Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31464
Effect of Mineral Ion Addition on Yeast Performance during Very High Gravity Wort Fermentation

Authors: H. O. Udeh, T. E. Kgatla, A. I. O. Jideani


The effect of Zn2+, Mg2+, and Ba2+ on Saccharomyces pastorianus performance was evaluated in this study at independent and three variable combinations. After 96 h of fermentation, high wort fermentability (%F) = 29.53 was obtained in medium containing 900:4 ppm Mg2+ + Ba2+. Increased ethanol yield 7.35 %(v/v) and 7.13 %(v/v) were obtained in media containing 900:4 ppm Mg2+ + Ba2+ and 12:900 ppm Zn2+ + Mg2+. Decrease %F = 22.54 and ethanol yield 6.18 % (v/v) was obtained in medium containing 12:4 ppm Zn2+ + Ba2+. In media containing the individual ions, increased %F = 27.94 and 26.03 were recorded for media containing 700 ppm Mg2+ and 2 ppm Ba2+ , with ethanol yield of 7.88% (v/v) and 7.62% (v/v) respectively. Reduced %F and ethanol yield was observed for 10 ppm Zn2+ and 4 ppm Ba2+ media. The impact of Ba2+ at 1 and 2 ppm was significant.

Keywords: Ethanol yield, fermentability, mineral ions, yeast stress, very high gravity fermentation.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2704


[1] M. Menggen, Z.L. Liu, Mechanisms of ethanol tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae - Mini-review, App. Microbiol. Biotechnol., vol. 87, pp. 829-845, May 2010.
[2] L. Hou, Improved production of ethanol by novel genome shuffling in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, App. Microbiol. Biotechnol., vol. 160, pp. 1084-1093, Feb. 2010.
[3] T. Graves, N. Narendranath, R. Power, Development of a “Stress Model” fermentation system for fuel ethanol yeast strains, J. Inst. Brew. vol. 113, no 3, pp. 263-271, Sept. 2007.
[4] H.O. Udeh, T.E. Kgatla, Effects of magnesium ions on yeast performance during very high gravity fermentation – Review, J. Brew. Dist., vol. 4, no 2, pp. 19-45, Sept. 2013.
[5] E.M.R Rees, G.G. Stewart, The effects of increased magnesium and calcium concentrations on yeast fermentation performance in high gravity wort, J. Inst. Brew., vol. 103, pp. 287-291, Sept. 1997.
[6] L. Lima, T. Brandao, N. Lima, J.A. Teixeira, Comparing the impact of environmental factors during very high gravity brewing fermentation, J. Inst. Brew. vol. 117, no 3, pp. 359-367, Sept. 2011.
[7] A. Poreda, T. Tuszyński, M. Zdaniewicz, P. Sroka, M. Jakubowsk, Support materials for yeast immobilization affect the concentration of metal ions in the fermentation medium, J. Inst. Brew., vol. 119, pp. 164– 171, Aug. 2013.
[8] C. Boulton, D. Quain, Brewing yeast and fermentation. Blackwell, Oxford. New York, 2001.
[9] M.K. Somda, A. Savadogo, B. Nicolas, T. Philippe, T.A. Sabadenedyo, Effect of mineral salts in fermentation process using mango residues as carbon sources for bioethanol production, Asian J. Ind. Engr.,. vol. 3, pp. 29-38, June 2011.
[10] F.Q. Wang, C.J. Gao, C.Y. Yang, P. Xu, Optimization of an ethanol production medium in very high gravity fermentation, Biotechnol. Lett., vol. 29, pp. 233-236, Feb. 2007.
[11] R.B. Gibson, Improvement of higher gravity brewery fermentation via Wort enrichment and Supplementation, J Inst. Brew., vol. 117, no 3, pp. 268-284, May 2011.
[12] G.M. Walker, R. De Nicola, S. Anthony, R. Learmonth, Yeast-metal interactions: impact on brewing and distilling fermentations, In: Inst. Brew. Dist., Asia Pac. Sec. Conv. 2006, pp. 19-24.
[13] P. Aleksander, A. Piotr, M. Makarewicz, Accumulation and release of metal ions by brewer’s yeast during successive fermentations, J Inst Brew. vol. 115, no 1, pp. 78-83, Feb. 2009.
[14] N.P. Pisat, A. Pandey, C.W. MacDiarmid, MNR2 Regulates Intracellular Magnesium Storage in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Gene. Soc. Am., vol. 183, pp. 873-884, Nov. 2009.
[15] R. De Nicola, N. Hall, S.G. Melville, G.M. Walker, Influence of zinc on distiller’s yeast: cellular accumulation of zinc and impact on spirit congeners, J Inst. Brew., vol. 115, no 3, pp. 265-271, Sept. 2009.
[16] D.J. Eide, Zinc transporters and the cellular trafficking of zinc, Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, vol. 1763, pp. 711-722, April 2006.
[17] R.M. Birch, G.M Walker, Influence of magnesium ions on heat shock and ethanol stress responses of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Enzy. Microbiol. Technol., vol. 26, pp. 678-687, June 2000.
[18] C. Xue, Z. Xin-Qing, Y. Wen-Jie, B. Feng-Wu, Improving ethanoltolerance of a self-flocculating yeast by optimization of medium composition, World. J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. vol. 24, pp. 2257-2261, April 2008.
[19] V. Vidgren, J. Londesborough, 125th Anniversary Review, Yeast flocculation and sedimentation in brewing, J. Inst. Brew. vol. 11, no 4, pp. 475-487, Dec. 2011.
[20] M.L. Guerinot, D.J. David, Zeroing in on zinc uptake in yeast and plants, Curr. Opin. Plant Biol., 1999, vol. 2, pp. 244–249.
[21] C.W. MacDiarmid, L.A. Gaither, D.J. Eide, Zinc transporters that regulate vacuolar zinc storage in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, European. Mol. Biol. Org. J., vol 19, no 2, pp. 2845-2855, June 2000.
[22] G.M. Walker, Yeast nutrition, In: Yeast physiology and Biotechnology, John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Chichester, England, 1998, pp. 88.
[23] E.M.R. Rees, G.G. Stewart, Effects of magnesium, calcium and wort oxygenation on the fermentative performance of ale and lager Strains fermenting normal and high gravity wort, J. Inst. Brew., vol. 105, no 4, pp. 211-217, Sept. 1999.
[24] G.M. Walker, J.H. Daffus, Magnesium ions and the control of the cell cycle in yeast, J. Cell. Sci. vol. 42, pp. 329-356, April 1980.
[25] J. Iqbal, S. Naz, Effects of barium on germination, seedling growth, soluble protein and isozymic forms of peroxidase in wheat, Pakistan J. Agri. Res., vol. 10, no 1, pp. 15-22, 1989.
[26] H. Kuriyama, I. Umeda, H. Kobayashi, Role of cations in the flocculation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and discrimination of the corresponding proteins, Canada J. Microbiol. vol. 37, no 5, pp. 397-403, May 1991.
[27] A. Bertl, J.D. Reid, H. Sentenac, C.L. Slayman, Functional comparison of plant inward-rectifier channels expressed in yeast, J. Exp. Bot., vol. 48, pp. 405-413, Mar. 1997.
[28] K. Meena, T.K. Raja, Immobilization of yeast invertase by gel entrapment, Indian J. Biotechnol., vol. 3, pp. 606-608, Oct. 2004.
[29] H.J. Park, Y.H. Khang, Production of cephalosporin by immobilised Cephalosporin acremonium in polyethyleneimine-modified barium alginate, Enzy. Microb. Technol. vol. 17, pp. 408-412, May 1995.
[30] C. Bamforth. Beer: Tap into the art and science of brewing. 2nd ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003, pp. 53-58.
[31] AOAC Official Method of analysis. Malt beverages and brewing materials. In: Official methods of analysis of AOAC international, 17th ed. vol. II. Gaitherburg, Maryland, USA, 2000.
[32] G.M. Walker, Metals in yeast fermentation processes, Adv. App. Microbiol. vol. 54, pp. 197-230, July 2004.
[33] D.E. Briggs, C.A. Boulton, P.A. Brookes, R. Stevens, Brewing Science and Practice. Woodhead Publishing Limited, Cambridge, UK 410, 2004, pp. 439.
[34] X.Q. Zhao, C. Xue, X.M. Ge, W.J. Yuan, J.Y. Wang, F.W. Bai, Impact of Zinc supplementation on the improvement of ethanol tolerance and yield of self-flocculating yeast in continuous ethanol fermentation, J. Biotechnol. vol. 139, pp. 55-60, Jan. 2009.
[35] H.O. Udeh, Effects of mineral ions on yeast performance under very high gravity beer fermentation. University of Venda, Thohoyandou, South Africa, MSc Thesis, Abstract, pp. 46, Mar. 2014, (Unpublished).
[36] R.S. Gitan, D.J. Eide, Zinc-regulated ubiquitin conjugation signals endocytosis of the yeast ZRT1 zinc transporter, Biochem. J., vol. 346, pp. 329-336, Mar. 2000.
[37] C.W. MacDiarmid, M.A. Milanick, D.J Eide, Induction of the ZRC1 metal tolerance gene in zinc-limited yeast confers resistance to zinc shock, J. Biol. Chem., vol. 278, pp.15065-15072, Jan. 2003.
[38] T. Helin, J.C. Slaughter, Minimum requirements for zinc and manganese in brewer’s wort, J. Inst. Brew., vol. 83, pp. 17-19, Jan-Feb. 1977.
[39] G.L. Pironcheva, The effect of magnesium ions during beer fermentation, Cytobios. vol. 94, pp.135-139, 1998.
[40] P.J. Slininger, B.S. Dien, S.W. Gorsich, Z.L. Liu, Nitrogen source and mineral optimization enhance D-xylose conversion to ethanol by the yeast Pitchia stipites NRRL Y-7124, App. Microbiol. Biotechnol., vol. 72, pp. 1285-1296, May 2006.
[41] R. Debnath, S. Mukerji, Barium effects on Phaseolus aureus, cephallandra indica, Beta vulgaris, Triticum aestivum and Lactuca sativ, Bio. Plant, vol. 24, pp. 423-429, Nov. 1982.
[42] G. Chandrasena, G.M. Walker, H.J. Staines, Use of response surfaces to investigate the metal ion interactions in yeast fermentations, J Am. Soc. Brew. Chem., vol. 55, pp. 24-29, doi : 10.1094/ASBCJ-55-0024, 1997.
[43] A.A. Okon, T.U. Nwabueze, Simultaneous effect of divalent cation in hydrolysed cassava starch medium used by immobilized yeast for ethanol production, African J. Food. Sci. vol. 3, no 8, pp. 217-222, Aug. 2009.
[44] L.A. Okorokov, L.P. Lichko, V.M. Kadomtseva, V.P. Kholodenko, J.S. Kulaev, Metabolism and physicochemical state of Mg2+ ions in fungi, Microbiol., vol. 43, pp. 410-416, 1974.
[45] J.K. Park, J.W. Lee, J.Y. Jung, Cadmium uptake capacity of two strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells, Enzy. Microb. Technol., vol. 33, pp. 371-378, Sept. 2003.
[46] T. Tuszynski, A. Pasternakiewicz, Oddziaływanie jonów metali na wzrost drożdży Saccharomyces cerevisiae w zależności od pH podłoża hodowlanego (Interaction of metal ions on the yeast growth Saccharomyces cerevisiae in depending of medium pH), Chem. Inz. Ekol. vol. 6, no 5-6, pp. 720-728, 1999.
[47] V. Stehlik-Thomas, V.G. Zetic, D. Stanzer, S. Grba, N. Vahcic, Zinc, copper and manganese enrichment in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Food Technol. Biotechnol., vol 42, no 2, pp. 115-120, Feb. 2004.
[48] M.L. Maurice, Factors effecting ethanol fermentation via simultaneous saccharification and fermentation, A major qualifying project for Bachelors of Science Degree, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, pp. 25-31, 2011.
[49] H. Densky, P.J. Gray, A. Buday, Further studies on the determination of zinc and its effects on various yeasts, Proc. Am. Soc. Brew. Chem., 1996, pp. 93-94.
[50] E.M.R Rees, G.G. Stewart, Strain specific response of brewer’s yeast strains to zinc concentrations on yeast fermentation performance in high gravity wort, J. Inst. Brew., vol. 103, pp. 287-291, July-Aug. 1998.
[51] C. Xue, X.Q. Zhao, F.W. Bai, Effect of the size of yeast flocs and zinc supplementation on continuous ethanol fermentation performance and metabolic flux distribution under very high concentration condition, Biotechnol. Bioengr. vol. 105, no 5, pp. 935-944, April 2010.
[52] P. Thanonkeo, P. Laopaiboon, K. Sootsuwan, M. Yamada, Magnesium ions improve growth and ethanol production of Zymomonas mobilis under heat or ethanol stress, Biotechnol., vol. 6, no 1, pp. 112-119, March. 2007.
[53] A. Tosun, M. Ergun, Use of experimental design method to investigate metal ion effects in yeast fermentations, J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnol. vol. 82, pp. 11-15, Dec. 2007.