Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 715

Search results for: GPS device

715 Highly-Efficient Photoreaction Using Microfluidic Device

Authors: Shigenori Togashi, Yukako Asano

Abstract:

We developed an effective microfluidic device for photoreactions with low reflectance and good heat conductance. The performance of this microfluidic device was tested by carrying out a photoreactive synthesis of benzopinacol and acetone from benzophenone and 2-propanol. The yield reached 36% with an irradiation time of 469.2 s and was improved by more than 30% when compared to the values obtained by the batch method. Therefore, the microfluidic device was found to be effective for improving the yields of photoreactions.

Keywords: Microfluidic device, Photoreaction, Benzophenone, Black Aluminum Oxide, Detection, Yield Improvement.

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714 Vertical GAA Silicon Nanowire Transistor with Impact of Temperature on Device Parameters

Authors: N. Shen, Z. X. Chen, K.D. Buddharaju, H. M. Chua, X. Li, N. Singh, G.Q Lo, D.-L. Kwong

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a vertical wire NMOS device fabricated using CMOS compatible processes. The impact of temperature on various device parameters is investigated in view of usual increase in surrounding temperature with device density.

Keywords: Gate-all-around, temperature dependence, silicon nanowire

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713 Analysis of Gas Disturbance Characteristics in Lunar Sample Storage

Authors: Lv Shizeng, Han Xiao, Zhang Yi, Ding Wenjing

Abstract:

The lunar sample storage device is mainly used for the preparation of the lunar samples, observation, physical analysis and other work. The lunar samples and operating equipment are placed directly inside the storage device. The inside of the storage device is a high purity nitrogen environment to ensure that the sample is not contaminated by the Earth's environment. In order to ensure that the water and oxygen indicators in the storage device meet the sample requirements, a dynamic gas cycle is required between the storage device and the external purification equipment. However, the internal gas disturbance in the storage device can affect the operation of the sample. In this paper, the storage device model is established, and the tetrahedral mesh is established by Tetra/Mixed method. The influence of different inlet position and gas flow on the internal flow field disturbance is calculated, and the disturbed flow area should be avoided during the sampling operation.

Keywords: Lunar samples, gas disturbance, storage device, characteristic analysis.

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712 Nepros- An Innovated Crystal Necklace

Authors: Amir A. N, Fadzilan A. M, Baskaran G.

Abstract:

In this paper, we proposed an invention of an accessory into a communication device that will help humans to be connected universally. Generally, this device will be made up of crystal and will combine many technologies that will enable the user to run various applications and software anywhere and everywhere. Bringing up the concept of from being user friendly, we had used the crystal as the main material of the device that will trap the surrounding lights to produce projection of its screen. This leads to a lesser energy consumption and allows smaller sized battery to be used, making the device less bulky. Additionally, we proposed the usage of micro batteries as our energy source. Thus, researches regarding crystal were made along with explanations in details of specification and function of the technology used in the device. Finally, we had also drawn several views of the invention from different sides to be visualized.

Keywords: Crystal, Communication Technology, Future concept device, Micro batteries.

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711 Implementation of Terrain Rendering on Mobile Device

Authors: S.A.M. Isa, M.S.M. Rahim, M.D. Kasmuni, D. Daman

Abstract:

Recently, there are significant improvements in the capabilities of mobile devices; rendering large terrain is tedious because of the constraint in resources of mobile devices. This paper focuses on the implementation of terrain rendering on mobile device to observe some issues and current constraints occurred. Experiments are performed using two datasets with results based on rendering speed and appearance to ascertain both the issues and constraints. The result shows a downfall of frame rate performance because of the increase of triangles. Since the resolution between computer and mobile device is different, the terrain surface on mobile device looks more unrealistic compared to on a computer. Thus, more attention in the development of terrain rendering on mobile devices is required. The problems highlighted in this paper will be the focus of future research and will be a great importance for 3D visualization on mobile device.

Keywords: Mobile Device, Mobile Rendering, OpenGL ES, Terrain Rendering.

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710 Electrical Characteristics of SCR - based ESD Device for I/O and Power Rail Clamp in 0.35um Process

Authors: Yong Seo Koo, Dong Su Kim, Byung Seok Lee, Won Suk Park, Bo Bea Song

Abstract:

This paper presents a SCR-based ESD protection devices for I/O clamp and power rail clamp, respectably. These devices have a low trigger voltage and high holding voltage characteristics than conventional SCR device. These devices are fabricated by using 0.35um BCD (Bipolar-CMOS-DMOS) processes. These devices were validated using a TLP system. From the experimental results, the device for I/O ESD clamp has a trigger voltage of 5.8V. Also, the device for power rail ESD clamp has a holding voltage of 7.7V.

Keywords: ESD (Electro-Static Discharge), ESD protection device, SCR (Silicon Controlled Rectifier), Latch-up

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709 Designing and Analyzing Sensor and Actuator of a Nano/Micro-System for Fatigue and Fracture Characterization of Nanomaterials

Authors: Mohammad Reza Zamani Kouhpanji

Abstract:

This paper presents a MEMS/NEMS device for fatigue and fracture characterization of nanomaterials. This device can apply static loads, cyclic loads, and their combinations in nanomechanical experiments. It is based on the electromagnetic force induced between paired parallel wires carrying electrical currents. Using this concept, the actuator and sensor parts of the device were designed and analyzed while considering the practical limitations. Since the PWCC device only uses two wires for actuation part and sensing part, its fabrication process is extremely easier than the available MEMS/NEMS devices. The total gain and phase shift of the MEMS/NEMS device were calculated and investigated. Furthermore, the maximum gain and sensitivity of the MEMS/NEMS device were studied to demonstrate the capability and usability of the device for wide range of nanomaterials samples. This device can be readily integrated into SEM/TEM instruments to provide real time study of the mechanical behaviors of nanomaterials as well as their fatigue and fracture properties, softening or hardening behaviors, and initiation and propagation of nanocracks.

Keywords: Sensors and actuators, MEMS/NEMS devices, fatigue and fracture nanomechanical testing device, static and cyclic nanomechanical testing device.

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708 Functional Sample of the Portable Device for Fast Analysis of Explosives

Authors: A. Bumbová, J. Kellner, Z. Večeřa, V. Kahle, J. Navrátil

Abstract:

The construction of original functional sample of the portable device for fast analysis of energetic materials has been described in the paper. The portable device consisting of two parts – an original miniaturized microcolumn liquid chromatograph and a unique chemiluminescence detector – has been proposed and realized. In a very short time, this portable device is capable of identifying selectively most of military nitramine- and nitroesterbased explosives as well as inorganic nitrates occurring in trace concentrations in water or in soil. The total time required for the identification of extracts is shorter than 8 minutes.

Keywords: Chemiluminescence, microcolumn liquid chromatograph, nitramines, nitroesters, portable device.

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707 A Novel Portable Device for Fast Analysis of Energetic Materials in the Environment

Authors: Jozef Šesták, Zbyněk Večeřa, Vladislav Kahle, Dana Moravcová, Pavel Mikuška, Josef Kellner, František Božek

Abstract:

Construction of portable device for fast analysis of energetic materials is described in this paper. The developed analytical system consists of two main parts: a miniaturized microcolumn liquid chromatograph of unique construction and original chemiluminescence detector. This novel portable device is able to determine selectively most of nitramine- and nitroester-based explosives as well as inorganic nitrates at trace concentrations in water or soil extracts in less than 8 minutes.

Keywords: Portable device, uLC, chemiluminescence, nitramines, nitroesters.

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706 Behavioral Study of TCSC Device – A MATLAB/Simulink Implementation

Authors: S. Meikandasivam, Rajesh Kumar Nema, Shailendra Kumar Jain

Abstract:

A basic conceptual study of TCSC device on Simulink is a teaching aid and helps in understanding the rudiments of the topic. This paper thus stems out from basics of TCSC device and analyzes the impedance characteristics and associated single & multi resonance conditions. The Impedance characteristics curve is drawn for different values of inductance in MATLAB using M-files. The study is also helpful in estimating the appropriate inductance and capacitance values which have influence on multi resonance point in TCSC device. The capacitor voltage, line current, thyristor current and capacitor current waveforms are discussed briefly as simulation results. Simulink model of TCSC device is given and corresponding waveforms are analyzed. The subsidiary topics e.g. power oscillation damping, SSR mitigation and transient stability is also brought out.

Keywords: TCSC device, Impedance characteristics, Resonance point, Simulink model

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705 Simulation Study of Lateral Trench Gate Power MOSFET on 4H-SiC

Authors: Yashvir Singh, Mayank Joshi

Abstract:

A lateral trench-gate power metal-oxide-semiconductor on 4H-SiC is proposed. The device consists of two separate trenches in which two gates are placed on both sides of P-body region resulting two parallel channels. Enhanced current conduction and reduced-surface-field effect in the structure provide substantial improvement in the device performance. Using two dimensional simulations, the performance of proposed device is evaluated and compare of with that of the conventional device for same cell pitch. It is demonstrated that the proposed structure provides two times higher output current, 11% decrease in threshold voltage, 70% improvement in transconductance, 70% reduction in specific ON-resistance, 52% increase in breakdown voltage, and nearly eight time improvement in figure-of-merit over the conventional device.

Keywords: 4H-SiC, lateral, trench-gate, power MOSFET.

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704 GPS Navigator for Blind Walking in a Campus

Authors: Rangsipan Marukatat, Pongmanat Manaspaibool, Benjawan Khaiprapay, Pornpimon Plienjai

Abstract:

We developed a GPS-based navigation device for the blind, with audio guidance in Thai language. The device is composed of simple and inexpensive hardware components. Its user interface is quite simple. It determines optimal routes to various landmarks in our university campus by using heuristic search for the next waypoints. We tested the device and made note of its limitations and possible extensions.

Keywords: Blind, global positioning system (GPS), navigation

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703 Bluetooth Piconet System for Child Care Applications

Authors: Ching-Sung Wang, Teng-Wei Wang, Zhen-Ting Zheng

Abstract:

This study mainly concerns a safety device designed for child care. When children are out of sight or the caregivers cannot always pay attention to the situation, through the functions of this device, caregivers can immediately be informed to make sure that the children do not get lost or hurt, and thus, ensure their safety. Starting from this concept, a device is produced based on the relatively low-cost Bluetooth piconet system and a three-axis gyroscope sensor. This device can transmit data to a mobile phone app through Bluetooth, in order that the user can learn the situation at any time. By simply clipping the device in a pocket or on the waist, after switching on/starting the device, it will send data to the phone to detect the child’s fall and distance. Once the child is beyond the angle or distance set by the app, it will issue a warning to inform the phone owner.

Keywords: Children care, piconet system, three-axis gyroscope, distance detection, falls detection.

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702 Transient Analysis & Performance Estimation of Gate Inside Junctionless Transistor (GI-JLT)

Authors: Sangeeta Singh, Pankaj Kumar, P. N. Kondekar

Abstract:

In this paper, the transient device performance analysis of n-type Gate Inside JunctionLess Transistor (GI-JLT) has been evaluated. 3-D Bohm Quantum Potential (BQP) transport device simulation has been used to evaluate the delay and power dissipation performance. GI-JLT has a number of desirable device parameters such as reduced propagation delay, dynamic power dissipation, power and delay product, intrinsic gate delay and energy delay product as compared to Gate-all-around transistors GAA-JLT. In addition to this, various other device performance parameters namely, on/off current ratio, short channel effects (SCE), transconductance Generation Factor (TGF) and unity gain cut-off frequency (fT ) and subthreshold slope (SS) of the GI-JLT and GAA-JLT have been analyzed and compared. GI-JLT shows better device performance characteristics than GAA-JLT for low power and high frequency applications, because of its larger gate electrostatic control on the device operation.

Keywords: Gate-inside junctionless transistor GI-JLT, Gate-all-around junctionless transistor GAA-JLT, propagation delay, power delay product.

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701 Design of Novel SCR-based ESD Protection Device for I/O Clamp in BCD Process

Authors: Yong-Seo Koo, Jin-Woo Jung, Byung-Seok Lee, Dong-Su Kim, Yil-Suk Yang

Abstract:

In this paper, a novel LVTSCR-based device for electrostatic discharge (ESD) protection of integrated circuits (ICs) is designed, fabricated and characterized. The proposed device is similar to the conventional LVTSCR but it has an embedded PMOSFET in the anode n-well to enhance the turn on speed, the clamping capability and the robustness. This is possible because the embedded PMOSFET provides the sub-path of ESD discharge current. The TLP, HBM and MM testing are carried out to verify the ESD performance of the proposed devices, which are fabricated in 0.35um (Bipolar-CMOS-DMOS) BCDMOS process. The device has the robustness of 70mA/um that is higher about 60mA/um than the LVTSCR, approximately.

Keywords: ESD Protection, grounded gate NMOS (GGNMOS), low trigger voltage SCR (LVTSCR)

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700 Photoplethysmography-Based Device Designing for Cardiovascular System Diagnostics

Authors: S. Botman, D. Borchevkin, V. Petrov, E. Bogdanov, M. Patrushev, N. Shusharina

Abstract:

In this paper, we report the development of the device for diagnostics of cardiovascular system state and associated automated workstation for large-scale medical measurement data collection and analysis. It was shown that optimal design for the monitoring device is wristband as it represents engineering trade-off between accuracy and usability. Monitoring device is based on the infrared reflective photoplethysmographic sensor, which allows collecting multiple physiological parameters, such as heart rate and pulsing wave characteristics. Developed device uses BLE interface for medical and supplementary data transmission to the coupled mobile phone, which processes it and send it to the doctor's automated workstation. Results of this experimental model approbation confirmed the applicability of the proposed approach.

Keywords: Cardiovascular diseases, health monitoring systems, photoplethysmography, pulse wave, remote diagnostics.

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699 A Highly Sensitive Dip Strip for Detection of Phosphate in Water

Authors: Hojat Heidari-Bafroui, Amer Charbaji, Constantine Anagnostopoulos, Mohammad Faghri

Abstract:

Phosphorus is an essential nutrient for plant life which is most frequently found as phosphate in water. Once phosphate is found in abundance in surface water, a series of adverse effects on an ecosystem can be initiated. Therefore, a portable and reliable method is needed to monitor the phosphate concentrations in the field. In this paper, an inexpensive dip strip device with the ascorbic acid/antimony reagent dried on blotting paper along with wet chemistry is developed for the detection of low concentrations of phosphate in water. Ammonium molybdate and sulfuric acid are separately stored in liquid form so as to improve significantly the lifetime of the device and enhance the reproducibility of the device’s performance. The limit of detection and quantification for the optimized device are 0.134 ppm and 0.472 ppm for phosphate in water, respectively. The device’s shelf life, storage conditions, and limit of detection are superior to what has been previously reported for the paper-based phosphate detection devices.

Keywords: Phosphate detection, paper-based device, molybdenum blue method, colorimetric assay.

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698 Effect of Field Dielectric Material on Performance of InGaAs Power LDMOSFET

Authors: Yashvir Singh, Swati Chamoli

Abstract:

In this paper, a power laterally-diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (LDMOSFET) on In0.53Ga0.47As is presented. The device utilizes a thicker field-oxide with low dielectric constant under the field-plate in order to achieve possible reduction in device capacitances and reduced-surface-field effect. Using 2D numerical simulations, performance of the proposed device is analyzed and compared with that of the conventional LDMOSFET. The proposed structure provides 50% increase in the breakdown voltage, 21% increase in transit frequency, and 72% improvement in figure-of-merit over the conventional device for same cell pitch.

Keywords: InGaAs, dielectric, lateral, power MOSFET.

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697 Design and Development of Automatic Leveling and Equalizing Hoist Device for Spacecraft

Authors: Fu Hao, Sun Gang, Tang Laiying, Cui Junfeng

Abstract:

To solve the quick and accurate level-adjusting problem in the process of spacecraft precise mating, automatic leveling and equalizing hoist device for spacecraft is developed. Based on lifting point adjustment by utilizing XY-workbench, the leveling and equalizing controller by a self-adaptive control algorithm is proposed. By simulation analysis and lifting test using engineering prototype, validity and reliability of the hoist device is verified, which can meet the precision mating requirements of practical applications for spacecraft.

Keywords: automatic leveling and equalizing, hoist device, lifting point adjustment, self-adaptive control

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696 Optical Repeater Assisted Visible Light Device-to-Device Communications

Authors: Samrat Vikramaditya Tiwari, Atul Sewaiwar, Yeon-Ho Chung

Abstract:

Device-to-device (D2D) communication is considered a promising technique to provide wireless peer-to-peer communication services. Due to increasing demand on mobile services, available spectrum for radio frequency (RF) based communications becomes scarce. Recently, visible light communications (VLC) has evolved as a high speed wireless data transmission technology for indoor environments with abundant available bandwidth. In this paper, a novel VLC based D2D communication that provides wireless peer-to-peer communication is proposed. Potential low operating power devices for an efficient D2D communication over increasing distance of separation between devices is analyzed. Optical repeaters (OR) are also proposed to enhance the performance in an environment where direct D2D communications yield degraded performance. Simulation results show that VLC plays an important role in providing efficient D2D communication up to a distance of 1 m between devices. It is also found that the OR significantly improves the coverage distance up to 3.5 m.

Keywords: Visible light communication, light emitting diode, device-to-device, optical repeater.

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695 Effect of Halo Protection Device on the Aerodynamic Performance of Formula Racecar

Authors: Mark Lin, Periklis Papadopoulos

Abstract:

This paper explores the aerodynamics of the formula racecar when a ‘halo’ driver-protection device is added to the chassis. The halo protection device was introduced at the start of the 2018 racing season as a safety measure against foreign object impacts that a driver may encounter when driving an open-wheel racecar. In the one-year since its introduction, the device has received wide acclaim for protecting the driver on two separate occasions. The benefit of such a safety device certainly cannot be disputed. However, by adding the halo device to a car, it changes the airflow around the vehicle, and most notably, to the engine air-intake and the rear wing. These negative effects in the air supply to the engine, and equally to the downforce created by the rear wing are studied in this paper using numerical technique, and the resulting CFD outputs are presented and discussed. Comparing racecar design prior to and after the introduction of the halo device, it is shown that the design of the air intake and the rear wing has not followed suit since the addition of the halo device. The reduction of engine intake mass flow due to the halo device is computed and presented for various speeds the car may be going. Because of the location of the halo device in relation to the air intake, airflow is directed away from the engine, making the engine perform less than optimal. The reduction is quantified in this paper to show the correspondence to reduce the engine output when compared to a similar car without the halo device. This paper shows that through aerodynamic arguments, the engine in a halo car will not receive unobstructed, clean airflow that a non-halo car does. Another negative effect is on the downforce created by the rear wing. Because the amount of downforce created by the rear wing is influenced by every component that comes before it, when a halo device is added upstream to the rear wing, airflow is obstructed, and less is available for making downforce. This reduction in downforce is especially dramatic as the speed is increased. This paper presents a graph of downforce over a range of speeds for a car with and without the halo device. Acknowledging that although driver safety is paramount, the negative effect of this safety device on the performance of the car should still be well understood so that any possible redesign to mitigate these negative effects can be taken into account in next year’s rules regulation.

Keywords: Automotive aerodynamics, halo device, downforce. engine intake.

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694 Low Frequency Noise Behavior of Independent Gate Junctionless FinFET

Authors: A. Kamath, Z. X. Chen, C. J. Gu, F. Zheng, X. P. Wang, N. Singh, G-Q. Lo

Abstract:

In this paper we use low frequency noise analysis to understand and map the current conduction path in a multi gate junctionless FinFET.  The device used in this study behaves as a gated resistor and shows excellent short channel effect suppression due to its multi gate structure. Generally for a bulk conduction device like the junctionless device studied in this work, the low frequency noise can be modelled using the mobility fluctuation model; however for this device we can also see the effect of carrier fluctuations on the LFN characteristic. The noise characteristic at different gate bias and also the possible location of the traps is explained.

Keywords: LFN analysis, junctionless, Current conduction path, FinFET.

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693 A Systematic Approach for Design a Low-Cost Mobility Assistive Device for Elderly People

Authors: Omar Salah, Ahmed A. Ramadan, Salvatore Sessa, Ahmed A. Abo-Ismail

Abstract:

Walking and sit to stand are activities carried out by all the people many times during the day, but physical disabilities due to age and diseases create needs of assistive devices to help elderly people during their daily life. This study aims to study the different types and mechanisms of the assistive devices. We will analyze the limitations and the challenges faced by the researchers in this field. We will introduce the Assistive Device developed at the Egypt-Japan University of Science and Technology, named E-JUST Assistive Device (EJAD). EJAD will be a low cost intelligent assistive device to help elders in walking and sit-to-stand activities.

Keywords: Active walker, Assistive robotics, Standing Assistance, Walking Assistance

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692 A Novel Method for Non-Invasive Diagnosis of Hepatitis C Virus Using Electromagnetic Signal Detection: A Multicenter International Study

Authors: Gamal Shiha, Waleed Samir, Zahid Azam, Premashis Kar, Saeed Hamid, Shiv Sarin

Abstract:

A simple, rapid and non-invasive electromagnetic sensor (C-FAST device) was- patented; for diagnosis of HCV RNA. Aim: To test the validity of the device compared to standard HCV PCR. Subjects and Methods: The first phase was done as pilot in Egypt on 79 participants; the second phase was done in five centers: one center from Egypt, two centers from Pakistan and two centers from India (800, 92 and 113 subjects respectively). The third phase was done nationally as multicenter study on (1600) participants for ensuring its representativeness. Results: When compared to PCR technique, C-FAST device revealed sensitivity 95% to 100%, specificity 95.5% to 100%, PPV 89.5% to 100%, NPV 95% to 100% and positive likelihood ratios 21.8% to 38.5%. Conclusion: It is practical evidence that HCV nucleotides emit electromagnetic signals that can be used for its identification. As compared to PCR, C-FAST is an accurate, valid and non-invasive device.

Keywords: C-FAST- a valid and reliable device, Distant cellular interaction, Electromagnetic signal detection, Non-invasive diagnosis of HCV.

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691 Cavity-Type Periodically-Poled LiNbO3 Device for Highly-Efficient Third-Harmonic Generation

Authors: Isao Tomita

Abstract:

We develop a periodically-poled LiNbO3 (PPLN) device for highly-efficient third-harmonic generation (THG), where the THG efficiency is enhanced with a cavity. THG can usually be produced via χ(3)-nonlinear materials by optical pumping with very high pump-power. Instead, we here propose THG by moderate-power pumping through a specially-designed PPLN device containing only χ(2)-nonlinearity, where sum-frequency generation in the χ(2) process is employed for the mixing of a pump beam and a second-harmonic-generation (SHG) beam produced from the pump beam. The cavity is designed to increase the SHG power with dichroic mirrors attached to both ends of the device that perfectly reflect the SHG beam back to the device and yet let the pump and THG beams pass through the mirrors. This brings about a THG-power enhancement because of THG power proportional to the enhanced SHG power. We examine the THG-efficiency dependence on the mirror reflectance and show that very high THG-efficiency is obtained at moderate pump-power when compared with that of a cavity-free PPLN device.

Keywords: Cavity, periodically-poled LiNbO3, sum-frequency generation, third-harmonic generation.

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690 Authenticated Mobile Device Proxy Service

Authors: W. Adi, Khaled E. A. Negm, A. Mabrouk, H. Ghraieb

Abstract:

In the current study we present a system that is capable to deliver proxy based differentiated service. It will help the carrier service node to sell a prepaid service to clients and limit the use to a particular mobile device or devices for a certain time. The system includes software and hardware architecture for a mobile device with moderate computational power, and a secure protocol for communication between it and its carrier service node. On the carrier service node a proxy runs on a centralized server to be capable of implementing cryptographic algorithms, while the mobile device contains a simple embedded processor capable of executing simple algorithms. One prerequisite is needed for the system to run efficiently that is a presence of Global Trusted Verification Authority (GTVA) which is equivalent to certifying authority in IP networks. This system appears to be of great interest for many commercial transactions, business to business electronic and mobile commerce, and military applications.

Keywords: Mobile Device Security, Identity Authentication, Mobile Commerce Security.

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689 SCR-Stacking Structure with High Holding Voltage for I/O and Power Clamp

Authors: Hyun-Young Kim, Chung-Kwang Lee, Han-Hee Cho, Sang-Woon Cho, Yong-Seo Koo

Abstract:

In this paper, we proposed a novel SCR (Silicon Controlled Rectifier) - based ESD (Electrostatic Discharge) protection device for I/O and power clamp. The proposed device has a higher holding voltage characteristic than conventional SCR. These characteristics enable to have latch-up immunity under normal operating conditions as well as superior full chip ESD protection. The proposed device was analyzed to figure out electrical characteristics and tolerance robustness in term of individual design parameters (D1, D2, D3). They are investigated by using the Synopsys TCAD simulator. As a result of simulation, holding voltage increased with different design parameters. The holding voltage of the proposed device changes from 3.3V to 7.9V. Also, N-Stack structure ESD device with the high holding voltage is proposed. In the simulation results, 2-stack has holding voltage of 6.8V and 3-stack has holding voltage of 10.5V. The simulation results show that holding voltage of stacking structure can be larger than the operation voltage of high-voltage application.

Keywords: ESD, SCR, holding voltage, stack, power clamp.

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688 The Development of the Prototype of Bamboo Shading Device

Authors: N. Tuaycharoen, W. Konisranukul

Abstract:

The main aim of this research was to investigate a prototype bamboo shading device. There were two objectives to this study: first, to investigate the effects of non-chemical treatments on bamboo shading devices damaged by powder-post beetles and fungi, and second to develop a prototype bamboo shading device. This study of the effects of non-chemical treatments on bamboo shading devices damage by powder-post beetles in the laboratory showed that, among seven treatments tested, wood vinegar treatment can protect powder-post beetles better than the original method by up to 92.91%. It was also found that wood vinegar treatment shows the best performance in fungi protection and works better than the original method by up to 40%. A second experiment was carried out by constructing four bamboo shading devices and installing them on a building for 28 days. All aspects of shading device were investigated in terms of their beauty, durability, and ease of construction and assembly. The final prototype was developed from the lessons learned from the test results. In conclusion, this study showed the effectiveness of some natural preservatives against insect and fungi damage, and it also illustrated the characteristics of a prototype bamboo shading device that can be constructed by rural workers within one week.

Keywords: Bamboo, shading device, energy conservation, alternative materials.

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687 Development of Equivalent Inelastic Springs to Model C-Devices

Authors: Oday Al-Mamoori, J. Enrique Martinez-Rueda

Abstract:

'C' shape yielding devices (C-devices) are effective tools for introducing supplemental sources of energy dissipation by hysteresis. Studies have shown that C-devices made of mild steel can be successfully applied as integral parts of seismic retrofitting schemes. However, explicit modelling of these devices can become cumbersome, expensive and time consuming. The device under study in this article has been previously used in non-invasive dissipative bracing for seismic retrofitting. The device is cut from a mild steel plate and has an overall shape that resembles that of a rectangular portal frame with circular interior corner transitions to avoid stress concentration and to control the extension of the dissipative region of the device. A number of inelastic finite element (FE) analyses using either inelastic 2D plane stress elements or inelastic fibre frame elements are reported and used to calibrate a 1D equivalent inelastic spring model that effectively reproduces the cyclic response of the device. The more elaborate FE model accounts for the frictional forces developed between the steel plate and the bolts used to connect the C-device to structural members. FE results also allow the visualization of the inelastic regions of the device where energy dissipation is expected to occur. FE analysis results are in a good agreement with experimental observations.

Keywords: C-device, equivalent nonlinear spring, FE analyses, reversed cyclic tests.

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686 Design of a Compact Herriott Cell for Heat Flux Measurement Applications

Authors: R. G. Ramírez-Chavarría, C. Sánchez-Pérez, V. Argueta-Díaz

Abstract:

In this paper we present the design of an optical device based on a Herriott multi-pass cell fabricated on a small sized acrylic slab for heat flux measurements using the deflection of a laser beam propagating inside the cell. The beam deflection is produced by the heat flux conducted to the acrylic slab due to a gradient in the refractive index. The use of a long path cell as the sensitive element in this measurement device, gives the possibility of high sensitivity within a small size device. We present the optical design as well as some experimental results in order to validate the device’s operation principle.

Keywords: Heat flux, herriott cell, optical beam deflection, thermal conductivity.

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