Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 81

Search results for: Mark Lin

81 A Mark-Up Approach to Add Value

Authors: Ivaylo I. Atanasov, Evelina N.Pencheva

Abstract:

This paper presents a mark-up approach to service creation in Next Generation Networks. The approach allows deriving added value from network functions exposed by Parlay/OSA (Open Service Access) interfaces. With OSA interfaces service logic scripts might be executed both on callrelated and call-unrelated events. To illustrate the approach XMLbased language constructions for data and method definitions, flow control, time measuring and supervision and database access are given and an example of OSA application is considered.

Keywords: Service creation, mark-up approach.

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80 Study on Environmental Statement for Home Appliances at Online Stores in Japan

Authors: Syuichi Kubota, Kayoko Yamamoto

Abstract:

This study aims to identify the current situation and problems of environmental statement for major four home appliances (refrigerators, washing machines, air conditioners and television receivers) sold at online stores in Japan, and then to suggest how to improve the situation, through a questionnaire survey conducted among businesses that operate online stores and online malls with multiple online stores. Results of the study boil down to: (1) It is found out that environmental statement for the home appliances at online stores have four problems; (i) less information on “three Rs" and “chemical substances" than the one on “energy conservation", (ii) cost for providing environmental statement, (iii) issues associated with a label and mark placement, and (iv) issues associated with energy conservation statement. (2) Improvements are suggested for each of the four problems listed above, and shown are (i) the effectiveness of, and need to promote, a label and mark placement, (ii) cost burden on buyers, and (iii) need of active efforts made by businesses and of dissemination of legal regulations to businesses.

Keywords: Home Appliances, Environmentally-FriendlyProduct, Environmental Statement, Online Store, Japan.

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79 Cost Effective Real-Time Image Processing Based Optical Mark Reader

Authors: Amit Kumar, Himanshu Singal, Arnav Bhavsar

Abstract:

In this modern era of automation, most of the academic exams and competitive exams are Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ). The responses of these MCQ based exams are recorded in the Optical Mark Reader (OMR) sheet. Evaluation of the OMR sheet requires separate specialized machines for scanning and marking. The sheets used by these machines are special and costs more than a normal sheet. Available process is non-economical and dependent on paper thickness, scanning quality, paper orientation, special hardware and customized software. This study tries to tackle the problem of evaluating the OMR sheet without any special hardware and making the whole process economical. We propose an image processing based algorithm which can be used to read and evaluate the scanned OMR sheets with no special hardware required. It will eliminate the use of special OMR sheet. Responses recorded in normal sheet is enough for evaluation. The proposed system takes care of color, brightness, rotation, little imperfections in the OMR sheet images.

Keywords: OMR, image processing, hough circle transform, interpolation, detection, Binary Thresholding.

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78 3-D Transient Heat Transfer Analysis of Slab Heating Characteristics in a Reheating Furnace in Hot Strip Mills

Authors: J. Y. Jang, Y. W. Lee, C. N. Lin, C. H. Wang

Abstract:

The reheating furnace is used to reheat the steel slabs before the hot-rolling process. The supported system includes the stationary/moving beams, and the skid buttons which block some thermal radiation transmitted to the bottom of the slabs. Therefore, it is important to analyze the steel slab temperature distribution during the heating period. A three-dimensional mathematical transient heat transfer model for the prediction of temperature distribution within the slab has been developed. The effects of different skid button height (H=60mm, 90mm, and 120mm) and different gap distance between two slabs (S=50mm, 75mm, and 100mm) on the slab skid mark formation and temperature profiles are investigated. Comparison with the in-situ experimental data from Steel Company in Taiwan shows that the present heat transfer model works well for the prediction of thermal behavior of the slab in the reheating furnace. It is found that the skid mark severity decreases with an increase in the skid button height. The effect of gap distance is important only for the slab edge planes, while it is insignificant for the slab central planes.

Keywords: 3-D, slab, transient heat conduction, reheating furnace, thermal radiation.

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77 The Algorithm of Semi-Automatic Thai Spoonerism Words for Bi-Syllable

Authors: Nutthapat Kaewrattanapat, Wannarat Bunchongkien

Abstract:

The purposes of this research are to study and develop the algorithm of Thai spoonerism words by semi-automatic computer programs, that is to say, in part of data input, syllables are already separated and in part of spoonerism, the developed algorithm is utilized, which can establish rules and mechanisms in Thai spoonerism words for bi-syllables by utilizing analysis in elements of the syllables, namely cluster consonant, vowel, intonation mark and final consonant. From the study, it is found that bi-syllable Thai spoonerism has 1 case of spoonerism mechanism, namely transposition in value of vowel, intonation mark and consonant of both 2 syllables but keeping consonant value and cluster word (if any). From the study, the rules and mechanisms in Thai spoonerism word were applied to develop as Thai spoonerism word software, utilizing PHP program. the software was brought to conduct a performance test on software execution; it is found that the program performs bi-syllable Thai spoonerism correctly or 99% of all words used in the test and found faults on the program at 1% as the words obtained from spoonerism may not be spelling in conformity with Thai grammar and the answer in Thai spoonerism could be more than 1 answer.

Keywords: Algorithm, Spoonerism, Computational Linguistics.

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76 Thai Halal Products Brand Tips

Authors: Pibool Waijittragum

Abstract:

The purpose of this research is to analyze the marketing strategies of Thai Halal products which related to the way of life for Thai Muslims. The expected benefit is the marketing strategy for brand building process for Halal products in Thailand. 4 elements of marketing strategies which necessary for the brand identity creation is the research framework: consists of Attributes, Benefits, Values and Personality. The research methodology was applied using qualitative and quantitative; 19 marketing experts with dynamic roles in Thai consumer products were interviewed. In addition, a field survey of 122 Thai Muslims selected from 175 Muslim communities in Bangkok was studied. Data analysis will be according to 5 categories of Thai Halal product: 1) Meat 2) Vegetable and Fruits 3) Instant foods and Garnishing ingredient 4) Beverages, Desserts and Snacks 5) Hygienic daily products; such as soap, shampoo and body lotion. The results will explain some suitable representation in the marketing strategies of Thai Halal products as are: 1) Benefit; the characteristics of the product with its benefit. Consumers will purchase this product with the reason of; it is beneficial nutrients product, there are no toxic or chemical residues. Fresh and clean materials 2) Attribute; the exterior images that attract to consumer. Consumers will purchase this product with the reason of; there is a standard proof mark, food and drug secure proof mark and Halal products mark. Packaging and its materials should be draw attention. Use an attractive graphic. Use outstanding images of product, material or ingredients. 3) Value; the value of products that affect to consumers perception; it is healthy products. Accumulate quality of life. It is a product of expertise, manufacturing of research result. Consumers are important. It’s sincere, honest and reliable to all. 4) Personality; reflection of consumers thought. The Personality feedback to them after they were consumes this product; they are health care persons. They are the rational person, moral person, justice person and thoughtful person like a progressive thinking.

Keywords: Marketing strategies, Product identity, Branding, Thai Halal products.

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75 OSGi in Cloud Environments

Authors: Irina Astrova, Arne Koschel, Björn Siekmann, Mark Starrach, Christopher Tebbe, StefanWolf, Marc Schaaf

Abstract:

This paper deals with the combination of OSGi and cloud computing. Both technologies are mainly placed in the field of distributed computing. Therefore, it is discussed how different approaches from different institutions work. In addition, the approaches are compared to each other.

Keywords: Cloud computing, OSGi, distributed environments.

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74 Language Politics and Identity in Translation: From a Monolingual Text to Multilingual Text in Chinese Translations

Authors: Chu-Ching Hsu

Abstract:

This paper focuses on how the government-led language policies and the political changes in Taiwan manipulate the languages choice in translations and what translation strategies are employed by the translator to show his or her language ideology behind the power struggles and decision-making. Therefore, framed by Lefevere’s theoretical concept of translating as rewriting, and carried out a diachronic and chronological study, this paper specifically sets out to investigate the language ideology and translator’s idiolect of Chinese language translations of Anglo-American novels. The examples drawn to explore these issues were taken from different versions of Chinese renditions of Mark Twain’s English-language novel The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn in which there are several different dialogues originally written in the colloquial language and dialect used in the American state of Mississippi and reproduced in Mark Twain’s works. Also, adapted corpus methodology, many examples are extracted as instances from the translated texts and source text, to illuminate how the translators in Taiwan deal with the dialectal features encoded in Twain’s works, and how different versions of Chinese translations are employed by Taiwanese translators to confirm the language polices and to express their language identity textually in different periods of the past five decades, from the 1960s onward. The finding of this study suggests that the use of Taiwanese dialect and language patterns in translations does relate to the movement of the mother-tongue language and language ideology of the translator as well as to the issue of language identity raised in the island of Taiwan. Furthermore, this study confirms that the change of political power in Taiwan does bring significantly impact in language policy-- assimilationism, pluralism or multiculturalism, which also makes Taiwan from a monolingual to multilingual society, where the language ideology and identity can be revealed not only in people’s daily communication but also in written translations.

Keywords: Language politics and policies, literary translation, mother-tongue, multiculturalism, translator’s ideology.

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73 Touching Interaction: An NFC-RFID Combination

Authors: Eduardo Álvarez, Gerardo Quiroga, Jorge Orozco, Gabriel Chavira

Abstract:

AmI proposes a new way of thinking about computers, which follows the ideas of the Ubiquitous Computing vision of Mark Weiser. In these, there is what is known as a Disappearing Computer Initiative, with users immersed in intelligent environments. Hence, technologies need to be adapted so that they are capable of replacing the traditional inputs to the system by embedding these in every-day artifacts. In this work, we present an approach, which uses Radiofrequency Identification (RFID) and Near Field Communication (NFC) technologies. In the latter, a new form of interaction appears by contact. We compare both technologies by analyzing their requirements and advantages. In addition, we propose using a combination of RFID and NFC.

Keywords: Touching interaction, ambient intelligence, NFC, RFID.

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72 Representing Collective Unconsciousness Using Neural Networks

Authors: Pierre Abou-Haila, Richard Hall, Mark Dawes

Abstract:

Instead of representing individual cognition only, population cognition is represented using artificial neural networks whilst maintaining individuality. This population network trains continuously, simulating adaptation. An implementation of two coexisting populations is compared to the Lotka-Volterra model of predator-prey interaction. Applications include multi-agent systems such as artificial life or computer games.

Keywords: Collective unconsciousness, neural networks, adaptation, predator-prey simulation.

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71 Query Optimization Techniques for XML Databases

Authors: Su Cheng Haw, G. S. V. Radha Krishna Rao

Abstract:

Over the past few years, XML (eXtensible Mark-up Language) has emerged as the standard for information representation and data exchange over the Internet. This paper provides a kick-start for new researches venturing in XML databases field. We survey the storage representation for XML document, review the XML query processing and optimization techniques with respect to the particular storage instance. Various optimization technologies have been developed to solve the query retrieval and updating problems. Towards the later year, most researchers proposed hybrid optimization techniques. Hybrid system opens the possibility of covering each technology-s weakness by its strengths. This paper reviews the advantages and limitations of optimization techniques.

Keywords: indexing, labeling scheme, query optimization, XML storage.

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70 Using Genetic Programming to Evolve a Team of Data Classifiers

Authors: Gregor A. Morrison, Dominic P. Searson, Mark J. Willis

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the ability of a genetic programming (GP) algorithm to evolve a team of data classification models. The GP algorithm used in this work is “multigene" in nature, i.e. there are multiple tree structures (genes) that are used to represent team members. Each team member assigns a data sample to one of a fixed set of output classes. A majority vote, determined using the mode (highest occurrence) of classes predicted by the individual genes, is used to determine the final class prediction. The algorithm is tested on a binary classification problem. For the case study investigated, compact classification models are obtained with comparable accuracy to alternative approaches.

Keywords: classification, genetic programming.

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69 Fuzzy Based Environmental System Approach for Impact Assessment - Case Studies

Authors: Marius Pislaru, Alexandru F. Trandabat

Abstract:

Environmental studies have expanded dramatically all over the world in the past few years. Nowadays businesses interact with society and the environment in ways that put their mark on both sides. Efforts improving human standard living, through the control of nature and the development of new products, have also resulted in contamination of the environment. Consequently companies play an important role in environmental sustainability of a region or country. Therefore we can say that a company's sustainable development is strictly dependent on the environment. This article presents a fuzzy model to evaluate a company's environmental impact. Article illustrates an example of the automotive industry in order to prove the usefulness of using such a model.

Keywords: fuzzy approach, environmental impact assessment, sustainability

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68 A New Similarity Measure on Intuitionistic Fuzzy Sets

Authors: Binyamin Yusoff, Imran Taib, Lazim Abdullah, Abd Fatah Wahab

Abstract:

Intuitionistic fuzzy sets as proposed by Atanassov, have gained much attention from past and latter researchers for applications in various fields. Similarity measures between intuitionistic fuzzy sets were developed afterwards. However, it does not cater the conflicting behavior of each element evaluated. We therefore made some modification to the similarity measure of IFS by considering conflicting concept to the model. In this paper, we concentrate on Zhang and Fu-s similarity measures for IFSs and some examples are given to validate these similarity measures. A simple modification to Zhang and Fu-s similarity measures of IFSs was proposed to find the best result according to the use of degree of indeterminacy. Finally, we mark up with the application to real decision making problems.

Keywords: Intuitionistic fuzzy sets, similarity measures, multicriteriadecision making.

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67 Application of Robotics to Assemble a Used Fuel Container in the Canadian Used Fuel Packing Plant

Authors: Dimitrie Marinceu

Abstract:

The newest Canadian Used Fuel Container (UFC)- (called also “Mark II”) modifies the design approach for its Assembly Robotic Cell (ARC) in the Canadian Used (Nuclear) Fuel Packing Plant (UFPP). Some of the robotic design solutions are presented in this paper. The design indicates that robots and manipulators are expected to be used in the Canadian UFPP. As normally, the UFPP design will incorporate redundancy of all equipment to allow expedient recovery from any postulated upset conditions. Overall, this paper suggests that robot usage will have a significant positive impact on nuclear safety, quality, productivity, and reliability.

Keywords: Used fuel packing plant, robotic assembly cell, used fuel container, deep geological repository.

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66 FPGA Implement of a Vision Based Lane Departure Warning System

Authors: Yu Ren Lin, Yi Feng Su

Abstract:

Using vision based solution in intelligent vehicle application often needs large memory to handle video stream and image process which increase complexity of hardware and software. In this paper, we present a FPGA implement of a vision based lane departure warning system. By taking frame of videos, the line gradient of line is estimated and the lane marks are found. By analysis the position of lane mark, departure of vehicle will be detected in time. This idea has been implemented in Xilinx Spartan6 FPGA. The lane departure warning system used 39% logic resources and no memory of the device. The average availability is 92.5%. The frame rate is more than 30 frames per second (fps).

Keywords: Lane departure warning system, image, FPGA.

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65 Identifying Blind Spots in a Stereo View for Early Decisions in SI for Fusion based DMVC

Authors: H. Ali, K. Hameed, N. Khan

Abstract:

In DMVC, we have more than one options of sources available for construction of side information. The newer techniques make use of both the techniques simultaneously by constructing a bitmask that determines the source of every block or pixel of the side information. A lot of computation is done to determine each bit in the bitmask. In this paper, we have tried to define areas that can only be well predicted by temporal interpolation and not by multiview interpolation or synthesis. We predict that all such areas that are not covered by two cameras cannot be appropriately predicted by multiview synthesis and if we can identify such areas in the first place, we don-t need to go through the script of computations for all the pixels that lie in those areas. Moreover, this paper also defines a technique based on KLT to mark the above mentioned areas before any other processing is done on the side view.

Keywords: Side Information, Distributed Multiview Video Coding, Fusion, Early Decision.

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64 Facebook Lessons for E-Business Startups

Authors: Linda, Sau-ling LAI

Abstract:

This paper addresses the fundamental requirements for starting an online business. It covers the process of ideation, conceptualization, formulation, and implementation of new venture ideas on the Web. Using Facebook as an illustrative example, we learn how to turn an idea into a successful electronic business and to execute a business plan with IT skills, management expertise, a good entrepreneurial attitude, and an understanding of Internet culture. The personality traits and characteristics of a successful e-commerce entrepreneur are discussed with reference to Facebook-s founder, Mark Zuckerberg. Facebook is a social and e-commerce success. It provides a trusted environment of which participants can conduct business with social experience. People are able to discuss products before, during the after the sale within the Facebook environment. The paper also highlights the challenges and opportunities for e-commerce entrepreneurial startups to go public and of entering the China market.

Keywords: F-Commerce, Entrepreneur, Startup, E-Commerce

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63 A New Algorithm for Enhanced Robustness of Copyright Mark

Authors: Harsh Vikram Singh, S. P. Singh, Anand Mohan

Abstract:

This paper discusses a new heavy tailed distribution based data hiding into discrete cosine transform (DCT) coefficients of image, which provides statistical security as well as robustness against steganalysis attacks. Unlike other data hiding algorithms, the proposed technique does not introduce much effect in the stegoimage-s DCT coefficient probability plots, thus making the presence of hidden data statistically undetectable. In addition the proposed method does not compromise on hiding capacity. When compared to the generic block DCT based data-hiding scheme, our method found more robust against a variety of image manipulating attacks such as filtering, blurring, JPEG compression etc.

Keywords: Information Security, Robust Steganography, Steganalysis, Pareto Probability Distribution function.

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62 Frontal EEG Asymmetry Based Classification of Emotional Valence using Common Spatial Patterns

Authors: Irene Winkler, Mark Jager, Vojkan Mihajlovic, Tsvetomira Tsoneva

Abstract:

In this work we evaluate the possibility of predicting the emotional state of a person based on the EEG. We investigate the problem of classifying valence from EEG signals during the presentation of affective pictures, utilizing the "frontal EEG asymmetry" phenomenon. To distinguish positive and negative emotions, we applied the Common Spatial Patterns algorithm. In contrast to our expectations, the affective pictures did not reliably elicit changes in frontal asymmetry. The classifying task thereby becomes very hard as reflected by the poor classifier performance. We suspect that the masking of the source of the brain activity related to emotions, coming mostly from deeper structures in the brain, and the insufficient emotional engagement are among main reasons why it is difficult to predict the emotional state of a person.

Keywords: Emotion, Valence, EEG, Common Spatial Patterns(CSP).

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61 Systematic Unit-Memory Binary Convolutional Codes from Linear Block Codes over F2r + vF2r

Authors: John Mark Lampos, Virgilio Sison

Abstract:

Two constructions of unit-memory binary convolutional codes from linear block codes over the finite semi-local ring F2r +vF2r , where v2 = v, are presented. In both cases, if the linear block code is systematic, then the resulting convolutional encoder is systematic, minimal, basic and non-catastrophic. The Hamming free distance of the convolutional code is bounded below by the minimum Hamming distance of the block code. New examples of binary convolutional codes that meet the Heller upper bound for systematic codes are given.

Keywords: Convolutional codes, semi-local ring, free distance, Heller bound.

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60 Study Habits and Level of Difficulty Encountered by Maltese Students Studying Biology Advanced Level Topics

Authors: Marthese Azzopardi, Liberato Camilleri

Abstract:

This research was performed to investigate the study habits and level of difficulty perceived by post-secondary students in Biology at Advanced-level topics after completing their first year of study. At the end of a two-year ‘sixth form’ course, Maltese students sit for the Matriculation and Secondary Education Certificate (MATSEC) Advanced-level biology exam as a requirement to pursue science-related studies at the University of Malta. The sample was composed of 23 students (16 taking Chemistry and seven taking some ‘Other’ subject at the Advanced Level). The cohort comprised seven males and 16 females. A questionnaire constructed by the authors, was answered anonymously during the last lecture at the end of the first year of study, in May 2016. The Chi square test revealed that gender plays no effect on the various study habits (c2 (6) = 5.873, p = 0.438). ‘Reading both notes and textbooks’ was the most common method adopted by males (71.4%), whereas ‘Writing notes on each topic’ was that mostly used by females (81.3%). The Mann-Whitney U test showed no significant difference in the study habits of students and the mean assessment mark obtained at the end of the first year course (p = 0.231). Statistical difference was found with the One-ANOVA test when comparing the mean assessment mark obtained at the end of the first year course when students are clustered by their Secondary Education Certificate (SEC) grade (p < 0.001). Those obtaining a SEC grade of 2 and 3 got the highest mean assessment of 68.33% and 66.9%, respectively [SEC grading is 1-7, where 1 is the highest]. The Friedman test was used to compare the mean difficulty rating scores provided for the difficulty of each topic. The mean difficulty rating score ranges from 1 to 4, where the larger the mean rating score, the higher the difficulty. When considering the whole group of students, nine topics out of 21 were perceived as significantly more difficult than the other topics. Protein synthesis, DNA Replication and Biomolecules were the most difficult, in that order. The Mann-Whitney U test revealed that the perceived level of difficulty in comprehending Biomolecules is significantly lower for students taking Chemistry compared to those not choosing the subject (p = 0.018). Protein Synthesis was claimed as the most difficult by Chemistry students and Biomolecules by those not studying Chemistry. DNA Replication was the second most difficult topic perceived by both groups. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to examine the effect of gender on the perceived level of difficulty in comprehending various topics. It was found that females have significantly more difficulty in comprehending Biomolecules than males (p=0.039). Protein synthesis was perceived as the most difficult topic by males (mean difficulty rating score = 3.14), while Biomolecules, DNA Replication and Protein synthesis were of equal difficulty for females (mean difficulty rating score = 3.00). Males and females perceived DNA Replication as equally difficult (mean difficulty rating score = 3.00). Discovering the students’ study habits and perceived level of difficulty of specific topics is vital for the lecturer to offer guidance that leads to higher academic achievement.

Keywords: Biology, Perceived difficulty, Post-secondary, Study habits.

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59 An Automatic Sleep Spindle Detector based on WT, STFT and WMSD

Authors: J. Costa, M. Ortigueira, A. Batista, T. Paiva

Abstract:

Sleep spindles are the most interesting hallmark of stage 2 sleep EEG. Their accurate identification in a polysomnographic signal is essential for sleep professionals to help them mark Stage 2 sleep. Sleep Spindles are also promising objective indicators for neurodegenerative disorders. Visual spindle scoring however is a tedious workload. In this paper three different approaches are used for the automatic detection of sleep spindles: Short Time Fourier Transform, Wavelet Transform and Wave Morphology for Spindle Detection. In order to improve the results, a combination of the three detectors is presented and comparison with human expert scorers is performed. The best performance is obtained with a combination of the three algorithms which resulted in a sensitivity and specificity of 94% when compared to human expert scorers.

Keywords: EEG, Short Time Fourier Transform, Sleep Spindles, Wave Morphology for Spindle Detection, Wavelet Transform.

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58 Simulation of the Performance of Novel Nonlinear Optimal Control Technique on Two Cart-inverted Pendulum System

Authors: B. Baigzadeh, V.Nazarzehi, H.Khaloozadeh

Abstract:

The two cart inverted pendulum system is a good bench mark for testing the performance of system dynamics and control engineering principles. Devasia introduced this system to study the asymptotic tracking problem for nonlinear systems. In this paper the problem of asymptotic tracking of the two-cart with an inverted-pendulum system to a sinusoidal reference inputs via introducing a novel method for solving finite-horizon nonlinear optimal control problems is presented. In this method, an iterative method applied to state dependent Riccati equation (SDRE) to obtain a reliable algorithm. The superiority of this technique has been shown by simulation and comparison with the nonlinear approach.

Keywords: Nonlinear optimal control, State dependent Riccatiequation, Asymptotic tracking, inverted pendulum

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57 Cut Flower Production: A Source of Incremental Income for the Marginal Farmers of the State of West Bengal in India

Authors: Ruma Bhattacharyya

Abstract:

The basic objective of this paper is to measure and compare the profitability of investments made by the small and marginal farmers of the state of West Bengal in floriculture shifting from the traditional cultivation of paddy. A comparison of IRR is made to establish the fact that cultivation of flowers yield higher returns farmers whose land size is so small that viability of paddy cultivation is raising a question mark. A detailed study of the price behavior of the flower crop has been carried out in which the factors leading to the volatility of the price and the dispersion of the range have also been discussed. Finally the incremental incomes of the farmers have been calculated with the help of imputed income from paddy cultivation and the reported income from the selected flowers. The study shows that the farmers stand gainers if they opt for flower cultivation.

Keywords: Bazar Samity, Floriculture, Marginal Farmers.

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56 OHASD: The First On-Line Arabic Sentence Database Handwritten on Tablet PC

Authors: Randa I. M. Elanwar, Mohsen A. Rashwan, Samia A. Mashali

Abstract:

In this paper we present the first Arabic sentence dataset for on-line handwriting recognition written on tablet pc. The dataset is natural, simple and clear. Texts are sampled from daily newspapers. To collect naturally written handwriting, forms are dictated to writers. The current version of our dataset includes 154 paragraphs written by 48 writers. It contains more than 3800 words and more than 19,400 characters. Handwritten texts are mainly written by researchers from different research centers. In order to use this dataset in a recognition system word extraction is needed. In this paper a new word extraction technique based on the Arabic handwriting cursive nature is also presented. The technique is applied to this dataset and good results are obtained. The results can be considered as a bench mark for future research to be compared with.

Keywords: Arabic, Handwriting recognition, on-line dataset.

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55 Evaluating the Feasibility of Magnetic Induction to Cross an Air-Water Boundary

Authors: Mark Watson, J.-F. Bousquet, Adam Forget

Abstract:

A magnetic induction based underwater communication link is evaluated using an analytical model and a custom Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) simulation tool. The analytical model is based on the Sommerfeld integral, and a full-wave simulation tool evaluates Maxwell’s equations using the FDTD method in cylindrical coordinates. The analytical model and FDTD simulation tool are then compared and used to predict the system performance for various transmitter depths and optimum frequencies of operation. To this end, the system bandwidth, signal to noise ratio, and the magnitude of the induced voltage are used to estimate the expected channel capacity. The models show that in seawater, a relatively low-power and small coils may be capable of obtaining a throughput of 40 to 300 kbps, for the case where a transmitter is at depths of 1 to 3 m and a receiver is at a height of 1 m.

Keywords: Magnetic Induction, FDTD, Underwater Communication, Sommerfeld.

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54 Multichannel Image Mosaicing of Stem Cells

Authors: Alessandro Bevilacqua, Alessandro Gherardi, Filippo Piccinini

Abstract:

Image mosaicing techniques are usually employed to offer researchers a wider field of view of microscopic image of biological samples. a mosaic is commonly achieved using automated microscopes and often with one “color" channel, whether it refers to natural or fluorescent analysis. In this work we present a method to achieve three subsequent mosaics of the same part of a stem cell culture analyzed in phase contrast and in fluorescence, with a common non-automated inverted microscope. The mosaics obtained are then merged together to mark, in the original contrast phase images, nuclei and cytoplasm of the cells referring to a mosaic of the culture, rather than to single images. The experiments carried out prove the effectiveness of our approach with cultures of cells stained with calcein (green/cytoplasm and nuclei) and hoechst (blue/nuclei) probes.

Keywords: Microscopy, image mosaicing, fluorescence, stem cells.

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53 Digital Watermarking Based on Visual Cryptography and Histogram

Authors: R. Rama Kishore, Sunesh

Abstract:

Nowadays, robust and secure watermarking algorithm and its optimization have been need of the hour. A watermarking algorithm is presented to achieve the copy right protection of the owner based on visual cryptography, histogram shape property and entropy. In this, both host image and watermark are preprocessed. Host image is preprocessed by using Butterworth filter, and watermark is with visual cryptography. Applying visual cryptography on water mark generates two shares. One share is used for embedding the watermark, and the other one is used for solving any dispute with the aid of trusted authority. Usage of histogram shape makes the process more robust against geometric and signal processing attacks. The combination of visual cryptography, Butterworth filter, histogram, and entropy can make the algorithm more robust, imperceptible, and copy right protection of the owner.

Keywords: Butterworth filter, digital watermarking, histogram, visual cryptography.

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52 An EEG Case Study of Arithmetical Reasoning by Four Individuals Varying in Imagery and Mathematical Ability: Implications for Mathematics Education

Authors: Mark Rousell, Di Catherwood, Graham Edgar

Abstract:

The main issue of interest here is whether individuals who differ in arithmetical reasoning ability and levels of imagery ability display different brain activity during the conduct of mental arithmetical reasoning tasks. This was a case study of four participants who represented four extreme combinations of Maths –Imagery abilities: ie., low-low, high-high, high-low, low-high respectively. As the Ps performed a series of 60 arithmetical reasoning tasks, 128-channel EEG recordings were taken and the pre-response interval subsequently analysed using EGI GeosourceTM software. The P who was high in both imagery and maths ability showed peak activity prior to response in BA7 (superior parietal cortex) but other Ps did not show peak activity in this region. The results are considered in terms of the diverse routes that may be employed by individuals during the conduct of arithmetical reasoning tasks and the possible implications of this for mathematics education.

Keywords: Arithmetic, imagery, EEG, education.

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