Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 199

Search results for: Inclusion

199 Financial Inclusion from the Perspective of Social Innovation: The Case of Colombia

Authors: Jaramillo G. Maria Luisa, Turriago H. Álvaro, Thoene Ulf

Abstract:

Financial inclusion has become a crucially important factor in debates on economic inequality posing challenges to the financial systems of countries around the world. Nowadays governments and banks are concerned about creating products that allow access to wide sectors of the population. The creation of banking products by the financial sector for people with low incomes tends to lead to improvements in the quality of life of vulnerable parts of the population. In countries with notable social and economic inequalities, financial inclusion is a key aspect for equitable economic growth. This study is based on the case of Colombia, which is a country with a strong record of economic growth over the past decade. Nevertheless, corruption, unemployment, and poverty contribute to uncertainty regarding the country’s future growth prospects. This study wants to explain the situation of financial exclusion and financial inclusion with respect to the Colombian case. Financial inclusion is going to be studied from the perspective of social innovation.

Keywords: Colombia, financial exclusion, financial inclusion, social innovation.

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198 Elastic-Plastic Transition in a Thin Rotating Disc with Inclusion

Authors: Pankaj, Sonia R. Bansal

Abstract:

Stresses for the elastic-plastic transition and fully plastic state have been derived for a thin rotating disc with inclusion and results have been discussed numerically and depicted graphically. It has been observed that the rotating disc with inclusion and made of compressible material requires lesser angular speed to yield at the internal surface whereas it requires higher percentage increase in angular speed to become fully plastic as compare to disc made of incompressible material.

Keywords: Angular speed, Elastic-Plastic, Inclusion, Rotatingdisc, Stress, Transition.

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197 Islamic Banking: An Ultimate Source of Financial Inclusion

Authors: Tasawar Nawaz

Abstract:

Promotion of socioeconomic justice through redistribution of wealth is one of the most salient features of Islamic economic system. Islamic financial institutions known as Islamic banks are used to implement this in practice under the guidelines of Islamic Shariah law. Islamic banking systems strive to promote and achieve financial inclusion among the society by offering interest-free banking and risk-sharing financing solutions. Shariah-compliant micro finance is one of the most popular financial instruments used by Islamic banks to enhance access to finance. Benevolent loan (or Qard-al-Hassanah) is one of the popular financial tools used by the Islamic banks to promote financial inclusion. This aspect of Islamic banking is empirically examined in this paper with specific reference to firm’s resources, largely defined here as intellectual capital. The paper finds that Islamic banks promote financial inclusion by exploiting available resources especially, the human intellectual capital.

Keywords: Financial inclusion, intellectual capital, Qard-al-Hassanah, Islamic banking.

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196 Green Function and Eshelby Tensor Based on Mindlin’s 2nd Gradient Model: An Explicit Study of Spherical Inclusion Case

Authors: A. Selmi, A. Bisharat

Abstract:

Using Fourier transform and based on the Mindlin's 2nd gradient model that involves two length scale parameters, the Green's function, the Eshelby tensor, and the Eshelby-like tensor for a spherical inclusion are derived. It is proved that the Eshelby tensor consists of two parts; the classical Eshelby tensor and a gradient part including the length scale parameters which enable the interpretation of the size effect. When the strain gradient is not taken into account, the obtained Green's function and Eshelby tensor reduce to its analogue based on the classical elasticity. The Eshelby tensor in and outside the inclusion, the volume average of the gradient part and the Eshelby-like tensor are explicitly obtained. Unlike the classical Eshelby tensor, the results show that the components of the new Eshelby tensor vary with the position and the inclusion dimensions. It is demonstrated that the contribution of the gradient part should not be neglected.

Keywords: Eshelby tensor, Eshelby-like tensor, Green’s function, Mindlin’s 2nd gradient model, Spherical inclusion.

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195 Creep Transition in a Thin Rotating Disc Having Variable Density with Inclusion

Authors: Pankaj, Sonia R. Bansal

Abstract:

Creep stresses and strain rates have been obtained for a thin rotating disc having variable density with inclusion by using Seth-s transition theory. The density of the disc is assumed to vary radially, i.e. ( ) 0 ¤ü ¤ü r/b m - = ; ¤ü 0 and m being real positive constants. It has been observed that a disc, whose density increases radially, rotates at higher angular speed, thus decreasing the possibility of a fracture at the bore, whereas for a disc whose density decreases radially, the possibility of a fracture at the bore increases.

Keywords: Elastic-Plastic, Inclusion, Rotating disc, Stress, Strain rates, Transition, variable density.

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194 Moving Beyond the Limits of Disability Inclusion: Using the Concept of Belonging Through Friendship to Improve the Outcome of the Social Model of Disability

Authors: Luke S. Carlos A. Thompson

Abstract:

The medical model of disability, though beneficial for the medical professional, is often exclusionary, restrictive and dehumanizing when applied to the lived experience of disability. As a result, a critique of this model was constructed called the social model of disability. Much of the language used to articulate the purpose behind the social model of disability can be summed up within the word inclusion. However, this essay asserts that inclusiveness is an incomplete aspiration. The social model, as it currently stands, does not aid in creating a society where those with impairments actually belong. Rather, the social model aids in lessening the visibility, or negative consequence of, difference. Therefore, the social model does not invite society to welcome those with physical and intellectual impairments. It simply aids society in ignoring the existence of impairment by removing explicit forms of exclusion. Rather than simple inclusion, then, this essay uses John Swinton’s concept of friendship and Jean Vanier’s understanding of belonging to better articulate the intended outcome of the social model—a society where everyone can belong.

Keywords: Belong, community, disability, exclusion, friendship, inclusion.

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193 Inclusive Education of Roma Students from Socially Disadvantaged Background as a Determinant of Their Social Inclusion in the Slovak Republic

Authors: L. Horňák

Abstract:

The aim of the paper is to analyze a longstanding problem in Slovakia – the effective education of Roma students coming from socially disadvantaged backgrounds. Although it is a relatively small country, there are over 630 communities in the Slovak Republic. The efficiency of the projects was verified by interviews with participants; questionnaires; and direct observations. Evaluation reports which summarized and evaluated the outcomes of the projects only confirmed their success. Slovakia realizes that appropriate social inclusion of marginalized citizens coming from the Roma ethnic group can only be achieved through education based on equality of all students and acceptance of diversity.

Keywords: Inclusive education, marginalized communities, Roma student, equality in education, socially disadvantaged backgrounds, social inclusion.

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192 Teachers' Preferences on the Issue of Segregation of Gifted Pupils in Czech Educational System

Authors: I. Kočvarová, E. Machů, N. Bártlová

Abstract:

The issue of inclusion - segregation in the current Czech educational system is highly actual due to changes in legislation. It applies primarily to pupils with special educational needs, but it should also apply to pupils with giftedness. The paper presents chosen results of an exploratory survey that was carried out on a convenience sample of 1101 Czech teachers working in lower secondary education (ISCED2). The rate of teachers´ agreement with segregation of gifted pupils in the education system was monitored during this investigation. A validated questionnaire of our own design was used for the purpose of this investigation. The results were compared across groups of teachers in terms of selected variables. Results show that 36,3 % of teachers incline to segregation (rather than inclusion) of gifted pupils. Teachers who are not educated in this field and have no experience in teaching gifted pupils tend to support their segregation more in comparison with other teachers. Teachers of specialized schools for gifted pupils paradoxically agree with segregation to a slightly lesser extent than teachers from traditional schools, but they also manifest the most hesitant attitude in this issue. Preferences for segregation of gifted pupils are not related to attitudes toward gifted pupils or teachers' self-evaluation in terms of care for the gifted. Investigation indicates that the issue of education of gifted children and their inclusion in the educational system needs more space within the further education of teachers.

Keywords: Educational system, evaluation, gifted pupil, inclusion, segregation, teacher.

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191 Operative Public Space for Rural Brazil Strategies for Starting Up Economic, Social and Environmental Development of Rural Communities in Emerging Countries: The Goiabeira Case

Authors: Alessandra Battisti, Silvia Cimini

Abstract:

This article stands in the context of rural communities in Brazil, where, like many others emerging countries, the overwhelming increasing markets and the overcrowded cities are leaving behind informal settlements based on obsolete agricultural economies and techniques. The pilot project for the community of Goiabeira reflects the attempt to imagine a development model that privileges the actual improvement of living conditions, the education and training, the social inclusion and participation of the dwellers of rural communities. Through the inclusion of operative public space, the aim is for them to become self-sustaining, encouraging the use of local resources for appropriate architectural, ecological and energy technologies and devices, that are efficient, affordable and foster community participation, in the respect of the surrounding environment.

Keywords: Economical development, environment conservation, local resources, participation and social inclusion.

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190 Physical and Microbiological Evaluation of Chitosan Films: Effect of Essential Oils and Storage

Authors: N. Valderrama, W. Albarracín, N. Algecira

Abstract:

The effect of the inclusion of thyme and rosemary essential oils into chitosan films, as well as the microbiological and physical properties when storing chitosan film with and without the mentioned inclusion was studied. The film forming solution was prepared by dissolving chitosan (2%, w/v), polysorbate 80 (4% w/w CH) and glycerol (16% w/w CH) in aqueous lactic acid solutions (control). The thyme (TEO) and rosemary (REO) essential oils (EOs) were included 1:1 w/w (EOs:CH) on their combination 50/50 (TEO:REO). The films were stored at temperatures of 5, 20, 33°C and a relative humidity of 75% during four weeks. The films with essential oil inclusion did not show an antimicrobial activity against strains. This behavior could be explained because the chitosan only inhibits the growth of microorganisms in direct contact with the active sites. However, the inhibition capacity of TEO was higher than the REO and a synergic effect between TEO:REO was found for S. enteritidis strains in the chitosan solution. Some physical properties were modified by the inclusion of essential oils. The addition of essential oils does not affect the mechanical properties (tensile strength, elongation at break, puncture deformation), the water solubility, the swelling index nor the DSC behavior. However, the essential oil inclusion can significantly decrease the thickness, the moisture content, and the L* value of films whereas the b* value increased due to molecular interactions between the polymeric matrix, the loosing of the structure, and the chemical modifications. On the other hand, the temperature and time of storage changed some physical properties on the chitosan films. This could have occurred because of chemical changes, such as swelling in the presence of high humidity air and the reacetylation of amino groups. In the majority of cases, properties such as moisture content, tensile strength, elongation at break, puncture deformation, a*, b*, chrome, 7E increased whereas water resistance, swelling index, L*, and hue angle decreased.

Keywords: Chitosan, food additives, modified films, polymers.

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189 Financial Technology: The Key to Achieving Financial Inclusion in Developing Countries Post COVID-19 from an East African Perspective

Authors: Yosia Mulumba, Klaus Schmidt

Abstract:

Financial Inclusion is considered a key pillar for development in most countries around the world. Access to affordable financial services in a country’s economy can be a driver to overcome poverty and reduce income inequalities, and thus increase economic growth. Nevertheless, the number of financially excluded populations in developing countries continues to be very high. This paper explores the role of Financial Technology (Fintech) as a key driver for achieving financial inclusion in developing countries post the COVID-19 pandemic with an emphasis on four East African countries: Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, and Rwanda. The research paper is inspired by the positive disruption caused by the pandemic, which has compelled societies in East Africa to adapt and embrace the use of financial technology innovations, specifically Mobile Money Services (MMS), to access financial services. MMS has been further migrated and integrated with other financial technology innovations such as Mobile Banking, Micro Savings, and Loans, and Insurance, to mention but a few. These innovations have been adopted across key sectors such as commerce, health care, or agriculture. The research paper will highlight the Mobile Network Operators (MNOs) that are behind MMS, along with numerous innovative products and services being offered to the customers. It will also highlight the regulatory framework under which these innovations are being governed to ensure the safety of the customers' funds.

Keywords: Financial inclusion, financial technology, regulatory framework, mobile money services.

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188 Durability Properties of Foamed Concrete with Fiber Inclusion

Authors: Hanizam Awang, Muhammad Hafiz Ahmad

Abstract:

An experimental study was conducted on foamed concrete with synthetic and natural fibres consisting of AR-glas, polypropylene, steel, kenaf and oil palm fibre. The foamed concrete mixtures produced had a target density of 1000kg/m3 and a mix ratio of (1:1.5:0.45). The fibres were used as additives. The inclusion of fibre was maintained at a volumetric fraction of 0.25 and 0.4%. The water absorption, thermal and shrinkage were determined to study the effect of the fibre on the durability properties of foamed concrete. The results showed that AR-glass fibre has the lowest percentage value of drying shrinkage compared to others.

Keywords: Foamed concrete, Fibres, Durability.

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187 An Inclusion Project for Deaf Children into a Northern Italy Contest

Authors: G. Tamanza, A. Bossoni

Abstract:

84 deaf students (from primary school to college) and their families participated in this inclusion project in cooperation with numerous institutions in northern Italy (Brescia-Lombardy). Participants were either congenitally deaf or their deafness was related to other pathologies. This research promoted the integration of deaf students as they pass from primary school to high school to college. Learning methods and processes were studied that focused on encour­aging individual autonomy and socialization. The research team and its collaborators included school teachers, speech ther­apists, psychologists and home tutors, as well as teaching assistants, child neuropsychiatrists and other external authorities involved with deaf persons social inclusion programs. Deaf children and their families were supported, in terms of inclusion, and were made aware of the research team that focused on the Bisogni Educativi Speciali (BES or Special Educational Needs) (L.170/2010 - DM 5669/2011). This project included a diagnostic and evaluative phase as well as an operational one. Results demonstrated that deaf children were highly satisfied and confident; academic performance improved and collaboration in school increased. Deaf children felt that they had access to high school and college. Empowerment for the families of deaf children in terms of networking among local services that deal with the deaf also improved while family satisfaction also improved. We found that teachers and those who gave support to deaf children increased their professional skills. Achieving autonomy, instrumental, communicative and relational abilities were also found to be crucial. Project success was determined by temporal continuity, clear theoretical methodology, strong alliance for the project direction and a resilient team response.

Keywords: Autonomy, inclusion, skills, well-being.

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186 Intersectional Bullying, LGBT Youth and the Construction of Power

Authors: Elle Hilke Dominski

Abstract:

This paper explores the impact of intersectional bullying of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT) youth from a multi-layered experience perspective within bullying incidents at school. Present inclusionary measures at school may not be designed as a continuous process of finding better methods for responding to diversity, rather remain ‘fixed’ as singular solutions applied universally. This paper argues recognizing education through a lens of inclusion begins to realize most educational systems are poorly equipped to handle diversity.

Keywords: Education, inclusion and exclusion, bullying, intersectional bullying, LGBT, power paradigms.

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185 Evaluation of Ultrasonic C-Scan Images by Fractal Dimension

Authors: S. Samanta, D. Datta, S. S. Gautam

Abstract:

In this paper, quantitative evaluation of ultrasonic Cscan images through estimation of their Fractal Dimension (FD) is discussed. Necessary algorithm for evaluation of FD of any 2-D digitized image is implemented by developing a computer code. For the evaluation purpose several C-scan images of the Kevlar composite impacted by high speed bullet and glass fibre composite having flaw in the form of inclusion is used. This analysis automatically differentiates a C-scan image showing distinct damage zone, from an image that contains no such damage.

Keywords: C-scan, Impact, Fractal Dimension, Kevlar composite and Inclusion Flaw

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184 Participatory Financial Inclusion Hypothesis: A Preliminary Empirical Validation Using Survey Design

Authors: Edward A. Osifodunrin, Jose Manuel Dias Lopes

Abstract:

In Nigeria, enormous efforts/resources had, over the years, been expended on promoting financial inclusion (FI); however, it is seemingly discouraging that many of its self-declared targets on FI remained unachieved, especially amongst the Rural Dwellers and Actors in the Informal Sectors (RDAIS). Expectedly, many reasons had been earmarked for these failures: low literacy level, huge informal/rural sectors etc. This study posits that in spite of these truly-debilitating factors, these FI policy failures could have been avoided or mitigated if the principles of active and better-managed citizens’ participation had been strictly followed in the (re)design/implementation of its FI policies. In other words, in a bid to mitigate the prevalent financial exclusion (FE) in Nigeria, this study hypothesizes the significant positive impact of involving the RDAIS in policy-wide decision making in the FI domain, backed by a preliminary empirical validation. Also, the study introduces the RDAIS-focused Participatory Financial Inclusion Policy (PFIP) as a major FI policy regeneration/improvement tool. The three categories of respondents that served as research subjects are FI experts in Nigeria (n = 72), RDAIS from the very rural/remote village of Unguwar Dogo in Northern Nigeria (n = 43) and RDAIS from another rural village of Sekere (n = 56) in the Southern region of Nigeria. Using survey design (5-point Likert scale questionnaires), random/stratified sampling, and descriptive/inferential statistics, the study often recorded independent consensus (amongst these three categories of respondents) that RDAIS’s active participation in iterative FI policy initiation, (re)design, implementation, (re)evaluation could indeed give improved FI outcomes. However, few questionnaire items also recorded divergent opinions and various statistically (in)significant differences on the mean scores of these three categories. The PFIP (or any customized version of it) should then be carefully integrated into the NFIS of Nigeria (and possibly in the NFIS of other developing countries) to truly/fully provide FI policy integration for these excluded RDAIS and arrest the prevalence of FE.

Keywords: Citizens’ participation, development, financial inclusion, formal financial services, national financial inclusion strategy, participatory financial inclusion policy, rural dwellers and actors in the informal sectors.

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183 Critical Issues of Inclusion of Aviation in EU Emissions Trading System

Authors: Jakub Hospodka

Abstract:

This paper dissertates about issues which may occur after next year will be major part of civil aviation in EU included into system of Emission trading. This system should help to fight against global warming and to fulfill Kyoto Protocol commitments of European countries. Main issues mentioned in this paper are connected with problem of radiative forcing from emissions and lack of their monitoring and charging in EU legislative. There are mentioned main differences between industrial emissions and emissions form aviation with notification about possible negative impacts of neglecting these differences. Special attention is dedicated to risk of possible reverse effect of inclusion aviation in EU ETS, which may theoretically occur.

Keywords: EU ETS, radiative forcing, aviation, emissiontrading.

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182 Effect of Zr Addition on Mechanical Properties of Cr-Mo Plastic Mold Steels

Authors: Hyun-Ho Kim, Seok-Jae Lee, Oh-Yeon Lee

Abstract:

We investigated the effects of the additions of Zr and other alloying elements on the mechanical properties and microstructure in Cr-Mo plastic mold steels. The addition of alloying elements changed the microstructure of the normalized samples from the upper bainite to lower bainite due to the increased hardenability. The tempering temperature influenced the strength and hardness values, especially the phenomenon of 350oC embrittlement was observed. The alloy additions of Cr, Mo, and V improved the resistance to the temper embrittlement. The addition of Zr improved the tensile strength and yield strength, but the impact energy was sharply decreased. It may be caused by the formation of Zr-MnS inclusion and rectangular-shaped Zr inclusion due to the Zr addition.

Keywords: Inclusions, mechanical properties, plastic mold steel, Zr addition.

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181 Architecture and Students with Autism: Exploring Strategies for Their Inclusion in Society Mainstream

Authors: Safaa Mahmoud Issa

Abstract:

Architecture, as an art and science of designing, has always been the medium to create environments that fulfill their users’ needs. It could create an inclusive environment that would not isolate any individual regardless of his /her disabilities. It could help, hopefully, in setting the strategies that provide a supportive, educational environment that would allow the inclusion of students with autism. Architects could help in the battle against this neuro-developmental disorder by providing the accommodating environment, at home and at school, in order to prevent institutionalizing these children. Through a theoretical approach and a review of literature, this study will explore and analyze best practices in autism-friendly, supportive, teaching environments. Additionally, it would provide the range of measures, and set the strategies to deal with the students with autism sensory peculiarities, and that, in order to allow them to concentrate in the school environment, and be able to succeed, and to be integrated as an important addition to society and the social mainstream. Architects should take into consideration the general guidelines for an autism-friendly built environment, and apply them to specific buildings systems. And that, as certain design elements have great effect on children’s behavior, by appropriating architecture to provide inclusive accommodating environments, the basis for equalization of opportunities is set allowing these individuals a better, normal, non-institutional life, as the discussion presented in this study would reveal.

Keywords: Architecture, inclusion, students with autism, mainstream society.

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180 Parallel Particle Swarm Optimization Optimized LDI Controller with Lyapunov Stability Criterion for Nonlinear Structural Systems

Authors: P.-W. Tsai, W.-L. Hong, C.-W. Chen, C.-Y. Chen

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a neural-network (NN) based approach to represent a nonlinear Tagagi-Sugeno (T-S) system. A linear differential inclusion (LDI) state-space representation is utilized to deal with the NN models. Taking advantage of the LDI representation, the stability conditions and controller design are derived for a class of nonlinear structural systems. Moreover, the concept of utilizing the Parallel Particle Swarm Optimization (PPSO) algorithm to solve the common P matrix under the stability criteria is given in this paper.

Keywords: Lyapunov Stability, Parallel Particle Swarm Optimization, Linear Differential Inclusion, Artificial Intelligence.

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179 Perspectives on Neuropsychological Testimony

Authors: Valene J. Gresham, MA, Laura A. Brodie

Abstract:

For the last decade, statistics show traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a growing concern in our legal system. In an effort to obtain data regarding the influence of neuropsychological expert witness testimony in a criminal case, this study tested three hypotheses. H1: The majority of jurors will vote not guilty, due to mild head injury. H2: The jurors will give more credence to the testimony of the neuropsychologist rather than the psychiatrist. H3: The jurors will be more lenient in their sentencing, given the testimony of the neuropsychologist-s testimony. The criterion for inclusion in the study as a participant is identical to those used for inclusion in the eligibility for jury duty in the United States. A chisquared test was performed to analyze the data for the three hypotheses. The results supported all of the hypotheses; however statistical significance was seen in H1 and H2 only.

Keywords: Expert witness, jury decision, neuropsychology, traumatic brain injury.

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178 Experience Report about the Inclusion of People with Disabilities in the Process of Testing an Accessible System for Learning Management

Authors: Marcos Devaner, Marcela Alves, Cledson Braga, Fabiano Alves, Wilton Bezerra

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This article discusses the inclusion of people with disabilities in the process of testing an accessible system solution for distance education. The accessible system, team profile, methodologies and techniques covered in the testing process are presented. The testing process shown in this paper was designed from the experience with user. The testing process emerged from lessons learned from past experiences and the end user is present at all stages of the tests. Also, lessons learned are reported and how it was possible the maturing of the team and the methods resulting in a simple, productive and effective process.

Keywords: Experience report, accessible systems, software testing, testing process, systems, e-learning.

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177 Designing for Inclusion within the Learning Management System: Social Justice, Identities, and Online Design for Digital Spaces in Higher Education

Authors: Christina Van Wingerden

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to propose pedagogical design for learning management systems (LMS) that offers greater inclusion for students based on a number of theoretical perspectives and delineated through an example. Considering the impact of COVID-19, including on student mental health, the research suggesting the importance of student sense of belonging on retention, success, and student well-being, the author describes intentional LMS design incorporating theoretically based practices informed by critical theory, feminist theory, indigenous theory and practices, and new materiality. This article considers important aspects of these theories and practices which attend to inclusion, identities, and socially just learning environments. Additionally, increasing student sense of belonging and mental health through LMS design influenced by adult learning theory and the community of inquiry model are described.  The process of thinking through LMS pedagogical design with inclusion intentionally in mind affords the opportunity to allow LMS to go beyond course use as a repository of documents, to an intentional community of practice that facilitates belonging and connection, something much needed in our times. In virtual learning environments it has been harder to discern how students are doing, especially in feeling connected to their courses, their faculty, and their student peers. Increasingly at the forefront of public universities is addressing the needs of students with multiple and intersecting identities and the multiplicity of needs and accommodations. Education in 2020, and moving forward, calls for embedding critical theories and inclusive ideals and pedagogies to the ways instructors design and teach in online platforms. Through utilization of critical theoretical frameworks and instructional practices, students may experience the LMS as a welcoming place with intentional plans for welcoming diversity in identities.

Keywords: Belonging, critical pedagogy, instructional design, Learning Management System, LMS.

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176 Automatic Text Summarization

Authors: Mohamed Abdel Fattah, Fuji Ren

Abstract:

This work proposes an approach to address automatic text summarization. This approach is a trainable summarizer, which takes into account several features, including sentence position, positive keyword, negative keyword, sentence centrality, sentence resemblance to the title, sentence inclusion of name entity, sentence inclusion of numerical data, sentence relative length, Bushy path of the sentence and aggregated similarity for each sentence to generate summaries. First we investigate the effect of each sentence feature on the summarization task. Then we use all features score function to train genetic algorithm (GA) and mathematical regression (MR) models to obtain a suitable combination of feature weights. The proposed approach performance is measured at several compression rates on a data corpus composed of 100 English religious articles. The results of the proposed approach are promising.

Keywords: Automatic Summarization, Genetic Algorithm, Mathematical Regression, Text Features.

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175 Nonlinear Thermal Hydraulic Model to Analyze Parallel Channel Density Wave Instabilities in Natural Circulation Boiling Water Reactor with Asymmetric Power Distribution

Authors: Sachin Kumar, Vivek Tiwari, Goutam Dutta

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The paper investigates parallel channel instabilities of natural circulation boiling water reactor. A thermal-hydraulic model is developed to simulate two-phase flow behavior in the natural circulation boiling water reactor (NCBWR) with the incorporation of ex-core components and recirculation loop such as steam separator, down-comer, lower-horizontal section and upper-horizontal section and then, numerical analysis is carried out for parallel channel instabilities of the reactor undergoing both in-phase and out-of-phase modes of oscillations. To analyze the relative effect on stability of the reactor due to inclusion of various ex-core components and recirculation loop, marginal stable point is obtained at a particular inlet enthalpy of the reactor core without the inclusion of ex-core components and recirculation loop and then with the inclusion of the same. Numerical simulations are also conducted to determine the relative dominance between two modes of oscillations i.e. in-phase and out-of-phase. Simulations are also carried out when the channels are subjected to asymmetric power distribution keeping the inlet enthalpy same.

Keywords: Asymmetric power distribution, Density wave oscillations, In-phase and out-of-phase modes of instabilities, Natural circulation boiling water reactor

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174 Usage of Internet Technology in Financial Education and Financial Inclusion by Students of Economics Universities

Authors: B. Frączek

Abstract:

The paper analyses the usage of the Internet by university students in Visegrad Countries (4V Countries) who study economic fields in their formal and informal financial education and captures the areas of untapped potential of Internet in educational processes. Higher education and training, technological readiness, and the financial market development are in the group of pillars, that are key for efficiency driven economies. These three pillars have become an inspiration to the research on using the Internet in the financial education among economic university students as the group of the best educated people in finance. The financial education is a process that allows for improving the level of financial literacy. In turn, the financial literacy it is the set of financial knowledge, skills, awareness and patterns influencing the financial decisions. The level of financial literacy influences the level of financial well-being of individuals, determines the scale of saving of households and at the same time gives the greater chance for sustainable and more predictable development of the financial market with the positive impact on economy. The financial literacy is necessary for each group of society but its appropriate level is desirable especially in respect of economics students as future participants of financial markets as well as the experts and advisors in financial decision making. The low level of financial literacy is the great problem of many target groups in both developing and developed countries and the financial education is seen as the best way of improving this situation. Also the financial inclusion plays the special role in enhancing the level of financial literacy in the aspect of education by practice as well as due to interrelation between level of financial literacy and degree of financial inclusion. Despite many initiatives under financial education, the level of financial literacy is still very low. Scientists still search for new ways of solving this problem. One of the proposal is more effective usage of the new technology in financial education, especially the Internet, because of the growing popularity of e-learning and the increasing number of Internet users, especially among young people who are called the Generation Net. Due to special role of the university students studying the economics fields for the future financial markets, students of four universities from Visegrad Countries (Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia) were invited to participate in the survey. The aim of the article is to present the level and ways of using the Internet technology in financial education and indicating the so far unused or underused opportunities.

Keywords: Financial education, financial inclusion, financial literacy, usage of Internet in education.

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173 Social Space or the Art of Belonging: The Socio-Spatial Approach in the Field of Residential Facilities for Persons with Disabilities

Authors: Sarah Reker

Abstract:

The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) provides the basis of this study. For all countries which have ratified the convention since its entry into force in 2007, the effective implementation of the requirements often leads to considerable challenges. Furthermore, missing indicators make it difficult to measure progress. Therefore, the aim of the research project is to contribute to analyze the consequences of the implementation process on the inclusion and exclusion conditions for people with disabilities in Germany. Disabled People’s Organisations and other associations consider the social space to be relevant for the successful implementation of the CRPD. Against this background, the research project wants to focus on the relationship between a barrier-free access to the social space and the “full and effective participation and inclusion” (Art. 3) of persons with disabilities. The theoretical basis of the study is the sociological theory of social space (“Sozialraumtheorie”).

Keywords: Decentralisation, qualitative research, residential facilities, social space.

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172 Ethical Perspectives on Implementation of Computer Aided Design Curriculum in Architecture in Nigeria: A Case Study of Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University, Uli

Authors: Kelechi E. Ezeji

Abstract:

The use of Computer Aided Design (CAD) technologies has become pervasive in the Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry. This has led to its inclusion as an important part of the training module in the curriculum for Architecture Schools in Nigeria. This paper examines the ethical questions that arise in the implementation of Computer Aided Design (CAD) Content of the curriculum for Architectural education. Using existing literature, it begins this scrutiny from the propriety of inclusion of CAD into the education of the architect and the obligations of the different stakeholders in the implementation process. It also examines the questions raised by the negative use of computing technologies as well as perceived negative influence of the use of CAD on design creativity. Survey methodology was employed to gather data from the Department of Architecture, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University Uli, which has been used as a case study on how the issues raised are being addressed. The paper draws conclusions on what will make for successful ethical implementation.

Keywords: Computer aided design, curriculum, education, ethics.

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171 A New Source Code Auditing Algorithm for Detecting LFI and RFI in PHP Programs

Authors: Seyed Ali Mir Heydari, Mohsen Sayadiharikandeh

Abstract:

Static analysis of source code is used for auditing web applications to detect the vulnerabilities. In this paper, we propose a new algorithm to analyze the PHP source code for detecting LFI and RFI potential vulnerabilities. In our approach, we first define some patterns for finding some functions which have potential to be abused because of unhandled user inputs. More precisely, we use regular expression as a fast and simple method to define some patterns for detection of vulnerabilities. As inclusion functions could be also used in a safe way, there could occur many false positives (FP). The first cause of these FP-s could be that the function does not use a usersupplied variable as an argument. So, we extract a list of usersupplied variables to be used for detecting vulnerable lines of code. On the other side, as vulnerability could spread among the variables like by multi-level assignment, we also try to extract the hidden usersupplied variables. We use the resulted list to decrease the false positives of our method. Finally, as there exist some ways to prevent the vulnerability of inclusion functions, we define also some patterns to detect them and decrease our false positives.

Keywords: User-supplied Variables, hidden user-supplied variables, PHP vulnerabilities.

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170 Tolerance and Perspective towards Disability: A Mixed Methods Study

Authors: L. Koštić, P. Karaman

Abstract:

Society has a lot of diversities according to sex, age, religion, abilities or disabilities, education, etc. According to differences, everybody needs to be tolerated and equally included in society. In order to provide quality inclusion, society needs to tolerate differences. This study relates to the differences in disability. To examine tolerance towards disability and inclusion, this study was conducted with students attending regular elementary and high school. The main goal was to examine their attitudes towards their classmates and elderly people with disabilities. The study begins with the hypothesis that the environment has a highly developed tolerance towards people with disabilities, regardless of age. The sample was divided according to tasks and methodology analysis. Students attending regular elementary school were asked to make drawings of their classmates with disabilities. The drawings were analyzed using quantitative methodology according to the colors children used and the position of character on the paper. Students attending high school and members of general population were asked to complete a questionnaire designed for this study during a workshop held on the International Day for Tolerance. Responses were analyzed using qualitative methodology. The hypothesis was confirmed.

Keywords: Classmates, disability, students, tolerance.

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