Search results for: Product formation kinetics
2069 Statistical Optimization of Process Variables for Direct Fermentation of 226 White Rose Tapioca Stem to Ethanol by Fusarium oxysporum
Authors: A. Magesh, B. Preetha, T. Viruthagiri
Abstract:Direct fermentation of 226 white rose tapioca stem to ethanol by Fusarium oxysporum was studied in a batch reactor. Fermentation of ethanol can be achieved by sequential pretreatment using dilute acid and dilute alkali solutions using 100 mesh tapioca stem particles. The quantitative effects of substrate concentration, pH and temperature on ethanol concentration were optimized using a full factorial central composite design experiment. The optimum process conditions were then obtained using response surface methodology. The quadratic model indicated that substrate concentration of 33g/l, pH 5.52 and a temperature of 30.13oC were found to be optimum for maximum ethanol concentration of 8.64g/l. The predicted optimum process conditions obtained using response surface methodology was verified through confirmatory experiments. Leudeking-piret model was used to study the product formation kinetics for the production of ethanol and the model parameters were evaluated using experimental data.
Keywords: Fusarium oxysporum, Lignocellulosic biomass, Product formation kinetics, Statistical experimental designProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1495
2068 Study of Kinetics Incorporation of Ag with TCPP
Authors: Rahmatollah Rahimi, Fariba Moharrami
Abstract:The Kinetics formation of labile Complex Ag (I) tetra (p-carboxyphenyl) porphyrin, was investigated at 25oC and I=0.1M (NaNO3). By spectrophotometric titration, the composition ratio of the complex was established to be 2:1 (Ag : H2TCPP). The equilibrium constant, K, was found to be log 10-6.53. Binding of the first Ag (I) was found to be rate determining step with rate constant, k1= 4.67×102 . A plausible mechanism is discussed. We discus theoretically why Ag(I)2TCPP is unstable.
Keywords: Kinetics, Silver, TCPP, Sitting-atop, Theoretical studyProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1717
2067 Kinetic and Optimization Studies on Ethanol Production from Corn Flour
Authors: K. Manikandan, T. Viruthagiri
Studies on Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF) of corn flour, a major agricultural product as the substrate using starch digesting glucoamylase enzyme derived from Aspergillus niger and non starch digesting and sugar fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a batch fermentation. Experiments based on Central Composite Design (CCD) were conducted to study the effect of substrate concentration, pH, temperature, enzyme concentration on Ethanol Concentration and the above parameters were optimized using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The optimum values of substrate concentration, pH, temperature and enzyme concentration were found to be 160 g/l, 5.5, 30°C and 50 IU respectively. The effect of inoculums age on ethanol concentration was also investigated. The corn flour solution equivalent to 16% initial starch concentration gave the highest ethanol concentration of 63.04 g/l after 48 h of fermentation at optimum conditions of pH and temperature. Monod model and Logistic model were used for growth kinetics and Leudeking – Piret model was used for product formation kinetics.
Keywords: Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation(SSF), Corn Starch, Ethanol, Logisitic Model.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3749
2066 Kinetics of Hydrodesulphurization of Diesel: Mass Transfer Aspects
Authors: Sudip K. Ganguly
Abstract:In order to meet environmental norms, Indian fuel policy aims at producing ultra low sulphur diesel (ULSD) in near future. A catalyst for meeting such requirements has been developed and kinetics of this catalytic process is being looked into. In the present investigations, effect of mass transfer on kinetics of ultra deep hydrodesulphurization (UDHDS) to produce ULSD has been studied to determine intrinsic kinetics over a pre-sulphided catalyst. Experiments have been carried out in a continuous flow micro reactor operated in the temperature range of 330 to 3600C, whsv of 1 hr-1 at a pressure of 35 bar, and its parameters estimated. Based on the derived rate expression and estimated parameters optimum operation range has been determined for this UDHDS catalyst to obtain ULSD product.
Keywords: Diesel, hydrodesulphurization, kinetics, mass transfer.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1684
2065 Oxidation of Amitriptyline by Bromamine-T in Acidic Buffer Medium: A Kinetic and Mechanistic Approach
Authors: Chandrashekar, R. T. Radhika, B. M. Venkatesha, S. Ananda, Shivalingegowda, T. S. Shashikumar, H. Ramachandra
The kinetics of the oxidation of amitriptyline (AT) by sodium N-bromotoluene sulphonamide (C6H5SO2NBrNa) has been studied in an acidic buffer medium of pH 1.2 at 303 K. The oxidation reaction of AT was followed spectrophotometrically at maximum wavelength, 410 nm. The reaction rate shows a first order dependence each on concentration of AT and concentration of sodium N-bromotoluene sulphonamide. The reaction also shows an inverse fractional order dependence at low or high concentration of HCl. The dielectric constant of the solvent shows negative effect on the rate of reaction. The addition of halide ions and the reduction product of BAT have no significant effect on the rate. The rate is unchanged with the variation in the ionic strength (NaClO4) of the medium. Addition of reaction mixtures to be aqueous acrylamide solution did not initiate polymerization, indicating the absence of free radical species. The stoichiometry of the reaction was found to be 1:1 and oxidation product of AT is identified. The Michaelis-Menton type of kinetics has been proposed. The CH3C6H5SO2NHBr has been assumed to be the reactive oxidizing species. Thermodynamical parameters were computed by studying the reactions at different temperatures. A mechanism consistent with observed kinetics is presented.
Keywords: Amitriptyline, bromamine-T, kinetics, oxidation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1278
2064 Formation of Chemical Compound Layer at the Interface of Initial Substances A and B with Dominance of Diffusion of the A Atoms
Authors: Pavlo Selyshchev, Samuel Akintunde
A theoretical approach to consider formation of chemical compound layer at the interface between initial substances A and B due to the interfacial interaction and diffusion is developed. It is considered situation when speed of interfacial interaction is large enough and diffusion of A-atoms through AB-layer is much more then diffusion of B-atoms. Atoms from A-layer diffuse toward B-atoms and form AB-atoms on the surface of B-layer. B-atoms are assumed to be immobile. The growth kinetics of the AB-layer is described by two differential equations with non-linear coupling, producing a good fit to the experimental data. It is shown that growth of the thickness of the AB-layer determines by dependence of chemical reaction rate on reactants concentration. In special case the thickness of the AB-layer can grow linearly or parabolically depending on that which of processes (interaction or the diffusion) controls the growth. The thickness of AB-layer as function of time is obtained. The moment of time (transition point) at which the linear growth are changed by parabolic is found.
Keywords: Phase formation, Binary systems, Interfacial Reaction, Diffusion, Compound layers, Growth kinetics.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1644
2063 A Process of Forming a Single Competitive Factor in the Digital Camera Industry
Authors: Kiyohiro Yamazaki
This paper considers a forming process of a single competitive factor in the digital camera industry from the viewpoint of product platform. To make product development easier for companies and to increase product introduction ratios, development efforts concentrate on improving and strengthening certain product attributes, and it is born in the process that the product platform is formed continuously. It is pointed out that the formation of this product platform raises product development efficiency of individual companies, but on the other hand, it has a trade-off relationship of causing unification of competitive factors in the whole industry. This research tries to analyze product specification data which were collected from the web page of digital camera companies. Specifically, this research collected all product specification data released in Japan from 1995 to 2003 and analyzed the composition of image sensor and optical lens; and it identified product platforms shared by multiple products and discussed their application. As a result, this research found that the product platformation was born in the development of the standard product for major market segmentation. Every major company has made product platforms of image sensors and optical lenses, and as a result, this research found that the competitive factors were unified in the entire industry throughout product platformation. In other words, this product platformation brought product development efficiency of individual firms; however, it also caused industrial competition factors to be unified in the industry.
Keywords: Digital camera industry, product evolution trajectory, product platform, unification of competitive factors.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 505
2062 Investigation and Evalution of Swelling Kinetics Related to Biocopolymers Based on CMC poly(AA-co BuMC)
Authors: Mohammad Sadeghi, Behrouz Heidari, Korush Montazeri
In this paper, we have focused on study of swelling kinetics and salt-sensitivity behavior of a superabsorbing hydrogel based on carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and acrylic acid and 2- Buthyl methacrylate. The swelling kinetics of the hydrogels with various particle sizes was preliminary investigated as well. The swelling of the hydrogel showed a second order kinetics of swelling in water. In addition, swelling measurements of the synthesized hydrogels in various chloride salt solutions was measured. Results indicated that a swelling-loss with an increase in the ionic strength of the salt solutions.
Keywords: Carboxymethylcellulose, swelling kinetics, 2-hydroxypropylmetacrylate, acrylic acid.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1412
2061 An Empirical Analysis of the Impact of Selected Macroeconomic Variables on Capital Formation in Libya (1970–2010)
Authors: Khaled Ramadan Elbeydi
This study is carried out to provide an insight into the analysis of the impact of selected macro-economic variables on gross fixed capital formation in Libya using annual data over the period (1970-2010). The importance of this study comes from the ability to show the relative important factors that impact the Libyan gross fixed capital formation. This understanding would give indications to decision makers on which policy they must focus to stimulate the economy. An Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) modeling process is employed to investigate the impact of the Gross Domestic Product, Monetary Base and Trade Openness on Gross Fixed Capital Formation in Libya. The results of this study reveal that there is an equilibrium relationship between capital formation and its determinants. The results also indicate that GDP and trade openness largely explain the pattern of capital formation in Libya. The findings and recommendations provide vital information relevant for policy formulation and implementation aimed to improve capital formation in Libya.
Keywords: ARDL, Bounds test, capital formation, Cointegration, Libya.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1600
2060 In-situ LDH Formation of Sodium Aluminate Activated Slag
Authors: Tao Liu, Qingliang Yu, H. J. H. Brouwers
Among the reaction products in the alkali activated ground granulated blast furnace slag (AAS), the layered double hydroxides (LDHs) have a remarkable capacity of chloride and heavy metal ions absorption. The promotion of LDH phases in the AAS matrix can increase chloride resistance. The objective of this study is that using the different dosages of sodium aluminate to activate slag, consequently, promoting the formation of in-situ LDH. The hydration kinetics of the sodium aluminate activated slag (SAAS) was tested by the isothermal calorimetry. Meanwhile, the reaction products were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The sodium hydroxide activated slag is selected as the reference. The results of XRD, TGA, and FTIR showed that the formation of LDH in SAAS is governed by the aluminate dosages.
Keywords: ground granulated blast furnace slag, sodium aluminate activated slag, in-situ LDH formation, chloride absorptionProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 275
2059 Dissolution Leaching Kinetics of Ulexite in Sodium Dihydrogen Phosphate Solutions
Authors: Emine Teke, Soner Kuşlu, Sabri Çolak, Turan Çalban
Abstract:The aim of the present study was to investigate the dissolution kinetics of ulexite in sodium dihydrogen phosphate in a mechanical agitation system and also to declare an alternative reactant to produce the boric acid. Reaction temperature, concentration of sodium dihydrogen phosphate, stirring speed, solid-liquid ratio, and ulexite particle size were selected as parameters. The experimental results were successfully correlated by using linear regression and a statistical program. Dissolution curves were evaluated in order to test the shrinking core models for solid-fluid systems. It was observed that increase in the reaction temperature and decrease in the solid/liquid ratio causes an increase in the dissolution rate of ulexite. The activation energy was found to be 36.4 kJ/mol. The leaching of ulexite was controlled by diffusion through the ash (or product) layer.
Keywords: Sodium dihydrogen phosphate, leaching kinetics, ulexite.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1430
2058 Kinetics of Aggregation in Media with Memory
Authors: A. Brener, B. Balabekov, N. Zhumataev
Abstract:In the paper we submit the non-local modification of kinetic Smoluchowski equation for binary aggregation applying to dispersed media having memory. Our supposition consists in that that intensity of evolution of clusters is supposed to be a function of the product of concentrations of the lowest orders clusters at different moments. The new form of kinetic equation for aggregation is derived on the base of the transfer kernels approach. This approach allows considering the influence of relaxation times hierarchy on kinetics of aggregation process in media with memory.
Keywords: Binary aggregation, Media with memory, Non-local model, Relaxation timesProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1263
2057 Mechanism of Changing a Product Concept
Authors: Kiyohiro Yamazaki
The purpose of this paper is to examine the hypothesis explaining the mechanism in the case, where the product is deleted or reduced the fundamental function of the product through the product concept changes in the digital camera industry. This paper points out not owning the fundamental technology might cause the change of the product concept. Casio could create new competitive factor so that this paper discusses a possibility of the mechanism of changing the product concept.
Keywords: Casio, digital camera, mechanism, product concept, product development process.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1668
2056 Considering Assembly Operations and Product Structure for Manufacturing Cell Formation
Authors: M.B. Aryanezhad, J. Aliabadi
Abstract:This paper considers the integration of assembly operations and product structure to Cellular Manufacturing System (CMS) design so that to correct the drawbacks of previous researches in the literature. For this purpose, a new mathematical model is developed which dedicates machining and assembly operations to manufacturing cells while the objective function is to minimize the intercellular movements resulting due to both of them. A linearization method is applied to achieve optimum solution through solving aforementioned nonlinear model by common programming language such as Lingo. Then, using different examples and comparing the results, the importance of integrating assembly considerations is demonstrated.
Keywords: Assembly operations and Product structure, CellFormation, Genetic Algorithm.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1468
2055 Exchanges of Knowledge about Product Configurations using XML Topic Map
Authors: Namchul Do, Jihun Cho
Modeling product configurations needs large amounts of knowledge about technical and marketing restrictions on the product. Previous attempts to automate product configurations concentrate on representations and management of the knowledge for specific domains in fixed and isolated computing environments. Since the knowledge about product configurations is subject to continuous change and hard to express, these attempts often failed to efficiently manage and exchange the knowledge in collaborative product development. In this paper, XML Topic Map (XTM) is introduced to represent and exchange the knowledge about product configurations in collaborative product development. A product configuration model based on XTM along with its merger and inference facilities enables configuration engineers in collaborative product development to manage and exchange their knowledge efficiently. A prototype implementation is also presented to demonstrate the proposed model can be applied to engineering information systems to exchange the product configuration knowledge.
Keywords: Knowledge exchange, product configurations, XML topic map.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1239
2054 Thermal Technologies Applications for Soil Remediation
Authors: A. de Folly d’Auris, R. Bagatin, P. Filtri
This paper discusses the importance of having a good initial characterization of soil samples when thermal desorption has to be applied to polluted soils for the removal of contaminants. Particular attention has to be devoted on the desorption kinetics of the samples to identify the gases evolved during the heating, and contaminant degradation pathways. In this study, two samples coming from different points of the same contaminated site were considered. The samples are much different from each other. Moreover, the presence of high initial quantity of heavy hydrocarbons strongly affected the performance of thermal desorption, resulting in formation of dangerous intermediates. Analytical techniques such TGA (Thermogravimetric Analysis), DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry) and GC-MS (Gas Chromatography-Mass) provided a good support to give correct indication for field application.
Keywords: Desorption kinetics, hydrocarbons, thermal desorption, thermogravimetric measurements.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1252
2053 Application of Synthetic Monomers Grafted Xanthan Gum for Rhodamine B Removal in Aqueous Solution
Authors: T. Moremedi, L. Katata-Seru, S. Sardar, A. Bandyopadhyay, E. Makhado, M. Joseph Hato
The rapid industrialisation and population growth have led to a steady fall in freshwater supplies worldwide. As a result, water systems are affected by modern methods upon use due to secondary contamination. The application of novel adsorbents derived from natural polymer holds a great promise in addressing challenges in water treatment. In this study, the UV irradiation technique was used to prepare acrylamide (AAm) monomer, and acrylic acid (AA) monomer grafted xanthan gum (XG) copolymer. Furthermore, the factors affecting rhodamine B (RhB) adsorption from aqueous media, such as pH, dosage, concentration, and time were also investigated. The FTIR results confirmed the formation of graft copolymer by the strong vibrational bands at 1709 cm-1 and 1612 cm-1 for AA and AAm, respectively. Additionally, more irregular, porous and wrinkled surface observed from SEM of XG-g-AAm/AA indicated copolymerization interaction of monomers. The optimum conditions for removing RhB dye with a maximum adsorption capacity of 313 mg/g at 25 0C from aqueous solution were pH approximately 5, initial dye concentration = 200 ppm, adsorbent dose = 30 mg. Also, the detailed investigation of the isothermal and adsorption kinetics of RhB from aqueous solution showed that the adsorption of the dye followed a Freundlich model (R2 = 0.96333) and pseudo-second-order kinetics. The results further indicated that this absorbent based on XG had the universality to remove dye through the mechanism of chemical adsorption. The outstanding adsorption potential of the grafted copolymer could be used to remove cationic dyes from aqueous solution as a low-cost product.
Keywords: Xanthan gum, adsorbents, rhodamine B, Freundlich model.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 460
2052 A Framework for Product Development Process including HW and SW Components
Authors: Namchul Do, Gyeongseok Chae
Abstract:This paper proposes a framework for product development including hardware and software components. It provides separation of hardware dependent software, modifications of current product development process, and integration of software modules with existing product configuration models and assembly product structures. In order to decide the dependent software, the framework considers product configuration modules and engineering changes of associated software and hardware components. In order to support efficient integration of the two different hardware and software development, a modified product development process is proposed. The process integrates the dependent software development into product development through the interchanges of specific product information. By using existing product data models in Product Data Management (PDM), the framework represents software as modules for product configurations and software parts for product structure. The framework is applied to development of a robot system in order to show its effectiveness.
Keywords: HW and SW Development Integration, ProductDevelopment with Software.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2463
2051 Comparative Kinetic Study on Alkylation of p-cresol with Tert-butyl Alcohol using Different SO3-H Functionalized Ionic Liquid Catalysts
Authors: Pandian Elavarasan, Kishore Kondamudi, Sreedevi Upadhyayula
Ionic liquids are well known as green solvents, reaction media and catalysis. Here, three different sulfonic acid functional ionic liquids prepared in the laboratory are used as catalysts in alkylation of p-cresol with tert-butyl alcohol. The kinetics on each of the catalysts was compared and a kinetic model was developed based on the product distribution over these catalysts. The kinetic parameters were estimated using Marquadt's algorithm to minimize the error function. The Arrhenius plots show a curvature which is best interpreted by the extended Arrhenius equation.
Keywords: Alkylation, p-cresol, tert-butyl alcohol, kinetics, activation parameter, extended Arrhenius equation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2300
2050 Product Configuration Strategy Based On Product Family Similarity
Authors: Heejung Lee
To offer a large variety of products while maintaining low costs, high speed, and high quality in a mass customization product development environment, platform based product development has much benefit and usefulness in many industry fields. This paper proposes a product configuration strategy by similarity measure, incorporating the knowledge engineering principles such as product information model, ontology engineering, and formal concept analysis.
Keywords: Platform, product family, ontology, formal concept analysis.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1692
2049 Microbial Leaching Process to Recover Valuable Metals from Spent Petroleum Catalyst Using Iron Oxidizing Bacteria
Authors: Debabrata Pradhan, Dong J. Kim, Jong G. Ahn, Seoung W. Lee
Abstract:Spent petroleum catalyst from Korean petrochemical industry contains trace amount of metals such as Ni, V and Mo. Therefore an attempt was made to recover those trace metal using bioleaching process. Different leaching parameters such as Fe(II) concentration, pulp density, pH, temperature and particle size of spent catalyst particle were studied to evaluate their effects on the leaching efficiency. All the three metal ions like Ni, V and Mo followed dual kinetics, i.e., initial faster followed by slower rate. The percentage of leaching efficiency of Ni and V were higher than Mo. The leaching process followed a diffusion controlled model and the product layer was observed to be impervious due to formation of ammonium jarosite (NH4)Fe3(SO4)2(OH)6. In addition, the lower leaching efficiency of Mo was observed due to a hydrophobic coating of elemental sulfur over Mo matrix in the spent catalyst.
Keywords: Bioleaching, diffusion control, shrinking core, spentpetroleum catalyst.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1874
2048 Intrinsic Kinetics of Methanol Dehydration over Al2O3 Catalyst
Authors: Liang Zhang, Hai-Tao Zhang, W ei-Yong Ying, Ding-Ye Fang
Abstract:Dehydration of methanol to dimethyl ether (DME) over a commercial Al2O3 catalyst was studied in an isothermal integral fixed bed reactor. The experiments were performed on the temperature interval 513-613 K, liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV) of 0.9-2.1h-1, pressures between 0.1 and 1.0 MPa. The effect of different operation conditions on the dehydration of methanol was investigated in a laboratory scale experiment. A new intrinsic kinetics equation based on the mechanism of Langmuir-Hinshelwood dissociation adsorption was developed for the dehydration reaction by fitting the expressions to the experimental data. An activation energy of 67.21 kJ/mol was obtained for the catalyst with the best performance. Statistic test showed that this new intrinsic kinetics equation was acceptable.
Keywords: catalyst, dimethyl ether, intrinsic kinetics, methanolProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4463
2047 Hydrothermal Treatment for Production of Aqueous Co-Product and Efficient Oil Extraction from Microalgae
Authors: Manatchanok Tantiphiphatthana, Lin Peng, Rujira Jitrwung, Kunio Yoshikawa
Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) is a technique for obtaining clean biofuel from biomass in the presence of heat and pressure in an aqueous medium which leads to a decomposition of this biomass to the formation of various products. A role of operating conditions is essential for the bio-oil and other products’ yield and also quality of the products. The effects of these parameters were investigated in regards to the composition and yield of the products. Chlorellaceae microalgae were tested under different HTL conditions to clarify suitable conditions for extracting bio-oil together with value-added co-products. Firstly, different microalgae loading rates (5-30%) were tested and found that this parameter has not much significant to product yield. Therefore, 10% microalgae loading rate was selected as a proper economical solution for conditioned schedule at 250oC and 30 min-reaction time. Next, a range of temperature (210-290oC) was applied to verify the effects of each parameter by keeping the reaction time constant at 30 min. The results showed no linkage with the increase of the reaction temperature and some reactions occurred that lead to different product yields. Moreover, some nutrients found in the aqueous product are possible to be utilized for nutrient recovery.
Keywords: Bio-oil, Hydrothermal Liquefaction, Microalgae, Aqueous co-product.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1968
2046 New Product Development Process on High-Tech Innovation Life Cycle
Authors: Gonçalo G. Aleixo, Alexandra B. Tenera
This work will provide a new perspective of exploring innovation thematic. It will reveal that radical and incremental innovations are complementary during the innovation life cycle and accomplished through distinct ways of developing new products. Each new product development process will be constructed according to the nature of each innovation and the state of the product development. This paper proposes the inclusion of the organizational function areas that influence new product's development on the new product development process.
Keywords: Cross-functional, Incremental Innovation, New Product development Process, Radical InnovationProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3699
2045 On the Wreath Product of Group by Some Other Groups
Authors: Basmah H. Shafee
Abstract:In this paper, we will generate the wreath product 11 12 M wrM using only two permutations. Also, we will show the structure of some groups containing the wreath product 11 12 M wrM . The structure of the groups founded is determined in terms of wreath product k (M wrM ) wrC 11 12 . Some related cases are also included. Also, we will show that 132K+1 S and 132K+1 A can be generated using the wreath product k (M wrM ) wrC 11 12 and a transposition in 132K+1 S and an element of order 3 in 132K+1 A . We will also show that 132K+1 S and 132K+1 A can be generated using the wreath product 11 12 M wrM and an element of order k +1.
Keywords: Group presentation, group generated by n-cycle, Wreath product, Mathieu group.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1117
2044 Stratigraghy and Identifying Boundaries of Mozduran Formation with Magnetite Method in East Kopet-Dagh Basin
Authors: Z. Kadivar, M. Vahidinia, A. Mousavinia
Kopet-Dagh Mountain Range is located in the north and northeast of Iran. Mozduran Formation in the east of Kopet-Dagh is mainly composed of limestone, dolomite, with shale and sandstone interbedded. Mozduran Formation is reservoir rock of the Khangiran gas field. The location of the study was east Kopet-Dagh basin (Northeast Iran) where the deliberate thickness of formation is 418 meters. In the present study, a total of 57 samples were gathered. Moreover, 100 thin sections were made out of 52 samples. According to the findings of the thin section study, 18 genera and nine species of foraminifera and algae were identified. Based on the index fossils, the age of the Mozduran Formation was identified as Upper Jurassic (Kimmerdgian-Tithonian) in the east of Kopet-Dagh basin. According to the magnetite data (total intensity and RTP map), there is a disconformity (low intensity) between the Kashaf-Rood Formation and Mozduran Formation. At the top, where among Mozduran Formation and Shurijeh Formation, is high intensity and a widespread disconformity (high intensity).
Keywords: Upper Jurassic, magnetometer, Mozduran formation, stratigraphy.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 914
2043 Rapid Prototyping Applications in Various Field of Engineering and Technology
Authors: R. Kumaravelan, V. C. Sathish Gandhi, S. Ramesh, M. Venkatesan
In the product design and development process, the prototyping or model making is one of the important step to finalize a product which helps in conceptualization of a design. Rapid Prototyping (RP) is layer-by-layer material deposition started during early 1980s with the enormous growth in Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technologies. The edges and surfaces of a complex solid model and their information are used for defining a product which is further manufactured as a finished product by CNC machining. This paper provides a better platform for researchers, new learners and product manufacturers for various applications of RP models. Subsequently it creates awareness among the peoples of recently developing RP method of manufacturing in product design, developments and its applications.
Keywords: Prototyping, layer-by-layer, CAD/CAM, product design.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 7979
2042 Stability and Kinetic Analysis during Vermicomposting of Sewage Sludge
Authors: Ashish Kumar Nayak, Dhamodharan K., Ajay S. Kalamdhad
The present study is aimed at alteration of sewage sludge into stable compost product using vermicomposting of sewage sludge mixed with cattle manure and saw dust in five different proportions based on C/N ratios (C/N 15 (R1), 20 (R2), 25 (R3) and 30 (R4); and control (R5)) by employing an epigeic earthworm Eisenia fetida. Higher reductions in C/N ratio, CO2 evolution and OUR were observed in R4 demonstrated the compost stability. In addition, R4 proved to be best combination for the growth of the earthworms. In order to observe the optimal degradation, kinetics for degradation of organic matter in vermicomposting were quantitatively evaluated. An approach model was developed by assuming that composting process is carried out in a homogeneous way and the kinetics for decomposition reaction is represented by a Monod-type equation. The results exhibit comparable variations in the kinetic constants Km and K3 under varying parameters during vermicomposting process. Results suggested that higher R2 value in R4, enhanced suitability towards Lineweaver-Burke plot. R4 yields higher degradability coefficient (K) reveals that the occurrence of optimal nutrient balance, which not only enhanced the affinity of enzymes towards substrate but also improved its degradation process. Therefore, it can be proved that R4 provided to be the best feed combination for vermicomposting process as compared to other reactors.
Keywords: Vermicomposting, Eisenia fetida, Sewage sludge, C/N ratio, Stability, Enzyme kinetics concept.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2182
2041 Numerical Simulation of Iron Ore Reactor Isobaric and Cooling zone to Investigate Total Carbon Formation in Sponge Iron
Authors: B. Alamsari, S. Torii, A. Trianto, Y. Bindar
Abstract:Isobaric and cooling zone of iron ore reactor have been simulated. In this paper, heat and mass transfer equation are formulated to perform the temperature and concentration of gas and solid phase respectively. Temperature profile for isobaric zone is simulated on the range temperature of 873-1163K while cooling zone is simulated on the range temperature of 733-1139K. The simulation results have a good agreement with the plant data. Total carbon formation in the isobaric zone is only 30% of total carbon contained in the sponge iron product. The formation of Fe3C in isobaric zone reduces metallization degree up to 0.58% whereas reduction of metallization degree in cooling zone up to 1.139%. The decreasing of sponge iron temperature in the isobaric and cooling zone is around 300 K and 600 K respectively.
Keywords: Mathematical Model, Iron Ore Reactor, Cooling Zone, Isobaric zone.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1463
2040 Kinetics of Cu (II) Transport through Bulk Liquid Membrane with Different Membrane Materials
Authors: Siu Hua Chang, Ayub Md Som, Jagannathan Krishnan
The kinetics of Cu(II) transport through a bulk liquid membrane with different membrane materials was investigated in this work. Three types of membrane materials were used: fresh cooking oil, waste cooking oil and kerosene, each of which was mixed with di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid (carrier) and tributylphosphate (modifier). Kinetic models derived from the kinetic laws of two consecutive irreversible first-order reactions were used to study the facilitated transport of Cu(II) across the source, membrane and receiving phases of bulk liquid membrane. It was found that the transport kinetics of Cu(II) across the source phase was not affected by different types of membrane materials but decreased considerably when the membrane materials changed from kerosene, waste cooking oil to fresh cooking oil. The rate constants of Cu(II) removal and recovery processes through the bulk liquid membrane were also determined.
Keywords: Transport kinetics, Cu(II), bulk liquid membrane, waste cooking oil.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1546