Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30840
Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction of Phenolics and Tocopherols Enriched Oil from Wheat Bran

Authors: Kyung-Tae Kwon, Md. Salim Uddin, Go-Woon Jung, Jeong-Eun Sim, Byung-Soo Chun


Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) was used as a solvent to extract oil from wheat bran. Extractions were carried out in a semi-batch process at temperatures ranging from 40 to 60ºC and pressures ranging from 10 to 30 MPa, with a carbon dioxide (CO2) flow rate of 26.81 g/min. The oil obtained from wheat bran at different extraction conditions was quantitatively measured to investigate the solubility of oil in SC-CO2. The solubility of wheat bran oil was found to be enhanced in high temperature and pressure. The composition of fatty acids in wheat bran oil was measured by gas chromatography (GC). Linoleic, palmitic, oleic and γ-linolenic acid were the major fatty acids of wheat bran oil. Tocopherol contents in oil were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The highest amount of phenolics and tocopherols (α and β) were found at temperature of 60ºC and pressure of 30 MPa.

Keywords: supercritical carbon dioxide, Tocopherols, Totalphenolic content, Wheat bran oil

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2147


[1] X. Xie, S. W. Cui, W. Li, and R. Tsao, "Isolation and characterization of wheat bran starch," Food Research International, vol. 41, pp. 882-887, 2008.
[2] O. Alabaster, Z. Tang, and N. Shivapurkar, "Inhibition by wheat bran cereals of the development of aberrant crypt foci and colon tumours," Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 35, pp. 517-522, 1997.
[3] M. E. Moller, R. Dahl, and O. C. Bockman, "A possible role of the dietary fibre product, wheat bran, as a nitrite scavenger," Food Chemistry and Toxicology, vol. 26, pp. 841-845, 1988.
[4] B. Halliwell, "Antioxidants in human health and diseases," Annu. Rev. Nutr., vol. 16, pp. 33-50, 1992.
[5] A. S. Truswell, "Cereal grains and coronary heart disease," Eur. J. Clin. Nutr., vol. 56, pp. 1-14, 2003.
[6] B. Halliwell, J. M. C. Gutteridge, and C. E. Cross, "Free radicals, antioxidants, and human disease: where are we now," J. Lab. Clin. Med., vol. 119, pp. 598-620, 1992.
[7] S. Y. Wang, and W. Zheng, "Effect of plant growth temperature on antioxidant capacity in strawberry," J. Agric. Food Chem., vol. 49, pp. 4977-4982, 2001.
[8] L. Yu, S. Haley, J. Perret, and M. Harris, "Antioxidant properties of hard winter wheat extracts," Food Chem., vol. 78, pp. 457-461, 2002.
[9] M. F. Andreasen, P. A. Kroon, G. Williamson, and M. T. Garcia-Conesa, "Intestinal release and uptake of phenolic antioxidant diferulic acids," Free Radical Biol. Med., vol. 31, pp. 304-314, 2001.
[10] L. Yu, S. Haley, J. Perret, M. Harris, J. Wilson, and M. Qian, "Free radical scavenging properties of wheat extracts," J. Agric. Food Chem., vol. 50, pp. 1619-1624, 2002.
[11] K. K. Adom, and R. H. Liu, "Rapid peroxyl radical scavenging capacity (PSC) assay for assessing both hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidants," J. Agric. Food Chem., vol. 53, pp. 6572-6580, 2005.
[12] N. Sanders, "Food legislation and the scope for increased use of near-critical fluid extraction operations in the food flavouring and pharmaceutical industries," in: M.B. King, T.R. Bott (Eds.), Extraction of Natural Products Using Near-Critical Solvents, Blackie Academic & Professional, London, UK, pp. 34, 1993.
[13] Y. Ge, Y. Ni, Y. Chen, and T. Cai, "Optimization of the supercritical fluid extraction of natural vitamin E from wheat germ using response surface methodology," Journal of Food Science, vol. 67, pp. 239-243, 2002.
[14] G. Brunner, "Gas extraction: an introduction to fundamentals of supercritical fluids and the application to separation processes," Springer, New York, USA, 1994.
[15] Z. Shen, M. V. Palmer, S. S. T. Ting, and R. J. Fairclough, "Pilot Scale Extraction of Rice Bran Oil with Dense Carbon Dioxide," J. Agric. Food Chem., vol. 44, pp. 3033-3039, 1996.
[16] G. Panfili, L. Cinquanta, A. Fratianni, and R. Cubadda, "Extraction of wheat germ oil by supercritical CO2: Oil and defatted cake characterization," Journal of American Oil Chemists- Society, vol. 80, pp. 157-161, 2003.
[17] P. Imsanguan, A. Roaysubtawee, R. Borirak, S. Pongamphai, S. Douglas, P. L. Douglas, "Extraction of ╬▒-tocopherol and ╬│-oryzanol from rice bran," LWT, vol. 41, pp. 1417-1424, 2008.
[18] R. Murga, M. T. Sanz, S. Beltran, and J. L. Cabezas, "Solubility of some phenolic compounds contained in grape seeds, in supercritical carbon dioxide," J. Supercrit. Fluids, vol. 23, pp. 113-121, 2002.
[19] R. Murga, M. T. Sanz, S. Beltran, J. L. Cabezas, "Solubility of three hydroxycinnamic acids in supercritical carbon dioxide," J. Supercrit. Fluids, vol. 27, pp. 239-245, 2003.
[20] AOCS, "American Oil Chemists- Society," Champaign, Illinois, USA, 1998.
[21] ISO 14502-1, "Determination of substances characteristic of green and black tea. Part 1: Content of total polyphenols in tea. Colorimetric method using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent," 2005.
[22] C. Leray, M. Andriamampandry, G. Gutbier, J. Cavadenti, C. Klein-Soyer, C. Gachet, and J. P. Cazenave, "Quantitative analysis of vitamin E, cholesterol and phospholipid fatty acids in a single aliquot of human platelets and cultured endothelial cells," Journal of Chromatography B, vol. 696, pp. 33-42, 1997.
[23] A. Morita, and O. Kajimoto, "Solute-solvent interaction in nonpolar supercritical fluid: a clustering model and size distribution," J. Phys. Chem., Vol. 94, pp. 6420-6425, 1990.
[24] D. S. Bulgarevicg, T. Sako, T. Sujeta, K. Otake, Y. Takebayashi, C. Kamizawa, Y. Horikawa, and M. Kato, "The role or general hydrogen-bonding interaction in the alvation process of organic compounds by supercritical CO2/n-alcohol mixtures," Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., vol. 41, pp. 2074-2081, 2002.
[25] A. B. A. de Azevedo, T. G. Kieckbush, A. K. Tashima, R. S. Mohamed, P. Mazzafera, and S. A. B. Vieira de Melo, "Extraction of green coffee oil using supercritical carbon dioxide," J. Supercrit. Fluids, vol. 44, pp. 186-192, 2008.
[26] H. Sovova, M. Zarevucka, M. Vacek, and K. Stransky, "Solubility of two vegetable oils in supercritical CO2," J. Supercrit. Fluids, vol. 20, pp. 15-28, 2001.
[27] S. G. Ozkal, M. E. Yener, and L. Bayindirli, "The solubility of apricot kernel oil in supercritical carbon dioxide," Int. J. Food Sci. Technol., vol. 41, pp. 399-404, 2006.
[28] J. Chrastil, "Solubility of solids and liquids in supercritical gases," J. Phys. Chem., vol. 86, pp. 3016-3021, 1982.
[29] I. H. Adil, H. I. Cetin, M. E. Yener, and A. Bayindirli, "Subcritical (carbon dioxide + ethanol) extraction of polyphenols from apple and peach pomaces, and determination of the antioxidant activities of the extracts," J. Supercrit. Fluids, vol. 43, pp. 55-63, 2007.
[30] I. H. Adil, M. E. Yener, and A. Bayindirli, "Extraction of total phenolics from sour cherry pomace by high pressure solvent and subcritical fluid and determination of the antioxidant activities of the extracts," Sep. Sci. Technol., vol. 43, pp. 1091-1110, 2008.
[31] N. Gelmez, N. S. Kincal, and M. E. Yener, "Optimization of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of antioxidants from roasted wheat germ based on yield, total phenolic and tocopherol contents, and antioxidant activities of the extracts," J. Supercrit. Fluids, vol. 48, pp. 217-2240, 2009.