Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 576

Search results for: characterization

576 An Approach on the Design of a Solar Cell Characterization Device

Authors: Christoph Mayer, Dominik Holzmann

Abstract:

This paper presents the development of a compact, portable and easy to handle solar cell characterization device. The presented device reduces the effort and cost of single solar cell characterization to a minimum. It enables realistic characterization of cells under sunlight within minutes. In the field of photovoltaic research the common way to characterize a single solar cell or a module is, to measure the current voltage curve. With this characteristic the performance and the degradation rate can be defined which are important for the consumer or developer. The paper consists of the system design description, a summary of the measurement results and an outline for further developments.

Keywords: Solar cell, photovoltaics, PV, characterization.

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575 Sampling and Characterization of Fines Created during the Shredding of Non Hazardous Waste

Authors: Soukaina Oujana, Peggy Zwolinski

Abstract:

Fines are heterogeneous residues created during the shredding of non-hazardous waste. They are one of the most challenging issues faced by recyclers, because they are at the present time considered as non-sortable and non-reusable mixtures destined to landfill. However, fines contain a large amount of recoverable materials that could be recycled or reused for the production of solid recovered fuel. This research is conducted in relation to a project named ValoRABES. The aim is to characterize fines and establish a suitable sorting process in order to extract the materials contained in the mixture and define their suitable recovery paths. This paper will highlight the importance of a good sampling and will propose a sampling methodology for fines characterization. First results about the characterization will be also presented.

Keywords: Fines, non-hazardous waste, recovery, shredding residues, waste characterization, waste sampling.

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574 A Model for the Characterization and Selection of Beeswaxes for use as base Substitute Tissue in Photon Teletherapy

Authors: R.M.V. Silva, D.N. Souza

Abstract:

This paper presents a model for the characterization and selection of beeswaxes for use as base substitute tissue for the manufacture of objects suitable for external radiotherapy using megavoltage photon beams. The model of characterization was divided into three distinct stages: 1) verification of aspects related to the origin of the beeswax, the bee species, the flora in the vicinity of the beehives and procedures to detect adulterations; 2) evaluation of physical and chemical properties; and 3) evaluation of beam attenuation capacity. The chemical composition of the beeswax evaluated in this study was similar to other simulators commonly used in radiotherapy. The behavior of the mass attenuation coefficient in the radiotherapy energy range was comparable to other simulators. The proposed model is efficient and enables convenient assessment of the use of any particular beeswax as a base substitute tissue for radiotherapy.

Keywords: Beeswaxes, characterization, model, radiotherapy

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573 A Paradigm for Characterization and Checking of a Human Noise Behavior

Authors: Himanshu Dehra

Abstract:

This paper presents a paradigm for characterization and checking of human noise behavior. The definitions of ‘Noise’ and ‘Noise Behavior’ are devised. The concept of characterization and examining of Noise Behavior is obtained from the proposed paradigm of Psychoacoustics. The measurement of human noise behavior is discussed through definitions of noise sources and noise measurements. The noise sources, noise measurement equations and noise filters are further illustrated through examples. The theory and significance of solar energy acoustics is presented for life and its activities. Human comfort and health are correlated with human brain through physiological responses and noise protection. Examples of heat stress, intense heat, sweating and evaporation are also enumerated.

Keywords: Human brain, noise behavior, noise characterization, noise filters, physiological responses, psychoacoustics.

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572 Texture Characterization Based on a Chandrasekhar Fast Adaptive Filter

Authors: Mounir Sayadi, Farhat Fnaiech

Abstract:

In the framework of adaptive parametric modelling of images, we propose in this paper a new technique based on the Chandrasekhar fast adaptive filter for texture characterization. An Auto-Regressive (AR) linear model of texture is obtained by scanning the image row by row and modelling this data with an adaptive Chandrasekhar linear filter. The characterization efficiency of the obtained model is compared with the model adapted with the Least Mean Square (LMS) 2-D adaptive algorithm and with the cooccurrence method features. The comparison criteria is based on the computation of a characterization degree using the ratio of "betweenclass" variances with respect to "within-class" variances of the estimated coefficients. Extensive experiments show that the coefficients estimated by the use of Chandrasekhar adaptive filter give better results in texture discrimination than those estimated by other algorithms, even in a noisy context.

Keywords: Texture analysis, statistical features, adaptive filters, Chandrasekhar algorithm.

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571 Thermal Characterization of Graphene Oxide-Epoxy Nanocomposites Produced by Aqueous Emulsion

Authors: H. A. Brandão Cordeiro, M. G. Bocardo, N. C. Penteado, V. T. de Moraes, S. M. Giampietri Lebrão, G. W. Lebrão

Abstract:

The present study desired to obtain a nanocomposite of epoxy resin reinforced with graphene oxide (OG), for aerospace application, produced by aqueous emulsion. It was obtained proof bodies with 0.00 wt%, 0.10 wt%, 0.25 wt% and 0.50 wt% in weight of nanoparticles, to check the influence of it in the final quality of the obtained product. The validation of the results was done by the application thermal characterization by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). It was seen that the nanocomposite reinforced with 0.10 wt% of OG showed the best results, the average glass transition temperature, at 2 °C, compared to the pure resin.

Keywords: Aqueous emulsion, graphene, nanocomposites, thermal characterization.

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570 Mechanical Characterization of Extrudable Foamed Concrete: An Experimental Study

Authors: D. Falliano, D. De Domenico, G. Ricciardi, E. Gugliandolo

Abstract:

This paper is focused on the mechanical characterization of foamed concrete specimens with protein-based foaming agent. Unlike classic foamed concrete, a peculiar property of the analyzed foamed concrete is the extrudability, which is achieved via a specific additive in the concrete mix that significantly improves the cohesion and viscosity of the fresh cementitious paste. A broad experimental campaign was conducted to evaluate the compressive strength and the indirect tensile strength of the specimens. The study has comprised three different cement types, two water/cement ratios, three curing conditions and three target dry densities. The variability of the strength values upon the above mentioned factors is discussed.

Keywords: Cement type, curing conditions, density, extrudable concrete, foamed concrete, mechanical characterization.

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569 Characterization Non-Deterministic of Optical Channels

Authors: V. A. C. Vale, E. T. L. Cöuras Ford

Abstract:

The use of optical technologies in the telecommunications has been increasing due to its ability to transmit large amounts of data over long distances. However, as in all systems of data transmission, optical communication channels suffer from undesirable and non-deterministic effects, being essential to know the same. Thus, this research allows the assessment of these effects, as well as their characterization and beneficial uses of these effects.

Keywords: Optical communication, optical fiber, non-deterministic effects.

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568 High Level Characterization and Optimization of Switched-Current Sigma-Delta Modulators with VHDL-AMS

Authors: A. Fakhfakh, N. Ksentini, M. Loulou, N. Masmoudi, J. J. Charlot

Abstract:

Today, design requirements are extending more and more from electronic (analogue and digital) to multidiscipline design. These current needs imply implementation of methodologies to make the CAD product reliable in order to improve time to market, study costs, reusability and reliability of the design process. This paper proposes a high level design approach applied for the characterization and the optimization of Switched-Current Sigma- Delta Modulators. It uses the new hardware description language VHDL-AMS to help the designers to optimize the characteristics of the modulator at a high level with a considerably reduced CPU time before passing to a transistor level characterization.

Keywords: high level design, optimization, switched-Current Sigma-Delta Modulators, VHDL-AMS.

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567 Combination of Geological, Geophysical and Reservoir Engineering Analyses in Field Development: A Case Study

Authors: Atif Zafar, Fan Haijun

Abstract:

A sequence of different Reservoir Engineering methods and tools in reservoir characterization and field development are presented in this paper. The real data of Jin Gas Field of L-Basin of Pakistan is used. The basic concept behind this work is to enlighten the importance of well test analysis in a broader way (i.e. reservoir characterization and field development) unlike to just determine the permeability and skin parameters. Normally in the case of reservoir characterization we rely on well test analysis to some extent but for field development plan, the well test analysis has become a forgotten tool specifically for locations of new development wells. This paper describes the successful implementation of well test analysis in Jin Gas Field where the main uncertainties are identified during initial stage of field development when location of new development well was marked only on the basis of G&G (Geologic and Geophysical) data. The seismic interpretation could not encounter one of the boundary (fault, sub-seismic fault, heterogeneity) near the main and only producing well of Jin Gas Field whereas the results of the model from the well test analysis played a very crucial rule in order to propose the location of second well of the newly discovered field. The results from different methods of well test analysis of Jin Gas Field are also integrated with and supported by other tools of Reservoir Engineering i.e. Material Balance Method and Volumetric Method. In this way, a comprehensive way out and algorithm is obtained in order to integrate the well test analyses with Geological and Geophysical analyses for reservoir characterization and field development. On the strong basis of this working and algorithm, it was successfully evaluated that the proposed location of new development well was not justified and it must be somewhere else except South direction.

Keywords: Field development, reservoir characterization, reservoir engineering, well test analysis.

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566 Structural Characterization of Piscine Globin Superfamily Proteins

Authors: Yoshihiro Ochiai

Abstract:

Globin superfamily proteins including myoglobin and hemoglobin, have welcome new members recently, namely, cytoglobin, neuroglobin and globin X, though their physiological functions are still to be addressed. Fish are the excellent models for the study of these globins, but their characteristics have not yet been discussed to date. In the present study, attempts have been made to characterize their structural uniqueness by making use of proteomics approach. This is the first comparative study on the characterization of globin superfamily proteins from fish.

Keywords: Globin, Superfamily, Protein, Fish, Structure

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565 Characterization of Complex Electromagnetic Environment Created by Multiple Sources of Electromagnetic Radiation

Authors: C. Temaneh-Nyah, J. Makiche, J. Nujoma

Abstract:

This paper considers the characterization of a complex electromagnetic environment due to multiple sources of electromagnetic radiation as a five-dimensional surface which can be described by a set of several surface sections including: instant EM field intensity distribution maps at a given frequency and altitude, instantaneous spectrum at a given location in space and the time evolution of the electromagnetic field spectrum at a given point in space. This characterization if done over time can enable the exposure levels of Radio Frequency Radiation at every point in the analysis area to be determined and results interpreted based on comparison of the determined RFR exposure level with the safe guidelines for general public exposure given by recognized body such as the International commission on non-ionizing radiation protection (ICNIRP), Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE), the National Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA).

Keywords: Electromagnetic Environment, Electric Field Strength, Mathematical Models.

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564 Block Sorting: A New Characterization and a New Heuristic

Authors: Swapnoneel Roy, Ashok Kumar Thakur, Minhazur Rahman

Abstract:

The Block Sorting problem is to sort a given permutation moving blocks. A block is defined as a substring of the given permutation, which is also a substring of the identity permutation. Block Sorting has been proved to be NP-Hard. Until now two different 2-Approximation algorithms have been presented for block sorting. These are the best known algorithms for Block Sorting till date. In this work we present a different characterization of Block Sorting in terms of a transposition cycle graph. Then we suggest a heuristic, which we show to exhibit a 2-approximation performance guarantee for most permutations.

Keywords: Block Sorting, Optical Character Recognition, Genome Rearrangements, Sorting Primitives, ApproximationAlgorithms

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563 Deflocculation and Gelation of Porcelain Ceramics

Authors: T. Tonthai

Abstract:

Deflocculation and gel characterization were investigated for three different composition of porcelain slips at specific gravity 1.8. The suspensions were dispersed with sodium silicate (Na2SiO3) in under-deflocculated slips and fully deflocculated slips. The rheology characterization of slips was conducted by the deflocculation curves and the gel curves. The results showed that decreasing the amount of the ball clay composition in the slips consumed less dosages of the dispersants. The under-deflocculated slips tended to have a gelation rate faster than the fully deflocculated slips.

Keywords: Ceramics, Deflocculation, Gelation, Porcelain

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562 Classification of Radio Communication Signals using Fuzzy Logic

Authors: Zuzana Dideková, Beata Mikovičová

Abstract:

Characterization of radio communication signals aims at automatic recognition of different characteristics of radio signals in order to detect their modulation type, the central frequency, and the level. Our purpose is to apply techniques used in image processing in order to extract pertinent characteristics. To the single analysis, we add several rules for checking the consistency of hypotheses using fuzzy logic. This allows taking into account ambiguity and uncertainty that may remain after the extraction of individual characteristics. The aim is to improve the process of radio communications characterization.

Keywords: fuzzy classification, fuzzy inference system, radio communication signals, telecommunications

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561 Preparation and Characterization of M. × Piperita L. Oil Based Gel Formulation

Authors: Peeyush Kumar, Sapna Mishra, Anushree Malik, Santosh Satya

Abstract:

The essential oil of M. × piperita L. was formulated into a topical gel. The prepared gel was characterized for its pH, viscosity, spreadiblity, consistency and extrudiblity, while its stability was evaluated under different temperature conditions. The prepared M. × piperita oil gel was clear and transparent. The pH value of developed gel was 6.6, while its viscosity was 1200 cP. Spreadability and consistency of the M. × piperita oil gel was 10.7 g.cm/sec and 7 mm, respectively. The prepared gel showed good extrudiblity. During the stability studies, no significant change in pH and viscosity as a function of time for gel was observed, indicating stability of prepared formulation. The gel developed in this study is expected to forward the usage of M. × piperita essential towards commercial application.

Keywords: M. × piperita L., formulation, gel, characterization, stability

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560 Biomimetic Preparation of Nano Hydroxyapatite in Gelatin-Starch Matrix

Authors: M.Meskinfam, M. S. Sadjadi, H.Jazdarreh

Abstract:

In this study, we report the synthesis and characterization of nanohydroxyapatite (nHAp) in gelatin-starch matrix via biomimetic method. Characterization of the samples was performed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The Size and morphology of the nHAp samples were determined using scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM). The results reveal that the shape and morphology of nHAp is influenced by presence of biopolymers as template. Carbonyl and amino groups from gelatin and hydroxyl from starch play crucial roles in HAp formation on the surface of gelatin-starch.

Keywords: Biocomposite, Biomimetic , Nano Hydroxyapatite , Template.

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559 The Stone in the Identity of the Landscape

Authors: Maria Diogo, Patrícia Diogo

Abstract:

The stone is a constituent part of the geological structure of the Territory, introducing himself as a subject that has always interconnected human and environment in the development of a discourse of meanings and symbols that reflect elements realized in different cultures and experiences. This action meant that the first settlements and their areas of influence gained importance in the field of humanization and spatial organization of the territory, not only for the appropriation that its inhabitants did, but mainly because the community regardless of their economic or social condition, used it as living space and cultural integration. These factors become decisive in the characterization of the landscape area in the northwest of Portugal, because the stone is a material that appears not only in the natural landscape, but is also a strong element in humanized landscape, becoming this relation the main characterization of the study area.

Keywords: Landscape, Men, Stone, Territory.

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558 The Use of SD Bioline TB AgMPT64® Detection Assay for Rapid Characterization of Mycobacteria in Nigeria

Authors: S. Ibrahim, U. B. Abubakar, S. Danbirni, A. Usman, F. M. Ballah, C. A. Kudi, L. Lawson, G. H. Abdulrazak, I. A. Abdulkadir

Abstract:

Performing culture and characterization of mycobacteria in low resource settings like Nigeria is a very difficult task to undertake because of the very few and limited laboratories carrying out such an experiment; this is a largely due to stringent and laborious nature of the tests. Hence, a rapid, simple and accurate test for characterization is needed. The “SD BIOLINE TB Ag MPT 64 Rapid ®” is a simple and rapid immunochromatographic test used in differentiating Mycobacteria into Mycobacterium tuberculosis (NTM). The 100 sputa were obtained from patients suspected to be infected with tuberculosis and presented themselves to hospitals for check-up and treatment were involved in the study. The samples were cultured in a class III Biosafety cabinet and level III biosafety practices were followed. Forty isolates were obtained from the cultured sputa, and there were identified as Acid-fast bacilli (AFB) using Zeihl-Neelsen acid-fast stain. All the isolates (AFB positive) were then subjected to the SD BIOLINE Analyses. A total of 31 (77.5%) were characterized as MTBC, while nine (22.5%) were NTM. The total turnaround time for the rapid assay was just 30 minutes as compared to a few days of phenotypic and genotypic method. It was simple, rapid and reliable test to differentiate MTBC from NTM.

Keywords: Culture, mycobacteria, non-tuberculous mycobacteria, SD bioline.

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557 Design and Characterization of CMOS Readout Circuit for ISFET and ISE Based Sensors

Authors: Yuzman Yusoff, Siti Noor Harun, Noor Shelida Sallehand Tan Kong Yew

Abstract:

This paper presents the design and characterization of analog readout interface circuits for ion sensitive field effect transistor (ISFET) and ion selective electrode (ISE) based sensor. These interface circuits are implemented using MIMOS’s 0.35um CMOS technology and experimentally characterized under 24-leads QFN package. The characterization evaluates the circuit’s functionality, output sensitivity and output linearity. Commercial sensors for both ISFET and ISE are employed together with glass reference electrode during testing. The test result shows that the designed interface circuits manage to readout signals produced by both sensors with measured sensitivity of ISFET and ISE sensor are 54mV/pH and 62mV/decade, respectively. The characterized output linearity for both circuits achieves above 0.999 rsquare. The readout also has demonstrated reliable operation by passing all qualifications in reliability test plan.

Keywords: Readout interface circuit (ROIC), analog interface circuit, ion sensitive field effect transistor (ISFET), ion selective electrode (ISE), and ion sensor electronics.

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556 Design and Characterization of CMOS Readout Circuit for ISFET and ISE Based Sensors

Authors: Yuzman Yusoff, Siti Noor Harun, Noor Shelida Sallehand, Tan Kong Yew

Abstract:

This paper presents the design and characterization of analog readout interface circuits for ion sensitive field effect transistor (ISFET) and ion selective electrode (ISE) based sensor. These interface circuits are implemented using MIMOS’s 0.35um CMOS technology and experimentally characterized under 24-leads QFN package. The characterization evaluates the circuit’s functionality, output sensitivity and output linearity. Commercial sensors for both ISFET and ISE are employed together with glass reference electrode during testing. The test result shows that the designed interface circuits manage to readout signals produced by both sensors with measured sensitivity of ISFET and ISE sensor are 54mV/pH and 62mV/decade, respectively. The characterized output linearity for both circuits achieves above 0.999 Rsquare. The readout also has demonstrated reliable operation by passing all qualifications in reliability test plan.

Keywords: Readout interface circuit (ROIC), analog interface circuit, ion sensitive field effect transistor (ISFET), ion selective electrode (ISE), ion sensor electronics.

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555 Surfactant Stabilized Nanoemulsion: Characterization and Application in Enhanced Oil Recovery

Authors: Ajay Mandal, Achinta Bera

Abstract:

Nanoemulsions are a class of emulsions with a droplet size in the range of 50–500 nm and have attracted a great deal of attention in recent years because it is unique characteristics. The physicochemical properties of nanoemulsion suggests that it can be successfully used to recover the residual oil which is trapped in the fine pore of reservoir rock by capillary forces after primary and secondary recovery. Oil-in-water nanoemulsion which can be formed by high-energy emulsification techniques using specific surfactants can reduce oil-water interfacial tension (IFT) by 3-4 orders of magnitude. The present work is aimed on characterization of oil-inwater nanoemulsion in terms of its phase behavior, morphological studies; interfacial energy; ability to reduce the interfacial tension and understanding the mechanisms of mobilization and displacement of entrapped oil blobs by lowering interfacial tension both at the macroscopic and microscopic level. In order to investigate the efficiency of oil-water nanoemulsion in enhanced oil recovery (EOR), experiments were performed to characterize the emulsion in terms of their physicochemical properties and size distribution of the dispersed oil droplet in water phase. Synthetic mineral oil and a series of surfactants were used to prepare oil-in-water emulsions. Characterization of emulsion shows that it follows pseudo-plastic behaviour and drop size of dispersed oil phase follows lognormal distribution. Flooding experiments were also carried out in a sandpack system to evaluate the effectiveness of the nanoemulsion as displacing fluid for enhanced oil recovery. Substantial additional recoveries (more than 25% of original oil in place) over conventional water flooding were obtained in the present investigation.

Keywords: Nanoemulsion, Characterization, Enhanced Oil Recovery, Particle Size Distribution

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554 Investigating the Thermal Characteristics of Reclaimed Solid Waste from a Landfill Site Using Thermogravimetry

Authors: S. M. Al-Salem, G.A. Leeke, H. J. Karam, R. Al-Enzi, A. T. Al-Dhafeeri, J. Wang

Abstract:

Thermogravimetry has been popularized as a thermal characterization technique since the 1950s. It aims at investigating the weight loss against both reaction time and temperature, whilst being able to characterize the evolved gases from the volatile components of the organic material being tested using an appropriate hyphenated analytical technique. In an effort to characterize and identify the reclaimed waste from an unsanitary landfill site, this approach was initiated. Solid waste (SW) reclaimed from an active landfill site in the State of Kuwait was collected and prepared for characterization in accordance with international protocols. The SW was segregated and its major components were identified after washing and air drying. Shredding and cryomilling was conducted on the plastic solid waste (PSW) component to yield a material that is representative for further testing and characterization. The material was subjected to five heating rates (b) with minimal repeatable weight for high accuracy thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) following the recommendation of the International Confederation for Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry (ICTAC). The TGA yielded thermograms that showed an off-set from typical behavior of commercial grade resin which was attributed to contact of material with soil and thermal/photo-degradation.

Keywords: Polymer, TGA, Pollution, Landfill, Waste, Plastic.

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553 Characterization and Modeling of Packet Loss of a VoIP Communication

Authors: L. Estrada, D. Torres, H. Toral

Abstract:

In this work, a characterization and modeling of packet loss of a Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) communication is developed. The distributions of the number of consecutive received and lost packets (namely gap and burst) are modeled from the transition probabilities of two-state and four-state model. Measurements show that both models describe adequately the burst distribution, but the decay of gap distribution for non-homogeneous losses is better fit by the four-state model. The respective probabilities of transition between states for each model were estimated with a proposed algorithm from a set of monitored VoIP calls in order to obtain representative minimum, maximum and average values for both models.

Keywords: Packet loss, gap and burst distribution, Markovchain, VoIP measurements.

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552 Chemical Characterization of Submicron Aerosol in Kanpur Region: a Source Apportionment Study

Authors: A. Chakraborty, T. Gupta

Abstract:

Several studies have shown the association between ambient particulate matter (PM) and adverse health effects and climate change, thus highlighting the need to limit the anthropogenic sources of PM. PM Exposure is commonly monitored as mass concentration of PM10 (particle aerodynamic diameter < 10μm) or PM2.5 (particle aerodynamic diameter < 2.5μm), although increasing toxicity with decreasing aerodynamic diameter has been reported due to increased surface area and enhanced chemical reactivity with other species. Additionally, the light scattering properties of PM increases with decreasing size. Hence, it is important to study the chemical characterization of finer fraction of the particulate matter and to identify their sources so that they can be controlled appropriately to a large extent at the sources before reaching to the receptors.

Keywords: PM1, PCA, source apportionment.

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551 Opto-Mechanical Characterization of Aspheric Lenses from the Hybrid Method

Authors: Aliouane Toufik, Hamdi Amine, Bouzid Djamel

Abstract:

Aspheric optical components are an alternative to the use of conventional lenses in the implementation of imaging systems for the visible range. Spherical lenses are capable of producing aberrations. Therefore, they are not able to focus all the light into a single point. Instead, aspherical lenses correct aberrations and provide better resolution even with compact lenses incorporating a small number of lenses.

Metrology of these components is very difficult especially when the resolution requirements increase and insufficient or complexity of conventional tools requires the development of specific approaches to characterization.

This work is part of the problem existed because the objectives are the study and comparison of different methods used to measure surface rays hybrid aspherical lenses.

Keywords: Aspherical surface, Manufacture of lenses, precision molding, radius of curvature, roughness.

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550 Comparative Analysis between Corn and Ramon (Brosimum alicastrum) Starches to Be Used as Sustainable Bio-Based Plastics

Authors: C. R. Ríos-Soberanis, V. M. Moo-Huchin, R. J. Estrada-Leon, E. Perez-Pacheco

Abstract:

Polymers from renewable resources have attracted an increasing amount of attention over the last two decades, predominantly due to two major reasons: firstly environmental concerns, and secondly the realization that our petroleum resources are finite. Finding new uses for agricultural commodities is also an important area of research. Therefore, it is crucial to get new sources of natural materials that can be used in different applications. Ramon tree (Brosimum alicastrum) is a tropical plant that grows freely in Yucatan countryside. This paper focuses on the seeds recollection, processing and starch extraction and characterization in order to find out about its suitability as biomaterial. Results demonstrated that it has a high content of qualities to be used not only as comestible but also as an important component in polymeric blends.

Keywords: Biomaterials, biopolymer, starch, characterization techniques.

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549 Piezoelectric Micro-generator Characterization for Energy Harvesting Application

Authors: José E. Q. Souza, Marcio Fontana, Antonio C. C. Lima

Abstract:

This paper presents analysis and characterization of a piezoelectric micro-generator for energy harvesting application. A low-cost experimental prototype was designed to operate as piezoelectric micro-generator in the laboratory. An input acceleration of 9.8m/s2 using a sine signal (peak-to-peak voltage: 1V, offset voltage: 0V) at frequencies ranging from 10Hz to 160Hz generated a maximum average power of 432.4μW (linear mass position = 25mm) and an average power of 543.3μW (angular mass position = 35°). These promising results show that the prototype can be considered for low consumption load application as an energy harvesting micro-generator.

Keywords: Piezoelectric, microgenerator, energy harvesting, cantilever beam.

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548 Speckle Characterization in Laser Projector Display

Authors: Meifang Xu, Yunbo Shi, Guoxian Tang, Jun Liu, Xuyuan Chen

Abstract:

Speckle phenomena results from when coherent radiation is reflected from a rough surface. Characterizing the speckle strongly depends on the measurement condition and experimental setup. In this paper we report the experimental results produced with different parameters in the setup. We investigated the factors which affects the speckle contrast, such as, F-number, gamma value and exposure time of the camera, rather than geometric factors like the distance between the projector lens to the screen, the viewing distance, etc. The measurement results show that the speckle contrast decreases by decreasing F-number, by increasing gamma value, and slightly affects by exposure time of the camera and the gain value of the camera.

Keywords: Characterization, laser projector, speckle

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547 Preparation and Characterization of Newly Developed Trabecular Structures in Titanium Alloy to Optimize Osteointegration

Authors: M. Regis, E. Marin, S. Fusi, M. Pressacco, L. Fedrizzi

Abstract:

Electron Beam Melting (EBM) process was used to prepare porous scaffolds with controlled porosity to ensure optimal levels of osteointegration for different trabeculae sizes. Morphological characterization by means of SEM analyses was carried out to assess pore dimensions; tensile, compression and adhesion tests have been carried out to determine the mechanical behavior. The results indicate that EBM process allows the creation of regular and repeatable porous scaffolds. Mechanical properties greatly depend on pore dimension and on bulk-pore ratio. Adhesion resistance meets the normative requirements, and the overall performance of the produced structures is compatible with potential orthopaedic applications.

Keywords: Additive manufacturing, orthopaedic implants, osteointegration, trabecular structures

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