.27gL-1h-1 respectively. The ethanol presence was confirmed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The nine yeasts chosen were preliminarily identified as belonging to the genera Candida spp., Brettanomyces sp. and Hansenula spp.

Keywords: Bio-ethanol, Chemical hydrolysis, Invasive aquatic macrophytes, Native yeasts fermenting, P. ostreatus

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132 Hydrogen Production from Dehydrogenation of Ethanol over Ag-Based Catalysts

Authors: S. Totong, K. Faungnawakij, N. Laosiripojana

Abstract:

The development of alternative energy is interesting in the present especially, hydrogen production because it is an important energy resource in the future. This paper studied the hydrogen production from catalytic dehydrogenation of ethanol through via low temperature (<500°C) reaction. Copper (Cu) and silver (Ag) supported on fumed silica (SiO2) were selected in the present work; in addition, bimetallic material; Ag-Cu supported on SiO2 was also investigated. The catalysts were prepared by the incipient wetness impregnation method and characterized via X-ray diffraction (XRD), temperature-programmed reduction (TPR)and nitrogen adsorption measurements. The catalytic dehydrogenation of ethanol was carried out in a fixed bed continuous flow reactor at atmospheric pressure. The effect of reaction temperature between 300-375°C was studied in order to maximize the hydrogen yield. It was found that Ag-Cu/SiO2 exhibited the highest hydrogen yield compared to Ag/SiO2 and Cu/SiO2 at low reaction temperature (300°C) with full ethanol conversion. The highest hydrogen yield observed was 40% and will be further used as a reactant in fuel cells to generate electricity or feedstock of chemical production. 

Keywords: Catalyst, dehydrogenation, ethanol, hydrogen production.

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131 Distribution of Phospholipids, Cholesterol and Carotenoids in Two-Solvent System during Egg Yolk Oil Solvent Extraction

Authors: Aleksandrs Kovalcuks, Mara Duma

Abstract:

Egg yolk oil is a concentrated source of egg bioactive compounds, such as fat-soluble vitamins, phospholipids, cholesterol, carotenoids and others. To extract lipids and other fat-soluble nutrients from liquid egg yolk, a two-step extraction process involving polar (ethanol) and non-polar (hexane) solvents were used. This extraction technique was based on egg yolk bioactive compounds polarities, where non-polar compound was extracted into non-polar hexane, but polar in to polar alcohol/water phase. But many egg yolk bioactive compounds are not strongly polar or non-polar. Egg yolk phospholipids, cholesterol and pigments are amphipatic (have both polar and non-polar regions) and their behavior in ethanol/hexane solvent system is not clear. The aim of this study was to clarify the behavior of phospholipids, cholesterol and carotenoids during extraction of egg yolk oil with ethanol and hexane and determine the loss of these compounds in egg yolk oil. Egg yolks and egg yolk oil were analyzed for phospholipids (phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE)), cholesterol and carotenoids (lutein, zeaxanthin, canthaxanthin and β-carotene) content using GC-FID and HPLC methods. PC and PE are polar lipids and were extracted into polar ethanol phase. Concentration of PC in ethanol was 97.89% and PE 99.81% from total egg yolk phospholipids. Due to cholesterol’s partial extraction into ethanol, cholesterol content in egg yolk oil was reduced in comparison to its total content presented in egg yolk lipids. The highest amount of lutein and zeaxanthin was concentrated in ethanol extract. The opposite situation was observed with canthaxanthin and β-carotene, which became the main pigments of egg yolk oil.

Keywords: Cholesterol, egg yolk oil, lutein, phospholipids, solvent extraction.

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130 Ethanol Yield of Three Varieties of Cassava (Odongbo, Ofege, and TMS 30572) Using α-Amylase from Germinated Paddy Rice and Yeast from Palm Wine

Authors: T. A. Abegunde, O. B. Oyewole, T. A. Sanni

Abstract:

A process of conversion of flour from three varieties of cassava, namely Odongbo, ofege and TMS30752 to ethanol using α-amylase locally sourced from germinated unhusked paddy rice and yeast isolated from palm wine was developed. It involves the germination of paddy rice for a period of 15days to produce α-amylase for starch hydrolysis and isolation of yeast from palm wine for fermentation. The results showed that optimum amylase yield of “ofada” rice paddy was at 6th day germination which was 576.9ml/g. Ethanol yield for TMS30572 (440.3%) was significantly higher than “Odongbo” (160.2%) and “Ofege’’ (115.1%), Sugar conversion efficiency were 311.0%v/v, 268.2%v/v and 186.84%v/v for TMS30572, “Odongbo” and “Ofege” respectively. The ethanol boiling points were 78oC, 76oC and 80oC for TMS30572, “Odongbo” and “Ofege” respectively. This study showed that cassava varieties affects quality of ethanol produced and germination of “ofada” rice for 6 days ensures optimum production of crude amylase enzyme.

Keywords: Cassava, ethanol, fermentation, hydrolysis, α-amylase.

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129 Intensification of Ethyl Esters Synthesis Using a Packed-Bed Tubular Reactor at Supercritical Conditions

Authors: Camila da Silva, Simone Belorte de Andrade, Vitor Augusto dos Santos Garcia, Vladimir Ferreira Cabral, J. Vladimir Oliveira Lúcio Cardozo-Filho

Abstract:

In the present study, the non-catalytic transesterification of soybean oil in continuous mode using supercritical ethanol were investigated. Experiments were performed in a packed-bed tubular reactor (PBTR) and variable studied were reaction temperature (523 K to 598 K), pressure (10 MPa to 20 MPa), oil to ethanol molar ratio (1:10 to 1:40) and water concentration (0 wt% to 10 wt% in ethanol). Results showed that ethyl esters yields obtained in the PBTR were higher (> 20 wt%) than those verified in a tubular reactor (TR), due to improved mass transfer conditions attained in the PBTR. Results demonstrated that temperature, pressure, oil to ethanol molar ratio and water concentration had a positive effect on fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) production in the experimental range investigated, with appreciable reaction yields (90 wt%) achieved at 598 K, 20 MPa, oil to ethanol molar ratio of 1:40 and 10 wt% of water concentration.

Keywords: Packed bed reactor, ethyl esters, continuous process, catalyst-free process.

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128 Life Cycle Assessment Comparison between Methanol and Ethanol Feedstock for the Biodiesel from Soybean Oil

Authors: Pawit Tangviroon, Apichit Svang-Ariyaskul

Abstract:

As the limited availability of petroleum-based fuel has been a major concern, biodiesel is one of the most attractive alternative fuels because it is renewable and it also has advantages over the conventional petroleum-base diesel. At Present, productions of biodiesel generally perform by transesterification of vegetable oils with low molecular weight alcohol, mainly methanol, using chemical catalysts. Methanol is petrochemical product that makes biodiesel producing from methanol to be not pure renewable energy source. Therefore, ethanol as a product produced by fermentation processes. It appears as a potential feed stock that makes biodiesel to be pure renewable alternative fuel. The research is conducted based on two biodiesel production processes by reacting soybean oils with methanol and ethanol. Life cycle assessment was carried out in order to evaluate the environmental impacts and to identify the process alternative. Nine mid-point impact categories are investigated. The results indicate that better performance on abiotic depletion potential (ADP) and acidification potential (AP) are observed in biodiesel production from methanol when compared with biodiesel production from ethanol due to less energy consumption during the production processes. Except for ADP and AP, using methanol as feed stock does not show any advantages over biodiesel from ethanol. The single score method is also included in this study in order to identify the best option between two processes of biodiesel production. The global normalization and weighting factor based on ecotaxes are used and it shows that producing biodiesel form ethanol has less environmental load compare to biodiesel from methanol.

Keywords: Biodiesel, Ethanol, Life Cycle Assessment, Methanol, Soybean Oil.

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