Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1183

Search results for: Strain rates

1183 Effect of 2wt% Cu Addition on the Tensile Properties and Fracture Behavior of Peak Aged Al-6Si-0.5Mg-2Ni Alloy at Various Strain Rates

Authors: A. Hossain, A. S. W. Kurny, M. A. Gafur

Abstract:

Effect of 2wt% Cu addition on tensile properties and fracture behavior of Al-6Si-0.5Mg-2Ni alloy at various strain rates were studied. The solution treated Al-6Si-0.5Mg-2Ni (-2Cu) alloys, were aged isochronally for 1 hour at temperatures up to 300oC. The uniaxial tension test was carried out at strain rate ranging from 10-4s-1 to 10-2s-1 in order to investigate the strain rate dependence of tensile properties. Tensile strengths were found to increase with ageing temperature and the maximum being attained ageing for 1 hr at 225oC (peak aged condition). Addition of 2wt% Cu resulted in an increase in tensile properties at all strain rates. Evaluation of tensile properties at three different strain rates (10-4, 10-3 and 10-2 s-1) showed that strain rates affected the tensile properties significantly. At higher strain rates the strength was better but ductility was poor. Microstructures of broken specimens showed that both the void coalescence and the interface debonding affect the fracture behavior of the alloys

Keywords: Al-Si-Mg-Ni-Cu alloy, tensile properties, strain rate, SEM.

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1182 New Dynamic Constitutive Model for OFHC Copper Film

Authors: Jin Sung Kim, Hoon Huh

Abstract:

The material properties of OFHC copper film was investigated with the High-Speed Material Micro Testing Machine (HSMMTM) at the high strain rates. The rate-dependent stress-strain curves from the experiment and the Johnson−Cook curve fitting showed large discrepancies as the plastic strain increases since the constitutive model implies no rate-dependent strain hardening effect. A new constitutive model was proposed in consideration of rate-dependent strain hardening effect. The strain rate hardening term in the new constitutive model consists of the strain rate sensitivity coefficients of the yield strength and strain hardening.

Keywords: Rate dependent material properties, Dynamic constitutive model, OFHC copper film, Strain rate.

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1181 Analysis of Mechanical Properties for AP/HTPB Solid Propellant under Different Loading Conditions

Authors: Walid M. Adel, Liang Guo-Zhu

Abstract:

To investigate the characterization of the mechanical properties of composite solid propellant (CSP) based on hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) at different temperatures and strain rates, uniaxial tensile tests were conducted over a range of temperatures -60 °C to +76 °C and strain rates 0.000164 to 0.328084 s-1 using a conventional universal testing machine. From the experimental data, it can be noted that the mechanical properties of AP/HTPB propellant are mainly dependent on the applied strain rate and the temperature condition. The stress-strain responses exhibited an initial yielding followed by the viscoelastic phase, which was strongly affected by the strain rate and temperature. It was found that the mechanical properties increased with both increasing strain rate and decreasing temperature. Based on the experimental tests, the master curves of the tensile properties are drawn using predetermined shift factor and the results were discussed. This work is a first step in preliminary investigation the nonlinear viscoelasticity behavior of CSP.

Keywords: AP/HTPB composite solid propellant, mechanical behavior, nonlinear viscoelastic, tensile test, master curves.

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1180 Characteristics of the Storage Stability for Different Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains

Authors: Gomaa N. Abdel-Rahman, Nadia R. A. Nassar, Yehia A. Heikal, Mahmoud A. M. Abou-Donia, Mohamed B. M. Ahmed, Mohamed Fadel

Abstract:

Storage stability is the important factor of baker's yeast quality. Effect of the storage period (fifteen days) on storage sugars and cell viability of baker's yeast, produced from three S. cerevisiae strains (FC-620, FH-620, and FAT-12) as comparison with baker's yeast produced by S. cerevisae F-707 (original strain of baker's yeast factory) were investigated. Studied trehalose and glycogen content ranged from 10.19 to 14.79 % and from 10.05 to 10.69 % (d.w.), respectively before storage. The trehalose and glycogen content of all strains was decreased by increasing the storage period with no significant differences between the reduction rates of trehalose. Meanwhile, reduction rates of glycogen had significant differences between different strains, where the FH-620 and FC-620 strains had lowest rates as 18.12 and 20.70 %, respectively. Also, total viable cells and gassing power of all strains were decreased by increasing the storage period. FH-620 and FC-620 strains had the lowest values of reduction rates as an indicator of storage resistant. Where the reduction rates in total viable cells of FH-620 and FC-620 strains were 22.05 and 24.70%, respectively, while the reduction rates of gassing power were 20.90 and 24.30%, in the same order. On other hand, FAT-12 strain was more sensitive to storage as compared to original strain, where the reduction rates were 35.60 and 35.75%, respectively for total viable cells and gassing power.

Keywords: Baker’s yeast, trehalose, glycogen, gassing power.

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1179 The Mechanical Response of a Composite Propellant under Harsh Conditions

Authors: Xin Tong, Jin-sheng Xu, Xiong Chen, Ya Zheng

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to study the mechanical properties of HTPB (Hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene) composite propellant under harsh conditions. It describes two tests involving uniaxial tensile tests of various strain rates (ranging from 0.0005 s-1 to 1.5 s-1), temperatures (ranging from 223 K to 343 K) and high-cycle fatigue tests under low-temperature (223 K, frequencies were set at 50, 100, 150 Hz) using DMA (Dynamic Mechanical Analyzer). To highlight the effect of small pre-strain on fatigue properties of HTPB propellant, quasi-static stretching was carried out before fatigue loading, and uniaxial tensile tests at constant strain rates were successively applied. The results reveal that flow stress of propellant increases with reduction in temperature and rise in strain rate, and the strain rate-temperature equivalence relationship could be described by TTSP (time-temperature superposition principle) incorporating a modified WLF equation. Moreover, the rate of performance degradations and damage accumulation of propellant during fatigue tests increased with increasing strain amplitude and loading frequencies, while initial quasi-static loading has a negative effect on fatigue properties by comparing stress-strain relations after fatigue tests.

Keywords: Fatigue, HTPB propellant, tensile properties, time-temperature superposition principle.

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1178 Creep Transition in a Thin Rotating Disc Having Variable Density with Inclusion

Authors: Pankaj, Sonia R. Bansal

Abstract:

Creep stresses and strain rates have been obtained for a thin rotating disc having variable density with inclusion by using Seth-s transition theory. The density of the disc is assumed to vary radially, i.e. ( ) 0 ¤ü ¤ü r/b m - = ; ¤ü 0 and m being real positive constants. It has been observed that a disc, whose density increases radially, rotates at higher angular speed, thus decreasing the possibility of a fracture at the bore, whereas for a disc whose density decreases radially, the possibility of a fracture at the bore increases.

Keywords: Elastic-Plastic, Inclusion, Rotating disc, Stress, Strain rates, Transition, variable density.

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1177 Numerical Simulation on Deformation Behaviour of Additively Manufactured AlSi10Mg Alloy

Authors: Racholsan Raj Nirmal, B. S. V. Patnaik, R. Jayaganthan

Abstract:

The deformation behaviour of additively manufactured AlSi10Mg alloy under low strains, high strain rates and elevated temperature conditions is essential to analyse and predict its response against dynamic loading such as impact and thermomechanical fatigue. The constitutive relation of Johnson-Cook is used to capture the strain rate sensitivity and thermal softening effect in AlSi10Mg alloy. Johnson-Cook failure model is widely used for exploring damage mechanics and predicting the fracture in many materials. In this present work, Johnson-Cook material and damage model parameters for additively manufactured AlSi10Mg alloy have been determined numerically from four types of uniaxial tensile test. Three different uniaxial tensile tests with dynamic strain rates (0.1, 1, 10, 50, and 100 s-1) and elevated temperature tensile test with three different temperature conditions (450 K, 500 K and 550 K) were performed on 3D printed AlSi10Mg alloy in ABAQUS/Explicit. Hexahedral elements are used to discretize tensile specimens and fracture energy value of 43.6 kN/m was used for damage initiation. Levenberg Marquardt optimization method was used for the evaluation of Johnson-Cook model parameters. It was observed that additively manufactured AlSi10Mg alloy has shown relatively higher strain rate sensitivity and lower thermal stability as compared to the other Al alloys.

Keywords: ABAQUS, additive manufacturing, AlSi10Mg, Johnson-Cook model.

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1176 Experimental Investigation and Constitutive Modeling of Volume Strain under Uniaxial Strain Rate Jump Test in HDPE

Authors: Rida B. Arieby, Hameed N. Hameed

Abstract:

In this work, tensile tests on high density polyethylene have been carried out under various constant strain rate and strain rate jump tests. The dependency of the true stress and specially the variation of volume strain have been investigated, the volume strain due to the phenomena of damage was determined in real time during the tests by an optical extensometer called Videotraction. A modified constitutive equations, including strain rate and damage effects, are proposed, such a model is based on a non-equilibrium thermodynamic approach called (DNLR). The ability of the model to predict the complex nonlinear response of this polymer is examined by comparing the model simulation with the available experimental data, which demonstrate that this model can represent the deformation behavior of the polymer reasonably well.

Keywords: Strain rate jump tests, Volume Strain, High Density Polyethylene, Large strain, Thermodynamics approach.

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1175 Flexural Strength Design of RC Beams with Consideration of Strain Gradient Effect

Authors: Mantai Chen, Johnny Ching Ming Ho

Abstract:

The stress-strain relationship of concrete under flexure is one of the essential parameters in assessing ultimate flexural strength capacity of RC beams. Currently, the concrete stress-strain curve in flexure is obtained by incorporating a constant scale-down factor of 0.85 in the uniaxial stress-strain curve. However, it was revealed that strain gradient would improve the maximum concrete stress under flexure and concrete stress-strain curve is strain gradient dependent. Based on the strain-gradient-dependent concrete stress-strain curve, the investigation of the combined effects of strain gradient and concrete strength on flexural strength of RC beams was extended to high strength concrete up to 100 MPa by theoretical analysis. As an extension and application of the authors’ previous study, a new flexural strength design method incorporating the combined effects of strain gradient and concrete strength is developed. A set of equivalent rectangular concrete stress block parameters is proposed and applied to produce a series of design charts showing that the flexural strength of RC beams are improved with strain gradient effect considered.

Keywords: Beams, Equivalent concrete stress block, Flexural strength, Strain gradient.

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1174 Lateral Behavior of Concrete

Authors: Ali Khajeh Samani, Mario M. Attard

Abstract:

Lateral expansion is a factor defining the level of confinement in reinforced concrete columns. Therefore, predicting the lateral strain relationship with axial strain becomes an important issue. Measuring lateral strains in experiments is difficult and only few report experimental lateral strains. Among the existing analytical formulations, two recent models are compared with available test results in this paper with shortcomings highlighted. A new analytical model is proposed here for lateral strain axial strain relationship and is based on the supposition that the concrete behaves linear elastic in the early stages of loading and then nonlinear hardening up to the peak stress and then volumetric expansion. The proposal for the lateral strain axial strain relationship after the peak stress is mainly based on the hypothesis that the plastic lateral strain varies linearly with the plastic axial strain and it is shown that this is related to the lateral confinement level.

Keywords: Confined Concrete, Lateral Strain, Triaxial test, Postpeak behavior

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1173 Impact Deformation and Fracture Behaviour of Cobalt-Based Haynes 188 Superalloy

Authors: Woei-Shyan Lee, Hao-Chien Kao

Abstract:

The impact deformation and fracture behaviour of cobalt-based Haynes 188 superalloy are investigated by means of a split Hopkinson pressure bar. Impact tests are performed at strain rates ranging from 1×103 s-1 to 5×103 s-1 and temperatures between 25°C and 800°C. The experimental results indicate that the flow response and fracture characteristics of cobalt-based Haynes 188 superalloy are significantly dependent on the strain rate and temperature. The flow stress, work hardening rate and strain rate sensitivity all increase with increasing strain rate or decreasing temperature. It is shown that the impact response of the Haynes 188 specimens is adequately described by the Zerilli-Armstrong fcc model. The fracture analysis results indicate that the Haynes 188 specimens fail predominantly as the result of intensive localised shearing. Furthermore, it is shown that the flow localisation effect leads to the formation of adiabatic shear bands. The fracture surfaces of the deformed Haynes 188 specimens are characterised by dimple- and / or cleavage-like structure with knobby features. The knobby features are thought to be the result of a rise in the local temperature to a value greater than the melting point.

Keywords: Haynes 188 alloy, impact, strain rate and temperature effect, adiabatic shearing.

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1172 Effect of Heat Treatment on the Portevin-Le Chatelier Effect of Al-2.5%Mg Alloy

Authors: A. Chatterjee, A. Sarkar, N. Gayathri, P. Mukherjee, P. Barat

Abstract:

An experimental study is presented on the effect of microstructural change on the Portevin-Le Chatelier effect behaviour of Al-2.5%Mg alloy. Tensile tests are performed on the as received and heat treated (at 400 ºC for 16 hours) samples for a wide range of strain rates. The serrations observed in the stress-time curve are investigated from statistical analysis point of view. Microstructures of the samples are characterized by optical metallography and X-ray diffraction. It is found that the excess vacancy generated due to heat treatment leads to decrease in the strain rate sensitivity and the increase in the number of stress drop occurrences per unit time during the PLC effect. The microstructural parameters like domain size, dislocation density have no appreciable effect on the PLC effect as far as the statistical behavior of the serrations is considered.

Keywords: Dynamic strain ageing, Heat treatment, Portevin-LeChatelier effect

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1171 Characterization of Novel Atrazine-Degrading Klebsiella sp. isolated from Thai Agricultural Soil

Authors: Sawangjit Sopid

Abstract:

Atrazine, a herbicide widely used in sugarcane and corn production, is a frequently detected groundwater contaminant. An atrazine-degrading bacterium, strain KB02, was obtained from long-term atrazine-treated sugarcane field soils in Kanchanaburi province of Thailand. Strain KB02 had a rod-to-coccus morphological cycle during growth. Sequence analysis of the PCR product indicated that the 16S rRNA gene in strain KB02 was ranging from 97-98% identical to the same region in Klebsiella sp. Based on biochemical, physiological analysis and 16S rDNA sequence analysis of one representative isolate, strain KB02, the isolates belong to the genus Klebsiella in the family Enterobacteriaceae. Interestingly that the various primers for atzA, B and C failed to amplify genomic DNA of strain KB02. Whereas the expected PCR product of atzA, B and C were obtained from the reference strain, Arthrobacter sp. strain KU001.

Keywords: Atrazine, atz gene, Biodegradation, bioremediation, Klebsiella

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1170 High Strain Rate Characteristics of the Advanced Blast Energy Absorbers

Authors: Martina Drdlová, Michal Frank, Jaroslav Buchar, Josef Krátký

Abstract:

The main aim of the presented experiments is to improve behaviour of sandwich structures under dynamic loading, such as crash or explosion. Several cellular materials are widely used as core of the sandwich structures and their properties influence the response of the entire element under impact load. To optimize their performance requires the characterisation of the core material behaviour at high strain rates and identification of the underlying mechanism. This work presents the study of high strain-rate characteristics of a specific porous lightweight blast energy absorbing foam using a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB) technique adapted to perform tests on low strength materials. Two different velocities, 15 and 30 m.s-1 were used to determine the strain sensitivity of the material. Foams were designed using two types of porous lightweight spherical raw materials with diameters of 30- 100 *m, combined with polymer matrix. Cylindrical specimens with diameter of 15 mm and length of 7 mm were prepared and loaded using a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar apparatus to assess the relation between the composition of the material and its shock wave attenuation capacity.

Keywords: Blast, foam, microsphere, resin.

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1169 Ethyl Methane Sulfonate-Induced Dunaliella salina KU11 Mutants Affected for Growth Rate, Cell Accumulation and Biomass

Authors: Vongsathorn Ngampuak, Yutachai Chookaew, Wipawee Dejtisakdi

Abstract:

Dunaliella salina has great potential as a system for generating commercially valuable products, including beta-carotene, pharmaceuticals, and biofuels. Our goal is to improve this potential by enhancing growth rate and other properties of D. salina under optimal growth conditions. We used ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) to generate random mutants in D. salina KU11, a strain classified in Thailand. In a preliminary experiment, we first treated D. salina cells with 0%, 0.8%, 1.0%, 1.2%, 1.44% and 1.66% EMS to generate a killing curve. After that, we randomly picked 30 candidates from approximately 300 isolated survivor colonies from the 1.44% EMS treatment (which permitted 30% survival) as an initial test of the mutant screen. Among the 30 survivor lines, we found that 2 strains (mutant #17 and #24) had significantly improved growth rates and cell number accumulation at stationary phase approximately up to 1.8 and 1.45 fold, respectively, 2 strains (mutant #6 and #23) had significantly decreased growth rates and cell number accumulation at stationary phase approximately down to 1.4 and 1.35 fold, respectively, while 26 of 30 lines had similar growth rates compared with the wild type control. We also analyzed cell size for each strain and found there was no significant difference comparing all mutants with the wild type. In addition, mutant #24 had shown an increase of biomass accumulation approximately 1.65 fold compared with the wild type strain on day 5 that was entering early stationary phase. From these preliminary results, it could be feasible to identify D. salina mutants with significant improved growth rate, cell accumulation and biomass production compared to the wild type for the further study; this makes it possible to improve this microorganism as a platform for biotechnology application.

Keywords: Dunaliella salina, mutant, ethyl methane sulfonate, growth rate, biomass.

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1168 Restriction Specificity of Some Soybean Genotypes to Bradyrhizobium japonicum Serogrous

Authors: H.K. Abd El-Maksoud, H.H. Keyser

Abstract:

Competitive relationships among Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA serogroup 123, 122 and 138 were screened versus the standard commercial soybean variety Williams and two introductions P1 377578 "671" in a field trial. Displacement of strain 123 by an effective strain should improved N2 fixation. Root nodules were collected and strain occupancy percentage was determined using strain specific fluorescent antibodies technique. As anticipated the strain USDA 123 dominated 92% of nodules due to the high affinity between the host and the symbiont. This dominance was consistent and not changed materially either by inoculation practice or by introducing new strainan. The interrelationship between the genotype Williams and serogroup 122 & 138 was found very weak although the cell density of the strain in the rhizosphere area was equal. On the other hand, the nodule occupancy of genotypes 671 and 166 with rhizobia serogroup 123 was almost diminished to zero. . The data further exhibited that the genotypes P1 671 and P1 166 have high affinity to colonize with strains 122 and 138 whereas Williams was highly promiscuous to strain 123.

Keywords: B. japonicum serogroups, Competition, Host restriction, Soybean genotype.

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1167 The Path to Wellbeing: The Role of Work-Family Conflict, Family-Work Conflict and Psychological Strain

Authors: Thomas Kalliath, Parveen Kalliath, Christopher C. A. Chan, Geetha Thachil

Abstract:

Although considerable amount of research has attested to the link between work-to-family conflict (WFC) and family-to-work conflict (FWC) and psychological strain and wellbeing, there is a paucity of research investigating the phenomenon in the context of social workers. Moreover, very little is known about the impact of WFC and FWC in developing countries. The present study investigated the mediating effect of psychological strain on the relationship between WFC and FWC with wellbeing of social workers in India. Our findings show that WFC and FWC are influential antecedents of wellbeing; their influence is both direct on psychological strain, and indirect on wellbeing transmitted through psychological strain. Implications of the findings are discussed.

Keywords: Family-to-work conflict, psychological strain, wellbeing, work-to-family conflict.

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1166 High Temperature Deformation Behavior of Cr-containing Superplastic Iron Aluminide

Authors: Seok Hong Min, Woo Young Jung, Tae Kwon Ha

Abstract:

Superplastic deformation and high temperature load relaxation behavior of coarse-grained iron aluminides with the composition of Fe-28 at.% Al have been investigated. A series of load relaxation and tensile tests were conducted at temperatures ranging from 600 to 850oC. The flow curves obtained from load relaxation tests were found to have a sigmoidal shape and to exhibit stress vs. strain rate data in a very wide strain rate range from 10-7/s to 10-2/s. Tensile tests have been conducted at various initial strain rates ranging from 3×10-5/s to 1×10-2/s. Maximum elongation of ~500 % was obtained at the initial strain rate of 3×10-5/s and the maximum strain rate sensitivity was found to be 0.68 at 850oC in binary Fe-28Al alloy. Microstructure observation through the optical microscopy (OM) and the electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) technique has been carried out on the deformed specimens and it has revealed the evidences for grain boundary migration and grain refinement to occur during superplastic deformation, suggesting the dynamic recrystallization mechanism. The addition of Cr by the amount of 5 at.% appeared to deteriorate the superplasticity of the binary iron aluminide. By applying the internal variable theory of structural superplasticity, the addition of Cr has been revealed to lower the contribution of the frictional resistance to dislocation glide during high temperature deformation of the Fe3Al alloy.

Keywords: Iron aluminide (Fe3Al), large grain size, structural superplasticity, dynamic recrystallization, chromium (Cr).

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1165 Determination of Strain Rate Sensitivity (SRS) for Grain Size Variants on Nanocrystalline Material Produced by ARB and ECAP

Authors: P. B. Sob, A. A. Alugongo, T. B. Tengen

Abstract:

Mechanical behavior of 6082T6 aluminum is investigated at different temperatures. The strain rate sensitivity is investigated at different temperatures on the grain size variants. The sensitivity of the measured grain size variants on 3-D grain is discussed. It is shown that the strain rate sensitivities are negative for the grain size variants during the deformation of nanostructured materials. It is also observed that the strain rate sensitivities vary in different ways with the equivalent radius, semi minor axis radius, semi major axis radius and major axis radius. From the obtained results, it is shown that the variation of strain rate sensitivity with temperature suggests that the strain rate sensitivity at the low and the high temperature ends of the 6082T6 aluminum range is different. The obtained results revealed transition at different temperature from negative strain rate sensitivity as temperature increased on the grain size variants.

Keywords: Nanostructured materials, grain size variants, temperature, yield stress, strain rate sensitivity.

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1164 Large Strain Compression-Tension Behavior of AZ31B Rolled Sheet in the Rolling Direction

Authors: A. Yazdanmehr, H. Jahed

Abstract:

Being made with the lightest commercially available industrial metal, Magnesium (Mg) alloys are of interest for light-weighting. Expanding their application to different material processing methods requires Mg properties at large strains. Several room-temperature processes such as shot and laser peening and hole cold expansion need compressive large strain data. Two methods have been proposed in the literature to obtain the stress-strain curve at high strains: 1) anti-buckling guides and 2) small cubic samples. In this paper, an anti-buckling fixture is used with the help of digital image correlation (DIC) to obtain the compression-tension (C-T) of AZ31B-H24 rolled sheet at large strain values of up to 10.5%. The effect of the anti-bucking fixture on stress-strain curves is evaluated experimentally by comparing the results with those of the compression tests of cubic samples. For testing cubic samples, a new fixture has been designed to increase the accuracy of testing cubic samples with DIC strain measurements. Results show a negligible effect of anti-buckling on stress-strain curves, specifically at high strain values.

Keywords: Large strain, compression-tension, loading-unloading, Mg alloys.

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1163 Experimental Determination of Large Strain Localization in Cut Steel Chips

Authors: A. Simoneau

Abstract:

Metal cutting is a severe plastic deformation process involving large strains, high strain rates, and high temperatures. Conventional analysis of the chip formation process is based on bulk material deformation disregarding the inhomogeneous nature of the material microstructure. A series of orthogonal cutting tests of AISI 1045 and 1144 steel were conducted which yielded similar process characteristics and chip formations. With similar shear angles and cut chip thicknesses, shear strains for both chips were found to range from 2.0 up to 2.8. The manganese-sulfide (MnS) precipitate in the 1144 steel has a very distinct and uniform shape which allows for comparison before and after chip formation. From close observations of MnS precipitates in the cut chips it is shown that the conventional approach underestimates plastic strains in metal cutting. Experimental findings revealed local shear strains around a value of 6. These findings and their implications are presented and discussed.

Keywords: Machining, metal cutting, microstructure, plastic strains, local strain.

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1162 Damage Strain Analysis of Parallel Fiber Eutectic

Authors: Jian Zheng, Xinhua Ni, Xiequan Liu

Abstract:

According to isotropy of parallel fiber eutectic, the no- damage strain field in parallel fiber eutectic is obtained from the flexibility tensor of parallel fiber eutectic. Considering the damage behavior of parallel fiber eutectic, damage variables are introduced to determine the strain field of parallel fiber eutectic. The damage strains in the matrix, interphase, and fiber of parallel fiber eutectic are quantitatively analyzed. Results show that damage strains are not only associated with the fiber volume fraction of parallel fiber eutectic, but also with the damage degree.

Keywords: Parallel fiber eutectic, no-damage strain, damage strain, fiber volume fraction, damage degree.

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1161 Influence of Outer Corner Radius in Equal Channel Angular Pressing

Authors: Basavaraj V. Patil, Uday Chakkingal, T. S. Prasanna Kumar

Abstract:

Equal Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP) is currently being widely investigated because of its potential to produce ultrafine grained microstructures in metals and alloys. A sound knowledge of the plastic deformation and strain distribution is necessary for understanding the relationships between strain inhomogeneity and die geometry. Considerable research has been reported on finite element analysis of this process, assuming threedimensional plane strain condition. However, the two-dimensional models are not suitable due to the geometry of the dies, especially in cylindrical ones. In the present work, three-dimensional simulation of ECAP process was carried out for six outer corner radii (sharp to 10 mm in steps of 2 mm), with channel angle 105¶Çü▒, for strain hardening aluminium alloy (AA 6101) using ABAQUS/Standard software. Strain inhomogeneity is presented and discussed for all cases. Pattern of strain variation along selected radial lines in the body of the workpiece is presented. It is found from the results that the outer corner has a significant influence on the strain distribution in the body of work-piece. Based on inhomogeneity and average strain criteria, there is an optimum outer corner radius.

Keywords: Equal Channel Angular Pressing, Finite Element Analysis, strain inhomogeneity, plastic equivalent strain, ultra fine grain size, aluminium alloy 6101.

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1160 Identification of High Stress and Strain Regions in Proximal Femur during Single-Leg Stance and Sideways Fall Using QCT-Based Finite Element Model

Authors: H. Kheirollahi, Y. Luo

Abstract:

Studying stress and strain trends in the femur and recognizing femur failure mechanism is very important for preventing hip fracture in the elderly. The aim of this study was to identify high stress and strain regions in the femur during normal walking and falling to find the mechanical behavior and failure mechanism of the femur. We developed a finite element model of the femur from the subject’s quantitative computed tomography (QCT) image and used it to identify potentially high stress and strain regions during the single-leg stance and the sideways fall. It was found that fracture may initiate from the superior region of femoral neck and propagate to the inferior region during a high impact force such as sideways fall. The results of this study showed that the femur bone is more sensitive to strain than stress which indicates the effect of strain, in addition to effect of stress, should be considered for failure analysis.

Keywords: Finite element analysis, hip fracture, strain, stress.

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1159 Modeling and Investigation of Volume Strain at Large Deformation under Uniaxial Cyclic Loading in Semi Crystalline Polymer

Authors: Rida B. Arieby

Abstract:

This study deals with the experimental investigation and theoretical modeling of Semi crystalline polymeric materials with a rubbery amorphous phase (HDPE) subjected to a uniaxial cyclic tests with various maximum strain levels, even at large deformation. Each cycle is loaded in tension up to certain maximum strain and then unloaded down to zero stress with N number of cycles. This work is focuses on the measure of the volume strain due to the phenomena of damage during this kind of tests. On the basis of thermodynamics of relaxation processes, a constitutive model for large strain deformation has been developed, taking into account the damage effect, to predict the complex elasto-viscoelastic-viscoplastic behavior of material. A direct comparison between the model predictions and the experimental data show that the model accurately captures the material response. The model is also capable of predicting the influence damage causing volume variation.

Keywords: Cyclic test, large strain, polymers semi-crystalline, Volume strain, Thermodynamics of Irreversible Processes.

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1158 Material Flow Modeling in Friction Stir Welding of AA6061-T6 Alloy and Study of the Effect of Process Parameters

Authors: B. Saha Roy, T. Medhi, S. C. Saha

Abstract:

To understand the friction stir welding process, it is very important to know the nature of the material flow in and around the tool. The process is a combination of both thermal as well as mechanical work i.e. it is a coupled thermo-mechanical process. Numerical simulations are very much essential in order to obtain a complete knowledge of the process as well as the physics underlying it. In the present work a model based approach is adopted in order to study material flow. A thermo-mechanical based CFD model is developed using a Finite Element package, Comsol Multiphysics. The fluid flow analysis is done. The model simultaneously predicts shear strain fields, shear strain rates and shear stress over the entire workpiece for the given conditions. The flow fields generated by the streamline plot give an idea of the material flow. The variation of dynamic viscosity, velocity field and shear strain fields with various welding parameters is studied. Finally the result obtained from the above mentioned conditions is discussed elaborately and concluded.

Keywords: AA6061-T6, friction stir welding, material flow, CFD modelling.

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1157 Measurement of Temperature, Humidity and Strain Variation Using Bragg Sensor

Authors: Amira Zrelli, Tahar Ezzeddine

Abstract:

Measurement and monitoring of temperature, humidity and strain variation are very requested in great fields and areas such as structural health monitoring (SHM) systems. Currently, the use of fiber Bragg grating sensors (FBGS) is very recommended in SHM systems due to the specifications of these sensors. In this paper, we present the theory of Bragg sensor, therefore we try to measure the efficient variation of strain, temperature and humidity (SV, ST, SH) using Bragg sensor. Thus, we can deduce the fundamental relation between these parameters and the wavelength of Bragg sensor.

Keywords: Optical fiber, strain, temperature, humidity, measurement, Bragg sensor, SHM.

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1156 Hot Workability of High Strength Low Alloy Steels

Authors: Seok Hong Min, Jung Ho Moon, Woo Young Jung, Tae Kwon Ha

Abstract:

The hot deformation behavior of high strength low alloy (HSLA) steels with different chemical compositions under hot working conditions in the temperature range of 900 to 1100℃ and strain rate range from 0.1 to 10 s-1 has been studied by performing a series of hot compression tests. The dynamic materials model has been employed for developing the processing maps, which show variation of the efficiency of power dissipation with temperature and strain rate. Also the Kumar-s model has been used for developing the instability map, which shows variation of the instability for plastic deformation with temperature and strain rate. The efficiency of power dissipation increased with decreasing strain rate and increasing temperature in the steel with higher Cr and Ti content. High efficiency of power dissipation over 20 % was obtained at a finite strain level of 0.1 under the conditions of strain rate lower than 1 s-1 and temperature higher than 1050 ℃ . Plastic instability was expected in the regime of temperatures lower than 1000 ℃ and strain rate lower than 0.3 s-1. Steel with lower Cr and Ti contents showed high efficiency of power dissipation at higher strain rate and lower temperature conditions.

Keywords: High strength low alloys steels, hot workability, Dynamic materials model, Processing maps.

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1155 Selection of Pichia kudriavzevii Strain for the Production of Single-Cell Protein from Cassava Processing Waste

Authors: Phakamas Rachamontree, Theerawut Phusantisampan, Natthakorn Woravutthikul, Peerapong Pornwongthong, Malinee Sriariyanun

Abstract:

A total of 115 yeast strains isolated from local cassava processing wastes were measured for crude protein content. Among these strains, the strain MSY-2 possessed the highest protein concentration (>3.5 mg protein/mL). By using molecular identification tools, it was identified to be a strain of Pichia kudriavzevii based on similarity of D1/D2 domain of 26S rDNA region. In this study, to optimize the protein production by MSY-2 strain, Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was applied. The tested parameters were the carbon content, nitrogen content, and incubation time. Here, the value of regression coefficient (R2) = 0.7194 could be explained by the model which is high to support the significance of the model. Under the optimal condition, the protein content was produced up to 3.77 g per L of the culture and MSY-2 strain contains 66.8 g protein per 100 g of cell dry weight. These results revealed the plausibility of applying the novel strain of yeast in single-cell protein production.

Keywords: Single cell protein, response surface methodology, yeast, cassava processing waste.

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1154 Fixture Layout Optimization Using Element Strain Energy and Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Zeshan Ahmad, Matteo Zoppi, Rezia Molfino

Abstract:

The stiffness of the workpiece is very important to reduce the errors in manufacturing process. The high stiffness of the workpiece can be achieved by optimal positioning of fixture elements in the fixture. The minimization of the sum of the nodal deflection normal to the surface is used as objective function in previous research. The deflection in other direction has been neglected. The 3-2-1 fixturing principle is not valid for metal sheets due to its flexible nature. We propose a new fixture layout optimization method N-3-2-1 for metal sheets that uses the strain energy of the finite elements. This method combines the genetic algorithm and finite element analysis. The objective function in this method is to minimize the sum of all the element strain energy. By using the concept of element strain energy, the deformations in all the directions have been considered. Strain energy and stiffness are inversely proportional to each other. So, lower the value of strain energy, higher will be the stiffness. Two different kinds of case studies are presented. The case studies are solved for both objective functions; element strain energy and nodal deflection. The result are compared to verify the propose method.

Keywords: Fixture layout, optimization, fixturing element, genetic algorithm.

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