Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 61

Search results for: HPLC.

61 High Performance Liquid Chromatographic Method for Determination of Colistin Sulfate and its Application in Medicated Premixand Animal Feed

Authors: S.Choosakoonkriang, S. Supaluknari, P. Puangkaew

Abstract:

The aim of the present study was to develop and validate an inexpensive and simple high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for the determination of colistin sulfate. Separation of colistin sulfate was achieved on a ZORBAX Eclipse XDB-C18 column using UV detection at λ=215 nm. The mobile phase was 30 mM sulfate buffer (pH 2.5):acetonitrile(76:24). An excellent linearity (r2=0.998) was found in the concentration range of 25 - 400 μg/mL. Intra- day and inter-day precisions of method (%RSD, n=3) were less than 7.9%.The developed and validated method was applied to determination of the content of colistin sulfate in medicated premix and animal feed sample.The recovery of colistin from animal feed was satisfactorily ranged from 90.92 to 93.77%. The results demonstrated that the HPLC method developed in this work is appropriate for direct determination of colistin sulfate in commercial medicated premixes and animal feed.

Keywords: Colistin sulfate, HPLC, medicated premix, animal feed

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60 Identification of Phenolic Contents in Malaysian Variety of Pummelo (Citrus Grandis L. Osbeck) Fruit Juice Using HPLC-DAD

Authors: N. N. A. K. Shah, R. A. Rahman, R. Shamsuddin, N. M. Adzahan

Abstract:

Pummelo is known to be the largest of all citrus fruits, with expected ratio of 2:1 (w/v) of producing juice, is an attractive opportunity for Malaysia to expand pummelo-s influence and marketability over the international market of juices. The purpose of this study is to identify and quantify the phenolic compounds in two Malaysian varieties of pummelo fruit juice: Ledang (PO55) and Tambun (PO52). Identifications of polyphenols composition were done using High Performance Liquid Chromatography Diode Array Detection (HPLC-DAD). The phenolic compounds that were found in both varieties were hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonones. This study proved that Tambun variety has the highest antioxidant and phenolic compounds in comparison to Ledang variety. However, considerations have to be made to suit consumer-s taste bud and the amount of enzyme needed to clarify the juice for its marketability.

Keywords: Antioxidant, HPLC, phenolic contents and pummelo fruit juice

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59 Validation and Application of a New Optimized RP-HPLC-Fluorescent Detection Method for Norfloxacin

Authors: Mahmood Ahmad, Ghulam Murtaza, Sonia Khiljee, Muhammad Asadullah Madni

Abstract:

A new reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method with fluorescent detector (FLD) was developed and optimized for Norfloxacin determination in human plasma. Mobile phase specifications, extraction method and excitation and emission wavelengths were varied for optimization. HPLC system contained a reverse phase C18 (5 μm, 4.6 mm×150 mm) column with FLD operated at excitation 330 nm and emission 440 nm. The optimized mobile phase consisted of 14% acetonitrile in buffer solution. The aqueous phase was prepared by mixing 2g of citric acid, 2g sodium acetate and 1 ml of triethylamine in 1 L of Milli-Q water was run at a flow rate of 1.2 mL/min. The standard curve was linear for the range tested (0.156–20 μg/mL) and the coefficient of determination was 0.9978. Aceclofenac sodium was used as internal standard. A detection limit of 0.078 μg/mL was achieved. Run time was set at 10 minutes because retention time of norfloxacin was 0.99 min. which shows the rapidness of this method of analysis. The present assay showed good accuracy, precision and sensitivity for Norfloxacin determination in human plasma with a new internal standard and can be applied pharmacokinetic evaluation of Norfloxacin tablets after oral administration in human.

Keywords: Norfloxacin, Aceclofenac sodium, Methodoptimization, RP-HPLC method, Fluorescent detection, Calibrationcurve.

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58 Characterization of Penicillin V Acid and Its Related Compounds by HPLC

Authors: Bahdja Guerfi, N. Hadhoum, I. Azouz, M. Bendoumia, S. Bouafia, F. Z. Hadjadj Aoul

Abstract:

Background: 'Penicillin V' is a narrow, bactericidal antibiotic of the beta-lactam family of the naturally occurring penicillin group. It is limited to infections due to the germs defined as sensitive. The objective of this work was to identify and to characterize Penicillin V acid and its related compounds by High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Methods: Firstly phenoxymethylpenicillin was identified by an infrared absorption. The organoleptic characteristics, pH, and determination of water content were also studied. The dosage of Penicillin V acid active substance and the determination of its related compounds were carried on waters HPLC, equipped with a UV detector at 254 nm and Discovery HS C18 column (250 mm X 4.6 mm X 5 µm) which is maintained at room temperature. The flow rate was about 1 ml per min. A mixture of water, acetonitrile and acetic acid (65:35:01) was used as mobile phase for phenoxyacetic acid ‘impurity B' and a mixture of water, acetonitrile and acetic acid (650:150:5.75) for the assay and 4-hydroxypenicillin V 'impurity D'. Results: The identification of Penicillin V acid active substance and the evaluation of its chemical quality showed conformity with USP 35th edition. The Penicillin V acid content in the raw material is equal to 1692.22 UI/mg. The percentage content of phenoxyacetic acid and 4-hydroxypenicillin V was respectively: 0.035% and 0.323%. Conclusion: Through these results, we can conclude that the Penicillin V acid active substance tested is of good physicochemical quality.

Keywords: Penicillin V acid, characterization, related substances, HPLC.

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57 Metal(loids) Speciation Using HPLC-ICP-MS Technique in Klodnica River, Upper Silesia, Poland

Authors: Magdalena Jabłońska-Czapla

Abstract:

The work allowed gaining knowledge about redox and speciation changes of As, Cr and Sb ionic forms in Klodnica River water. This kind of studies never has been conducted in this region of Poland. In study optimized and validated previously HPLC-ICP-MS methods for determination of As, Sb and Cr was used. Separation step was done using high-performance liquid chromatograph equipped with ion-exchange column followed by ICP-MS spectrometer detector. Preliminary studies included determination of the total concentration of As, Sb and Cr, pH, Eh, temperature and conductivity of the water samples. The study was conducted monthly from March to August 2014, at six points on the Klodnica River. The results indicate that exceeded at acceptable concentration of total Cr and Sb was observed in Klodnica River and we should qualify Klodnica River waters below the second purity class. In Klodnica River waters dominates oxidized antimony and arsenic forms, as well as the two forms of chromium Cr(VI) and Cr(III). Studies have also shown the methyl derivative of arsenic's presence.

Keywords: Antimony, arsenic, chromium, HPLC-ICP-MS, river water, speciation.

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56 Metabolic Analysis of Fibroblast Conditioned Media and Comparison with Theoretical Modeling

Authors: Priyanka Gupta, Paul Verma, Kerry Hourigan, Jayesh Bellare, Sameer Jadhav

Abstract:

Understanding the consumption and production of various metabolites of fibroblast conditioned media is needed for its proper and optimized use in expansion of pluripotent stem cells. For this purpose, we have used the HPLC method to analyse the consumption of glucose and the production of lactate over time by mouse embryonic fibroblasts. The experimental data have also been compared with mathematical model fits. 0.025 moles of lactate was produced after 72 hrs while the glucose concentration decreased from 0.017 moles to 0.011 moles. The mathematical model was able to predict the trends of glucose consumption and lactate production.

Keywords: Conditioned media, HPLC, metabolite analysis, mouse embryonic fibroblast.

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55 Development and Validation of a HPLC Method for 6-Gingerol and 6-Shogaol in Joint Pain Relief Gel Containing Ginger (Zingiber officinale)

Authors: Tanwarat Kajsongkram, Saowalux Rotamporn, Sirinat Limbunruang, Sirinan Thubthimthed

Abstract:

High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) method was developed and validated for simultaneous estimation of 6-Gingerol(6G) and 6-Shogaol(6S) in joint pain relief gel containing ginger extract. The chromatographic separation was achieved by using C18 column, 150 x 4.6mm i.d., 5μ Luna, mobile phase containing acetonitrile and water (gradient elution). The flow rate was 1.0 ml/min and the absorbance was monitored at 282 nm. The proposed method was validated in terms of the analytical parameters such as specificity, accuracy, precision, linearity, range, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), and determined based on the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. The linearity ranges of 6G and 6S were obtained over 20- 60 and 6-18 μg/ml respectively. Good linearity was observed over the above-mentioned range with linear regression equation Y= 11016x- 23778 for 6G and Y = 19276x-19604 for 6S (x is concentration of analytes in μg/ml and Y is peak area). The value of correlation coefficient was found to be 0.9994 for both markers. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) for 6G were 0.8567 and 2.8555 μg/ml and for 6S were 0.3672 and 1.2238 μg/ml respectively. The recovery range for 6G and 6S were found to be 91.57 to 102.36 % and 84.73 to 92.85 % for all three spiked levels. The RSD values from repeated extractions for 6G and 6S were 3.43 and 3.09% respectively. The validation of developed method on precision, accuracy, specificity, linearity, and range were also performed with well-accepted results.

Keywords: Ginger, 6-gingerol, HPLC, 6-shogaol.

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54 Determination of EDTA in Dairy Wastewater and Adjacent Surface Water

Authors: Congmin Z. Xie, Terry Healy, Peter Robinson, Kevin Stewart

Abstract:

An HPLC-UV analytical method was developed to determine ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) in dairy wastewater and surface water. The optimizing separation was achieved by reversed–phase ion-pair liquid chromatography on a C18 column using methanol as mobile phase solvent, tetrabutylammonium bromide as the ion-pair reagent in pH 3.3 formate buffer solution at a flow rate of 0.9 mL min-1 with a UV detector at 265 nm. No interference of Ca, Mg or NO3 - was detected. Method performance was evaluated in terms of linearity, repeatability and reproducibility. The method detection limit was 5 μg L-1. The contents of EDTA in dairy effluents were 72 ~ 261 μg L-1 at a large dairy site. A change of EDTA concentration was observed downstream of the dairy effluent discharge, but this was well under the predicted no effect concentration for aquatic ecosystem.

Keywords: Dairy wastewater, EDTA, HPLC, surface water.

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53 Fatty Acid and Amino Acid Composition in Mene maculata in The Sea of Maluku

Authors: Semuel Unwakoly, Reinner Puppela, Maresthy Rumalean, Healthy Kainama

Abstract:

Fish is a kind of food that contains many nutritions, one of those is the long chain of unsaturated fatty acids as omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids and essential amino acid in enough amount for the necessity of our body. Like pelagic fish that found in the sea of Maluku. This research was done to identify fatty acids and amino acids composition in Moonfish (M. maculata) using transesterification reaction steps and Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrophotometer (GC-MS) and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The result showed that fatty acids composition in Moonfish (M. maculata) contained tridecanoic acid (2.84%); palmitoleic acid (2.65%); palmitic acid (35.24%); oleic acid (6.2%); stearic acid (14.20%); and 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid (1.29%) and 12 amino acids composition that consist of 7 essential amino acids, were leucine, isoleucine, valine, phenylalanine, methionine, lysine, and histidine, and also 5 non-essential amino acid, were tyrosine, glycine, alanine, glutamic acid, and arginine.Thus, these fishes can be used by the people to complete the necessity of essential fatty acid and amino acid.

Keywords: Moonfish (M. maculata), fatty acid, amino acid, GC-MS, HPLC.

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52 Nutritional Potential and Functionality of Whey Powder Influenced by Different Processing Temperature and Storage

Authors: Zarmina Gillani, Nuzhat Huma, Aysha Sameen, Mulazim Hussain Bukhari

Abstract:

Whey is an excellent food ingredient owing to its high nutritive value and its functional properties. However, composition of whey varies depending on composition of milk, processing conditions, processing method, and its whey protein content. The aim of this study was to prepare a whey powder from raw whey and to determine the influence of different processing temperatures (160 and 180 °C) on the physicochemical, functional properties during storage of 180 days and on whey protein denaturation. Results have shown that temperature significantly (P < 0.05) affects the pH, acidity, non-protein nitrogen (NPN), protein total soluble solids, fat and lactose contents. Significantly (p < 0.05) higher foaming capacity (FC), foam stability (FS), whey protein nitrogen index (WPNI), and a lower turbidity and solubility index (SI) were observed in whey powder processed at 160 °C compared to whey powder processed at 180 °C. During storage of 180 days, slow but progressive changes were noticed on the physicochemical and functional properties of whey powder. Reverse phase-HPLC analysis revealed a significant (P < 0.05) effect of temperature on whey protein contents. Denaturation of β-Lactoglobulin is followed by α-lacalbumin, casein glycomacropeptide (CMP/GMP), and bovine serum albumin (BSA).

Keywords: Whey powder, temperature, denaturation, reverse phase – HPLC.

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51 Cytotoxic Effect of Crude Extract of Sea Pen Virgularia gustaviana on HeLa and MDA-MB-231 Cancer Cell Lines

Authors: Sharareh Sharifi, Pargol Ghavam Mostafavi, Ali Mashinchian Moradi, Mohammad Hadi Givianrad, Hassan Niknejad

Abstract:

Marine organisms such as soft coral, sponge, ascidians, and tunicate containing rich source of natural compound have been studied in last decades because of their special chemical compounds with anticancer properties. The aim of this study was to investigate anti-cancer property of ethyl acetate extracted from marine sea pen Virgularia gustaviana found from Persian Gulf coastal (Bandar Abbas). The extraction processes were carried out with ethyl acetate for five days. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were used for qualitative identification of crude extract. The viability of HeLa and MDA-Mb-231 cancer cells was investigated using MTT assay at the concentration of 25, 50, and a 100 µl/ml of ethyl acetate is extracted. The crude extract of Virgularia gustaviana demonstrated ten fractions with different Retention factor (Rf) by TLC and Retention time (Rt) evaluated by HPLC. The crude extract dose-dependently decreased cancer cell viability compared to control group. According to the results, the ethyl acetate extracted from Virgularia gustaviana inhibits the growth of cancer cells, an effect which needs to be further investigated in the future studies.

Keywords: Virgularia gustaviana, Cembrane Diterpene, anti-cancer, HeLa cancer Cell, MDA-Md-231 Cancer cell.

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50 Vitamin Content of Swordfish (Xhiphias gladius) Affected by Salting and Frying

Authors: L. Piñeiro, N. Cobas, L. Gómez-Limia, S. Martínez, I. Franco

Abstract:

The swordfish (Xiphias gladius) is a large oceanic fish of high commercial value, which is widely distributed in waters of the world’s oceans. They are considered to be an important source of high quality proteins, vitamins and essential fatty acids, although only half of the population follows the recommendation of nutritionists to consume fish at least twice a week. Swordfish is consumed worldwide because of its low fat content and high protein content. It is generally sold as fresh, frozen, and as pieces or slices. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of salting and frying on the composition of the water-soluble vitamins (B2, B3, B9 and B12) and fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, and E) of swordfish. Three loins of swordfish from Pacific Ocean were analyzed. All the fishes had a weight between 50 and 70 kg and were transported to the laboratory frozen (-18 ºC). Before the processing, they were defrosted at 4 ºC. Each loin was sliced and salted in brine. After cleaning the slices, they were divided into portions (10×2 cm) and fried in olive oil. The identification and quantification of vitamins were carried out by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), using methanol and 0.010% trifluoroacetic acid as mobile phases at a flow-rate of 0.7 mL min-1. The UV-Vis detector was used for the detection of the water- and fat-soluble vitamins (A and D), as well as the fluorescence detector for the detection of the vitamin E. During salting, water and fat-soluble vitamin contents remained constant, observing an evident decrease in the values of vitamin B2. The diffusion of salt into the interior of the pieces and the loss of constitution water that occur during this stage would be related to this significant decrease. In general, after frying water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins showed a great thermolability with high percentages of retention with values among 50–100%. Vitamin B3 is the one that exhibited higher percentages of retention with values close to 100%. However, vitamin B9 presented the highest losses with a percentage of retention of less than 20%.

Keywords: Frying, HPLC, salting, swordfish, vitamins.

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49 Efficient Preparation and Characterization of Carbohydrate Based Monomers. D-mannose Derivatives

Authors: L. M. Stefan, A. M. Pana, M. Silion, M. Balan, G. Bandur, L. M. Rusnac

Abstract:

The field of polymeric biomaterials is very important from the socio-economical viewpoint. Synthetic carbohydrate polymers are being increasingly investigated as biodegradable, biocompatible and biorenewable materials. The aim of this study was to synthesize and characterize some derivatives based on D-mannose. D-mannose was chemically modified to obtain 1-O-allyl-2,3:5,6-di- O-isopropylidene-D-mannofuranose and 1-O-(2-,3--epoxy-propyl)- 2,3:5,6-di-O-isopropylidene-D-mannofuranose. The chemical structure of the resulting compounds was characterized by FT-IR and NMR spectroscopy, and by HPLC-MS.

Keywords: D-mannose, biopolymers , spectroscopy, synthesis.

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48 Standardization of Ayurvedic Formulation (Marichyadi Vati) Using HPLC and HPTLC Methods

Authors: Pathan Imran Khan, Bhandari Anil, Kumar Amit

Abstract:

The present investigation was aimed to develop methodology for the standardization of Marichyadi Vati and its raw materials. Standardization was carried using systematic Pharmacognostical and physicochemical parameters as per WHO guidelines. The detailed standardization of Marichyadi Vati, it is concluded that there are no major differences prevailed in the quality of marketed products and laboratory samples of Marichyadi Vati. However, market samples showed slightly better amount of Piperine than the laboratory sample by both methods. This is the first attempt to generate complete set of standards required for the Marichyadi Vati.

Keywords: Marichyadi Vati, Standardization, Piperine.

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47 Study of Polyphenol Profile and Antioxidant Capacity in Italian Ancient Apple Varieties by Liquid Chromatography

Authors: A. M. Tarola, R. Preti, A. M. Girelli, P. Campana

Abstract:

Safeguarding, studying and enhancing biodiversity play an important and indispensable role in re-launching agriculture. The ancient local varieties are therefore a precious resource for genetic and health improvement. In order to protect biodiversity through the recovery and valorization of autochthonous varieties, in this study we analyzed 12 samples of four ancient apple cultivars representative of Friuli Venezia Giulia, selected by local farmers who work on a project for the recovery of ancient apple cultivars. The aim of this study is to evaluate the polyphenolic profile and the antioxidant capacity that characterize the organoleptic and functional qualities of this fruit species, besides having beneficial properties for health. In particular, for each variety, the following compounds were analyzed, both in the skins and in the pulp: gallic acid, catechin, chlorogenic acid, epicatechin, caffeic acid, coumaric acid, ferulic acid, rutin, phlorizin, phloretin and quercetin to highlight any differences in the edible parts of the apple. The analysis of individual phenolic compounds was performed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) coupled with a diode array UV detector (DAD), the antioxidant capacity was estimated using an in vitro essay based on a Free Radical Scavenging Method and the total phenolic compounds was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteau method. From the results, it is evident that the catechins are the most present polyphenols, reaching a value of 140-200 μg/g in the pulp and of 400-500 μg/g in the skin, with the prevalence of epicatechin. Catechins and phlorizin, a dihydrohalcone typical of apples, are always contained in larger quantities in the peel. Total phenolic compounds content was positively correlated with antioxidant activity in apple pulp (r2 = 0,850) and peel (r2 = 0,820). Comparing the results, differences between the varieties analyzed and between the edible parts (pulp and peel) of the apple were highlighted. In particular, apple peel is richer in polyphenolic compounds than pulp and flavonols are exclusively present in the peel. In conclusion, polyphenols, being antioxidant substances, have confirmed the benefits of fruit in the diet, especially as a prevention and treatment for degenerative diseases. They demonstrated to be also a good marker for the characterization of different apple cultivars. The importance of protecting biodiversity in agriculture was also highlighted through the exploitation of native products and ancient varieties of apples now forgotten.

Keywords: Apple, biodiversity, polyphenols, antioxidant activity, HPLC-DAD, characterization.

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46 Production of Glucose from the Hydrolysis of Cassava Residue using Bacteria Isolates from Thai Higher Termites

Authors: Pitcha Wongskeo, Pramoch Rangsunvigit, Sumaeth Chavadej

Abstract:

The possibility of using cassava residue containing 49.66% starch, 21.47% cellulose, 12.97% hemicellulose, and 21.86% lignin as a raw material to produce glucose using enzymatic hydrolysis was investigated. In the experiment, each reactor contained the cassava residue, bacteria cells, and production medium. The effects of particles size (40 mesh and 60 mesh) and strains of bacteria (A002 and M015) isolated from Thai higher termites, Microcerotermes sp., on the glucose concentration at 37°C were focused. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a refractive index detector was used to determine the quantity of glucose. The maximum glucose concentration obtained at 37°C using strain A002 and 60 mesh of the cassava residue was 1.51 g/L at 10 h.

Keywords: Hydrolysis, termites, glucose, cassava

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45 Lipase Catalyzed Synthesis of Aromatic Esters of Sugar Alcohols

Authors: R. Croitoru, L. A. M. van den Broek, A. E. Frissen, C. M. Davidescu, F. Peter, C. G. Boeriu

Abstract:

Commercially available lipases (Candida antarctica lipase B, Novozyme 435, Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase, and Lipozyme TL IM), as well as sol-gel immobilized lipases, have been screened for their ability to acylate regioselectively xylitol, sorbitol, and mannitol with a phenolic ester in a binary mixture of t-butanol and dimethylsulfoxide. HPLC and MALDI-TOF MS analysis revealed the exclusive formation of monoesters for all studied sugar alcohols. The lipases immobilized by the sol-gel entrapment method proved to be efficient catalysts, leading to high conversions (up to 60%) in the investigated acylation reactions. From a sequence of silane precursors with different nonhydrolyzable groups in their structure, the presence of octyl and i-butyl group was most beneficial for the catalytic activity of sol-gel entrapped lipases in the studied process.

Keywords: Lipase, phenolic ester, specificity, sugar alcohol, transesterification.

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44 Characterization of Lactose Consumption during the Biogas Production from Acid Whey by FT-IR Spectroscopy

Authors: K. Rugele, M. Gavare, M. Grube, K. Tihomirova, E. Skripsts, S. Larsson, J. Rubulis

Abstract:

The consumption of lactose in acid cheese whey anaerobic fermentation process under fed-batch conditions was studied. During fermentation for 100 hours the biogas production (CO2 and CH4) was analyzed online. Among the standard analyses FT-IR spectroscopy was used to follow the consumption of lactose by bacteria. The absorption bands at 990, 894 and 787 cm-1 in the 2nd derivative spectra were shown to be characteristic for lactose and were used to follow the lactose conversion. It was shown that acid cheese whey lactose was converted by bacteria in first 7 hours. In the spectra of 17, 18 and 95 hour fermentation samples lactose was not identified and these results correlated with the HPLC data.

Keywords: Acid whey, anaerobic digestion, biogas, FT-IR spectroscopy, lactose consumption.

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43 Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Lutein Esters from Marigold Flowers and their Hydrolysis by Improved Saponification and Enzyme Biocatalysis

Authors: A. Peter Amala Sujith, T.V. Hymavathi, P. Yasoda Devi

Abstract:

Lutein is a dietary oxycarotenoid which is found to reduce the risks of Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD). Supercritical fluid extraction of lutein esters from marigold petals was carried out and was found to be much effective than conventional solvent extraction. The saponification of pre-concentrated lutein esters to produce free lutein was studied which showed a composition of about 88% total carotenoids (UV-VIS spectrophotometry) and 90.7% lutein (HPLC). The lipase catalyzed hydrolysis of lutein esters in conventional medium was investigated. The optimal temperature, pH, enzyme concentration and water activity were found to be 50°C, 7, 15% and 0.33 respectively and the activity loss of lipase was about 25% after 8 times re-use in at 50°C for 12 days. However, the lipase catalyzed hydrolysis of lutein esters in conventional media resulted in poor conversions (16.4%).

Keywords: lutein, preconcentration, saponification, lipase

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42 Pervasiveness of Aflatoxin in Peanuts Growing in the Area of Pothohar, Pakistan

Authors: Mateen Abbas, Abdul Muqeet Khan, Muhammad Rafique Asi, Javed Akhtar

Abstract:

Mycotoxin (aflatoxins) contamination of peanuts is a great concern for human health. A total of 72 samples of unripe, roasted, and salty peanuts were collected randomly from Pothohar plateau of Pakistan for the assessment of aflatoxin. Samples were dried, ground and extracted by acetonitrile (84%). The filtered extracts were cleaned up by MycoSep-226 and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography with flourescence detector. Quantification limit of Aflatoxin was 1 μg/kg and 70% Recovery was observed in spiked samples in the range 1–10 μg/kg. The screening of mycotoxins indicated that aflatoxins were present in most of the samples being detected in 82%, in concentrations from 14.25 μg/kg to 98.80 μg/kg. Optimal conditions for mycotoxin production and fungal growth are frequently found in the crop fields as well as in store houses. Human exposure of such toxin can be controlled by pointed out such awareness and implemented the regulations.

Keywords: Aflatoxin, HPLC, Pakistan, Peanuts, Punjab

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41 Dopamine and Serotonin Levels in Blood Samples of Jordanian Children Who Stutter

Authors: Mazin Alqhazo, Ayat Bani Rashaid

Abstract:

This study examines the levels of dopamine and serotonin in blood samples of children who stutter compared with normal fluent speakers. Blood specimens from 50 children who stutter (6 females, 44 males) and 50 normal children matched age and gender were collected for the purpose of the current study. The concentrations of dopamine and serotonin were measured using the 1100 series high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ultraviolet detector instrument (HPLC-UV). It was revealed that dopamine level in the blood samples of stuttering group and fluent group was not significant (P = 0.769), whereas the level of serotonin was significantly higher in the blood samples of stuttering group than the blood samples of fluent normal group (P = 0.015). It is concluded that serotonin blockers could be used in future studies to evaluate its role as a medication for the treatment of stuttering.

Keywords: Dopamine, serotonin, stuttering, fluent.

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40 Hydrolytic Properties of Ellagic Acid in Commercial Pomegranate Juices

Authors: Sibel Uzuner, Jale Acar

Abstract:

Pomegranate and pomegranate juices (PJs) have taken great attention for their health benefits in the last years. As there is an increasing concern about potential health benefits of ellagic acid, it is of great interest to evaluate alterations in ellagic acid concentration of commercial PJs. The purpose of this study is to analyze total phenolic, free and total ellagic acid content of six commercial PJs sold in Turkish markets using HPLC. The results showed that some commercial PJs had markedly high total phenolic and ellagic acid content. Total phenolic substances of commercial PJs range from 796.71 to 4608.91 mg GAE/l. Free amount of ellagic acid in commercial PJs range from 27.64 to 111.78 mg/l. Samples are hydrolyzed with concentrated HCl at 93oC for 2 and 24 hour and influences of temperature and time parameters on hydrolization were investigated. Thermal processing for pasteurization increased ellagic acid via ellagitannins hydrolysis.

Keywords: Ellagic acid, ellagitannin, pomegranate juice, total phenolic compounds

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39 Application of Sorptive Passive Panels for Reducing Indoor Formaldehyde Level: Effect of Environmental Conditions

Authors: Mitra Bahri, Jean Leopold Kabambi, Jacqueline Yakobi-Hancock, William Render, Stephanie So

Abstract:

Reducing formaldehyde concentration in residential buildings is an important challenge, especially during the summer. In this study, a ceiling tile was used as a sorptive passive panel for formaldehyde removal. The performance of this passive panel was evaluated under different environmental conditions. The results demonstrated that the removal efficiency is comprised between 40% and 71%. Change in the level of relative humidity (30%, 50%, and 75%) had a slight positive effect on the sorption capacity. However, increase in temperature from 21 °C to 26 °C led to approximately 7% decrease in the average formaldehyde removal performance. GC/MS and HPLC analysis revealed the formation of different by-products at low concentrations under extreme environmental conditions. These findings suggest that the passive panel selected for this study holds the potential to be used for formaldehyde removal under various conditions.

Keywords: Formaldehyde, indoor air quality, passive panel, removal efficiency, sorption.

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38 Reducing Sugar Production from Durian Peel by Hydrochloric Acid Hydrolysis

Authors: Matura Unhasirikul, Nuanphan Naranong, Woatthichai Narkrugsa

Abstract:

Agricultural waste is mainly composed of cellulose and hemicelluloses which can be converted to sugars. The inexpensive reducing sugar from durian peel was obtained by hydrolysis with HCl concentration at 0.5-2.0% (v/v). The hydrolysis range of time was for 15-60 min when the mixture was autoclaved at 121 °C. The result showed that acid hydrolysis efficiency (AHE) highest to 80.99% at condition is 2.0%concentration for 15 min. Reducing sugar highest to 56.07 g/litre at condition is 2.0% concentration for 45min. Total sugar highest to 59.83 g/litre at condition is 2.0%concentration for 45min, which was not significant (p < 0.05) with condition 2.0% concentration for 30 min and 1.5 % concentration for 45 and 60 min. The increase in concentration increased AHE, reducing sugar and total sugar. The hydrolysis time had no effect on AHE, reducing sugar and total sugar. The maximum reducing sugars of each concentration were at hydrolysis time 45 min .The hydrolysated were analysis by HPLC, the results revealed that the principle of sugar were glucose, fructose and xylose.

Keywords: acid hydrolysis efficiency (AHE), reducing sugar, total sugar

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37 Using Phase Equilibrium Theory to Calculate Solubility of γ-Oryzanol in Supercritical CO2

Authors: Boy Arief Fachri

Abstract:

Even its content is rich in antioxidants ϒ-oryzanol, rice bran is not used properly as functional food. This research aims to (1) extract ϒ-oryzanol; (2) determine the solubility of ϒ-oryzanol in supercritical CO2 based on phase equilibrium theory; and (3) study the effect of process variables on solubility. Extraction experiments were carried out for rice bran (5 g) at various extraction pressures, temperatures and reaction times. The flowrate of supercritical fluid through the extraction vessel was 25 g/min. The extracts were collected and analysed with high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The conclusion based on the experiments are as: (1) The highest experimental solubility was 0.303 mcg/mL RBO at T= 60°C, P= 90 atm, t= 30 min; (2) Solubility of ϒ-oryzanol was influenced by pressure and temperature. As the pressure and temperature increase, the solubility increases; (3) The solubility data of supercritical extraction can be successfully determined using phase equilibrium theory. Meanwhile, tocopherol was found and slightly investigated in this work.

Keywords: Rice bran, solubility, supercritical CO2, ϒ-orizanol.

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36 Phenolic Compounds in Red Fruits Produced in Organic Farming at Maturation Stage

Authors: Susana M. A. Soutinho, Raquel P. F. Guiné, António M. Jordão, Fernando J. Gonçalves

Abstract:

The agricultural organic farming is different from conventional farming in a way that is aimed at providing a balanced and constructive action in agricultural systems. With the increase in intensive agriculture, undesirable changes were being observed in ecosystems with irreparable damage being caused to the natural equilibrium. This is the reason for the increasing interest in organic farming as an environment friendly agricultural production method. In the present work three red fruits produced in organic farming were analyzed, namely raspberry, gooseberry and blueberry. The samples were harvested in a local farm when at plain maturation. The results obtained allowed to conclude that the blueberry contained higher amounts of phenolic compounds, total tannins and total anthocyanins than raspberry and gooseberry. Furthermore, the HPLC analysis allowed to identify monomeric anthocyanins and phenolic acids in the three fruits studied.

Keywords: Blackberry, gooseberry, organic farming, phenolic compounds, raspberry.

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35 Fungal Leaching of Hazardous Heavy Metals from a Spent Hydrotreating Catalyst

Authors: R. Mafi Gholami, S. M. Borghei, S. M. Mousavi

Abstract:

In this study, the ability of Aspergillus niger and Penicillium simplicissimum to extract heavy metals from a spent refinery catalyst was investigated. For the first step, a spent processing catalyst from one of the oil refineries in Iran was physically and chemically characterized. Aspergillus niger and Penicillium simplicissimum were used to mobilize Al/Co/Mo/Ni from hazardous spent catalysts. The fungi were adapted to the mixture of metals at 100-800 mg L-1 with increments in concentration of 100 mg L-1. Bioleaching experiments were carried out in batch cultures. To investigate the production of organic acids in sucrose medium, analyses of the culture medium by HPLC were performed at specific time intervals after inoculation. The results obtained from Inductive coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) showed that after the one-step bioleaching process using Aspergillus niger, maximum removal efficiencies of 27%, 66%, 62% and 38% were achieved for Al, Co, Mo and Ni, respectively. However, the highest removal efficiencies using Penicillium simplicissimum were of 32%, 67%, 65% and 38% for Al, Co, Mo and Ni, respectively

Keywords: Aspergillus niger, Bioleaching, Heavy metals, Penicillium simplicissimum, Spent catalyst

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34 Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction of Phenolics and Tocopherols Enriched Oil from Wheat Bran

Authors: Kyung-Tae Kwon, Md. Salim Uddin, Go-Woon Jung, Jeong-Eun Sim, Byung-Soo Chun

Abstract:

Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) was used as a solvent to extract oil from wheat bran. Extractions were carried out in a semi-batch process at temperatures ranging from 40 to 60ºC and pressures ranging from 10 to 30 MPa, with a carbon dioxide (CO2) flow rate of 26.81 g/min. The oil obtained from wheat bran at different extraction conditions was quantitatively measured to investigate the solubility of oil in SC-CO2. The solubility of wheat bran oil was found to be enhanced in high temperature and pressure. The composition of fatty acids in wheat bran oil was measured by gas chromatography (GC). Linoleic, palmitic, oleic and γ-linolenic acid were the major fatty acids of wheat bran oil. Tocopherol contents in oil were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The highest amount of phenolics and tocopherols (α and β) were found at temperature of 60ºC and pressure of 30 MPa.

Keywords: Supercritical carbon dioxide, Tocopherols, Totalphenolic content, Wheat bran oil

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33 Radiochemical Purity of 68Ga-BCA-Peptides: Separation of All 68Ga Species with a Single iTLC Strip

Authors: Anton A. Larenkov, Alesya Ya Maruk

Abstract:

In the present study, highly effective iTLC single strip method for the determination of radiochemical purity (RCP) of 68Ga-BCA-peptides was developed (with no double-developing, changing of eluents or other additional manipulation). In this method iTLC-SG strips and commonly used eluent TFAaq. (3-5 % (v/v)) are used. The method allows determining each of the key radiochemical forms of 68Ga (colloidal, bound, ionic) separately with the peaks separation being no less than 4 σ. Rf = 0.0-0.1 for 68Ga-colloid; Rf = 0.5-0.6 for 68Ga-BCA-peptides; Rf = 0.9-1.0 for ionic 68Ga. The method is simple and fast: For developing length of 75 mm only 4-6 min is required (versus 18-20 min for pharmacopoeial method). The method has been tested on various compounds (including 68Ga-DOTA-TOC, 68Ga-DOTA-TATE, 68Ga-NODAGA-RGD2 etc.). The cross-validation work for every specific form of 68Ga showed good correlation between method developed and control (pharmacopoeial) methods. The method can become convenient and much more informative replacement for pharmacopoeial methods, including HPLC.

Keywords: DOTA-TATE, 68Ga, quality control, radiochemical purity, radiopharmaceuticals, iTLC.

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32 The Impact of Germination and In Vitro Digestion on the Formation of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitory Peptides from Lentil Proteins Compared to Whey Proteins

Authors: F. Bamdad, Sh. Dokhani, J. Keramat, R. Zareie

Abstract:

Biologically active peptides are of particular interest in food science and human nutrition because they have been shown to play several physiological roles. In vitro gastrointestinal digestion of lentil and whey proteins in this study produced high angiotensin-I converting enzyme inhibitory activity with 75.5±1.9 and 91.4±2.3% inhibition, respectively. High ACE inhibitory activity was observed in lentil after 5 days of germination (84.3±1.2%). Fractionation by reverse phase chromatography gave inhibitory activities as high as 86.3±2.0 for lentil, 94.8±1.8% for whey and 93.7±1.7% at 5th day of germination. Further purification by HPLC resulted in several inhibitory peptides with IC50 values ranging from 0.064 to 0.164 mg/ml. These results demonstrate that lentil proteins are a good source of peptides with ACE inhibitory activity that can be released by germination or gastrointestinal digestion. Despite the lower bioactivity in comparison with whey proteins, incorporation of lentil proteins in functional food formulations and natural drugs look promising.

Keywords: ACE inhibitory peptides, digestion, germination, lentil proteins, whey proteins

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