Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31106
Pseudo-Homogeneous Kinetic of Dilute-Acid Hydrolysis of Rice Huskfor Ethanol Production: Effect of Sugar Degradation

Authors: Megawati, Wahyudi B. Sediawan, Hary Sulistyo, Muslikhin Hidayat


Rice husk is a lignocellulosic source that can be converted to ethanol. Three hundreds grams of rice husk was mixed with 1 L of 0.18 N sulfuric acid solutions then was heated in an autoclave. The reaction was expected to be at constant temperature (isothermal), but before that temperature was achieved, reaction has occurred. The first liquid sample was taken at temperature of 140 0C and repeated every 5 minute interval. So the data obtained are in the regions of non-isothermal and isothermal. It was observed that the degradation has significant effects on the ethanol production. The kinetic constants can be expressed by Arrhenius equation with the frequency factors for hydrolysis and sugar degradation of 1.58 x 105 min-1 and 2.29 x 108 L/mole-min, respectively, while the activation energies are 64,350 J/mole and 76,571 J/mole. The highest ethanol concentration from fermentation is 1.13% v/v, attained at 220 0C.

Keywords: Ethanol, Hydrolysis, degradation, rice husk

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1731


[1] Demirbas, A., 2005., "Bioethanol from Cellulosic Materials: a Renewable Motor Fuel from Biomass", Energy Sources, Taylor & Francis Inc., pp. 327-337.
[2] Hahn-Hagerdal, B., Galbe, M. F. M., Gorwa-Grauslund, Liden, G., and Zacchi, G., 2006, "Bio-ethanol-the Fuel of Tomorrow from the Residues of Today", Science Direct, Elseveir.
[3] Badger, P. C., 2002, "Ethanol from Cellulose: A General Review", Trends in New Crops and New Uses, ASHS Press., Alexandria, VA, pp. 17-21.
[4] Palmqvist. E., and Hagerdal. B. H., 2000, "Fermentation of Lignocellulosic Hydrolysates. II: Inhibition and Detoxification", Bioresource Technology, Elsevier, vol. 74, pp. 25 - 33.
[5] Taherzadeh, M. J., Eklund, R., Gustafsson, L., Niklasson, C., and Liden., G., 1997, "Characterization and Fermentation of Dilute-Acid Hydrolyzates from Wood", Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., American Chemical Society, vol. 36, pp. 4659 - 4665.
[6] Taherzadeh, M. J., and Niklasson, C., 2003, "Ethanol from Lignocellulosic Materials: Pretreatment, Acid and Enzymatic Hydrolyses and Fermentation", Prentice-Hall International, Inc., New Jersey, 3 ed., pp. 6-9.
[7] Maloney, M. T., Chapman, T. W., and Baker, A. J., 1985, "Dilute Acid Hydrolysis of Paper Birch: Kinetics Studies of Xylan and Acetyl-Group Hydrolysis", Biotechnology and Bioengineering, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., vol. XXVII, pp. 355-361.
[8] Karimi, K., Kheradmandinia, S., and Taherzadeh, M. J., 2006, "Conversion of Rice Straw to Sugars by Dilute-Acid Hydrolysis", Biomass & Bioenergy, Elseveir, vol. 30, pp. 247 - 253.
[9] Cendrowska, A., 2008, "Hydrolysis Kinetics of Cellulose of Forest and Agricultural Biomass", European Journal of Wood and Wood Products, Springer Berlin.
[10] Saracoglu, N. E., Mutlu, S. F., Dilmac, F., and Cavusoglu, H., 1998, "A Comparative Kinetics Study of Acidic Hemicellulose Hydrolysis in Corn Cob and Sunflower Seed Hull", Bioresource Technology, Elsevier, vol. 65, pp. 29 - 33.
[11] Mosier, N. S., Ladish, C. M., and Ladish, M. R., 2002, "Characterization of Acid Catalytic Domains for Cellulose Hydrolysis and Glucose Degradation", Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Elsevier, vol. 79, pp. 610 - 618.
[12] Fogler, H. S., 1999, Elements of Chemical Reaction Engineering, 3 ed., Prentice-Hall International, Inc., New Jersey, pp. 6-9.
[13] Rahman, S. H. A., Choudhury, J. P., and Ahmad, A. L., 2006, "Production of Xylose from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Buch Fiber using Sulfuric Acid", Biochemical Engineering Journal, Elsevier, Vol. 30, pp. 97 - 103.
[14] Miller, S., and Hester, R., 2007, "Concentrated Acid Conversion of Pine Sawdust to Sugars. Part II; High Temperature Batch Reactor Kinetics of Pretreated Pine Sawdust", Chemical Engineering Communications, Vol. 194, pp. 103 - 116.
[15] Latif, F., and Rajoka, M. I., 2001, "Production of Ethanol and Xylitol from Corn Cobs by Yeasts", Bioresource Technology, Elsevier, vol. 77, pp. 57 - 63.
[16] Govindaswamy, S., and Vane, L.M., 2010, "Multi-stage Continuous Culture Fermentation of Glucose-Xylose Mixtures to Fuel Ethanol using Genetically Engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae 424S", Elsevier, vol. 101. pp. 1277 - 1284.