Dopamine and Serotonin Levels in Blood Samples of Jordanian Children Who Stutter
This study examines the levels of dopamine and serotonin in blood samples of children who stutter compared with normal fluent speakers. Blood specimens from 50 children who stutter (6 females, 44 males) and 50 normal children matched age and gender were collected for the purpose of the current study. The concentrations of dopamine and serotonin were measured using the 1100 series high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ultraviolet detector instrument (HPLC-UV). It was revealed that dopamine level in the blood samples of stuttering group and fluent group was not significant (P = 0.769), whereas the level of serotonin was significantly higher in the blood samples of stuttering group than the blood samples of fluent normal group (P = 0.015). It is concluded that serotonin blockers could be used in future studies to evaluate its role as a medication for the treatment of stuttering.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3566305Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 275
 Choudhury PR, Lahiri S, Rajamma U. Glutamate mediated signaling in the pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorders. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior. 2012 Feb 1;100(4):841-9.
 Kwong WH, Chan WY, Lee KK, Fan M, Yew DT. Neurotransmitters, neuropeptides and calcium binding proteins in developing human cerebellum: a review. The Histochemical Journal. 2000 Sep 1;32(9):521-34.
 Bloodstein, Oliver. "Handbook on Stuttering". p.142. 2007.
 Watkins KE, Smith SM, Davis S, Howell P. Structural and functional abnormalities of the motor system in developmental stuttering. Brain. 2007 Oct 10;131(1):50-9.
 Costa D, Kroll R. Stuttering: an update for physicians. Cmaj. 2000 Jun 27;162(13):1849-55.
 Wu JC, Maguire G, Riley G, Lee A, Keator D, Tang C, Fallon J, Najafi A. Increased dopamine activity associated with stuttering. Neuroreport. 1997 Feb 10;8(3):767-70.
 Maguire GA, Riley GD, Franklin DL, Gottschalk LA. Risperidone for the treatment of stuttering. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology. 2000 Aug 1;20(4):479-82.
 Riley, G., Maguire, G., Franklin, D., Ortiz, T., & Riley, J. Effects of olanzapine on stuttering in adults. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Speech-Language-Hearing, New Orleans; (2001, November).
 Wood F, Stump D, McKeehan A, Sheldon S, Proctor J. Patterns of regional cerebral blood flow during attempted reading aloud by stutterers both on and off haloperidol medication: Evidence for inadequate left frontal activation during stuttering. Brain and Language. 1980 Jan 1;9(1):141-4.
 Busan, Pierpaolo, et al. "Investigating the efficacy of paroxetine in developmental stuttering." Clinical neuropharmacology 32.4 (2009): 183-188.
 Riley GD. A stuttering severity instrument for children and adults. Journal of speech and hearing disorders. 1972 Aug;37(3):314-22.
 Wang, Yushan, Debra S. Fice, and Pollen KF Yeung. "A simple high-performance liquid chromatography assay for simultaneous determination of plasma norepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine and 3, 4-dihydroxyphenyl acetic acid." Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis 21.3 (1999): 519-525.
 Yang, Lichuan, and M. Flint Beal. "Determination of neurotransmitter levels in models of Parkinson’s disease by HPLC-ECD." Neurodegeneration. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, 2011. 401-415.
 Metz CE. Basic principles of ROC analysis. In Seminars in nuclear medicine 1978 Oct 1 (Vol. 8, No. 4, pp. 283-298). WB Saunders.
 Guitar B. Stuttering: An integrated approach to its nature and treatment. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2013 Jan 29.
 Van Riper C. The nature of stuttering. Prentice Hall; 1982.
 Maguire GA, Yeh CY, Ito BS. Overview of the diagnosis and treatment of stuttering. Journal of Experimental & Clinical Medicine. 2012 Apr 1;4(2):92-7.
 Bloodstein, O., & Ratner, N. B. A handbook of stuttering. Clifton Park, NY: Delmar learning; 2008.
 Craig-McQuaide A, Akram H, Zrinzo L, Tripoliti E. A review of brain circuitries involved in stuttering. Frontiers in human neuroscience. 2014 Nov 17;8:884.
 Alm PA. On the causal mechanisms of stuttering. Lund: Lund University; 2005 Feb 25.
 Ludlow CL, Loucks T. Stuttering: a dynamic motor control disorder. Journal of fluency disorders. 2003 Dec 1;28(4):273-95.
 Graybiel, A. M. The basal ganglia. Curr Biol, 2000; 10(14), R509-511.
 Alm PA. Stuttering, emotions, and heart rate during anticipatory anxiety: a critical review. Journal of Fluency Disorders. 2004 Jan 1;29(2):123-33.
 Rosenberger PB. Dopaminergic systems and speech fluency. Journal of Fluency Disorders. 1980 Sep 1;5(3):255-67.
 Brandao, L. A. MR Spectroscopy of the brain. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2004.
 Civier O, Bullock D, Max L, Guenther FH. A neural modeling study of stuttering and fluency enhancement by drugs that partially block dopamine action. In the 9th Congress for People Who Stutter, Buenos Aires, Argentina 2011.
 Healy CE. Possible remedy for stuttering. Pediatrics. 1974 Apr 1;53(4):587-.
 Anderson JM, Hughes JD, Rothi LJ, Crucian GP, Heilman KM. Developmental stuttering and Parkinson’s disease: the effects of levodopa treatment. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry. 1999 Jun 1;66(6):776-8.
 Goberman AM, Blomgren M. Parkinsonian speech disfluencies: effects of L-dopa-related fluctuations. Journal of fluency disorders. 2003 Mar 1;28(1):55-70.
 Berridge, Kent C., Terry E. Robinson, and J. Wayne Aldridge. "Dissecting components of reward: ‘liking’, ‘wanting’, and learning." Current opinion in pharmacology 9.1 (2009): 65-73.
 Moncrieff, Joanna. The myth of the chemical cure: A critique of psychiatric drug treatment. Macmillan, 2007.
 Musacchio, José M. "Enzymes involved in the biosynthesis and degradation of catecholamines." Biochemistry of Biogenic Amines. Springer, Boston, MA, 1975. 1-35.
 Ota, Miho, et al. "Age-related decline of dopamine synthesis in the living human brain measured by positron emission tomography with L-(β-11C) DOPA." Life sciences 79.8 (2006): 730-736.
 Côté, Francine, et al. "Disruption of the nonneuronal tph1 gene demonstrates the importance of peripheral serotonin in cardiac function." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences100.23 (2003): 13525-13530.
 Wurtman, Richard J., F. Hefti, and E. Melamed. "Precursor control of neurotransmitter synthesis." Pharmacological Reviews 32.4 (1980): 315-335.
 Young, Simon N. "How to increase serotonin in the human brain without drugs." Journal of psychiatry & neuroscience: JPN 32.6 (2007): 394.
 Murakami, Hana, et al. "Manipulation of serotonin signal suppresses early phase of behavioral aging in Caenorhabditis elegans." Neurobiology of aging 29.7 (2008): 1093-1100.