Search results for: Nadia R. A. Nassar
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 44

Search results for: Nadia R. A. Nassar

44 Selection of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains Tolerant to Lead and Cadmium Toxicity

Authors: Nadia R. A. Nassar, Yehia A. Heikal, Mahmoud A. M. Abou Donia, Mohamed Fadel, Gomaa N. Abdel-Rahman

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to select the best strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae able to resist lead and cadmium. Ten strains were screened on the basis of their resistance at different concentrations of 0, 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 and 24 ppm for Pb and 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 ppm for Cd. The properties of baker's yeast quality were decreased by the increase of Pb or Cd in growth medium. The slope values of yield, total viable cells and gassing power of produced baker's yeast were investigated as an indicator of metal resistant. In addition, concentrations of Pb and Cd in produced baker's yeast were determined. The strain of S. cerevisiae FH-620 had the highest resistance against Pb and Cd and had the minimum levels of both two investigated metals in produced baker's yeast.

Keywords: Cadmium, lead, S. cerevisiae, tolerant.

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43 Effect of Different Treatments on Heavy Metal Concentration in Sugar Cane Molasses

Authors: Gomaa N. Abdel-Rahman, Nadia R. A. Nassar, Yehia A. Heikal, Mahmoud A. M. Abou-Donia, Mohamed M. Naguib, Mohamed Fadel

Abstract:

Cane molasses is used as a raw material for the production of baker’s yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) in Egypt. The high levels of heavy metals in molasses cause a critical problem during fermentation and cause various kinds of technological difficulties (yield and quality of yeast become lower). The aim of the present study was to determine heavy metal concentrations (cadmium, nickel, lead, and copper) in crude and treated molasses obtained from the storage tanks of the baker’s yeast factory through four seasons. Also, the effect of crude molasses treatment by different methods (at laboratory scale) on heavy metals reduction and its comparison with factory treated molasses were conducted. The molasses samples obtained at autumn season had the highest values of all the studied heavy metals. The molasses treated by cation exchange resin then sulfuric acid had the lowest concentrations of heavy metals compared with other treatments.

Keywords: Molasses, baker’s yeast, heavy metals, treatment.

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42 MRAS Based Speed Sensorless Control of Induction Motor Drives

Authors: Nadia Bensiali, Nadia Benalia, Amar Omeiri

Abstract:

The recent trend in field oriented control (FOC) is towards the use of sensorless techniques that avoid the use of speed sensor and flux sensor. Sensors are replaced by estimators or observers to minimise the cost and increase the reliability. In this paper an anlyse of perfomance of a MRAS used in sensorless control of induction motors and sensitvity to machine parameters change are studied.

Keywords: Induction motor drive, adaptive observer, MRAS, stability analysis.

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41 Characteristics of the Storage Stability for Different Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains

Authors: Gomaa N. Abdel-Rahman, Nadia R. A. Nassar, Yehia A. Heikal, Mahmoud A. M. Abou-Donia, Mohamed B. M. Ahmed, Mohamed Fadel

Abstract:

Storage stability is the important factor of baker's yeast quality. Effect of the storage period (fifteen days) on storage sugars and cell viability of baker's yeast, produced from three S. cerevisiae strains (FC-620, FH-620, and FAT-12) as comparison with baker's yeast produced by S. cerevisae F-707 (original strain of baker's yeast factory) were investigated. Studied trehalose and glycogen content ranged from 10.19 to 14.79 % and from 10.05 to 10.69 % (d.w.), respectively before storage. The trehalose and glycogen content of all strains was decreased by increasing the storage period with no significant differences between the reduction rates of trehalose. Meanwhile, reduction rates of glycogen had significant differences between different strains, where the FH-620 and FC-620 strains had lowest rates as 18.12 and 20.70 %, respectively. Also, total viable cells and gassing power of all strains were decreased by increasing the storage period. FH-620 and FC-620 strains had the lowest values of reduction rates as an indicator of storage resistant. Where the reduction rates in total viable cells of FH-620 and FC-620 strains were 22.05 and 24.70%, respectively, while the reduction rates of gassing power were 20.90 and 24.30%, in the same order. On other hand, FAT-12 strain was more sensitive to storage as compared to original strain, where the reduction rates were 35.60 and 35.75%, respectively for total viable cells and gassing power.

Keywords: Baker’s yeast, trehalose, glycogen, gassing power.

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40 Voltage Stability Proximity Index Determined by LES Algorithm

Authors: Benalia Nadia, Bensiali Nadia, Mekki Mounira

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose an easily computable proximity index for predicting voltage collapse of a load bus using only measured values of the bus voltage and power; Using these measurements a polynomial of fourth order is obtained by using LES estimation algorithms. The sum of the absolute values of the polynomial coefficient gives an idea of the critical bus. We demonstrate the applicability of our proposed method on 6 bus test system. The results obtained verify its applicability, as well as its accuracy and the simplicity. From this indicator, it is allowed to predict the voltage instability or the proximity of a collapse. Results obtained by the PV curve are compared with corresponding values by QV curves and are observed to be in close agreement.

Keywords: least square method, Voltage Collapse, Voltage Stability, PV curve

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39 Novel Design of Quantum Dot Arrays to Enhance Near-Fields Excitation Resonances

Authors: N. H. Ismail, A. A. A. Nassar, K. H. Baz

Abstract:

Semiconductor crystals smaller than about 10 nm, known as quantum dots, have properties that differ from large samples, including a band gap that becomes larger for smaller particles. These properties create several applications for quantum dots. In this paper new shapes of quantum dot arrays are used to enhance the photo physical properties of gold nano-particles. This paper presents a study of the effect of nano-particles shape, array, and size on their absorption characteristics.

Keywords: Quantum Dots, Nano-Particles, LSPR.

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38 Sensorless Control of Induction Motor: Design and Stability Analysis

Authors: Nadia Bensiali, Erik Etien, Amar Omeiri, Gerard Champenois

Abstract:

Adaptive observers used in sensorless control of induction motors suffer from instability especally in regenerating mode. In this paper, an optimal feed back gain design is proposed, it can reduce the instability region in the torque speed plane .

Keywords: Induction motor drive, adaptive observer, regenerating mode, stabilizing design.

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37 A File Splitting Technique for Reducing the Entropy of Text Files

Authors: Abdel-Rahman M. Jaradat, , Mansour I. Irshid, Talha T. Nassar

Abstract:

A novel file splitting technique for the reduction of the nth-order entropy of text files is proposed. The technique is based on mapping the original text file into a non-ASCII binary file using a new codeword assignment method and then the resulting binary file is split into several subfiles each contains one or more bits from each codeword of the mapped binary file. The statistical properties of the subfiles are studied and it is found that they reflect the statistical properties of the original text file which is not the case when the ASCII code is used as a mapper. The nth-order entropy of these subfiles are determined and it is found that the sum of their entropies is less than that of the original text file for the same values of extensions. These interesting statistical properties of the resulting subfiles can be used to achieve better compression ratios when conventional compression techniques are applied to these subfiles individually and on a bit-wise basis rather than on character-wise basis.

Keywords: Bit-wise compression, entropy, file splitting, source mapping.

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36 Elemental Graph Data Model: A Semantic and Topological Representation of Building Elements

Authors: Yasmeen A. S. Essawy, Khaled Nassar

Abstract:

With the rapid increase of complexity in the building industry, professionals in the A/E/C industry were forced to adopt Building Information Modeling (BIM) in order to enhance the communication between the different project stakeholders throughout the project life cycle and create a semantic object-oriented building model that can support geometric-topological analysis of building elements during design and construction. This paper presents a model that extracts topological relationships and geometrical properties of building elements from an existing fully designed BIM, and maps this information into a directed acyclic Elemental Graph Data Model (EGDM). The model incorporates BIM-based search algorithms for automatic deduction of geometrical data and topological relationships for each building element type. Using graph search algorithms, such as Depth First Search (DFS) and topological sortings, all possible construction sequences can be generated and compared against production and construction rules to generate an optimized construction sequence and its associated schedule. The model is implemented in a C# platform.

Keywords: Building information modeling, elemental graph data model, geometric and topological data models, and graph theory.

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35 A Framework for the Analysis of the Stereotypes in Accounting

Authors: Nadia Albu, Cătălin Nicolae Albu, Mădălina Maria Gîrbină, Maria Iuliana Sandu

Abstract:

Professions are concerned about the public image they have, and this public image is represented by stereotypes. Research is needed to understand how accountants are perceived by different actors in the society in different contexts, which would allow universities, professional bodies and employers to adjust their strategies to attract the right people to the profession and their organizations. We aim to develop in this paper a framework to be used in empirical testing in different environments to determine and analyze the accountant-s stereotype. This framework will be useful in analyzing the nuances associated to the accountant-s image and in understanding the factors that may lead to uniformity in the profession and of those leading to diversity from one context (country, type of countries, region) to another.

Keywords: accounting profession, accounting stereotype, framework, public image

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34 Parametric Cost Estimating Relationships for Design Effort Estimation

Authors: Adil Salam, Nadia Bhuiyan, Gerard J. Gouw

Abstract:

The Canadian aerospace industry faces many challenges. One of them is the difficulty in estimating costs. In particular, the design effort required in a project impacts resource requirements and lead-time, and consequently the final cost. This paper presents the findings of a case study conducted for recognized global leader in the design and manufacturing of aircraft engines. The study models parametric cost estimation relationships to estimate the design effort of integrated blade-rotor low-pressure compressor fans. Several effort drivers are selected to model the relationship. Comparative analyses of three types of models are conducted. The model with the best accuracy and significance in design estimation is retained.

Keywords: Effort estimation, design, aerospace.

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33 Echo State Networks for Arabic Phoneme Recognition

Authors: Nadia Hmad, Tony Allen

Abstract:

This paper presents an ESN-based Arabic phoneme recognition system trained with supervised, forced and combined supervised/forced supervised learning algorithms. Mel-Frequency Cepstrum Coefficients (MFCCs) and Linear Predictive Code (LPC) techniques are used and compared as the input feature extraction technique. The system is evaluated using 6 speakers from the King Abdulaziz Arabic Phonetics Database (KAPD) for Saudi Arabia dialectic and 34 speakers from the Center for Spoken Language Understanding (CSLU2002) database of speakers with different dialectics from 12 Arabic countries. Results for the KAPD and CSLU2002 Arabic databases show phoneme recognition performances of 72.31% and 38.20% respectively.

Keywords: Arabic phonemes recognition, echo state networks (ESNs), neural networks (NNs), supervised learning.

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32 An Application of a Cost Minimization Model in Determining Safety Stock Level and Location

Authors: Bahareh Amirjabbari, Nadia Bhuiyan

Abstract:

In recent decades, the lean methodology, and the development of its principles and concepts have widely been applied in supply chain management. One of the most important strategies of being lean is having efficient inventory within the chain. On the other hand, managing inventory efficiently requires appropriate management of safety stock in order to protect against increasing stretch in the breaking points of the supply chain, which in turn can result in possible reduction of inventory. This paper applies a safety stock cost minimization model in a manufacturing company. The model results in optimum levels and locations of safety stock within the company-s supply chain in order to minimize total logistics costs.

Keywords: Cost, efficient inventory, optimization, safety stock, supply chain

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31 Accounting for SMEs – How Important is Size in Choosing between Global and Local Standards?

Authors: Cătălin Nicolae Albu, Nadia Albu, Maria Mădălina Gîrbină

Abstract:

There is limited evidence from various countries about the possible impact of various criteria to be used to determine the scope of the IFRS for SMEs issued in 2009 and, research is needed in this area. We provide evidence from Romania, an emerging economy member of the European Union. The aim of this paper is to analyze in a local setting if size is a relevant factor for deciding between local and global standards for SMEs. Our results indicate that size is a moderate indicator of the existence of possible users interested in financial statements and that there is a difference between the scopes of the standard determined on various criteria.. Also, we suggest that the international exposure is quite reduced in the case of SMEs, but is sufficient to suggest that at least some SMEs would benefit from international comparability of financial statements

Keywords: SMEs, IFRS for SMEs, accounting regulation, entity's size.

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30 Performance Assessment of Multi-Level Ensemble for Multi-Class Problems

Authors: Rodolfo Lorbieski, Silvia Modesto Nassar

Abstract:

Many supervised machine learning tasks require decision making across numerous different classes. Multi-class classification has several applications, such as face recognition, text recognition and medical diagnostics. The objective of this article is to analyze an adapted method of Stacking in multi-class problems, which combines ensembles within the ensemble itself. For this purpose, a training similar to Stacking was used, but with three levels, where the final decision-maker (level 2) performs its training by combining outputs from the tree-based pair of meta-classifiers (level 1) from Bayesian families. These are in turn trained by pairs of base classifiers (level 0) of the same family. This strategy seeks to promote diversity among the ensembles forming the meta-classifier level 2. Three performance measures were used: (1) accuracy, (2) area under the ROC curve, and (3) time for three factors: (a) datasets, (b) experiments and (c) levels. To compare the factors, ANOVA three-way test was executed for each performance measure, considering 5 datasets by 25 experiments by 3 levels. A triple interaction between factors was observed only in time. The accuracy and area under the ROC curve presented similar results, showing a double interaction between level and experiment, as well as for the dataset factor. It was concluded that level 2 had an average performance above the other levels and that the proposed method is especially efficient for multi-class problems when compared to binary problems.

Keywords: Stacking, multi-layers, ensemble, multi-class.

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29 IFS on the Multi-Fuzzy Fractal Space

Authors: Nadia M. G. AL-Sa'idi, Muhammad Rushdan Md. Sd., Adil M. Ahmed

Abstract:

The IFS is a scheme for describing and manipulating complex fractal attractors using simple mathematical models. More precisely, the most popular “fractal –based" algorithms for both representation and compression of computer images have involved some implementation of the method of Iterated Function Systems (IFS) on complete metric spaces. In this paper a new generalized space called Multi-Fuzzy Fractal Space was constructed. On these spases a distance function is defined, and its completeness is proved. The completeness property of this space ensures the existence of a fixed-point theorem for the family of continuous mappings. This theorem is the fundamental result on which the IFS methods are based and the fractals are built. The defined mappings are proved to satisfy some generalizations of the contraction condition.

Keywords: Fuzzy metric space, Fuzzy fractal space, Multi fuzzy fractal space.

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28 Semi-Automatic Artifact Rejection Procedure Based on Kurtosis, Renyi's Entropy and Independent Component Scalp Maps

Authors: Antonino Greco, Nadia Mammone, Francesco Carlo Morabito, Mario Versaci

Abstract:

Artifact rejection plays a key role in many signal processing applications. The artifacts are disturbance that can occur during the signal acquisition and that can alter the analysis of the signals themselves. Our aim is to automatically remove the artifacts, in particular from the Electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings. A technique for the automatic artifact rejection, based on the Independent Component Analysis (ICA) for the artifact extraction and on some high order statistics such as kurtosis and Shannon-s entropy, was proposed some years ago in literature. In this paper we try to enhance this technique proposing a new method based on the Renyi-s entropy. The performance of our method was tested and compared to the performance of the method in literature and the former proved to outperform the latter.

Keywords: Artifact, EEG, Renyi's entropy, kurtosis, independent component analysis.

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27 Influence of Locus of Control and Job Involvement to Organizational Culture Applied by Employees on Bank X

Authors: Sri Suwarsi, Nadia Budianti

Abstract:

As one of the big government bank, Bank X is paying attention its performance, so that it can compete. One of them is the existence of organizational culture which recognized with term TIPEC (Trust, Integrity, Professionalism, Costumer Focus, and Excellence). In application of organizational culture, it is needed the existence of employee involvement (job involvement). It can be influenced by various factors, such as Locus of Control. Related to above mentioned, the problems are how employee tendency of Locus of Control, how job involvement, how organizational culture applied by employees and how influence of Locus of Control and job involvement to the organizational culture applied by employees. Researchers collected data with questioner spreading, and respondents number of 30 people. After that, the data were analyzed with SPSS software constructively. The influence of Locus of Control and job involvement to the application of organizational culture was strong, i.e. 58.3%.

Keywords: Organizational culture, bank, employee locus of control, job involvement.

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26 An Enhanced Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm for Multiobjective Problems

Authors: Houda Abadlia, Nadia Smairi, Khaled Ghedira

Abstract:

Multiobjective Particle Swarm Optimization (MOPSO) has shown an effective performance for solving test functions and real-world optimization problems. However, this method has a premature convergence problem, which may lead to lack of diversity. In order to improve its performance, this paper presents a hybrid approach which embedded the MOPSO into the island model and integrated a local search technique, Variable Neighborhood Search, to enhance the diversity into the swarm. Experiments on two series of test functions have shown the effectiveness of the proposed approach. A comparison with other evolutionary algorithms shows that the proposed approach presented a good performance in solving multiobjective optimization problems.

Keywords: Particle swarm optimization, migration, variable neighborhood search, multiobjective optimization.

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25 Signature Identification Scheme Based on Iterated Function Systems

Authors: Nadia M. G. AL-Saidi

Abstract:

Since 1984 many schemes have been proposed for digital signature protocol, among them those that based on discrete log and factorizations. However a new identification scheme based on iterated function (IFS) systems are proposed and proved to be more efficient. In this study the proposed identification scheme is transformed into a digital signature scheme by using a one way hash function. It is a generalization of the GQ signature schemes. The attractor of the IFS is used to obtain public key from a private one, and in the encryption and decryption of a hash function. Our aim is to provide techniques and tools which may be useful towards developing cryptographic protocols. Comparisons between the proposed scheme and fractal digital signature scheme based on RSA setting, as well as, with the conventional Guillou-Quisquater signature, and RSA signature schemes is performed to prove that, the proposed scheme is efficient and with high performance.

Keywords: Digital signature, Fractal, Iterated function systems(IFS), Guillou-Quisquater (GQ) protocol, Zero-knowledge (ZK)

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24 Hypergraph Models of Metabolism

Authors: Nicole Pearcy, Jonathan J. Crofts, Nadia Chuzhanova

Abstract:

In this paper, we employ a directed hypergraph model to investigate the extent to which environmental variability influences the set of available biochemical reactions within a living cell. Such an approach avoids the limitations of the usual complex network formalism by allowing for the multilateral relationships (i.e. connections involving more than two nodes) that naturally occur within many biological processes. More specifically, we extend the concept of network reciprocity to complex hyper-networks, thus enabling us to characterise a network in terms of the existence of mutual hyper-connections, which may be considered a proxy for metabolic network complexity. To demonstrate these ideas, we study 115 metabolic hyper-networks of bacteria, each of which can be classified into one of 6 increasingly varied habitats. In particular, we found that reciprocity increases significantly with increased environmental variability, supporting the view that organism adaptability leads to increased complexities in the resultant biochemical networks.

Keywords: Complexity, hypergraphs, reciprocity, metabolism.

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23 Determinants and Perspectives of an Accounting Career. Empirical Evidence on Students' Perceptions

Authors: Maria Mădălina Gîrbină, Nadia Albu, Cătălin Nicolae Albu

Abstract:

This study realizes an empirical investigation of main factors to develop an accounting career, stereotypes on accountants and accounting and perceptions on future career path for a sample of master students in accounting. The research provides some insight into what master students consider when choosing their future career paths. The most important two reasons chosen by students were “career opportunities" and “future earnings. They see accounting as structured, governed by conformity, requiring skills in working with numbers, monotonous, accurate, more efficient than effective but also absorbing, interesting and involving a certain degree of novelty. Although these students plan to start their careers in a multinational or accounting/audit firm, most of those plan to leave after five years. It resulted that women value more flexibility and time requiring special attention in retention policies practiced by firms.

Keywords: Accounting career, students' perception, stereotypes.

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22 Kurtosis, Renyi's Entropy and Independent Component Scalp Maps for the Automatic Artifact Rejection from EEG Data

Authors: Antonino Greco, Nadia Mammone, Francesco Carlo Morabito, Mario Versaci

Abstract:

The goal of this work is to improve the efficiency and the reliability of the automatic artifact rejection, in particular from the Electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings. Artifact rejection is a key topic in signal processing. The artifacts are unwelcome signals that may occur during the signal acquisition and that may alter the analysis of the signals themselves. A technique for the automatic artifact rejection, based on the Independent Component Analysis (ICA) for the artifact extraction and on some high order statistics such as kurtosis and Shannon-s entropy, was proposed some years ago in literature. In this paper we enhance this technique introducing the Renyi-s entropy. The performance of our method was tested exploiting the Independent Component scalp maps and it was compared to the performance of the method in literature and it showed to outperform it.

Keywords: Artifact, EEG, Renyi's entropy, independent component analysis, kurtosis.

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21 Analysis of the EEG Signal for a Practical Biometric System

Authors: Muhammad Kamil Abdullah, Khazaimatol S Subari, Justin Leo Cheang Loong, Nurul Nadia Ahmad

Abstract:

This paper discusses the effectiveness of the EEG signal for human identification using four or less of channels of two different types of EEG recordings. Studies have shown that the EEG signal has biometric potential because signal varies from person to person and impossible to replicate and steal. Data were collected from 10 male subjects while resting with eyes open and eyes closed in 5 separate sessions conducted over a course of two weeks. Features were extracted using the wavelet packet decomposition and analyzed to obtain the feature vectors. Subsequently, the neural networks algorithm was used to classify the feature vectors. Results show that, whether or not the subjects- eyes were open are insignificant for a 4– channel biometrics system with a classification rate of 81%. However, for a 2–channel system, the P4 channel should not be included if data is acquired with the subjects- eyes open. It was observed that for 2– channel system using only the C3 and C4 channels, a classification rate of 71% was achieved.

Keywords: Biometric, EEG, Wavelet Packet Decomposition, NeuralNetworks

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20 Virtual Reality Learning Environment in Embryology Education

Authors: Salsabeel F. M. Alfalah, Jannat F. Falah, Nadia Muhaidat, Amjad Hudaib, Diana Koshebye, Sawsan AlHourani

Abstract:

Educational technology is changing the way how students engage and interact with learning materials. This improved the learning process amongst various subjects. Virtual Reality (VR) applications are considered one of the evolving methods that have contributed to enhancing medical education. This paper utilizes VR to provide a solution to improve the delivery of the subject of Embryology to medical students, and facilitate the teaching process by providing a useful aid to lecturers, whilst proving the effectiveness of this new technology in this particular area. After evaluating the current teaching methods and identifying students ‘needs, a VR system was designed that demonstrates in an interactive fashion the development of the human embryo from fertilization to week ten of intrauterine development. This system aims to overcome some of the problems faced by the students’ in the current educational methods, and to increase the efficacy of the learning process.

Keywords: Virtual reality, student assessment, medical education, 3D, embryology.

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19 Space Telemetry Anomaly Detection Based on Statistical PCA Algorithm

Authors: B. Nassar, W. Hussein, M. Mokhtar

Abstract:

The critical concern of satellite operations is to ensure the health and safety of satellites. The worst case in this perspective is probably the loss of a mission, but the more common interruption of satellite functionality can result in compromised mission objectives. All the data acquiring from the spacecraft are known as Telemetry (TM), which contains the wealth information related to the health of all its subsystems. Each single item of information is contained in a telemetry parameter, which represents a time-variant property (i.e. a status or a measurement) to be checked. As a consequence, there is a continuous improvement of TM monitoring systems to reduce the time required to respond to changes in a satellite's state of health. A fast conception of the current state of the satellite is thus very important to respond to occurring failures. Statistical multivariate latent techniques are one of the vital learning tools that are used to tackle the problem above coherently. Information extraction from such rich data sources using advanced statistical methodologies is a challenging task due to the massive volume of data. To solve this problem, in this paper, we present a proposed unsupervised learning algorithm based on Principle Component Analysis (PCA) technique. The algorithm is particularly applied on an actual remote sensing spacecraft. Data from the Attitude Determination and Control System (ADCS) was acquired under two operation conditions: normal and faulty states. The models were built and tested under these conditions, and the results show that the algorithm could successfully differentiate between these operations conditions. Furthermore, the algorithm provides competent information in prediction as well as adding more insight and physical interpretation to the ADCS operation.

Keywords: Space telemetry monitoring, multivariate analysis, PCA algorithm, space operations.

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18 Influence of Environment-Friendly Organic Wastes on the Properties of Sandy Soil under Growing Zea mays L. in Arid Regions

Authors: Mohamed Rashad, Mohamed Hafez, Mohamed Emran, Emad Aboukila, Ibrahim Nassar

Abstract:

Environment-friendly organic wastes of Brewers' spent grain, a byproduct of the brewing process, have recently used as soil amendment to improve soil fertility and plant production. In this work, treatments of 1% (T1) and 2% (T2) of spent grains, 1% (C1) and 2% (C2) of compost and mix of both sources (C1T1) were used and compared to the control for growing Zea mays L. on sandy soil under arid Mediterranean climate. Soils were previously incubated at 65% saturation capacity for a month. The most relevant soil physical and chemical parameters were analysed. Water holding capacity and soil organic matter (OM) increased significantly along the treatments with the highest values in T2. Soil pH decreased along the treatments and the lowest pH was in C1T1. Bicarbonate decreased by 69% in C1T1 comparing to control. Total nitrogen (TN) and available P varied significantly among all treatments and T2, C1T1 and C2 treatments increased 25, 17 and 11 folds in TN and 1.2, 0.6 and 0.3 folds in P, respectively related to control. Available K showed the highest values in C1T1. Soil micronutrients increased significantly along all treatments with the highest values in T2. After corn germination, significant variation was observed in the velocity of germination coefficients (VGC) among all treatments in the order of C1T1>T2>T1>C2>C1>control. The highest records of final germination and germination index were in C1T1 and T2. The spent grains may compensate deficiencies of macro and micronutrients in newly reclaimed sandy soils without adverse effects to sustain crop production with a rider that excessive or continuous use need to be circumvented.

Keywords: Spent grain, compost, micronutrients, macronutrients, water holding capacity, plant growth.

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17 Generalized π-Armendariz Authentication Cryptosystem

Authors: Areej M. Abduldaim, Nadia M. G. Al-Saidi

Abstract:

Algebra is one of the important fields of mathematics. It concerns with the study and manipulation of mathematical symbols. It also concerns with the study of abstractions such as groups, rings, and fields. Due to the development of these abstractions, it is extended to consider other structures, such as vectors, matrices, and polynomials, which are non-numerical objects. Computer algebra is the implementation of algebraic methods as algorithms and computer programs. Recently, many algebraic cryptosystem protocols are based on non-commutative algebraic structures, such as authentication, key exchange, and encryption-decryption processes are adopted. Cryptography is the science that aimed at sending the information through public channels in such a way that only an authorized recipient can read it. Ring theory is the most attractive category of algebra in the area of cryptography. In this paper, we employ the algebraic structure called skew -Armendariz rings to design a neoteric algorithm for zero knowledge proof. The proposed protocol is established and illustrated through numerical example, and its soundness and completeness are proved.

Keywords: Cryptosystem, identification, skew π-Armendariz rings, skew polynomial rings, zero knowledge protocol.

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16 Achieving Success in NPD Projects

Authors: Ankush Agrawal, Nadia Bhuiyan

Abstract:

The new product development (NPD) literature emphasizes the importance of introducing new products on the market for continuing business success. New products are responsible for employment, economic growth, technological progress, and high standards of living. Therefore, the study of NPD and the processes through which they emerge is important. The goal of our research is to propose a framework of critical success factors, metrics, and tools and techniques for implementing metrics for each stage of the new product development (NPD) process. An extensive literature review was undertaken to investigate decades of studies on NPD success and how it can be achieved. These studies were scanned for common factors for firms that enjoyed success of new products on the market. The paper summarizes NPD success factors, suggests metrics that should be used to measure these factors, and proposes tools and techniques to make use of these metrics. This was done for each stage of the NPD process, and brought together in a framework that the authors propose should be followed for complex NPD projects. While many studies have been conducted on critical success factors for NPD, these studies tend to be fragmented and focus on one or a few phases of the NPD process. 

Keywords: New product development, performance, critical success factors, framework.

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15 Convergence of National Regulations with IFRS for SMEs: Empirical Evidences in the Case of Romania

Authors: Mădălina Maria Gîrbină, Cătălin Nicolae Albu, Nadia Albu

Abstract:

The IFRS for Small and Medium-sized Entities (SMEs) was issued in July 2009 and currently regulators are considering various implementation strategies of this standard. Romania is a member of the European Union since 2007, thus accounting regulations were issued in order to ensure compliance with the European Accounting Directives. As the European Commission rejected recently the mandatory use of IFRS for SMEs, regulatory bodies from the Member States have to decide if the standard will affect or not the accounting practices of SMEs from their countries. Recently IASB invited stakeholders to discuss the revision of IFRS for SMEs. Empirical studies on the differences and similarities between national standards and IFRS for SMEs could inform decision makers on the actual level of convergence in different countries. The purpose of this paper is to provide empirical evidences on the convergence of the Romanian regulations with IFRS for SMEs analyzing the results in the context of the last revisions proposed to the EU Accounting Directives.

Keywords: EU Accounting Directives, IFRS for SMEs, national regulations

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