Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 40

Search results for: 5-carbon sugar

40 Reducing Sugar Production from Durian Peel by Hydrochloric Acid Hydrolysis

Authors: Matura Unhasirikul, Nuanphan Naranong, Woatthichai Narkrugsa

Abstract:

Agricultural waste is mainly composed of cellulose and hemicelluloses which can be converted to sugars. The inexpensive reducing sugar from durian peel was obtained by hydrolysis with HCl concentration at 0.5-2.0% (v/v). The hydrolysis range of time was for 15-60 min when the mixture was autoclaved at 121 °C. The result showed that acid hydrolysis efficiency (AHE) highest to 80.99% at condition is 2.0%concentration for 15 min. Reducing sugar highest to 56.07 g/litre at condition is 2.0% concentration for 45min. Total sugar highest to 59.83 g/litre at condition is 2.0%concentration for 45min, which was not significant (p < 0.05) with condition 2.0% concentration for 30 min and 1.5 % concentration for 45 and 60 min. The increase in concentration increased AHE, reducing sugar and total sugar. The hydrolysis time had no effect on AHE, reducing sugar and total sugar. The maximum reducing sugars of each concentration were at hydrolysis time 45 min .The hydrolysated were analysis by HPLC, the results revealed that the principle of sugar were glucose, fructose and xylose.

Keywords: acid hydrolysis efficiency (AHE), reducing sugar, total sugar

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39 Effect of Addition of Separan at Different Concentrations as a Flocculants on Quality of Sugar Cane Juice

Authors: Ghada A. Abdel-Razig , Isam A. Mohamed Ahmed, Elfadil E. Babiker & Abu ElGasim A. Yagoub

Abstract:

The study was designed to evaluate the use of low concentrations of separan flocculent (Less than 3 ppm) on physicochemical properties of sugar cane juice. Colour, pH, purity, turbidity, pol, brix, reducing sugars tannins and polyphenols of crushed cane (green and burned) juice, mixed juice and clarified juice were studied. The results showed that pol, brix, reducing sugar and turbidity are higher in crushed cane juice. Clarified burned juice had low turbidity, reducing sugars, pol and brix but had significantly lower pH, purity and colour when compared to crushed juice. Polyphenols of the crushed juice (1.19%) decreased significantly in the clarified juice to 0.006%. Addition of separan at a concentration of 0.015 ppm reduced significantly colour, polyphenols and tannins and reducing sugar compared to the control.

Keywords: Separan, Sugar cane, Reducing sugar, Polyphenols, Clarified juice.

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38 Lipase Catalyzed Synthesis of Aromatic Esters of Sugar Alcohols

Authors: R. Croitoru, L. A. M. van den Broek, A. E. Frissen, C. M. Davidescu, F. Peter, C. G. Boeriu

Abstract:

Commercially available lipases (Candida antarctica lipase B, Novozyme 435, Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase, and Lipozyme TL IM), as well as sol-gel immobilized lipases, have been screened for their ability to acylate regioselectively xylitol, sorbitol, and mannitol with a phenolic ester in a binary mixture of t-butanol and dimethylsulfoxide. HPLC and MALDI-TOF MS analysis revealed the exclusive formation of monoesters for all studied sugar alcohols. The lipases immobilized by the sol-gel entrapment method proved to be efficient catalysts, leading to high conversions (up to 60%) in the investigated acylation reactions. From a sequence of silane precursors with different nonhydrolyzable groups in their structure, the presence of octyl and i-butyl group was most beneficial for the catalytic activity of sol-gel entrapped lipases in the studied process.

Keywords: Lipase, phenolic ester, specificity, sugar alcohol, transesterification.

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37 A Comprehensive CFD Model for Sugar-Cane Bagasse Heterogeneous Combustion in a Grate Boiler System

Authors: Daniel J. O. Ferreira, Juan H. Sosa-Arnao, Bruno C. Moreira, Leonardo P. Rangel, Song W. Park

Abstract:

The comprehensive CFD models have been used to represent and study the heterogeneous combustion of biomass. In the present work, the operation of a global flue gas circuit in the sugarcane bagasse combustion, from wind boxes below primary air grate supply, passing by bagasse insertion in swirl burners and boiler furnace, to boiler bank outlet is simulated. It uses five different meshes representing each part of this system located in sequence: wind boxes and grate, boiler furnace, swirl burners, superheaters and boiler bank. The model considers turbulence using standard k-ε, combustion using EDM, radiation heat transfer using DTM with 16 ray directions and bagasse particle tracking represented by Schiller- Naumann model. The results showed good agreement with expected behavior found in literature and equipment design. The more detailed results view in separated parts of flue gas system allows observing some flow behaviors that cannot be represented by usual simplifications like bagasse supply under homogeneous axial and rotational vectors and others that can be represented using new considerations like the representation of 26 thousand grate orifices by 144 rectangular inlets.

Keywords: Comprehensive CFD model, sugar-cane bagasse combustion, sugar-cane bagasse grate boiler.

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36 Assessing Efficiency Trends in the Indian Sugar Industry

Authors: S. P. Singh

Abstract:

This paper measures technical and scale efficiencies of 40 Indian sugar companies for the period from 2004-05 to 2013-14. The efficiencies are estimated through input-oriented DEA models using one output variable—value of output (VOP) and five input variables—capital cost (CA), employee cost (EMP), raw material (RW), energy & fuel (E&F) and other manufacturing expenses (OME). The sugar companies are classified into integrated and non-integrated categories to know which one achieves higher level of efficiency. Sources of inefficiency in the industry are identified through decomposing the overall technical efficiency (TE) into pure technical efficiency (PTE) and scale efficiency (SE). The paper also estimates input-reduction targets for relatively inefficient companies and suggests measures to improve their efficiency level. The findings reveal that the TE does not evince any trend rather it shows fluctuations across years, largely due to erratic and cyclical pattern of sugar production. Further, technical inefficiency in the industry seems to be driven more by the managerial inefficiency than the scale inefficiency, which implies that TE can be improved through better conversion of inputs into output.

Keywords: Sugar industry, companies, technical efficiency, data envelopment analysis, targets.

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35 Determination of the Element Contents in Turkish Coffee and Effect of Sugar Addition

Authors: M. M. Fercan, A. S. Kipcak, O. Dere Ozdemir, M. B. Piskin, E. Moroydor Derun

Abstract:

Coffee is a widely consumed beverage with many components such as caffeine, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, and minerals. Coffee consumption continues to increase due to its physiological effects, its pleasant taste, and aroma. Robusta and Arabica are two basic types of coffee beans. The coffee bean used for Turkish coffee is Arabica. There are many elements in the structure of coffee and have various effect on human health such as Sodium (Na), Boron (B), Magnesium (Mg) and Iron (Fe). In this study, the amounts of Mg, Na, Fe, and B contents in Turkish coffee are determined and effect of sugar addition is investigated for conscious consumption. The analysis of the contents of coffees was determined by using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). From the results of the experiments the Mg, Na, Fe and B contents of Turkish coffee after sugar addition were found as 19.83, 1.04, 0.02, 0.21 ppm, while without using sugar these concentrations were found 21.46, 0.81, 0.008 and 0.16 ppm. In addition, element contents were calculated for 1, 3 and 5 cups of coffee in order to investigate the health effects.

Keywords: Health effect, ICP-OES, sugar, Turkish coffee.

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34 Authenticity of Lipid and Soluble Sugar Profiles of Various Oat Cultivars (Avena sativa)

Authors: Marijana M. Ačanski, Kristian A. Pastor, Djura N. Vujić

Abstract:

The identification of lipid and soluble sugar components in flour samples of different cultivars belonging to common oat species (Avena sativa L.) was performed: spring oat, winter oat and hulless oat. Fatty acids were extracted from flour samples with n-hexane, and derivatized into volatile methyl esters, using TMSH (trimethylsulfonium hydroxide in methanol). Soluble sugars were then extracted from defatted and dried samples of oat flour with 96% ethanol, and further derivatized into corresponding TMS-oximes, using hydroxylamine hydrochloride solution and BSTFA (N,O-bis-(trimethylsilyl)-trifluoroacetamide). The hexane and ethanol extracts of each oat cultivar were analyzed using GC-MS system. Lipid and simple sugar compositions are very similar in all samples of investigated cultivars. Chemometric tool was applied to numeric values of automatically integrated surface areas of detected lipid and simple sugar components in their corresponding derivatized forms. Hierarchical cluster analysis shows a very high similarity between the investigated flour samples of oat cultivars, according to the fatty acid content (0.9955). Moderate similarity was observed according to the content of soluble sugars (0.50). These preliminary results support the idea of establishing methods for oat flour authentication, and provide the means for distinguishing oat flour samples, regardless of the variety, from flour samples made of other cereal species, just by lipid and simple sugar profile analysis.

Keywords: Authentication, chemometrics, GC-MS, lipid and soluble sugar composition, oat cultivars.

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33 Carbon Nanotubes Synthesized Using Sugar Cane as a Percursor

Authors: Vanessa Romanovicz, Beatriz A. Berns, Stephen D. Carpenter, Deyse Carpenter

Abstract:

This article deals with the carbon nanotubes (CNT) synthesized from a novel precursor, sugar cane and Anodic Aluminum Oxide (AAO). The objective was to produce CNTs to be used as catalyst supports for Proton Exchange Membranes. The influence of temperature, inert gas flow rate and concentration of the precursor is presented. The CNTs prepared were characterized using TEM, XRD, Raman Spectroscopy, and the surface area determined by BET. The results show that it is possible to form CNT from sugar cane by pyrolysis and the CNTs are the type multi-walled carbon nanotubes. The MWCNTs are short and closed at the two ends with very small surface area of SBET= 3.691m,/g.

Keywords: Carbon nanotubes, sugar cane, fuel cell, catalyst support.

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32 The Influence of Swirl Burner Geometry on the Sugar-Cane Bagasse Injection and Burning

Authors: Juan H. Sosa-Arnao, Daniel J. O. Ferreira, Caice G. Santos, Justo E. Alvarez, Leonardo P. Rangel, Song W. Park

Abstract:

A comprehensive CFD model is developed to represent heterogeneous combustion and two burner designs of supply sugar-cane bagasse into a furnace. The objective of this work is to compare the insertion and burning of a Brazilian south-eastern sugar-cane bagasse using a new swirl burner design against an actual geometry under operation. The new design allows control the particles penetration and scattering inside furnace by adjustment of axial/tangential contributions of air feed without change their mass flow. The model considers turbulence using RNG k-, combustion using EDM, radiation heat transfer using DTM with 16 ray directions and bagasse particle tracking represented by Schiller-Naumann model. The obtained results are favorable to use of new design swirl burner because its axial/tangential control promotes more penetration or more scattering than actual design and allows reproduce the actual design operation without change the overall mass flow supply.

Keywords: Comprehensive CFD model, sugar-cane bagasse combustion, swirl burner.

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31 Microfiltration of the Sugar Refinery Wastewater Using Ceramic Membrane with Kenics Static Mixer

Authors: Zita Šereš, Ljubica Dokić, Nikola Maravić, Dragana Šoronja–Simović, Cecilia Hodur, Ivana Nikolić, Biljana Pajin

Abstract:

New environmental regulations and the increasing market preference for companies that respect the ecosystem had encouraged the industry to look after new treatments for its effluents. The sugar industry, one of the largest emitter of environmental pollutants, follows this tendency. Membrane technology is convenient for separation of suspended solids, colloids and high molecular weight materials that are present in a wastewater from sugar industry. The idea is to microfilter the wastewater, where the permeate passes through the membrane and becomes available for recycle and re-use in the sugar manufacturing process. For microfiltration of this effluent a tubular ceramic membrane was used with a pore size of 200 nm at transmembrane pressure in range of 1–3 bars and in range of flow rate of 50–150 l/h. Kenics static mixer was used for permeate flux enhancement. Turbidity and suspended solids were removed and the permeate flux was continuously monitored during the microfiltration process. The flux achieved after 90 minutes of microfiltration was in a range of 50–70 l/m2h. The obtained turbidity decrease was in the range of 50-99 % and total amount of suspended solids was removed.

Keywords: Ceramic membrane, microfiltration, sugar industry, wastewater.

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30 Laboratory Scale Extraction of Sugar Cane using High Electric Field Pulses

Authors: M. N. Eshtiaghi, N. Yoswathana

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to extract sugar from sugarcane using high electric field pulse (HELP) as a non-thermal cell permeabilization method. The result of this study showed that it is possible to permeablize sugar cane cells using HELP at very short times (less than 10 sec.) and at room temperature. Increasing the field strength (from 0.5kV/cm to 2kV/cm) and pulse number (1 to 12) led to increasing the permeabilization of sugar cane cells. The energy consumption during HELP treatment of sugar cane (2.4 kJ/kg) was about 100 times less compared to thermal cell disintegration at 85 <=C (about 271.7 kJ/kg). In addition, it was possible to extract sugar cane at a moderate temperature (45 <=C) using HELP pretreatment. With combination of HELP pretreatment followed by thermal extraction at 75 <=C, extraction resulted in up to 3% more sugar (on the basis of total extractable sugar) compared to samples without HELP pretreatment.

Keywords: Cell permeabilization, High electric field pulses, Non-thermal processing, Sugar cane extraction.

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29 Taiwan Sugar Corporation's Participation in the Mechanism of Payment for Environmental Services (PES)

Authors: Wan-Yu Liu

Abstract:

The Taiwan government has started to promote the “Plain Landscape Afforestation and Greening Program" since 2002. A key task of the program was the payment for environmental services (PES), entitled the “Plain Landscape Afforestation Policy" (PLAP), which was certificated by the Executive Yuan on August 31, 2001 and enacted on January 1, 2002. According to the policy, it is estimated that the total area of afforestation will be 25,100 hectares by December 31, 2007. Until the end of 2007, the policy had been enacted for six years in total and the actual area of afforestation was 8,919.18 hectares. Among them, Taiwan Sugar Corporation (TSC) was accounted for 7,960 hectares (with 2,450.83 hectares as public service area) which occupied 86.22% of the total afforestation area; the private farmland promoted by local governments was accounted for 869.18 hectares which occupied 9.75% of the total afforestation area. Based on the above, we observe that most of the afforestation area in this policy is executed by TSC, and the achievement ratio by TSC is better than by others. It implies that the success of the PLAP is seriously related to the execution of TSC. The objective of this study is to analyze the relevant policy planning of TSC's participation in the PLAP, suggest complementary measures, and draw up effective adjustment mechanisms, so as to improve the effectiveness of executing the policy. Our main conclusions and suggestions are summarized as follows: 1. The main reason for TSC’s participation in the PLAP is based on their passive cooperation with the central government or company policy. Prior to TSC’s participation in the PLAP, their lands were mainly used for growing sugarcane. 2. The main factors of TSC's consideration on the selection of tree species are based on the suitability of land and species. The largest proportion of tree species is allocated to economic forests, and the lack of technical instruction was the main problem during afforestation. Moreover, the method of improving TSC’s future development in leisure agriculture and landscape business becomes a key topic. 3. TSC has developed short and long-term plans on participating in the PLAP for the future. However, there is no great willingness or incentive on budgeting for such detailed planning. 4. Most people from TSC interviewed consider the requirements on PLAP unreasonable. Among them, an unreasonable requirement on the number of trees accounted for the greatest proportion; furthermore, most interviewees suggested that the government should continue to provide incentives even after 20 years. 5. Since the government shares the same goals as TSC, there should be sufficient cooperation and communication that support the technical instruction and reduction of afforestation cost, which will also help to improve effectiveness of the policy.

Keywords: Payment for environmental services, afforestation subsidy, Taiwan sugar corporation.

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28 Energy Saving Stove for Stew Coconut Sugar

Authors: Ruedee Niyomrath

Abstract:

The purposes of this research is aim to build the energy saving stove for stew coconut sugar. The research started from explores ceramic raw materials in local area, create the appropriate mixture of ceramic raw materials for construction material of stove, and make it by ceramic process. It includes design and build the energy saving stove, experiment the efficiency of energy saving stove as to thermal efficiency, energy saving, performance of time, and energy cost efficiency, transfer the knowledge for community, stove manufacturers, and technicians. The findings must be useful to the coconut sugar enterprises producing, to reduce the cost of production, preserve natural resources, and environments.

Keywords: Ceramic raw material, Energy saving stove, Stove design, Performance of stove, Stove for stew coconut sugar.

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27 Determination of Myocardial Function Using Heart Accumulated Radiopharmaceuticals

Authors: C. C. D. Kulathilake, M. Jayatilake, T. Takahashi

Abstract:

The myocardium is composed of specialized muscle which relies mainly on fatty acid and sugar metabolism and it is widely contribute to the heart functioning. The changes of the cardiac energy-producing system during heart failure have been proved using autoradiography techniques. This study focused on evaluating sugar and fatty acid metabolism in myocardium as cardiac energy getting system using heart-accumulated radiopharmaceuticals. Two sets of autoradiographs of heart cross sections of Lewis male rats were analyzed and the time- accumulation curve obtained with use of the MATLAB image processing software to evaluate fatty acid and sugar metabolic functions.

Keywords: Autoradiographs, fatty acid, radiopharmaceuticals and sugar.

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26 Tissue Composition and Muscularity of Lamb Legs Fed with Sunflower Seeds and Vitamin E

Authors: A. G. Silva Sobrinho, G. M. Manzi, N. L. L. Lima, F. A. Almeida, V. Endo, N. M. B. L. Zeola

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the tissue composition and carcass muscularity of 32 legs of Ile de France lambs fed with diets containing sunflower seeds and vitamin E, with mean body weight of 15 kg, lodged in individual pens at 15 kg and slaughtered at 32 kg of body weight. The treatments influenced (P<0,05) leg weight, femur length and muscle:bone ratio, being the highest values (2,13 kg, 16,19 cm and 7,38, respectively) in lambs that received diet without sunflower seeds and vitamin E. The other variables were not affected (P>0,05) by the treatments. The interaction of the sunflower and vitamin E was positive for bone total weights and intermuscular fat.

Keywords: sheep, conformation, feedlot, nutrition, sugar-cane

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25 Separation of Polyphenolics and Sugar by Ultrafiltration: Effects of Operating Conditions on Fouling and Diafiltration

Authors: Diqiao S. Wei, M. Hossain, Zaid S. Saleh

Abstract:

Polyphenolics and sugar are the components of many fruit juices. In this work, the performance of ultra-filtration (UF) for separating phenolic compounds from apple juice was studied by performing batch experiments in a membrane module with an area of 0.1 m2 and fitted with a regenerated cellulose membrane of 1 kDa MWCO. The effects of various operating conditions: transmembrane pressure (3, 4, 5 bar), temperature (30, 35, 40 ºC), pH (2, 3, 4, 5), feed concentration (3, 5, 7, 10, 15 ºBrix for apple juice) and feed flow rate (1, 1.5, 1.8 L/min) on the performance were determined. The optimum operating conditions were: transmembrane pressure 4 bar, temperature 30 ºC, feed flow rate 1 – 1.8 L/min, pH 3 and 10 Brix (apple juice). After performing ultrafiltration under these conditions, the concentration of polyphenolics in retentate was increased by a factor of up to 2.7 with up to 70% recovered in the permeate and with approx. 20% of the sugar in that stream.. Application of diafiltration (addition of water to the concentrate) can regain the flux by a factor of 1.5, which has been decreased due to fouling. The material balance performed on the process has shown the amount of deposits on the membrane and the extent of fouling in the system. In conclusion, ultrafiltration has been demonstrated as a potential technology to separate the polyphenolics and sugars from their mixtures and can be applied to remove sugars from fruit juice.

Keywords: Fouling, membrane, polyphenols, ultrafiltration.

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24 Effect of Fermentation Time on Xanthan Gum Production from Sugar Beet Molasses

Authors: Marzieh Moosavi- Nasab, Safoora Pashangeh, Maryam Rafsanjani

Abstract:

Xanthan gum is a microbial polysaccharide of great commercial significance. The purpose of this study was to select the optimum fermentation time for xanthan gum production by Xanthomonas campestris (NRRL-B-1459) using 10% sugar beet molasses as a carbon source. The pre-heating of sugar beet molasses and the supplementation of the medium were investigated in order to improve xanthan gum production. Maximum xanthan gum production in fermentation media (9.02 g/l) was observed after 4 days shaking incubation at 25°C and 240 rpm agitation speed. A solution of 10% sucrose was used as a control medium. Results indicated that the optimum period for xanthan gum production in this condition was 4 days.

Keywords: Biomass, Molasses, Xanthan gum, Xanthomonascampestris

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23 Modeling of Pulping of Sugar Maple Using Advanced Neural Network Learning

Authors: W. D. Wan Rosli, Z. Zainuddin, R. Lanouette, S. Sathasivam

Abstract:

This paper reports work done to improve the modeling of complex processes when only small experimental data sets are available. Neural networks are used to capture the nonlinear underlying phenomena contained in the data set and to partly eliminate the burden of having to specify completely the structure of the model. Two different types of neural networks were used for the application of Pulping of Sugar Maple problem. A three layer feed forward neural networks, using the Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient (PCG) methods were used in this investigation. Preconditioning is a method to improve convergence by lowering the condition number and increasing the eigenvalues clustering. The idea is to solve the modified problem where M is a positive-definite preconditioner that is closely related to A. We mainly focused on Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient- based training methods which originated from optimization theory, namely Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient with Fletcher-Reeves Update (PCGF), Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient with Polak-Ribiere Update (PCGP) and Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient with Powell-Beale Restarts (PCGB). The behavior of the PCG methods in the simulations proved to be robust against phenomenon such as oscillations due to large step size.

Keywords: Convergence, Modeling, Neural Networks, Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient.

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22 Using Sugar Mill Waste for Biobased Epoxy Composites

Authors: Ulku Soydal, Mustafa Esen Marti, Gulnare Ahmetli

Abstract:

In this study, precipitated calcium carbonate lime waste (LW) from sugar beet process was recycled as the raw material for the preparation of composite materials. Epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) was used as a co-matrix in 50 wt% with DGEBA type epoxy resin (ER). XRD was used for characterization of composites. Effects of ESO and LW filler amounts on mechanical properties of neat ER were investigated. Modification of ER with ESO remarkably enhanced plasticity of ER.

Keywords: Epoxy resin, biocomposite, lime waste, mechanical properties.

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21 Ripper and Sugar Effects on Hydroxymethylfurfural Formation in Gingerbread Biscuits

Authors: A. Komarovska, V. Kreicbergs, F. Diminš

Abstract:

Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) is formed by thermally treating products rich in carbohydrates. HMF and other furan derivatives are toxic. The aim of the research was to establish the content of HMF in gingerbread biscuits with honey and sugar syrup additives by using three leavening agents— ammonium carbonate (NH4HCO3 and (NH4)2CO3), baking powder, and baking soda (NaHCO3). The content of HMF is significantly affected by the leavening agent used. The content of HMF with honey where ammonium carbonate was used as additive range from 5.7 to 27.3mg 100g-1, but when sugar syrup is used the content varies from 2.3 to 7.4mg 100g-1. When baking powder and baking soda are used as leavening agents, the content of HMF exceeds 4mg 100g-1 in the event honey had been added and the baking time had been longer (10 minutes at 180°C or 9 minutes at 200°C).

Keywords: gingerbread biscuits, honey, hydroxymethylfurfural, rippers.

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20 Fermentation of Xylose and Glucose Mixture in Intensified Reactors by Scheffersomyces stipitis to Produce Ethanol

Authors: S. C. Santos, S. R. Dionísio, A. L. D. De Andrade, L. R. Roque, A. C. Da Costa, J. L. Ienczak

Abstract:

In this work, two fermentations at different temperatures (25 and 30ºC), with cell recycling, were accomplished to produce ethanol, using a mix of commercial substrates, xylose (70%) and glucose (30%), as organic source for Scheffersomyces stipitis. Five consecutive fermentations of 80 g L-1 (1º, 2º and 3º recycles), 96 g L-1 (4º recycle) and 120 g L-1 (5º recycle)reduced sugars led to a final maximum ethanol concentration of 17.2 and 34.5 g L-1, at 25 and 30ºC, respectively. Glucose was the preferred substrate; moreover xylose startup degradation was initiated after a remaining glucose presence in the medium. Results showed that yeast acid treatment, performed before each cycle, provided improvements on cell viability, accompanied by ethanol productivity of 2.16 g L-1 h- 1 at 30ºC. A maximum 36% of xylose was retained in the fermentation medium and after five-cycle fermentation an ethanol yield of 0.43 g ethanol/g sugars was observed. S. stipitis fermentation capacity and tolerance showed better results at 30ºC with 83.4% of theoretical yield referenced on initial biomass.

Keywords: 5-carbon sugar, cell recycling fermenter, mixed sugars, xylose-fermenting yeast.

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19 Carbon Isotope Discrimination, A Tool for Screening of Salinity Tolerance of Genotypes

Authors: Alireza Dadkhah, Mahmoud Ghorbanzadeh- Neghab

Abstract:

This study carried out in order to investigate the effects of salinity on carbon isotope discrimination (Δ) of shoots and roots of four sugar beet cultivars (cv) including Madison (British origin) and three Iranian culivars (7233-P12, 7233-P21 and 7233-P29). Plants were grown in sand culture medium in greenhouse conditions. Plants irrigated with saline water (tap water as control, 50 mM, 150 mM, 250 mM and 350 mM of NaCl + CaCl2 in 5 to 1 molar ratio) from 4 leaves stage for 16 weeks. Carbon isotope discrimination significantly decreased with increasing salinity. Significant differences of Δ between shoot and root were observed in all cvs and all levels of salinity. Madison cv showed lower Δ in shoot and root than other three cvs at all levels of salinity expect control, but cv 7233-P29 had significantly higher Δ values at saline conditions of 150 mM and above. Therefore, Δ might be applicable, as a useful tool, for study of salinity tolerance of sugar beet genotypes.

Keywords: Carbon isotope discrimination, Photosynthesis, Salt stress, Sugar beet

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18 Improving Carbon Sequestration in Concrete: A Literature Review

Authors: Adedokun D. A., Ndambuki J. M., Salim R. W.

Abstract:

Due to urbanization, trees and plants which covered a great land mass of the earth and are an excellent carbon dioxide (CO2) absorber through photosynthesis are being replaced by several concrete based structures. It is therefore important to have these cement based structures absorb the large volume of carbon dioxide which the trees would have removed from the atmosphere during their useful lifespan. Hence the need for these cement based structures to be designed to serve other useful purposes in addition to shelter. This paper reviews the properties of Sodium carbonate and sugar as admixtures in concrete with respect to improving carbon sequestration in concrete.

Keywords: Carbon sequestration, Sodium carbonate, Sugar, concrete, Carbon dioxide.

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17 Nearly Zero-Energy Regulation and Buildings Built with Prefabricated Technology: The Case of Hungary

Authors: András Horkai, Attila Talamon, Viktória Sugár

Abstract:

There is an urgent need nowadays to reduce energy demand and the current level of greenhouse gas emission and use renewable energy sources increase in energy efficiency. On the other hand, the European Union (EU) countries are largely dependent on energy imports and are vulnerable to disruption in energy supply, which may, in turn, threaten the functioning of their current economic structure. Residential buildings represent a significant part of the energy consumption of the building stock. Only a small part of the building stock is exchanged every year, thus it is essential to increase the energy efficiency of the existing buildings. Present paper focuses on the buildings built with industrialized technology only, and their opportunities in the boundaries of nearly zero-energy regulation. Current paper shows the emergence of panel construction method, and past and present of the ‘panel’ problem in Hungary with a short outlook to Europe. The study shows as well as the possibilities for meeting the nearly zero and cost optimized requirements for residential buildings by analyzing the renovation scenarios of an existing residential typology.

Keywords: Budapest, energy consumption, industrialized technology, nearly zero-energy buildings.

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16 Assessment of Rehabilitation Possibilities in Case of Budapest Jewish Quarter Building Stock

Authors: Viktória Sugár, Attila Talamon, András Horkai, Michihiro Kita

Abstract:

The dense urban fabric of the Budapest 7th district is known as the former Jewish Quarter. The majority of the historical building stock contains multi-story tenement houses with courtyards, built around the end of the 19th century. Various rehabilitation and urban planning attempt occurred until today, mostly left unfinished. Present paper collects the past rehabilitation plans, actions and their effect which took place in the former Jewish District of Budapest. The authors aim to assess the boundaries of a complex building stock rehabilitation, by taking into account the monument protection guidelines. As a main focus of the research, structural as well as energetic rehabilitation possibilities are analyzed in case of each building by using Geographic Information System (GIS) methods.

Keywords: Geographic information system, Hungary, Jewish quarter, monument, protection, rehabilitation.

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15 Evaluation of the Possible Effect of Gender, Age and Duration of Diabetes on the Serum Zinc Levels of Diabetic Patients in Murzuk Area-Libya

Authors: Mukhtar H. Hassan, Muhammed A. Basher, Elhadi E. Saad, Almahdi M. Almahdi

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to demonstrate the possible effect of some variables such as age, gender, blood sugar level, and duration of diabetes on the serum level of zinc in diabetic individuals from Murzuk area. Serum zinc (Zn), Fasting blood sugar (FBS), hemoglobin HbA1c (HbA1c) were evaluated in 46 type I diabetic subjects (group 1), 48 type II diabetic subjects (group 2) and 43 healthy individuals (control) of both genders aged (30-81) years. Data showed that both diabetic groups have significantly higher (P<0.05) serum levels of Zn, FBS and HbA1c compared with controls. No significant (p>0.05) differences in serum Zn levels were observed between Males and Females. Serum Zn levels were non-significantly decreased with increasing age. In type II diabetic subjects, serum Zn levels were non-significantly decreased with increasing duration of disease whereas those in type I were non-significantly increased.

Keywords: Blood sugar, diabetes, HbA1c, zinc.

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14 Energy Intensity of a Historical Downtown: Estimating the Energy Demand of a Budapest District

Authors: Viktória Sugár, Attila Talamon, András Horkai, Michihiro Kita

Abstract:

The dense urban fabric of the 7th district of Budapest -known as the former Jewish Quarter-, contains mainly historical style, multi-story tenement houses with courtyards. The high population density and the unsatisfactory energetic state of the buildings result high energy consumption. As a preliminary survey of a complex rehabilitation plan, the authors aim to determine the energy demand of the area. The energy demand was calculated by analyzing the structure and the energy consumption of each building by using Geographic Information System (GIS) methods. The carbon dioxide emission was also calculated, to assess the potential of reducing the present state value by complex structural and energetic rehabilitation. As a main focus of the survey, an energy intensity map has been created about the area.

Keywords: Carbon dioxide, energy intensity map, geographic information system, GIS, Hungary, Jewish quarter, rehabilitation.

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13 2Taiwan Public Corporation's Participation in the Mechanism of Payment for Environmental Services

Authors: Wan-Yu Liu, Chun-Cheng Lin

Abstract:

The Taiwan government has started to promote the “Plain Landscape Afforestation and Greening Program" since 2002. A key task of the program was the payment for environmental services (PES), entitled the “Plain Landscape Afforestation Policy" (PLAP), which was certificated by the Executive Yuan on August 31, 2001 and enacted on January 1, 2002. According to the policy, it is estimated that the total area of afforestation will be 25,100 hectares by December 31, 2007. Until the end of 2007, the policy had been enacted for six years in total and the actual area of afforestation was 8,919.18 hectares. Among them, Taiwan Sugar Corporation (TSC) was accounted for 7,960 hectares (with 2,450.83 hectares as public service area) which occupied 86.22% of the total afforestation area; the private farmland promoted by local governments was accounted for 869.18 hectares which occupied 9.75% of the total afforestation area. Based on the above, we observe that most of the afforestation area in this policy is executed by TSC, and the achievement ratio by TSC is better than by others. It implies that the success of the PLAP is seriously related to the execution of TSC. The objective of this study is to analyze the relevant policy planning of TSC-s participation in the PLAP, suggest complementary measures, and draw up effective adjustment mechanisms, so as to improve the effectiveness of executing the policy. Our main conclusions and suggestions are summarized as follows: 1. The main reason for TSC-s participation in the PLAP is based on their passive cooperation with the central government or company policy. Prior to TSC-s participation in the PLAP, their lands were mainly used for growing sugarcane. 2. The main factors of TSC-s consideration on the selection of tree species are based on the suitability of land and species. The largest proportion of tree species is allocated to economic forests, and the lack of technical instruction was the main problem during afforestation. Moreover, the method of improving TSC-s future development in leisure agriculture and landscape business becomes a key topic. 3. TSC has developed short and long-term plans on participating in the PLAP for the future. However, there is no great willingness or incentive on budgeting for such detailed planning. 4. Most people from TSC interviewed consider the requirements on PLAP unreasonable. Among them, an unreasonable requirement on the number of trees accounted for the greatest proportion; furthermore, most interviewees suggested that the government should continue to provide incentives even after 20 years. 5. Since the government shares the same goals as TSC, there should be sufficient cooperation and communication that support the technical instruction and reduction of afforestation cost, which will also help to improve effectiveness of the policy.

Keywords: Payment for environmental services (PES), afforestation subsidy, Taiwan Sugar Corporation.

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12 Enhancing Efficiency for Reducing Sugar from Cassava Bagasse by Pretreatment

Authors: S. Gaewchingduang, P. Pengthemkeerati

Abstract:

Cassava bagasse is one of major biomass wastes in Thailand from starch processing industry, which contains high starch content of about 60%. The object of this study was to investigate the optimal condition for hydrothermally pretreating cassava baggasses with or without acid addition. The pretreated samples were measured reducing sugar yield directly or after enzymatic hydrolysis (alpha-amylase). In enzymatic hydrolysis, the highest reducing sugar content was obtained under hydrothermal conditions for at 125oC for 30 min. The result shows that pretreating cassava baggasses increased the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis. For acid hydrolysis, pretreating cassava baggasses with sulfuric acid at 120oC for 60 min gave a maximum reducing sugar yield. In this study, sulfuric acid had a greater capacity for hydrolyzing cassava baggasses than phosphoric acid. In comparison, dilute acid hydrolysis to provide a higher yield of reducing sugar than the enzymatic hydrolysis combined hydrothermal pretreatment. However, enzymatic hydrolysis in a combination with hydrothermal pretreatment was an alternative to enhance efficiency reducing sugar production from cassava bagasse.

Keywords: Acid hydrolysis, cassava bagasse, enzymatic hydrolysis, hydrothermal pretreatment.

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11 Optimization of Molasses Desugarization Process Using Steffen Method in Sugar Beet Factories

Authors: Simin Asadollahi, Mohammad Hossein Haddad Khodaparast

Abstract:

Molasses is one of the most important by-products in sugar industry, which contains a large amount of sucrose. The routine way to separate the sucrose from molasses is using steffen method. Whereas this method is very usual in sugar factories, the aim of this research is optimization of this method. Mentioned optimization depends to three factors of reactor alkality, reactor temperature and diluted molasses brix. Accordingly, three different stages must be done:

  1. Construction of a pilot plant similar to actual steffen system in sugar factories
  2. Experimenting using the pilot plant
  3. Laboratory analysis

These experiences included 27 treatments in three replications. In each replication, brix, polarization and purity characters in Saccharate syrup and hot and cold waste were measured. The results showed that diluted molasses brix, reactor alkality and reactor temperature had many significant effects on Saccharate purity and efficiency of molasses desugarization. This research was performed in "randomize complete design" form & was analyzed with "duncan multiple range test". The significant difference in the level of α = 5% is observed between the treatments. The results indicated that the optimal conditions for molasses desugarization by steffen method are: diluted molasses brix= 10, reactor alkality= 10 and reactor temperature=8˚C. 

Keywords: Molasses desugarization, Saccharate purity, Steffen process.

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